Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Diseases of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The absence of light.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
The reproductive cells of plants.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/11716)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast. (2/11716)

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved and widely distributed eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. One 14-3-3 protein, AFT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, was found to be able to activate transcription in yeast. When fused to the DNA-binding domain of a bacterial protein LexA, AFT1 can activate transcription of reporter genes that contain LexA operator sequences in their promoters. Although the in vivo function of AFT1 is not completely known, its similarity to previously identified proteins found in transcription complexes of Arabidopsis and maize suggests that AFT1 and some other 14-3-3 proteins may activate gene expression in other systems as well.  (+info)

RAD53 regulates DBF4 independently of checkpoint function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/11716)

The Cdc7p and Dbf4p proteins form an active kinase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. A genetic screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with cdc7-1 led to the isolation of seven lsd (lethal with seven defect) complementation groups. The lsd7 complementation group contained two temperature-sensitive dbf4 alleles. The lsd1 complementation group contained a new allele of RAD53, which was designated rad53-31. RAD53 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for the activation of DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways, and that is implicated as a positive regulator of S phase. Unlike other RAD53 alleles, we demonstrate that the rad53-31 allele retains an intact checkpoint function. Thus, the checkpoint function and the DNA replication function of RAD53 can be functionally separated. The activation of DNA replication through RAD53 most likely occurs through DBF4. Two-hybrid analysis indicates that the Rad53p protein binds to Dbf4p. Furthermore, the steady-state level of DBF4 message and Dbf4p protein is reduced in several rad53 mutant strains, indicating that RAD53 positively regulates DBF4. These results suggest that two different functions of the cell cycle, initiation of DNA replication and the checkpoint function, can be coordinately regulated through the common intermediate RAD53.  (+info)

Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis gene related to putative zinc-transporter genes from animals can lead to enhanced zinc resistance and accumulation. (4/11716)

We describe the isolation of an Arabidopsis gene that is closely related to the animal ZnT genes (Zn transporter). The protein encoded by the ZAT (Zn transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana) gene has 398 amino acid residues and is predicted to have six membrane-spanning domains. To obtain evidence for the postulated function of the Arabidopsis gene, transgenic plants with the ZAT coding sequence under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were analyzed. Plants obtained with ZAT in the sense orientation exhibited enhanced Zn resistance and strongly increased Zn content in the roots under high Zn exposure. Antisense mRNA-producing plants were viable, with a wild-type level of Zn resistance and content, like plants expressing a truncated coding sequence lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The availability of ZAT can lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of Zn homeostasis and resistance in plants.  (+info)

Discrete domains mediate the light-responsive nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Arabidopsis COP1. (5/11716)

The Arabidopsis CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) protein plays a critical role in the repression of photomorphogenesis during Arabidopsis seedling development. We investigated the control of COP1 partitioning between nucleus and cytoplasm, which has been implicated in the regulation of COP1 activity, by using fusion proteins between COP1 and beta-glucuronidase or the green fluorescent protein. Transient expression assays using onion epidermal cells and data from hypocotyl cells of stably transformed Arabidopsis demonstrated that COP1 carries a single, bipartite nuclear localization signal that functions independently of light. Nuclear exclusion was mediated by a novel and distinct signal, bordering the zinc-finger and coiled-coil motifs, that was able to redirect a heterologous nuclear protein to the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic localization signal functioned in a light-independent manner. Light regulation of nuclear localization was reconstituted by combining the individual domains containing the nuclear localization signal and the cytoplasmic localization signal; the WD-40 repeat domain of COP1 was not required. However, phenotypic analysis of transgenic seedlings suggested that the constitutively nuclear-localized WD-40 repeat domain was able to mimic aspects of COP1 function, as indicated by exaggerated hypocotyl elongation under light conditions.  (+info)

IAR3 encodes an auxin conjugate hydrolase from Arabidopsis. (6/11716)

Amide-linked conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are putative storage or inactivation forms of the growth hormone auxin. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis iar3 mutant that displays reduced sensitivity to IAA-Ala. IAR3 is a member of a family of Arabidopsis genes related to the previously isolated ILR1 gene, which encodes an IAA-amino acid hydrolase selective for IAA-Leu and IAA-Phe. IAR3 and the very similar ILL5 gene are closely linked on chromosome 1 and comprise a subfamily of the six Arabidopsis IAA-conjugate hydrolases. The purified IAR3 enzyme hydrolyzes IAA-Ala in vitro. iar 3 ilr1 double mutants are more resistant than either single mutant to IAA-amino acid conjugates, and plants overexpressing IAR3 or ILR1 are more sensitive than is the wild type to certain IAA-amino acid conjugates, reflecting the overlapping substrate specificities of the corresponding enzymes. The IAR3 gene is expressed most strongly in roots, stems, and flowers, suggesting roles for IAA-conjugate hydrolysis in those tissues.  (+info)

The CLAVATA1 receptor-like kinase requires CLAVATA3 for its assembly into a signaling complex that includes KAPP and a Rho-related protein. (7/11716)

The CLAVATA1 (CLV1) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) genes are required to maintain the balance between cell proliferation and organ formation at the Arabidopsis shoot and flower meristems. CLV1 encodes a receptor-like protein kinase. We have found that CLV1 is present in two protein complexes in vivo. One is approximately 185 kD, and the other is approximately 450 kD. In each complex, CLV1 is part of a disulfide-linked multimer of approximately 185 kD. The 450-kD complex contains the protein phosphatase KAPP, which is a negative regulator of CLV1 signaling, and a Rho GTPase-related protein. In clv1 and clv3 mutants, CLV1 is found primarily in the 185-kD complex. We propose that CLV1 is present as an inactive disulfide-linked heterodimer and that CLV3 functions to promote the assembly of the active 450-kD complex, which then relays signal transduction through a Rho GTPase.  (+info)

Mutations in FIE, a WD polycomb group gene, allow endosperm development without fertilization. (8/11716)

A fundamental problem in biology is to understand how fertilization initiates reproductive development. Higher plant reproduction is unique because two fertilization events are required for sexual reproduction. First, a sperm must fuse with the egg to form an embryo. A second sperm must then fuse with the adjacent central cell nucleus that replicates to form an endosperm, which is the support tissue required for embryo and/or seedling development. Here, we report cloning of the Arabidopsis FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) gene. The FIE protein is a homolog of the WD motif-containing Polycomb proteins from Drosophila and mammals. These proteins function as repressors of homeotic genes. A female gametophyte with a loss-of-function allele of fie undergoes replication of the central cell nucleus and initiates endosperm development without fertilization. These results suggest that the FIE Polycomb protein functions to suppress a critical aspect of early plant reproduction, namely, endosperm development, until fertilization occurs.  (+info)

