Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.GlucuronidaseTobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Darkness: The absence of light.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Peronospora: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)FlavoproteinsGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/18423)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast. (2/18423)

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved and widely distributed eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. One 14-3-3 protein, AFT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, was found to be able to activate transcription in yeast. When fused to the DNA-binding domain of a bacterial protein LexA, AFT1 can activate transcription of reporter genes that contain LexA operator sequences in their promoters. Although the in vivo function of AFT1 is not completely known, its similarity to previously identified proteins found in transcription complexes of Arabidopsis and maize suggests that AFT1 and some other 14-3-3 proteins may activate gene expression in other systems as well.  (+info)

A plant 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase with a novel repeat structure. Cloning and functional expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (3/18423)

Phosphatidylinositol metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in animals and is also believed to be of importance in signal transduction in higher plants. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a previously unidentified 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (AtPI4Kbeta) from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The novel protein possesses the conserved domains present in animal and yeast PI 4-kinases, namely a lipid kinase unique domain and a catalytic domain. An additional domain, approximately 300 amino acids long, containing a high percentage (46%) of charged amino acids is specific to this plant enzyme. Recombinant AtPI4Kbeta expressed in baculovirus-infected insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol exclusively at the D4 position of the inositol ring. Recombinant protein was maximally activated by 0.6% Triton X-100 but was inhibited by adenosine with an IC50 of approximately 200 microM. Wortmannin at a concentration of 10 microM inhibited AtPI4Kbeta activity by approximately 90%. AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels were similar in all tissues analyzed. Light or treatment with hormones or salts did not change AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels to a great extent, indicating constitutive expression of the AtPI4Kbeta gene.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (4/18423)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (5/18423)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VIII. Sequence features of the regions of 1,081,958 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 and TAC clones. (6/18423)

A total of 17 Pl and TAC clones each representing an assigned region of chromosome 5 were isolated from P1 and TAC genomic libraries of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the clones sequenced in this study summed up to 1,081,958 bp. As we have previously reported the sequence of 9,072,622 bp by analysis of 125 P1 and TAC clones, the total length of the sequences of chromosome 5 determined so far is now 10,154,580 bp. The sequences were subjected to similarity search against protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling. As a consequence, a total of 253 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions were identified. The positions of exons which do not show apparent similarity to known genes were also assigned using computer programs for exon prediction. The average density of the genes identified in this study was 1 gene per 4277 bp. Introns were observed in 74% of the potential protein genes, and the average number per gene and the average length of the introns were 4.3 and 168 bp, respectively. The sequence data and gene information are available on the World Wide Web database KAOS (Kazusa Arabidopsis data Opening Site) at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/arabi/.  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/18423)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (8/18423)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase genome and extend into centromeric regions. …
Genetic transformation is often associated with different rearrangements of the plant genome at the site of insertion. Therefore the question remains weather these T-DNA insertion sites are more prone to genotoxic stresses. Here, we studied the impact of propagation through generations, the influence of gene stacking and of photo oxidative stress caused by high light intensity on the stability of the transgene and its flanking regions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Conformational Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE), RFLP and sequencing were deployed in this analysis in order to study the proximal 100 bp and the long range T-DNA flanking sequences. By screening seven transgenic lines no evidence for occurrence of mutation events were found, implying that the flanking regions of the studied T-DNA insertion events are relatively stable ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Zea mays MATH-BTB protein (ZmMAB1) has been shown to have a role in regulation and proper asimetric cell divisions during the male and female gametophyte development. Its role has been demonstrated in proteasomal degradation as part of a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. ZmMAB1 gene expression in Zea mays is precisely regulated, and the protein product is a short-lived protein. Therefore ZmMAB1 gene expression research in a homolougus system is difficult. Cullin is a structural component of many E3 ligases. It has been shown that Cul3a protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. forms complexes with MAB1 from Zea mays, so Arabidopsis thaliana has been chosen for expression regulation research of MAB1 in a heterologous system. For the cause of better understanding the role and regulation of ZmMAB1 protein, GFP florescent protein labeled ZmMAB1 protein has been inserted in the genome of A. thaliana with bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Goal of this thesis was to determine on which level of ...
calphotos.berkeley.edu. Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6814/full/408796a0.html). ...
