Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Diseases of plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The absence of light.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
The imide of phthalic acids.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/18423)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast. (2/18423)

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved and widely distributed eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. One 14-3-3 protein, AFT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, was found to be able to activate transcription in yeast. When fused to the DNA-binding domain of a bacterial protein LexA, AFT1 can activate transcription of reporter genes that contain LexA operator sequences in their promoters. Although the in vivo function of AFT1 is not completely known, its similarity to previously identified proteins found in transcription complexes of Arabidopsis and maize suggests that AFT1 and some other 14-3-3 proteins may activate gene expression in other systems as well.  (+info)

A plant 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase with a novel repeat structure. Cloning and functional expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (3/18423)

Phosphatidylinositol metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in animals and is also believed to be of importance in signal transduction in higher plants. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a previously unidentified 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (AtPI4Kbeta) from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The novel protein possesses the conserved domains present in animal and yeast PI 4-kinases, namely a lipid kinase unique domain and a catalytic domain. An additional domain, approximately 300 amino acids long, containing a high percentage (46%) of charged amino acids is specific to this plant enzyme. Recombinant AtPI4Kbeta expressed in baculovirus-infected insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol exclusively at the D4 position of the inositol ring. Recombinant protein was maximally activated by 0.6% Triton X-100 but was inhibited by adenosine with an IC50 of approximately 200 microM. Wortmannin at a concentration of 10 microM inhibited AtPI4Kbeta activity by approximately 90%. AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels were similar in all tissues analyzed. Light or treatment with hormones or salts did not change AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels to a great extent, indicating constitutive expression of the AtPI4Kbeta gene.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (4/18423)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (5/18423)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VIII. Sequence features of the regions of 1,081,958 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 and TAC clones. (6/18423)

A total of 17 Pl and TAC clones each representing an assigned region of chromosome 5 were isolated from P1 and TAC genomic libraries of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the clones sequenced in this study summed up to 1,081,958 bp. As we have previously reported the sequence of 9,072,622 bp by analysis of 125 P1 and TAC clones, the total length of the sequences of chromosome 5 determined so far is now 10,154,580 bp. The sequences were subjected to similarity search against protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling. As a consequence, a total of 253 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions were identified. The positions of exons which do not show apparent similarity to known genes were also assigned using computer programs for exon prediction. The average density of the genes identified in this study was 1 gene per 4277 bp. Introns were observed in 74% of the potential protein genes, and the average number per gene and the average length of the introns were 4.3 and 168 bp, respectively. The sequence data and gene information are available on the World Wide Web database KAOS (Kazusa Arabidopsis data Opening Site) at  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/18423)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (8/18423)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

... is quite similar to the Boechera genus. Arabidopsis arenicola (Richardson ex Hook.) Al-Shehbaz, Elven, D.F. Murray ... The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a curated online information source for Arabidopsis thaliana genetic and ... Al-Shehbaz, I. A., O'Kane, Steve L. (2002). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). The Arabidopsis Book: 1-22. ... Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; O'Kane Jr, Steve L. (2002). "Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae)". The Arabidopsis Book ...
The Arabidopsis Book. The Arabidopsis Book. Vol. 8. p. e0138. doi:10.1199/tab.0138. PMC 3244966. PMID 22303263. Ellen Elliott ... closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lyrata are diploid plants that have a life span of two ... Arabidopsis species have also been eaten by indigenous people of Alaska, who eat the leaves by cooking them as a vegetable or ... Arabidopsis lyrata is eaten by many herbivores such as the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae. It is a known host to the ...
Media related to Arabidopsis thaliana at Wikimedia Commons Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory map The Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa ... Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (seed and DNA stocks) Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (seed and DNA stocks) Artade ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
... , the Arctic rock-cress, is a plant species native to the northeastern part of North America. It has been ... It grows on sandy or gravely beaches or stream banks at elevations below 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). Arabidopsis arenicola is a ... Arabidopsis, Flora of British Columbia, Flora of Greenland, Flora of Labrador, Flora of Manitoba, Flora of Newfoundland, Flora ...