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

"The Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan Proteins of Arabidopsis. A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant ... Arabinogalactan proteins are ubiquitous in seed land plants and have also been found in ferns, lycophytes and mosses. They are ... The highly glycosylated arabinogalactan proteins are of interest because of their involvement in both wall architecture and ... Ellis, Miriam; Egelund, Jack; Schultz, Carolyn J.; Bacic, Antony (2010). "Arabinogalactan-Proteins: Key Regulators at the Cell ...
Arabidopsis RD22 drought induced protein. Maize ZRP2, a protein of unknown function in cortex parenchyma. Tomato PG1beta, the ... Soybean USP-like proteins ADR6 (or SALI5-4A), an auxin-repressible, aluminium-inducible protein and SALI3-2, a protein that is ... Some proteins known to contain a BURP domain are listed below: Brassica protein BNM2, which is expressed during the induction ... It is found in the C-terminal part of a number of plant cell wall proteins, which are defined not only by the BURP domain, but ...
Volvox major cell adhesion protein (2 FAS1 domains). Arabidopsis thaliana fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (2 FAS1 ... Proteins known to contain a FAS1 domain include: Fasciclin I (4 FAS1 domains). Human TGF-beta induced Ig-H3 (BIgH3) protein (4 ... FAS1 domains are present in many secreted and membrane-anchored proteins. These proteins are usually GPI anchored and consist ... Bacterial immunogenic protein MPT70 (1 FAS1 domain). The FAS1 domains of both human periostin and BIgH3 proteins were found to ...
Zemach A, Grafi G (June 2003). "Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins". Plant J. 34 ... MBD-containing proteins appear to act as structural proteins, which recruit a variety of histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes ... In human MBD3 and SETDB1, the MBD has been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions. MBDs are also found in DNA ... Effects of DNA methylation are mediated through proteins that bind to symmetrically methylated CpGs. Such proteins contain a ...
"Early germination of Arabidopsis pollen in a double null mutant for the arabinogalactan protein genes AGP6 and AGP11". Sexual ... Clade 7 proteins contain both GalT and galectin domains, while Clade 10 proteins contain a GalT-specific domain. The galectin ... Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins (glycoproteins) found in the cell walls of plants. Each one ... "An Arabidopsis Cell Wall Proteoglycan Consists of Pectin and Arabinoxylan Covalently Linked to an Arabinogalactan Protein". The ...
"Villin-like actin-binding proteins are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis". Plant Physiology. 122 (1): 35-48. doi:10.1104/pp ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 2, Genes on human chromosome 6, Proteins). ... Villin-1 has the ability to dimerize and the dimerization site is located at the amino end of the protein. Villin-1 is an actin ... In vertebrates, villin proteins help to support the microfilaments of the microvilli of the brush border. However, knockout ...
Whitley P, Hinz S, Doughty J (December 2009). "Arabidopsis FAB1/PIKfyve proteins are essential for development of viable pollen ... By directly binding membrane PtdIns(3)P, the FYVE finger domain of PIKfyve is essential in localizing the protein to the ... December 2008). "VAC14 nucleates a protein complex essential for the acute interconversion of PI3P and PI(3,5)P(2) in yeast and ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (1): 63-70. ...
Elizabeth S. Haswell; Elliot M Meyerowitz (January 1, 2006). "MscS-like proteins control plastid size and shape in Arabidopsis ...
"Expression of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase proteins in Arabidopsis seedlings". Plant Mol. Biol. 35 (3): 377-81. doi ... Studies have shown that these enzymes interact via protein-protein interactions. Through FLIM FRET, it was shown that CHS ... Phe215 and Phe265 are two other important amino acids that act as "gatekeepers" to block the lower protein of the opening ... CHS exists as a homodimeric protein with each monomer approximately 42-45 kDa in size. Each monomer possesses a β-keto synthase ...
Gu J (2000). Identification of proteins interacting with lupin and Arabidopsis tRNA nucleotidyltransferase (MSc). Concordia ... Protein synthesis takes place in cytosolic ribosomes, mitochondria (mitoribosomes), and in plants, the plastids (chloroplast ... Complementation studies in yeast using cDNA derived from Arabidopsis thaliana or Lupinus albus genes demonstrate the biological ... ribosomes). Each of these compartments requires a complete set of functional tRNAs to carry out protein synthesis. The ...
Pan, Ruiqin; Lee, Y.-R. Julie; Liu, Bo (2004). "Localization of two homologous Arabidopsis kinesin-related proteins in the ... "Somatic Cytokinesis and Pollen Maturation in Arabidopsis Depend on TPLATE, Which Has Domains Similar to Coat Proteins". The ... "Nuclear-localized subtype of end-binding 1 protein regulates spindle organization in Arabidopsis". J Cell Sci. 123 (3): 451-459 ... "Microtubule-Associated Kinase-like Protein RUNKEL Needed for Cell Plate Expansion in Arabidopsis Cytokinesis". Current Biology ...
... proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 139: 293-306. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.03.027. PMID ... Once DnaJ, a co-chaperone, brings an unfolded protein to DnaK ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP to facilitate folding of the protein. At ... GrpE (Gro-P like protein E) is a bacterial nucleotide exchange factor that is important for regulation of protein folding ... The thermal regulation of DnaK slows protein folding and prevents unfolded proteins from accumulating in the cytoplasm at high ...
Cai Y, Goodman JM, Pyc M, Mullen RT, Dyer JM, Chapman KD (September 2015). "Arabidopsis SEIPIN Proteins Modulate ... Universal protein resource accession number Q96G97 for "BSCL2 - Seipin - Homo sapiens (Human) - BSCL2 gene & protein" at ... The sub-cellular location of GFP-LC3 and mutated seipin proteins highly overlap. Moreover, these seipin proteins can diffuse ... At protein level, seipin is expressed in cortical neurons in the frontal lobes, as well as motor neurons in the spinal cord. It ...
However, the Uniprot database lists 39,342 proteins in their Arabidopsis reference proteome. Among the 27,600 protein-coding ... Media related to Arabidopsis thaliana at Wikimedia Commons Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory map The Arabidopsis ... A comprehensive review published yearly related to research in Arabidopsis A. thaliana protein abundance The Arabidopsis ... large subunit ribosomal proteins (rpl, orange), hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame proteins (ycf, lemon), proteins ...
Hundertmark, M; Hincha, DK (4 March 2008). "LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis ... There are other proteins in the cell that play a similar role in the recovery of drought treated plants. These proteins are ... They are stress proteins with a high number of charged amino acids that belong to the Group II Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA ... The protein has since been referred to as dehydrin and has been identified as the genetic basis of drought tolerance in plants ...
"CHD3 proteins and polycomb group proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in Arabidopsis". PLOS Genetics. 5 (8): ... Polycomb-group proteins (PcG proteins) are a family of protein complexes first discovered in fruit flies that can remodel ... PcGs proteins are evolutionarily conserved and exist in at least two separate protein complexes; the PcG repressive complex 1 ( ... PRC1 PRC2 PHC1 PHC2 Heterochromatin protein 1 (Cbx) BMI1 PCGF1, KDM2B PCGF2 (Polycomb group RING finger protein 2) ortolog Bmi1 ...
"Nucleo-cytoplasmic Partitioning of ARF Proteins Controls Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana". Molecular Cell. 76 (1): 177- ... "Structural Basis for Prereceptor Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 Proteins". Science. 336 (6089): 1708-1711. Bibcode:2012Sci ...