For genetic analysis of mechanisms of leaf morphogenesis, we chose Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. as a model for leaf development in dicotyledonous plants. Leaves of the angustifolia mutant were the same length as but narrower and thicker than wild-type leaves. The total number of cells in leaf blades of angustifolia plants was the same as in the wild type. At the cellular level in the angustifolia mutant it was found that the cells were smaller in the leaf-width direction and larger in the leaf-thickness direction than in wild type, revealing the function of the ANGUSTIFOLIA gene, which is to control leaf morphology by regulating polarity-specific cell elongation. The existence of similar genes that regulate leaf development in the length direction was, therefore, predicted. Three loci and several alleles associated with short-leaved mutants were newly isolated as rotundifolia mutants. The rotundifolia3 mutant had the same number of cells as the wild type, with reduced cell elongation in the ...
Gene expression profiling studies are usually performed on pooled samples grown under tightly controlled experimental conditions to suppress variability among individuals and increase experimental reproducibility. In addition, to mask unwanted residual effects, the samples are often subjected to relatively harsh treatments that are unrealistic in a natural context. Here, we show that expression variations among individual wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions contain as much information on the underlying gene network structure as expression profiles of pooled plant samples under controlled experimental perturbations. We advocate the use of subtle uncontrolled variations in gene expression between individuals to uncover functional links between genes and unravel regulatory influences. As a case study, we use this approach to identify ILL6 as a new regulatory component of the jasmonate response pathway. ...
In the year 2000, the first complete nuclear genome of a plant species - Arabidopsis thaliana - was released into the wild (a.k.a to bunch of salivating scientists). Less than twenty years later, we had a total of 1135 genomes… for Arabidopsis alone! Today were talking about Arabidopsis races, and how they are a powerful tool for unravelling plant secrets.. Arabidopsis likely diverged from its closest relative about 10 million years ago, and the invasive weed has since spread through Northern Eurasia. In the literally millions of years following, the species diversified into hundreds of race-like ecotypes: populations of plants that have settled in, and then adapted to, certain geological areas. While there has been some cross-talk (i.e, cross breeding) between the ecotypes, there has also been a whole lot of time spent alone - leading to evolution of traits that can differ from one ecotype to the next. Arabidopsis ecotypes (also called accessions) can differ from each other in their size, ...
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
Phytohormones auxins play an important role in plant growth development and abiotic stress responses. The active auxin may be released from the amino acid conjugates by the action of auxin-amidohydrolase enzymes, which thereby participate in the auxin homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of auxin-amidohydrolase AtILL2 from Arabidopsis thaliana in the plant response to salinity and osmotic stress. Four homozygous lines of A. thaliana ecotypes Ws of potential overexpressors for AtILL2 fusion protein with GFP and / or His tags were analyzed. The presence of transgene was verified as insertion into DNA, RNA transcript, and recombinant protein by using PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, affinity chromatography and western-hybridization assay. In three lines, the presence of transgene in genomic DNA and RNA transcript was confirmed, although the recombinant protein was not demonstrated in any of the lines. Root growth bioassay confirmed the increased resistance of one line to the ...
We investigated the role of membrane fatty acids in basal proton leaks and uncoupling protein (UCP)-dependent proton conductance in Arabidopsis mitochondria. Using wild-type cells, cold-sensitive fad2 mutant cells, deficient in ω-6-oleate desaturase, and cold-tolerant FAD3+ transformant cells, overexpressing ω-3-linoleate desaturase, we showed that basal proton leak in the non-phosphorylating state was dependent on lipid composition. The extent of membrane proton leak was drastically reduced in the fad2 mutant, containing low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, this proton leak was higher in FAD3+ mitochondria that exhibit a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content and high protein to lipid ratio. The dependency of membrane leaks upon membrane potential was higher in FAD3+ and lower in fad2. UCP content was higher in both the fad2 mutant and FAD3+ transgenic lines compared with wild-type cells and so was the UCP activity, assayed by the reduction of phosphorylation yield ...