Arabidopsis species including the closely related Arabidopsis lyrata or Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant species. " ... Arabidopsis arenosa, the sand rock-cress, is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It is found mostly in ... "Arabidopsis arenosa (L.) Lawalrée". The Plant List. Retrieved 31 July 2013. Schmickl, Roswitha; Paule, Juraj; Klein, Johannes; ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arabidopsis arenosa. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ...
"Novosphingobium arabidopsis sp. nov., a DDT-resistant bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana". ... "Novosphingobium arabidopsis sp. nov., a DDT-resistant bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana". ... "Novosphingobium arabidopsis". Lin, S.-Y.; Hameed, A.; Liu, Y.-C.; Hsu, Y.-H.; Lai, W.-A.; Huang, H.-I.; Young ... Novosphingobium arabidopsis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium from the genus Novosphingobium which has been ...
Arabidopsis thaliana Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (Articles needing additional ... The Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) was established at Ohio State University in September, 1991. Primary support ... The mission of the ABRC is to acquire, preserve and distribute seed and DNA resources that are useful to the Arabidopsis ... The ABRC database functions and ordering system are incorporated into The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). Researchers ...
... (Model organism databases, Arabidopsis thaliana). ... as well as for assisting the community in using Arabidopsis data and tools. TAIR collaborates with the Arabidopsis Biological ... The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a community resource and online model organism database of genetic and molecular ... The Arabidopsis genome and annotations can be visualized using the interactive SeqViewer and GBrowse tools. TAIR's biocurators ...
The Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC) provides seed and information resources to the International Arabidopsis Genome ... NASC Tweets NASC ( Weedsworld Archive (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Use dmy dates from April 2022, ... Experiences with Arabidopsis" (PDF). Plant Physiology. 133 (3): 1046-1050. doi:10.1104/pp.103.024877. PMC 523880. PMID 14612584 ... Newly generated research stocks, mutants or lines of Arabidopsis thaliana are donated as samples to NASC where they are ...
"Arabidopsis thaliana TAIR10: Chr5:5149221..5151349". PubMed Search (Articles with short description, Short ... GAI or Gibberellic-Acid Insensitive is a gene in Arabidopsis thaliana which is involved in regulation of plant growth. GAI ... 2005). "Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis". ... 2008). "Reduced gibberellin response affects ethylene biosynthesis and responsiveness in the Arabidopsis gai eto2-1 double ...
... is a calcium mediated signalling pathway that Arabidopsis plants use in order to respond to a ... When an Arabidopsis plant is subjected to cold temperatures, it induces cold response genes. In order for cold genes to be ... Different kinds of stimuli result in different responses within the Arabidopsis plant. A wound or damage to the plant causes a ... Zarka DG, Vogel JT, Cook D, Thomashow MF (October 2003). "Cold induction of Arabidopsis CBF genes involves multiple ICE ( ...
... is a mode of natural selection by which the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ... "About Arabidopsis". The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). Retrieved 2019-02-13. Ingleby FC, Flis I, Morrow EH (November ... Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering land plant in the family Brassicaceae, which is utilized as a model organism for ... "About Arabidopsis thaliana - unPAK". Retrieved 2019-02-14. Gossmann TI, Schmid KJ (October 2011). "Selection-driven divergence ...
One of such plants is the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the family Brassicaceae. Arabidopsis thaliana is native ... Part of Arabidopsis' range might have included high salinity soil and the plant started adapting to that. Upon high salt ... "About Arabidopsis thaliana". unPAK. Retrieved 2018-05-14. Ji, Hongtao (March 2013). "The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) Pathway: ... Shi, H.; Ishitani, M.; Kim, C.; Zhu, J.-K. (2000). "The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ ...
The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (2000-12-14). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". ... Electronic Arabidopsis Information Service (AIS) archive Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee reports (1990 onward) and ... the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center and the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre were important in this regard, and ... Gerhard Röbbelen organized the first International Arabidopsis Symposium in 1965. Röbbelen also started the 'Arabidopsis ...