March 2005). "High heterogeneity within the ribosomal proteins of the Arabidopsis thaliana 80S ribosome". Plant Mol. Biol. 57 ( ... Universally conserved proteins are shown in blue. These proteins have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. Proteins ... the eukaryote-specific protein segments engage in a multitude of protein-protein interactions. Long distance interactions are ... In eukaryotes, the small subunit protein RPS27A (or eS31) and the large subunit protein RPL40 (or eL40) are processed ...
Most of the Arabidopsis thaliana histidine phosphotransfer proteins have functional overlap and affect many aspects of plant ... In Arabidopsis thaliana, most histidine phosphotransfer proteins are redundant, positive regulators in cytokinin signaling. ... A cytokinin signaling and response regulator protein is a plant protein that is involved in a two step cytokinin signaling and ... "The Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins are redundant positive regulators of cytokinin signaling". The Plant Cell. ...
Bridges, D; Fraser ME; Moorhead GB (2005). "Cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa ... By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase alters protein activity. cAMP's role in this process ... This releases cAMP into the cell interior, where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ...
... a Plant-Specific GW Protein, Defines an Additional RNAi-Dependent Chromatin-Based Pathway in Arabidopsis". Molecular Cell. 48 ( ... Genome-wide computational identification of WG/GW Argonaute-binding proteins in Arabidopsis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jul;38(13 ... "Genome-wide computational identification of WG/GW Argonaute-binding proteins in Arabidopsis". Nucleic Acids Research. 38 (13): ... Klaus F. X. Mayer in the Institute of Bioinformatics/Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) in Munich. He was ...
... splicing affects 3.3% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. 11% of intron regions were composed of exitrons and 3.7% of ... When exitrons are spliced out of a sequence, it has resulted in internally deleted proteins and affected protein domains, ... The same sequence within a pre mRNA strand can be considered an intron or exon depending on the desired protein to be produced ... As a result, different final mRNA sequences are generated and a large variety of proteins can be made from one single gene. ...
Zhong R, Ye ZH (2003). "The SAC domain-containing protein gene family in Arabidopsis". Plant Physiol. 132 (2): 544-55. doi: ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (6): 347-55. doi: ...
"Perception of UV-B by the Arabidopsis UVR8 protein". Science. 332 (6025): 103-6. Bibcode:2011Sci...332..103R. doi:10.1126/ ... UVR8 is a β-propeller protein with 7 blade-shaped β-sheets. It shares sequence homology with mammalian proteins involved in ... UV-B resistance 8 (UVR8) also known as ultraviolet-B receptor UVR8 is an UV-B - sensing protein found in plants and possibly ... identified as a crucial mediator of a plant's response to UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana containing a mutation in this protein. ...
Zhong R, Ye ZH (2003). "The SAC domain-containing protein gene family in Arabidopsis". Plant Physiology. 132 (2): 544-55. doi: ... Ectopically expressed Sac3 protein has a very short half-life of only ~18 min due to fast degradation in the proteasome. Co- ... In mice, the protein is essential in early postnatal development. In humans, its I41T point mutation in combination with a null ... The founding protein, containing this evolutionarily-conserved domain, has been the first gene product isolated in a screen for ...
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, for instance, contains more than 130 ORFs for these proteins of which more than 100 are ... Sánchez-Fernández, R.; Davies, T.G.E.; Coleman, J.O.D; Rea, P.A. (2001). "The Arabidopsis thaliana ABC protein superfamily: a ... Li, Z.-S.; Szcypka, M.; Thiele, D.J.; Rea, P.A. (1996). "The yeast cadmium factor protein (YCF1) is a vacuolar glutathione S- ... Lu, Y.-P.; Li, Z.-S.; Rea, P.A. (1997). "AtMRP1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a glutathione S-conjugate pump: isolation ...
"Structure of an ETHE1-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana". Acta Crystallographica Section D. 62 (Pt 9): 964-70. doi:10.1107 ... Protein ETHE1, mitochondrial, also known as "ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 protein" and "per sulfide dioxygenase", is a protein ... Sulfur deoxygenates are proteins that function in sulfur metabolism. The ETHE1 protein is thought to catalyze the following ... This gene encodes a protein that is expressed in the thyroid. The ETHE1 protein is thought to localize primarily to the ...
Unlike Arabidopsis, loss of function of DCL proteins causes developmental defects in rice. gene expression RISC RNA ... For example, in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, four dicer like proteins are made and are designated DCL1 to DCL4. ... Plant genomes encode for dicer like proteins with similar functions and protein domains as animal and insect dicer. ... Additionally, DCL 1 and 3 are important for Arabidopsis flowering. In Arabidopsis, DCL knockout does not cause severe ...
"MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 15 (11): 2603-11. doi:10.1105/ ... "Dimerization Specificity of Arabidopsis MADS Domain Homeotic Proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS". Proceedings ... In Arabidopsis this loss results in a flower which is composed of one verticil of carpels, another containing stamens and ... The proteins PhAP2B and PhAP2C, on the other hand, are slightly different, even though they belong to the family of ...
"ZEITLUPE Encodes a Novel Clock-Associated PAS Protein from Arabidopsis". Cell. 101 (3): 319-329. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... It is typically located on the C-Terminus of the BHLH protein. PAS domains containing BHLH proteins form a BHLH-Pas protein, ... PAS A is responsible for the protein-protein interactions with other PAS domain proteins, while PAS B has a more versatile role ... period circadian protein Arnt - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein Sim - single-minded protein Since the ...
"Molecular analysis of an auxin binding protein gene located on chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis". Plant Cell. 4 (2): 193-201. doi: ... In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. They are located in the lumen ... which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, ... 2002). "Crystal structure of auxin-binding protein 1 in complex with auxin". EMBO J. 21 (12): 2877-85. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf291 ...
In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) efficient chloroplast transformation required knocking out a nuclear gene. The toolkit ... of the total leaf protein. Importantly, the insecticidal protein could be translated from the bacterial AU-rich mRNA, while for ... The Maliga lab characterised plastid promoters in vivo and in vitro, and identified proteins that are parts of the plastid PEP ... Their current goal is expression of orally bioavailable recombinant proteins in tobacco and lettuce chloroplasts. Thomas Alva ...
These proteins are key in the process to move calcium into the nucleus, an important part of the signal to the plant that ... the team could modulate nuclear calcium signatures to obtain longer or shorter roots in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Costilow RN, Laycock L (1971). "Ornithine cyclase (deaminating). Purification of a protein that converts ornithine to proline ... is required for chlorophyll b synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
... and there are at least eight in the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The human genome encodes at least eight ... Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are a family of small proteins involved in post-translational modification of other proteins in ... "The dual role of ubiquitin-like protein Urm1 as a protein modifier and sulfur carrier". Protein & Cell. 2 (8): 612-9. doi: ... One additional protein, known as FUBI, is encoded as a fusion protein in the FAU gene, and is proteolytically processed to ...
Pandey, A; Sonti, RV (June 2010). "Role of the FeoB protein and siderophore in promoting virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. ... antibiotic production and biosynthetic potential of the Arabidopsis leaf microbiome". Nature Microbiology. 3 (8): 909-919. doi: ...