Author Summary During growth and development, all plants and animals must replicate their DNA. This process is regulated to ensure that all sequences are completely and accurately replicated and is limited to S phase of the cell cycle. In the cell, DNA is packaged with histone proteins into chromatin, and both DNA and histones are subject to epigenetic modifications that affect chromatin state. Euchromatin and heterochromatin are chromatin states marked by epigenetic modifications specifying open and closed conformations, respectively. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the time at which a DNA sequence replicates is influenced by the epigenetic modifications to the surrounding chromatin. DNA replication occurs in two phases, with euchromatin replicating in early and mid S phase and heterochromatin replicating late. DNA replication time has been linked to gene expression in other organisms, and this is also true in Arabidopsis because more genes are active in euchromatin when
It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (Provart et al., 2016). Due to an extremely well-annotated genome and advances in high-throughput sequencing, our understanding of this organism and other plant species has become even more intricate and complex. Computational resources, including CyVerse,3 Araport,4 The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR),5 and BAR,6 have further facilitated novel findings with just the click of a mouse. As we move toward understanding biological systems, Arabidopsis researchers will need to use more quantitative and computational approaches to extract novel biological findings from these data. Here, we discuss guidelines, skill sets, and core competencies that should be considered when developing curricula or ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. The specifics of BR mechanisms involving miRNAs are unknown. Using customized miRNA array analysis, we identified miRNAs from A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) regulated by 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR). We found that miR395a was significantly up-regulated by EBR treatment and validated its expression under these conditions. miR395a was over expressed in leaf veins and root tissues in EBR-treated miR395a promoter::GUS plants. We integrated bioinformatics methods and publicly available DNA microarray data to predict potential targets of miR395a. GUN5-a multifunctional protein involved in plant metabolic functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway-was identified as a possible target. ABI4 and ABI5, both genes
The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
Read "Isolation and Gene Expression Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants With Constitutive Expression of ATL2, an Early Elicitor-Response RING-H2 Zinc-Finger Gene, Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Regulation of gene expression is crucial for organism growth, and it is one of the challenges in systems biology to reconstruct the underlying regulatory biological networks from transcriptomic data. The formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana is stimulated by a cascade of regulators of which only the interactions of its initial elements have been identified. Using simulated gene expression data with known network topology, we compare the performance of inference algorithms, based on different approaches, for which ready-to-use software is available. We show that their performance improves with the network size and the inclusion of mutants. We then analyze two sets of genes, whose activity is likely to be relevant to lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, and assess causality of their regulatory interactions by integrating sequence analysis with the intersection of the results of the best performing methods on time series and mutants. The methods applied capture known interactions ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Read "Activities of antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana plants during cold hardening to hypothermia, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The ability of the AtERFs to regulate transcription in plant cells was tested by using transient assays (Figure 5). A luciferase (LUC)-encoding reporter gene, 4×HLS, which contains four copies of the GCC box sequence from the Arabidopsis HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) promoter (Lehman et al., 1996) fused to LUC, and an effector plasmid consisting of each AtERF under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (Figure 5A) were delivered to Arabidopsis leaves by particle bombardment. LUC activity increased at least 12-fold when the reporter plasmid was coexpressed with AtERF1, AtERF2, or AtERF5 effector plasmids (Figure 5B). No such increase in LUC activity by the AtERFs was detected when a LUC reporter plasmid containing a mutated GCC box (ATCCTCC) was used (data not shown). These data indicate that AtERF1, AtERF2, and AtERF5 are able to function as GCC box sequence-specific transactivators in Arabidopsis leaves.. Some genes containing the GCC box in their promoter region are known to be ...