Among those involved in pollen tube attraction are the LUREs, a group of ovular pollen-tube attractants in Arabidopsis thaliana ... May 2019). "Arabidopsis". Science. 364 (6443): eaau9564. doi:10.1126/science.aau9564. PMC 7184628. PMID 31147494. Costa LM, ... CRPs are numerous in plants, with 756 CRP-encoding genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Several CRPs bind known receptors ... Huang Q, Dresselhaus T, Gu H, Qu LJ (June 2015). "Active role of small peptides in Arabidopsis reproduction: Expression ...
Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) Frog: Xenopus (X. laevis and X. tropicalis). Good embryo supply. Especially suitable for ... Pacifici E, Di Mambro R, Dello Ioio R, Costantino P, Sabatini S (August 2018). "Arabidopsis root". The EMBO Journal. 37 (16). ... July 2015). "An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel ... Plant development has focused on the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism.... Blastocyst Body plan Cell ...
Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis thaliana is a weed commonly found alongside roads and is frequently used in experiments which examine ... In Arabidopsis roots, the RALF- FER signal transduction pathways continues to control and moderate cell growth and hormone ... Feronia is the receptor to RALF and was found to regulate the effect of RALF in the cell elongation in the Arabidopsis roots. ... Feronia (FER)' mediates the inhibition caused by the S1P in Arabidopsis. FER is one of the known 17 proteins which play a part ...
Francis KE, Spiker S (February 2005). "Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana transformants without selection reveals a high ... Arabidopsis Book. 15: e0186. doi:10.1199/tab.0186. PMC 6501860. PMID 31068763. National Research Council (US) Committee on ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ... April 4, 2005 Plant gene replacement results in the world's only blue rose "Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase". Arabidopsis Reactome ...
Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (14 December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ... The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. ... The first plant genome sequenced was that of Arabidopsis thaliana which encodes about 25,500 genes. In terms of sheer DNA ...
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. ...
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. ...
Willmann MR, Endres MW, Cook RT, Gregory BD (July 2011). "The Functions of {RNA-Dependent} {RNA} Polymerases in Arabidopsis". ... Arabidopsis Book. 9: e0146. doi:10.1199/tab.0146. PMC 3268507. PMID 22303271. Zhang C, Ruvkun G (August 2012). "New insights ...
"DNA Microarrays: Techniques". Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2013. Shin ...
He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and ... Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A. (2016). "Regulation of Arabidopsis ... The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0161. doi:10.1199/tab.0161. PMC 3244904. PMID 22303259. Eastmond, Peter J.; van Dijken, Anja J. H.; ... is essential for Arabidopsis embryo maturation". The Plant Journal. 29 (2): 225-235. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2002.01220.x. PMID ...
Since that time many plant PRRs have been predicted by genomic analysis (370 in rice; 47 in Arabidopsis). Unlike animal PRRs, ... A survey of the yeast, fly, worm, human, Arabidopsis, and rice kinomes (3,723 kinases) revealed that despite the small number ... Since that time two other plants PRRs, Arabidopsis FLS2 (flagellin) and EFR (elongation factor Tu receptor)have been isolated. ... rice XA21 and Arabidopsis FLS2. In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) ...
Moffatt BA, Ashihara H (April 2002). "Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 1: ...
"Arabidopsis thaliana: A Model for the Study of Root and Shoot Gravitropism". The Arabidopsis Book. 1: e0043. doi:10.1199/tab. ... Strohm, A.; Baldwin, K.; Masson, P. H. (2013-01-01), "Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana", in Maloy, Stanley; Hughes, Kelly ( ... gene in Arabidopsis, causing plastids - the presumptive statoliths - to be less dense and, in support of the starch-statolith ... Mutants with altered responses to gravity have been isolated in several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana (one of ...
Tsukaya, Hirokazu (January 2013). "Leaf Development". The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0163. doi:10.1199/tab.0163. PMC 3711357. PMID ...