It catalyzes the hydrolysis of long chain fatty acyl thioesters of acyl carrier protein or coenzyme A to form free fatty acid ... an Acyl-CoA Thioesterase from Arabidopsis thaliana". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (9): 7487-7494. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... pPLAIIα protein in the protection of the photosynthetic metabolism during drought stress using genetically modified Arabidopsis ... For instance, when a plant is under optimal conditions, it favours its primary metabolism and synthesises the proteins ( ... Contribution of pPLAIIα to drought tolerance using genetically modified arabidopsis plants: II. Effects on photosynthetic ... excess energy dissipation and zeaxanthin synthesis against photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis". The Plant Journal. 76 (4): ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant model organism, several variants of the core subunits have been identified. Homologs of the ... PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2) is one of the two classes of polycomb-group proteins or (PcG). The other component of this ... PRC1 also mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A on lysine 119 (H2AK119Ub1). These proteins are required for long term epigenetic ... Koehler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars (2010). "Regulation of cell identity by plant Polycomb and trithorax group proteins". Current ...
With the aid of protein modeling programs, Glu 42 was observed to be the catalytic base in activating the nucleophile (Cys 146 ... Piotrowski M, Schönfelder S, Weiler EW (January 2001). "The Arabidopsis thaliana isogene NIT4 and its orthologs in tobacco ... strain PCC6803 and heterologous expression and characterization of the encoded protein". Applied and Environmental Microbiology ... the protein forms a 'super-sandwich' (⍺-β-β-⍺-⍺-β-β-⍺) structure. In order to dimerize, the C-terminals of each subunit extend ...
Francis KE, Spiker S (February 2005). "Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana transformants without selection reveals a high ... "Efficient agroinfiltration of plants for high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins". Journal of Visualized ... Arabidopsis Book. 15: e0186. doi:10.1199/tab.0186. PMC 6501860. PMID 31068763. National Research Council (US) Committee on ...
This enzyme is an integral membrane protein localized to two subcellular domains, the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial ... Nowicki M (2006). Characterization of the Cardiolipin Synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (Ph.D. Thesis thesis). RWTH-Aachen ... Liu Y, Virshup DM, White RL, Hsu LC (November 2002). "Regulation of BRCA1 phosphorylation by interaction with protein ... Breakdown products of phosphoinositides are ubiquitous second messengers that function downstream of many G protein-coupled ...
"Identification and functional analysis of phosphorylation residues of the Arabidopsis BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1". Protein & Cell ... Plants lacking a BIK1 protein or that have a BIK1 protein whose functions are being inhibited may exhibit a shorter flowering ... The BIK1 protein contributes to overall stronger stems, broader leaves, and a healthy flowering timeline. ... Current research regarding Botrytis-induced kinase1 aims to determine how BIK1 interacts with MAPK pathway proteins as well as ...
In another study, Arabidopsis thaliana stromal proteins were analyzed to determine the relative abundance of specific N- ... Additionally, a 2013 study in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed the protein ClpS1, a possible plastid homolog of the bacterial ClpS ... The N-end rule is a rule that governs the rate of protein degradation through recognition of the N-terminal residue of proteins ... ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ...
... rice XA21 and Arabidopsis FLS2. In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) ... peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins. One very important collectin is mannan ... Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. Three RLR ...
Homologs of this protein have been found in Arabidopsis thaliana, C. elegans, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Vitis viniferaas ... The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). The protein contains a kinase domain located ... WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene. WNK1 is serine- ... Xu BE, Lee BH, Min X, Lenertz L, Heise CJ, Stippec S, Goldsmith EJ, Cobb MH (January 2005). "WNK1: analysis of protein kinase ...
In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the GLABROUS1 protein. Knockouts of the ... "An Efficient Visual Screen for CRISPR/Cas9 Activity in Arabidopsis thaliana". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 39. doi:10.3389/ ... "Homology-Directed Repair of a Defective Glabrous Gene in Arabidopsis With Cas9-Based Gene Targeting". Frontiers in Plant ...
Members of the SOBER1 family are considered closely related to acyl-protein thioesterases, judged by their protein structure. ... "A conserved carboxylesterase is a SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 19 (2): 688-705. ... Acylation Catalytic triad Compendium of protein lysine acetylation Enzyme assay Organic synthesis Protein dynamics Proteolysis ... The SOBER (Suppressor of AvrBsT-elicited resistance) 1 protein is conserved in plants and it suppresses the plant's ability to ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley. The inclusion of genotypes makes it practical to carry out web-based gene mapping to discover ... is used to study gene regulatory networks that link DNA sequence differences to corresponding differences in gene and protein ... those regions of genomes that contribute to differences among individuals in mRNA, protein, and metabolite levels, as well as ...
"KELCH F-BOX protein positively influences Arabidopsis seed germination by targeting PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1". ... Prakash, Bhanu; Kamble, Nitin; Majee, Manoj (2015-09-21). "Protein L-Isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) Methyltransferases (PIMTs) are ... "PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 Is Differentially Expressed in Chickpea and Enhances Seed Vigor and Longevity by ... Reducing Abnormal Isoaspartyl Accumulation Predominantly in Seed Nuclear Proteins". Plant Physiology. 161 (3): 1141-1157. doi: ...
... induces the splicing by IRE1 of a mRNA encoding a transcription factor involved in the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis ... two proteins involved in the unfolded protein response of Litopenaeus vannamei". Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 38 (1 ... Splicing of the bZIP intron is a key regulatory step in the unfolded protein response (UPR). The Ire-mediated unconventional ... Sidrauski C, Cox JS, Walter P (1996). "tRNA ligase is required for regulated mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response". ...
Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... For example, in Arabidopsis, 36 NF-Y transcription factor subunits (including 10 NF-YA, 13 NF-YB, and 13 NF-YC subunits) have ... The NF-YC proteins are an intermediate size between that of NF-YA and NF-YB proteins (117-292 amino acids in M. truncatula) and ... It is frequently absent from genes that encode proteins used in virtually all cells. This box along with the GC box is known ...
The alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase protein catalyzes the first two steps in the mammalian L-lysine degradation via ... Zhu X, Tang G, Galili G (December 2002). "The activity of the Arabidopsis bifunctional lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/ ... "AASS - aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase". RCSB Protein Data Bank. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-03 ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, low levels of glutathione synthetase have resulted in increased vulnerability to stressors such as ... Protein Science. 6 (12): 2639-43. doi:10.1002/pro.5560061218. PMC 2143612. PMID 9416615. Meister A (1978). "Current Status of ... Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J (Jun 2007). "Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: ... Xiang C, Werner BL, Christensen EM, Oliver DJ (Jun 2001). "The biological functions of glutathione revisited in arabidopsis ...