Our knowledge of natural genetic variation is increasing at an extremely rapid pace, affording an opportunity to come to a much richer understanding of how effects of specific genes are dependent on the genetic background. To achieve a systematic understanding of such GxG interactions, it is desirable to develop genome editing tools that can be rapidly deployed across many different genetic varieties. We present an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox of super module (SM) vectors. These vectors are based on a previously described fluorescence protein marker expressed in seeds allowing identification of transgene-free mutants. We have used this vector series to delete genomic regions ranging from 1.7 to 13 kb in different natural accessions of the wild plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on results from 53 pairs of sgRNAs targeting individual nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes, we provide a comprehensive overview of obtaining heritable deletions. The SM series of CRISPR/Cas9 vectors enables
Size limits on molecular movement among female gametes. Cellular decisions can be influenced by information communicated from neighboring cells. Communication can occur via signaling or through the direct transfer of molecules. Movement of RNAs and proteins has frequently been observed among symplastically connected plant cells. In flowering plants, the female gametes, the egg cell and central cell, are closely apposed within the female gametophyte. Here we investigated the ability of fluorescently labeled dyes and small RNAs to move from the Arabidopsis thaliana central cell to the egg apparatus following microinjection. These results define a size limit of at least 20 kDa for symplastic movement between the two gametes, somewhat larger than that previously observed in Torenia fournieri. Our results indicate that symplastic connectivity in Arabidopsis thaliana changes after fertilization and suggest that prior to fertilization mechanisms are in place to facilitate small RNA movement from the central
Environmental stresses, including ammonium (NH4 +) nourishment, can damage key mitochondrial components through the production of surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, alternative electron pathways are significant for efficient reductant dissipation in mitochondria during ammonium nutrition. The aim of this study was to define the role of external NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDB1) during oxidative metabolism of NH4 +-fed plants. Most plant species grown with NH4 + as the sole nitrogen source experience a condition known as "ammonium toxicity syndrome". Surprisingly, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants suppressing NDB1 were more resistant to NH4 + treatment. The NDB1 knock-down line was characterized by milder oxidative stress symptoms in plant tissues when supplied with NH4 +. Mitochondrial ROS accumulation, in particular, was attenuated in the NDB1 knock-down plants during NH4 + treatment. Enhanced antioxidant defense, primarily concerning the ...
Author: Engelhorn, J.; Genre: Thesis; Published in Print: 2011; Title: Identification of developmental functions for Arabidopsis thaliana genes by a reverse genetics approach based on analysis of H3K27me3 distribution
LOCUS ATU53502 11862 bp DNA PLN 05-MAY-1996 DEFINITION Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I cosmid g17311 DNA. ACCESSION U53502 KEYWORDS . SOURCE thale cress strain=Columbia. ORGANISM Arabidopsis thaliana Eukaryotae; mitochondrial eukaryotes; Viridiplantae; Charophyta/Embryophyta group; Embryophyta; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Capparales; Brassicaceae; Arabidopsis. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 11862) AUTHORS Goodman,H.M. and Gallant,P. TITLE Sequence of cosmid g17311 from Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I JOURNAL Unpublished REFERENCE 2 (bases 1 to 11862) AUTHORS Goodman,H.M. and Gallant,P. TITLE Direct Submission JOURNAL Submitted (03-APR-1996) John Morris, Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital / Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom St., Boston, MA 02114, USA FEATURES Location/Qualifiers source 1..11862 /organism="Arabidopsis thaliana" /strain="Columbia" /chromosome="I" /map="1; between m132 and mi157 at 159 cM" misc_feature 1..7505 /note="sequence overlap with cosmid g8261" misc_feature ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Guazatine is a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity. In agriculture, guazatine is used as non-systemic contact fungicide efficient in the protection of cereals and citrus fruits against disease. The composition of guazatine is complex, mainly constituted by a mixture of synthetic guanidated polyamines (polyaminoguanidines). Here, we have studied the effects from exposure to guazatine in the weed Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that micromolar concentrations of guazatine are sufficient to inhibit growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induce chlorosis, whereas germination is barely affected. We observed the occurrence of quantitative variation in the response to guazatine between 107 randomly chosen Arabidopsis accessions. This enabled us to undertake genome-wide association (GWA) mapping that identified a locus on chromosome one associated with guazatine tolerance. CHLOROPHYLLASE 1 (CLH1) within this locus was studied as candidate gene, together with its paralog (CLH2). The analysis ...
Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in
Plant defense responses are constitutively activated in the Arabidopsis thaliana ssi2 mutant plant. In addition, the ssi2 mutant allele confers a dwarf phenotype. The SSI2 gene encodes a stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, which converts stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1), suggesting a role for lipids in plant defense. Microarray analysis identified several genes which encode putative acyl hydrolases/lipases that are expressed at elevated levels in the leaves of ssi2, in comparison to the wild type plant. One gene in particular, At5g14180, was expressed at 60-fold greater level in ssi2 than in the wild type plant. To study the involvement of At5g14180 in plant defense and lipid metabolism, two transgenic lines containing T-DNA insertions within the At5g14180 gene were identified. These two T-DNA insertional alleles of the At5g14180 gene attenuate the ssi2-conferred heightened resistance to a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola in the ssi2 At5g14180 double mutant plant. Furthermore, ...
www.alaskawildflowers.us. The Brassicaceae Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata is a close relative of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, from which is diverged around 10 million years ago. A. lyrata is an outcrossing diploid and, unlike the (generally) self-fertilising A. thaliana, has stable and spatially restricted populations or subspecies. This means that comparisons between the genomes of the closely related species could reveal the genetic basis of the invasive spread of A. thaliana and would also provide valuable data on the evolution of the A. thaliana genome.. The genome of A. lyrata subsp. lyrata is around 50% larger than A. thaliana (207 Mb and 125 Mb respectively) and is predicted to contain more protein coding genes (32,670 genes compared to 27,025 genes in A. thaliana). Analysis of their genomes suggest that reduction in genome size is the result of large-scale rearrangements and hundreds of thousands of small deletions found throughout the genome. ...
The in vivo activity of the alternative pathway (V-alt) has been studied using the oxygen isotope fractionation method in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana modified for the expression of the AtAOX1a gene by anti-sense (AS-12) or overexpression (XX-2). Under non-stressful conditions, V-alt was similar in all plant lines regardless of its different alternative pathway capacities (V-alt). Total leaf respiration (V-t) and V-alt were directly related to growth light conditions while electron partitioning between the cytochrome pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (AP) was unchanged by light levels. Interestingly, the AP functioned at full capacity in anti-sense plants under both growth light conditions. The role of the AP in response to a high light stress induced by short-term high light treatment (HLT) was also studied. In wild type and XX-2, both CP and AP rates increased proportionally after HLT while in AS-12, where the AP was unable to increase its rate, the CP accommodated all the increase in ...
Iron is an essential element for plant survival. However, in excess, it is deleterious to the organism. In the present thesis we describe a functional genomic approach and a mutant screen directed towards increasing our understanding of iron homeostasis in the Strategy I model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the functional genomic approach, Affymetrix ATH-1 microarrays were hybridized with RNA extracted from iron-deficient and sufficient Arabidopsis plants. The resulting datasets were analyzed, and ten genes were chosen for further studies. Eight of them did not appear to be related to iron regulation. The other two belong to a small sub-family of four genes. All four were up-regulated in shoots and roots of iron-deficient plants. We hypothesize that all four provide redundancy to each other. Finally, we show the screening of mutant plants with potential disruptions in iron-homeostasis system. One mutation was mapped to locus At2g34740 which encodes AtATase2 (EC 2.4.2.14). The mutation disrupted ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Ds Transposon Mutant Lines for Saturation Mutagenesis of the Arabidopsis genome. AU - Kuromori, Takashi. AU - Hirayama, Takashi. PY - 2010/3/30. Y1 - 2010/3/30. N2 - Analysis of genetic mutations is one of the most effective techniques for investigating gene function.We now have methods that allow for mass production of mutant lines and cells created by gene disruption or silencing in model organisms, and great progress is being made in the use of those tools for comprehensive phenotypic analysis. In plants, insertion mutations can be produced using T-DNA or transposons, making it possible to monitor the effects of a defect in a single gene. Through bulk storage of mutations in the form of seeds, which is not an option in animal models, it is now feasible to use insertion mutations to analyze every gene in a model plant genome, especially Arabidopsis. This makes Arabidopsis useful not only as a model organism for plant research, but also as the only multicellular organism in ...
       The system developed in this work, XcisClique, consists of a comprehensive infrastructure for annotated genome and gene expression data for Arabidopsis thaliana. XcisClique models cis-regulatory elements as regular expressions and detects maximal bicliques of genes and motifs, called itemsets. An itemset consists of a set of genes (called a geneset) and a set of motifs (called a motifset) such that every motif in the motifset occurs in the promoter of every gene in the geneset. XcisClique differs from existing tools of the same kind in that, it offers a common platform for the integration of sequence and gene expression data. Itemsets identified by XcisClique are not only evaluated for statistical over-representation in sequence data, but are also examined with respect to the expression patterns of the corresponding geneset. Thus, the results produced are biologically directed. XcisClique is also the only tool of its kind for Arabidopsis thaliana, and can also be used for ...