Engqvist M, Drincovich MF, Flügge UI, Maurino VG (September 2009). "Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana ... Maurino, Veronica; Engqvist, Martin (2015). "2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 13: e0182. doi:10.1199 ... or in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (At4g36400) leads to massive accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate. In humans this ... dehydrogenases as alternative electron donors linking lysine catabolism to the electron transport chain of Arabidopsis ...
Arabidopsis Genome Initiative: Links. * NSF PR 00-94: First-Ever Complete Plant Genome Sequence Is Announced. * Arabidopsis ...
Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis lyrata *Arabidopsis umezawana *unclassified Arabidopsis *Arabidopsis sp. *Arabidopsis sp. ... Arabidopsis arenosa x Arabidopsis thaliana *Arabidopsis cebennensis *Arabidopsis croatica *Arabidopsis halleri *Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis arenosa *(Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis arenosa) x Arabidopsis suecica *Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis neglecta *Arabidopsis neglecta subsp. neglecta *Arabidopsis pedemontana *Arabidopsis petrogena *Arabidopsis sp. NH- ...
Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis lyrata *Arabidopsis umezawana *unclassified Arabidopsis *Arabidopsis sp. *Arabidopsis sp. ... Arabidopsis arenosa x Arabidopsis thaliana *Arabidopsis cebennensis *Arabidopsis croatica *Arabidopsis halleri *Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis arenosa *(Arabidopsis thaliana x Arabidopsis arenosa) x Arabidopsis suecica *Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis neglecta *Arabidopsis neglecta subsp. neglecta *Arabidopsis pedemontana *Arabidopsis petrogena *Arabidopsis sp. NH- ...
SRX111008: GSM847330: WT-flower-replicate2-lane1; Arabidopsis thaliana; DNase-Hypersensitivity. 1 ILLUMINA (Illumina Genome ... Study: Mapping regulatory elements using signatures of open chromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana. PRJNA151473 • SRP009678 • All ... sites from both seedling and flower tissues of Arabidopsis from the Columbia (Col) ecotype and the corresponding ddm1 ( ...
Plant genetics: Getting past Arabidopsis. Denyse OLeary. July 17, 2011. Genetics, Intelligent Design. Share. Facebook .birdie{ ... Due to its short lifecycle and biological simplicity, Arabidopsis is extremely useful for research, but lacks economic ... as genes that can only be connected with the CesA genes in Arabidopsis and not in any other species are presumably not as ... and in poplar and soya beans that have the same function as already well-characterised genes found in Arabidopsis. With the ...
1.6 Tri-snRNP specific proteins (U4/U6.U5) ...
We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis ... Epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Matthew W Vaughn 1 , Milos Tanurdzić, Zachary Lippman, Hongmei Jiang, ... Epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Matthew W Vaughn et al. PLoS Biol. 2007 Jul. ... Small RNA-directed epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Zhai J, Liu J, Liu B, Li P, Meyers BC, Chen X, Cao X. ...
... Cell. 2007 ... the plant exosome core possesses an unanticipated functional plasticity and present a genome-wide atlas of Arabidopsis exosome ...
In the present study we demonstrate that ITCs disrupt microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana contributing to the observed ... In the present study we demonstrate that ITCs disrupt microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana contributing to the observed ... Disintegration of microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana and bladder cancer cells by isothiocyanates. Anders Øverby*§, Mette S. ... 2004). Arabidopsis Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger proteins function as transcription repressors under drought, cold, and high- ...
When these so-called hidden duplications in Arabidopsis are taken into account, many homologous genomic regions can be ... Therefore, adding such hidden blocks to the duplication landscape of Arabidopsis sheds a new light on the number of polyploidy ... This strongly implies that Arabidopsis has undergone three, but probably not more, rounds of genome duplications. ... Arabidopsis thaliana shows that its genome, like that of many other eukaryotic genomes, has undergone large-scale g ene or ...
Plant hormone signal transduction - Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , ...
Arabidopsis thaliana Communities Annotations. Pathway Ontology. glycolysis pathway Participants Label. Type. Compact Identifier ... Expression and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis. Karve A, Rauh BL, Xia X, Kandasamy M, ...
... closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. (Source: Wikipedia, , ... Arabidopsis lyrata is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae, ...
Arabidopsis thaliana ; high light ; low temperature ; proteomics ... Dynamic acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the environment ...
Forces driving transposable element load variation during Arabidopsis range expansion. Juan Jiang, Yong-Chao Xu, Zhi-Qin Zhang ... Here, we used 1,115 globally natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, to study the driving forces of TE load variation ... Overall, this study reveals the variation in the genetic load of TEs during Arabidopsis expansion and highlights the causes of ... Forces driving transposable element load variation during Arabidopsis range expansion Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
Recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana MYB-28 Protein expressed from Yeast. Conjugated to His tag.Order Protein ABIN1657645 online. ... Arabidopsis thaliana Source Yeast Purification tag / Conjugate This MYB-28 protein is labelled with His tag. Application ELISA ... Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) Characteristics Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein ...
Arabidopsis DNA double-strand break repair pathways C.E. West; C.E. West 1 ... Arabidopsis, bleomycin, DNA, double-strand break (DSB), homologous recombination (HR), mitomycin C ... C.E. West, W.M. Waterworth, P.A. Sunderland, C.M. Bray; Arabidopsis DNA double-strand break repair pathways. Biochem Soc Trans ... Previously, the Arabidopsis NHEJ mutant atku80 was isolated and found to display hypersensitivity to bleomycin, a drug that ...
The INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE5 (IBR5) gene encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that regulates plant auxin responses. IBR5 has been predicted to generate two transcripts through alternative splicing, but alternative splicing of IBR5 has not been confirmed experimentally. The previously characterized ibr5-1 null mutant exhibits many auxin related defects such as auxin insensitive primary root growth, defective vascular development, short stature and reduced lateral root development. However, whether all these defects are caused by the lack of phosphatase activity is not clear. Here we describe two new auxin insensitive IBR5 alleles, ibr5-4, a catalytic site mutant, and ibr5-5, a splice site mutant. Characterization of these new mutants indicates that IBR5 is post-transcriptionally regulated to generate two transcripts, AT2G04550.1 and AT2G04550.3, and consequently two IBR5 isoforms, IBR5.1 and IBR5.3. The IBR5.1 isoform exhibits phosphatase catalytic activity that is required for both proper
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) expresses a developmentally regulated resistance to Hyaloperonospora parasitica ...
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ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT REQUEST OF AUTHOR.] The development of a complex organism, such as a plant, requires the function of multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of the developmental process. Here pathways that regulate various aspects of plant development are investigated. A regulatory module consisting of a NAC-domain transcription factor, CUC2, in which targeting by the miRNA family, miRNA164, is disrupted, was investigated. This disruption resulted in an overaccumulation of the CUC2 transcript. This disruption uncovers roles for this regulatory module in controlling lateral organ enlargement and patterning. This regulatory module is proposed to act as a global regulator of lateral organ patterning and enlargement as well as meristem maintenance. A novel function for a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade in floral organ abscission is uncovered. Many plants use abscission as a means to shed unwanted organs or to release fruit and seeds at ...
Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis 4th March 2011 ... Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis ...
span,,i,A reevaluation of flux data for Arabidopsis mutants reveals that nitrate uptake through AtNRT1.1 conforms to a single ... A reevaluation of flux data for Arabidopsis mutants reveals that nitrate uptake through AtNRT1.1 conforms to a single low- ... A reevaluation of the role of Arabidopsis NRT1.1 in high-affinity nitrate transport Anthony D M Glass et al. Plant Physiol. ... A reevaluation of the role of Arabidopsis NRT1.1 in high-affinity nitrate transport Anthony D M Glass 1 , Zorica Kotur ...
Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress). Definition Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), ... Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress). Definition Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), ... AT3G21390 ( NM_113034.4 ) cDNA ORF clone, Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress) -, NP_566683.1 Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial ... AT3G21390 ( NM_001338530.1 ) cDNA ORF clone, Arabidopsis thaliana(thale cress) -, NP_001327267.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ...