Xu YL, Li L, Wu K, Peeters AJ, Gage DA, Zeevaart JA (July 1995). "The GA5 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a ... High yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, and lack ... With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for Arabidopsis thaliana genes (GA 20-oxidase, ga1, ga1-3), ... Silverstone AL, Ciampaglio CN, Sun T (February 1998). "The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing ...
This process is independent on SNARE proteins. Vesicle moves freely in the lumen and during the time is degraded by hydrolases ... "The APG8/12-activating enzyme APG7 is required for proper nutrient recycling and senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana". The ... Changed composition of membrane molecules (lipid enrichment in the autophagic tubes due to removal of transmembrane proteins) ... This autophagic pathway engulfs multivesicular bodies formed after endocytosis therefore it plays role in membrane proteins ...
... a similar in silico study in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana found 2367 zinc-related proteins. In the brain, zinc is stored in ... In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and ... Some EF-hand calcium binding proteins such as S100 or NCS-1 are also able to bind zinc ions. The U.S. Institute of Medicine ( ... This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein being ...
Proteins that bind to chromatin are cross-linked in vivo, usually via fixation with formaldehyde. The chromatin is then ... Another study with Arabidopsis used high-density oligonucleotide arrays that cover the entire genome. More than 10 times more ... Tiling arrays aid in transcriptome mapping as well as in discovering sites of DNA/protein interaction (ChIP-chip, DamID), of ... For smaller genomes such as Arabidopsis, whole genomes can be examined. Tiling arrays are a useful tool in genome-wide ...
Regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, RNA, and/or proteins are key effectors in these processes and function by positively or ... The WGBS approach using an Illumina Genome Analyzer platform and has already been implemented in Arabidopsis thaliana. Reduced ... The SWI/SNF protein complex in yeast is one example of a chromatin remodeling complex that regulates the expression of many ... Binding of these proteins recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzyme which initiate chromatin remodeling such that the DNA ...
1.6 Tri-snRNP specific proteins (U4/U6.U5) ...
Conjugated to His tag.Order Protein ABIN1657645 online. ... myb domain protein 28 Protein, myb domain protein 28 Protein, ... Recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana MYB-28 Protein expressed from Yeast. ... AtMYB28 Protein, HAG1 Protein, HIGH ALIPHATIC GLUCOSINOLATE 1 Protein, MFB13.22 Protein, MFB13_22 Protein, PMG1 Protein, ... MYB-28 (MYB28) (Myb Domain Protein 28 (MYB28)) Protein Type Recombinant Protein Characteristics AA 1-366 Origin Arabidopsis ...
Understanding Arabidopsis ion homeostasis in the post-genomic era : assigning function to two proteins involved in iron ... The first project describes the isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis frd4-1 and frd4-2 mutants that do not induce ... The second project involves the further characterization of the protein FRD3, which was previously shown to be important for ... Two projects studying different aspects of iron deficiency in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are detailed here. ...
A new link between stress response and nucleolar function during pollen development in Arabidopsis mediated by AtREN1 protein. ... A new link between stress response and nucleolar function during pollen development in Arabidopsis mediated by AtREN1 protein ... A new link between stress response and nucleolar function during pollen development in Arabidopsis mediated by AtREN1 protein ...
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"Купить Recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana Cadmium-induced protein AS8 (At4g19070), Baculovirus с доставкой ... Recombinant Lactococcus lactis subsp.cremoris 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3 (fabH), Baculovirus ... Recombinant Escherichia coli O157:H7 Elongation factor P-like protein (yeiP), Baculovirus ... Recombinant Solanum tuberosum Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, chloroplastic (PSBO), E-Coli ...
Overexpression of X Intrinsic Protein 1;1 in Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis reduces boron allocation to shoot sink tissues. ... Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIP) are a family of channels facilitating the diffusion of water and/or small solutes across ... X Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) form the least characterized MIP subfamily in vascular plants. XIPs are mostly impermeable to water ... Protein quantification analysis revealed that NtXIP1;1 was predominantly expressed in young B-demanding tissues and induced ...
The chromatin remodelling protein CHR2 interacts with Serrate in Arabidopsis to regulate microRNA biogenesis. ... Furthermore, the secondary structures of pri-miRNAs differed between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and chr2 mutants. We ... The SERRATE protein is involved in alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleic Acids Res. 42, 1224-1244 (2014). ... Arabidopsis RBV is a conserved WD40 repeat protein that promotes microRNA biogenesis and ARGONAUTE1 loading *Chao Liang ...
The protocol is also optimized for work with material from young plants (10-14 days old), when protein import is believed to be ... However, the sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome paved the way for an additional model system that is more amenable to genetic ... A prerequisite for this change was an efficient and reliable protocol for the isolation of chloroplasts for use in protein ... The isolation method has been used not only for protein import assays, but also for proteomic analysis and further ...
TLWD scaffold proteins sustain circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis. Dr Eva Herrero Serrano, Department of Plant Sciences. ... Protein Folding, Evolution and Interactions Symposium The role of Birkeland currents in the Dungey cycle ...
Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time. Plant Cell ... Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time. In: Plant ... Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time. / Hwang, ... Dive into the research topics of Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the ...
Dimerization of the ETO1 family proteins plays a crucial role in regulating ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. 於: ... 深入研究「Dimerization of the ETO1 family proteins plays a crucial role in regulating ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana」 ... Dimerization of the ETO1 family proteins plays a crucial role in regulating ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. / Gu ... Dimerization of the ETO1 family proteins plays a crucial role in regulating ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis Proteins, Binding Sites, Ceramides, Membrane ... Home » Arabidopsis accelerated cell death 11, ACD11, is a ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein and intermediary regulator of ... Arabidopsis accelerated cell death 11, ACD11, is a ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein and intermediary regulator of ... Protein Binding Abstract:. ,p,The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) mutant of Arabidopsis provides a genetic model for studying ...
The nodule inception-like protein 7 modulates nitrate sensing and metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009, 57, 426-435. [ ... Arabidopsis RanBP2-Type Zinc Finger Proteins Related to Chloroplast RNA Editing Factor OZ1 ... Moderation of Arabidopsis root stemness by CLAVATA1 and ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 receptor kinase complexes. Curr. Biol. 2013, 23, ... Studies in Arabidopsis, [14,15] and maize [11] have shown that BLCs and BCs can remain viable for days (Arabidopsis) to weeks ( ...
He is particularly interested in certain proteins with RG/RGG motifs affecting mRNA translation and stability. ... binding proteins and mRNA structures on gene expression regulation. ... The YTH Domain Protein ECT2 Is an m(6)A Reader Required for Normal Trichome Branching in Arabidopsis. Scutenaire J, Deragon JM ... During his Ph.D., he studied the impact of one of these YTH-protein in plant development and in response to stress, initiating ...
hypothetical protein [Arabidopsis thaliana]. Match: gi,5080805,gb,AAD39314.1,AC007258_3. score: 135. e-value: 2e-30. Identity: ... Hypothetical protein [Arabidopsis thaliana]. Match: gi,8778758,gb,AAF79766.1,AC009317_25. score: 135. e-value: 2e-30. Identity: ... Pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein At1g59720, mitochondrial OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=PCMP-H51 PE=2 SV=2. ... Pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein At4g37380, chloroplastic OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=PCMP-H48 PE=2 SV=1. ...
However, little is known about SWIRM domain-containing proteins in plants. In this study, 67 SWIRM domain-containing proteins ... Plant SWIRM domain proteins can be divided into three distinct types: Swi-type, LSD1-type, and Ada2-type. Generally, the SWIRM ... SWIRM domain-containing proteins make up large multisubunit complexes by interacting with other chromatin modification factors ... The genes encoding SWIRM domain proteins in ,i,Oryza sativa,/i, are widely expressed, especially in pistils. In addition, ,i, ...
MeSH Terms: Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism; Arabidopsis/genetics; Arabidopsis/metabolism*; ...
Opposite Stereoselectivities of Dirigent Proteins in Arabidopsis and Schizandra Species. J Biol Chem [Internet]. 2012 Oct 5;287 ... Arabidopsis thaliana. peroxidases. Plant Perox. 2000;. *85. Tognolli M, Penel C, Greppin H, Simon P. Analysis and expression of ... Arabidopsis thaliana. confirms that DIRs are actively involved and that they have a catalytic function in the cyclization step ... cotton), a leader protein has been characterized. It is involved in the stereoselective coupling of hemigossypol in the ...
Ullah, A., Dutta, D., and Fliegel, L. (2016) Expression and characterization of the SOS1 Arabidopsis salt tolerance protein. ... Both p90rsk and MAP kinase are key protein kinases involved in regulation of activity of the protein. We also have a great ... Protein Sci. 75:Unit 29 28.. Ullah, A., El-Magd, R.A., and Fliegel, L. (2014) Functional role and analysis of cysteine residues ... In mammalian tissues the main protein responsible for this is the Na+/H+ exchanger. The Na+/H+exchanger is a mammalian plasma ...
Deciphering the role of Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein in induced resistance against necrotrophic fungi. Lucía ... Increasing resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana towards aphids. Xi Chen, Zhao Zhang, Richard G. F. Visser, Colette Broekgaarden, ... Emission of sulfur-containing volatiles from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.). Heynh Col-0 related to diamondback moth [Plutella ... Systemic resistance induced by volatile substances produced by PGPF in Arabidopsis plants. Hushna Ara Naznin, Kiyohara Daigo, ...
The transcriptional adaptor protein ADA3 modulates flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cells 10: 904. ... The Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 and the Transcriptional Coactivator ADA2b Affect Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana ... Transcriptional coactivators affect leaf development and trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Planta 248: 613-628 ... future projects include studying the role of chromatin structure and other epigenetic mechanisms in the model plant Arabidopsis ...
Nuntasoontorn, Komsun (2014). Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic proteins AtPCH2 and AtCHR24. University ... Hsu, Chia-Chang (2014). New approaches to the production and separation of recombinant proteins. University of Birmingham. Ph.D ... Banushi, Blerida (2014). Molecular characterisation of a novel vipar interacting protein in health and disease. University of ... Wilson, Oliver (2014). Visualisation of focal adhesion-associated proteins in the skeletal muscle of young and elderly ...
Cited by 8,072 - Organelle interactions - Fluorescent proteins - Plant development - Cytoskeleton - Arp2/3 complex ... Pleiotropic control of glucose and hormone responses by PRL1, a nuclear WD protein, in Arabidopsis. K N meth, K Salchert, P ... Mutations in actin-related proteins 2 and 3 affect cell shape development in Arabidopsis. J Mathur, N Mathur, B Kernebeck, M ... Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F- ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from AT3G21390 Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein available at GenScript ... Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress). Definition Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), ... Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress). Definition Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), ... Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), mRNA.. pcDNA3.1-C-(k)DYK or customized vector ...
Lamberti, Giorgia (2011): Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana STY8, STY17 and STY46 protein kinase family. ...
Dual-Domain, Dual-Targeting Organellar Protein Presequences in Arabidopsis Can Use Non-AUG Start Codons. AC Christensen, A ... A peritrophin-like protein expressed in the embryonic tracheae of Drosophila melanogaster. MK Barry, AA Triplett, AC ... Diversity of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial genome occurs via nuclear-controlled recombination activity. MP Arrieta-Montiel, V ...
The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and ... The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public ... experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. ... disease resistance protein-like [Arabidopsis thaliana]. 534.0. ... Listed below are up to the top 10 sequence alignment matches, by species, for the PSI-BLAST search against the protein sequence ...
Protein high chlorophyll fluorescent 107 (HCF107) from Arabidopsis. HCF107 exhibits sequence-specific RNA binding and RNA ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing HAT domain in the selected ... Proteins containing this domain includes:. * Crooked neck (Crn) from Drosophila. It associates with the RNA-binding protein HOW ... The number of HAT repeats found in different proteins varies between 9 and 12. HAT-repeat-containing proteins appear to be ...
  • Its mutational inactivation in Arabidopsis thaliana results in a photosystem II (PHII)-less phenotype. (
  • A nuclear-encoded protein of prokaryotic origin is essential for the stability of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Two projects studying different aspects of iron deficiency in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are detailed here. (
  • Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GRIK1 and GRIK2, which were first characterized as geminivirus Rep interacting kinases, are phylogenetically related to SNF1 and AMPK activating kinases. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, several PRC2 complexes with different compositions were identified, each controlling a particular developmental program. (
  • Furthermore, the secondary structures of pri-miRNAs differed between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and chr2 mutants. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. (
  • By utilising a state-of-the-art liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach, rich pollen coat proteomic profiles were obtained for Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Brassica oleracea, which greatly extended previous datasets. (
  • Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). (
  • ETHYLENE OVERPRODUCER1 (ETO1), ETO1-LIKE1 (EOL1), and EOL2 are members of the Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac (BTB) protein family that collectively regulate type-2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments. (
  • Las especies de Arabidopsis más estudiadas, la Arabidopsis thaliana, se utilizan generalmente en laboratorios de experimentación. (