In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), these reactions include the biosynthesis of nicotianamine (NA), 1- ... Benjamin J.-M. Tremblay (2019). Investigating the Impact of 5′-Methylthioadenosine Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... The Met salvage cycle is not essential for Arabidopsis grown in sulfur-sufficient conditions. Despite this, the accumulation of ...
We thank the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center at Ohio State University for axrl-2 seeds. The nucleotide sequence data ... Sakai, Hajime and Medrano, Leonard J. and Meyerowitz, Elliot M. (1995) Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl ... The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues1-3. ...
... genetic and biochemical study of plastid protein import in arabidopsis ... Toc75 is the protein translocation channel, and there are three Toc75-related sequences in Arabidopsis. Fractionation ... A molecular, genetic and biochemical study of plastid protein import in arabidopsis. ...
2018) Transposon-derived small RNAs triggered by miR845 mediate genome dosage response in Arabidopsis NCBI Gene Expression ... 2020) Chromatin regulates expression of small RNAs to help maintain transposon methylome homeostasis in Arabidopsis NCBI Gene ... 2020) Epigenetic reprogramming rewires transcription during the alternation of generations in Arabidopsis NCBI Gene Expression ... dynamic relationship between chromatin accessibility and epigenetic modifications during life form transitions in Arabidopsis. ...
CSR1 gene from Arabidopsis codes for the enzyme called acetolactate synthase (AHAS), which speeds up the first step in the ... Scientists Compare Herbicide Resistance of Transgenic and Mutant Arabidopsis. *MicroRNA Expression Analysis in Switchgrass ... Scientists Compare Herbicide Resistance of Transgenic and Mutant Arabidopsis. April 4, 2012 ...
  • 5. Genetic analysis of SUMOylation in Arabidopsis: conjugation of SUMO1 and SUMO2 to nuclear proteins is essential. (
  • 8. Reconstitution of Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO pathways in E. coli: functional evaluation of SUMO machinery proteins and mapping of SUMOylation sites by mass spectrometry. (
  • Analysis of the genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana shows that this genome, like that of many other eukaryotic organisms, has undergone large-scale gene duplications or even duplications of the entire genome. (
  • Expression and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis. (
  • The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues1-3. (
  • 7. Four Arabidopsis AREB/ABF transcription factors function predominantly in gene expression downstream of SnRK2 kinases in abscisic acid signalling in response to osmotic stress. (
  • 11. An ABRE promoter sequence is involved in osmotic stress-responsive expression of the DREB2A gene, which encodes a transcription factor regulating drought-inducible genes in Arabidopsis. (
  • 14. A stress inducible SUMO conjugating enzyme gene (SaSce9) from a grass halophyte Spartina alterniflora enhances salinity and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. (
  • We reported genome-wide high resolution maps of DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites from both seedling and flower tissues of Arabidopsis from the Columbia (Col) ecotype and the corresponding ddm1 (deficient in DNA methylation 1) mutant. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that as opposed to yeast and metazoans the plant exosome core possesses an unanticipated functional plasticity and present a genome-wide atlas of Arabidopsis exosome targets. (
  • This finding strongly implies that Arabidopsis has undergone three, but probably no more, rounds of genome duplications. (
  • Therefore, adding such hidden blocks to the duplication landscape of Arabidopsis sheds light on the number of polyploidy events that this model plant genome has undergone in its evolutionary past. (
  • 4. Functional FRIGIDA allele enhances drought tolerance by regulating the P5CS1 pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana Mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein (AT3G21390), mRNA. (
  • Toc75 is the protein translocation channel, and there are three Toc75-related sequences in Arabidopsis. (
  • The YTH Domain Protein ECT2 Is an m(6)A Reader Required for Normal Trichome Branching in Arabidopsis. (
  • 15. Protein sumoylation and phosphorylation intersect in Arabidopsis signaling. (
  • A survey of loci in 96 Arabidopsis accessions revealed a similar degree of methylation polymorphism. (
  • Here, we used 1,115 globally natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana , to study the driving forces of TE load variation during its range expansion. (
  • Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Floating into view are baby flowers, their cells outlined (red), at the tip of the stem of the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • The striking, stone-like forms that you see above are a micrograph of flower buds from the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana , which serves as an important model organism in biomedical research. (
  • The aim of their research is to identify genes in important crops, such as barley, rice and wheat, and in poplar and soya beans that have the same function as already well-characterised genes found in Arabidopsis. (
  • In addition, this method also enables the scientists to weed out any false-positives, as genes that can only be connected with the CesA genes in Arabidopsis and not in any other species are presumably not as essential for cellulose synthesis as was previously believed. (
  • We investigated the relationship between flowering time and sexual allocation in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and in genetically similar lineages with single-locus mutations of floral induction genes. (
  • 13. The proline biosynthetic genes P5CS1 and P5CS2 play overlapping roles in Arabidopsis flower transition but not in embryo development. (
  • We used the methylation-dependent restriction enzyme McrBC to profile methylated DNA using tiling microarrays of Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 in two distinct ecotypes, Columbia and Landsberg erecta. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) expresses a developmentally regulated resistance to Hyaloperonospora parasitica isolate Emco5. (
  • 16. SIZ1-Dependent Post-Translational Modification by SUMO Modulates Sugar Signaling and Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Expression GWAS of PGIP1 Identifies STOP1-Dependent and STOP1-Independent Regulation of PGIP1 in Aluminum Stress Signaling in Arabidopsis. (
  • 31. Components of nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • 10. Structural insights into SUMO E1-E2 interactions in Arabidopsis uncovers a distinctive platform for securing SUMO conjugation specificity across evolution. (
  • Single Cell RNA-Sequencing in Arabidopsis Root Tissues. (
  • Here, we explore the dynamic relationship between chromatin accessibility and epigenetic modifications during life form transitions in Arabidopsis . (
  • 8. Arabidopsis ABF3 and ABF4 Transcription Factors Act with the NF-YC Complex to Regulate SOC1 Expression and Mediate Drought-Accelerated Flowering. (
  • 16. AtWNK9 is regulated by ABA and dehydration and is involved in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. (
  • Overall, this study reveals the variation in the genetic load of TEs during Arabidopsis expansion and highlights the causes of TE load variation. (
  • Previously, the Arabidopsis NHEJ mutant atku80 was isolated and found to display hypersensitivity to bleomycin, a drug that causes DSBs in DNA. (
  • 19. Robust root growth in altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis is maintained by high rate of cell production at low water potential gradient. (
  • 14. Overexpression of sheepgrass R1-MYB transcription factor LcMYB1 confers salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. (
  • 7. Distinctive properties of Arabidopsis SUMO paralogues support the in vivo predominant role of AtSUMO1/2 isoforms. (
  • 1. Abscisic acid-responsive element binding transcription factors contribute to proline synthesis and stress adaptation in Arabidopsis. (
  • 3. Stress physiology functions of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase cytokinin receptors. (
  • 6. Light affects salt stress-induced transcriptional memory of P5CS1 in Arabidopsis. (
  • 18. The Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor ANAC096 cooperates with bZIP-type transcription factors in dehydration and osmotic stress responses. (
  • In the present study we demonstrate that ITCs disrupt microtubules in Arabidopsis thaliana contributing to the observed inhibited growth phenotype. (
  • Because of its ease of use and low cost, Arabidopsis is a favorite model for scientists to learn the basic principles driving tissue growth and regrowth for humans as well as the beautiful plants outside your window. (
  • Browse non-hidden duplications in Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • The hidden duplication past of Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Mutation of the Arabidopsis NRT1.5 nitrate transporter causes defective root-to-shoot nitrate transport. (
  • In this chapter, we describe the experimental workflow of processing Arabidopsis root tissue into protoplasts and generating single- cell transcriptomes . (
  • When these so-called hidden duplications in Arabidopsis are taken into account, many homologous genomic regions can be found in five to eight copies. (
  • Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NRT1.9 is important in phloem nitrate transport. (

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