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (
  • In this study, we used recombinant proteins produced in bacteria to show that both GRIKs specifically bind to the SnRK1 catalytic subunit and phosphorylate the equivalent threonine residue in its activation loop in vitro. (
  • The demonstration that recombinant Arabidopsis variant P protein has NO-synthesizing activity was a critical piece of evidence leading to the above conclusion. (
  • Analysing endogenous FIE and transgenic gFIE-green fluorescent protein fusion protein (gFIE-GFP) showed that FIE accumulates in the nuclei of every cell type examined. (
  • To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. (
  • SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. (
  • However, domain-swapping analysis in transgenic Arabidopsis suggests that the BTB domain of ETO1 is essential but not sufficient for a full spectrum of ETO1 function. (
  • A nonparametric mean-variance smoothing method to assess Arabidopsis cold stress transcriptional regulator CBF2 overexpression microarray data. (
  • Overexpression of the CBF2 transcriptional activator in Arabidopsis suppresses the responsiveness of leaf tissue to the stress hormone ethylene. (
  • Overexpression of X Intrinsic Protein 1;1 in Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis reduces boron allocation to shoot sink tissues. (
  • Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NtXIP1;1 in Nicotiana tabacum by the En2pPMA4 or the 35S CaMV promoter and in Arabidopsis , which does not contain any XIP gene , by the 35S CaMV promoter, resulted in boron (B)- deficiency symptoms such as death of the shoot apical meristem , infertile flowers , and puckered leaves. (
  • Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. (
  • Overexpression of ETO1 F466I in Arabidopsis results in a constitutive triple response phenotype in dark-grown seedlings. (
  • The first project describes the isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis frd4-1 and frd4-2 mutants that do not induce Fe(III) chelate reductase activity in their roots in response to iron deficiency. (
  • Using the Rep protein of Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV AL1), we show that GRS mutants are not infectious in plants and do not support viral genome replication in tobacco protoplasts. (
  • GRS mutants are competent for protein-protein interactions and for both double- and single-stranded DNA binding, indicating that the mutations did not impair its global conformation. (
  • Ada2-types SWIRM domain-containing proteins are homologs of transcriptional adaptor ADA2a, which promotes histone lysine acetylation and transcriptional activation and acts as a molecular scaffold within the SAGA remodeling complex [ 16 ]. (
  • Peptide Aptamers That Bind to Geminivirus Replication Proteins Confer a Resistance Phenotype to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Mottle Virus Infection in Tomato. (
  • Arabidopsis has been used as a source for virus-resistant genes that derive from alterations in essential host factors. (
  • Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time. (
  • The genes encoding SWIRM domain proteins in Oryza sativa are widely expressed, especially in pistils. (
  • Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a kind of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) with a transcript of more than 200 nucleotides in length in eukaryotic cells, have been found to regulate the expression of protein-coding genes that are involved in some critical signaling events, such as inflammatory, pathological, and immunological responses. (
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (
  • A protein expressed by yeast system could be modificated such as glycosylation, acylation, phosphorylation and so on to ensure the native protein conformation. (
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that as opposed to yeast and metazoans the plant exosome core possesses an unanticipated functional plasticity and present a genome-wide atlas of Arabidopsis exosome targets. (
  • In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the Na + /H+ exchanger (sod2) moves Na + out of the cell in exchange for H + . This protein functions in osmotolerance in yeast and plants. (
  • Arabidopsis accelerated cell death 11, ACD11, is a ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein and intermediary regulator of phytoceramide levels. (
  • A VIGS screen identifies immunity in the Arabidopsis Pla-1 accession to viruses in two different genera of the Geminiviridae. (
  • We have examined amino acids important in cation binding and transport in this protein. (
  • Although ETO1 and EOL1/EOL2 encode structurally related proteins, genetic studies suggest that they do not play an equivalent role in regulating ethylene biosynthesis. (
  • Our findings reveal the mechanistic role of protein-protein interactions of ETO1 and EOL1/EOL2 that is crucial for their biological function in ethylene biosynthesis. (
  • This report was developed solely by the participants of the Protein Production Workshop, held March 7-8, 2002. (
  • The NIGMS convened the Protein Production Workshop in March 2002 to specifically address high-throughput methods for cloning, production, and purification of proteins suitable for X-ray crystallography and NMR studies. (
  • Although other issues (e.g., the selection and crystallization of target proteins, the collection and analysis of structural data, and the integration of databases) are critical to the overall research effort, NIGMS chose not to focus on these topics at this meeting. (
  • The target proteins for PSI include proteins whose functions are known or unknown. (
  • He emphasized that genome-directed selection of target proteins, registration of target proteins, and timely publication of coordinates and release of data are important. (
  • Rapid isolation of Arabidopsis chloroplasts and their use for in vitro protein import assays. (
  • In vitro chloroplast protein import assays have been performed since the late 1970s, initially with plant species (e.g., pea and spinach) that readily provide an abundant source of starting material and also, subsequently, a good yield of chloroplasts for import assays. (
  • The protocol is also optimized for work with material from young plants (10-14 days old), when protein import is believed to be at its peak, and so plant growth can be conducted in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium. (
  • In vitro and in planta protein-protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. (
  • Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin modifiers that regulate developmental pathways in plants. (
  • SWIRM domain-containing proteins make up large multisubunit complexes by interacting with other chromatin modification factors and may have an important function in plants. (
  • Chromodomains were commonly found in proteins associated with the remodeling and manipulation of chromatin, mediating specific interactions with proteins and RNA by recognizing lysine methylation in histone tails [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Swi3p-type SWIRM domain-containing proteins are homologous to the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes SWI/SNF. (
  • This paper (Cell 113, 115-125, April 4, 2003) reports results of experiments that together strongly support the conclusion that, in metazoan cells, formation of a complex consisting of the GTP binding protein Ran, the exportin Crm1, and the DNA helicase MCM plays a critical role in limiting DNA replication to a single round each cell cycle. (
  • We used a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector derived from the geminivirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) to assess natural variation in virus-host interactions in 190 Arabidopsis accessions. (
  • Silencing of CH-42, encoding a protein needed to make chlorophyll, was used as a visible marker to discriminate asymptomatic accessions from those showing resistance. (
  • Persistent Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Asymptomatic Accessions of Arabidopsis. (
  • 2006. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions . (
  • A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. (
  • In mammalian tissues the main protein responsible for this is the Na + /H + exchanger. (
  • The Na + /H + exchanger is a mammalian plasma membrane protein that exchanges one intracellular proton for an extracellular sodium. (
  • We have a special interest in the Na + /H + exchanger in the mammalian heart, because the protein is important in heart disease. (
  • This gene is known to suppress G-protein and mitogen-activated signal transduction in mammalian cells. (
  • In C. elegans oocytes, a katanin loss of function mutation proteins and the recent significant advances in deciphering the results in failure to form a bipolar meiotic spindle [ 9 ]. (
  • Amongst species of the Brassicaceae, a growing body of data has revealed that the pollen coat carries a range of proteins, with a number of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) being identified as important regulators of the pollen-stigma interaction. (
  • In this study, 67 SWIRM domain-containing proteins from 6 plant species were identified and analyzed. (
  • Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS . (
  • 2005. Proteomic analysis of the Arabidopsis nucleolus suggests novel nucleolar functions . (
  • Researchers participating in the nascent PSI already are making important advances in the technology of protein production for structural biology. (
  • All geminiviruses encode a conserved protein (Rep) that catalyzes initiation of rolling-circle replication. (
  • These viruses encode a protein designated AL1, Rep, or AC1 that is essential for viral replication. (
  • The isolation method has been used not only for protein import assays, but also for proteomic analysis and further subfractionation studies. (
  • X Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) form the least characterized MIP subfamily in vascular plants . (
  • The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) mutant of Arabidopsis provides a genetic model for studying immune response activation and localized cellular suicide that halt pathogen spread during infection in plants. (
  • However, little is known about SWIRM domain-containing proteins in plants. (
  • The second project involves the further characterization of the protein FRD3, which was previously shown to be important for the efficient translocation of iron from roots to the shoots. (
  • Recent studies indicate that plant SWIRM domain-containing proteins function in various plant physiological and developmental processes. (
  • The profiling also uncovered a wide range of other protein families, many of which were enriched in the pollen coat proteomes and had functions associated with signal transduction, cell walls, lipid metabolism and defence. (
  • Given that the GRIK proteins only accumulate in young tissues and geminivirus-infected mature leaves, the GRIK-SnRK1 cascade may function in a developmentally regulated fashion and coordinate the unique metabolic requirements of rapidly growing cells and geminivirus-infected cells that have been induced to reenter the cell cycle. (
  • and Arabidopsis reduces boron allocation to shoot sink tissues. (
  • Protein quantification analysis revealed that NtXIP1;1 was predominantly expressed in young B-demanding tissues and induced under B-deficient conditions. (
  • The production of protein samples that are suitable for X-ray diffraction and/or analysis in solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a major challenge for conducting high-throughput analysis of protein structures. (
  • CBF-dependent and CBF-independent regulatory pathways contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance and cold-regulated gene expression of two Arabidopsis ecotypes locally adapted to sites in Sweden and Italy. (
  • Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. (
  • 12. The 78-kD Glucose-Regulated Protein Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Homeostasis and Distal Epithelial Cell Survival during Lung Development. (
  • In this study, we reveal that ETO1 collaborates with EOL1/2 to play a key role in the regulation of type-2 ACS activity via protein-protein interactions. (
  • In the heart we have examined regulation of expression and activity of the protein. (
  • Both p90rsk and MAP kinase are key protein kinases involved in regulation of activity of the protein. (
  • The laboratory continues to be involved in new and exciting studies on regulation of activity and expression of Na + /H + exchange proteins. (
  • The aim of this effort is to determine one or more representative structures from each of the several thousand protein families in nature. (
  • The ultimate goals are to understand the evolutionary implications of protein structures and to elucidate their biochemical and biophysical functions in relation to their three-dimensional structures. (
  • Knowledge of the protein structures, and development of the corresponding reagents and technologies through the International Structural Proteomics Initiative, will provide the foundation for scientific and technological infrastructure that will broadly and importantly influence biomedical and biomolecular research well into the 21st century. (
  • Some experts have suggested that production of these protein samples is the only real barrier to the determination of protein structures using high-throughput methods. (
  • The initiative is a cooperative, large-scale effort to determine the structures of unique, non-redundant proteins by using high-throughput methods that will ultimately result in an inventory, and complete coverage, of naturally occurring proteins. (
  • 5. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway sensitizes breast cancer cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. (
  • Suppresses G-protein- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal transduction. (
  • Interaction between Geminivirus Replication Protein and the SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme Is Required for Viral Infection. (
  • LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. (
  • in the N termini of geminivirus Rep proteins are essential for function. (
  • SANT domains tether to both DNA and proteins and are essential for histone acetyltransferase activity [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Generally, the SWIRM domain forms a helix-turn-helix motif commonly found in DNA-binding proteins. (
  • Map-based cloning revealed that the frd4 mutations reside in cpFtsY, which encodes a component of one of the pathways responsible for the insertion of proteins into the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. (
  • A prerequisite for this change was an efficient and reliable protocol for the isolation of chloroplasts for use in protein import assays, enabling biochemical approaches to be combined with the genetic potential of the plant. (
  • Ectopic AL1 expression did not result in broad changes in the sumoylation pattern of plant cells, but specific changes were detected, indicating that AL1 modifies the sumoylation state of selected host proteins. (
  • During his Ph.D., he studied the impact of one of these YTH-protein in plant development and in response to stress, initiating pioneer works in the role of m6A-binding proteins in the plant kingdom. (
  • Plant SWIRM domain proteins can be divided into three distinct types: Swi-type, LSD1-type, and Ada2-type. (
  • These observations indicate that SWIRM domain proteins may play an essential role in plant development and plant responses to environmental stress. (
  • However, the sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome paved the way for an additional model system that is more amenable to genetic analysis, as a complement to the more biochemically orientated models such as pea and spinach. (
  • The results of these experiments showed that all 16 peptide aptamers interact with all or most of the Rep proteins from nine viruses representing the three major Geminiviridae genera and identified two peptide aptamers (A22 and A64) that interact strongly with different regions in the Rep N terminus. (
  • 2006. Translocation of the Tomato bushy stunt virus P19 protein into the nucleus by ALY proteins compromises its silencing suppressor activity . (
  • In collaboration with others we have elucidated the structure of parts of the membrane domain of the protein. (
  • Overall, our long-term goal is to understand how ions and coordinated and transported in membrane proteins. (