The Arabidopsis Information Portal (AIP), a resource expected to provide access to all community data and combine outputs into a single user-friendly interface, has emerged from community discussions over the last 23 months. These discussions began during two closely linked workshops in early 2010 that established the International Arabidopsis Informatics Consortium (IAIC). The design of the AIP will provide core functionality while remaining flexible to encourage multiple contributors and constant innovation. An IAIC-hosted Design Workshop in December 2011 proposed a structure for the AIP to provide a framework for the minimal components of a functional community portal while retaining flexibility to rapidly extend the resource to other species. We now invite broader participation in the AIP development process so that the resource can be implemented in a timely manner.. ...
These are [I]Arabidopsis thaliana[/I] plants used in this study. On the left is a plant under normal growth conditions, while on the right is a plant treated with doxycycline, which has significantly stunted its growth but is protected against aging as evidenced by its fresher appearance.
When primary Arabidopsis roots grow down a tilted agar plate, they do not elongate following the gravitational vector along a straight line, but instead they slant noticeably to the right-hand. This process is seen mostly in the ecotypes Wassilewskji
Is there anyone out there who can spare an aliquot of an Arabidopsis cDNA expression library that could be used for cloning genes by functional complementation of E. coli mutants? I am searching for (i) a whole plant cDNA library and (ii) a root-specific cDNA library. The libraries would be used to look for genes involved in nutrient assimilation. I would be most grateful for any help. Best wishes John L Wray Plant Sciences Laboratory School of Biology Research Division of Environmental & Evolutionary Biology University of St Andrwes St Andrews Fife KY16 9TA United Kingdom ...
Author: Duan, G. Y. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published online: 2013-12-24; Open Access; Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana|br/| ; Title: Reconstruction and analysis of nutrient-induced phosphorylation networks in Arabidopsis thaliana
We have characterized an Arabidopsis homeobox gene coding for a putative DNA binding protein that represents an early marker for vascular development. The full-length cDNA encodes a protein of 833 amino acids that we have designated Athb-8; it contains the conserved DNA binding domain that characterizes the HD-Zip family of transcription factors. RNA analysis showed that the Athb-8 gene is expressed during the vegetative and the reproductive phases of plant growth. A higher steady-state level of the Athb-8 mRNA was found in flowering stem and root. In situ mRNA analysis of Arabidopsis plants demonstrated that Athb-8 expression is restricted to the procambial cells of embryo and developing organs. Moreover, Athb-8-GUS expression was found in single parenchyma cells which are differentiating into tracheary elements in wounded tobacco transgenic plants. Finally, we showed that the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, which is involved in vascular development and differentiation, modulates the expression of ...
Floral dip is a transformation method that results in the insertion of T-DNA into the genome of unfertilized ovary cells. This thesis describes the transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with T-DNA from pH7WG2,0 TROL-HA-FLAG plasmid vector. TROL is a transmembrane protein that regulates electron transport flow on the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Addition of protein tags HA and FLAG to the TROL protein allows easier immunodetection analysis and enables further studies of the plant TROL protein function. In order to show the success of plant transformation with the TROL-HA-FLAG protein gene, the plants were subjected to multiple analyses such as seed selection method on growth plates with an added antibiotic, plant DNA PCR analysis and immunodetection analysis of plant leaf proteins. Due to the immunodetection analysis, I managed to confirm the localization of TROL-HA-FLAG protein in chloroplast thylakoid membranes of transformed plants. Further research could better show if ...
To better understand the genetic mechanisms underlying plant leaf development, we have performed a large-scale screening for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants to identify those displaying abnormally shaped or sized leaves. One of the stronger mutant phenotypes found was that of the ultracurvata1 (ucu1) mutants, whose vegetative and cauline leaves are spirally rolled downwards and show a reduced expansion along the longitudinal axis, in contrast to wild type leaves, which are flattened organs. We have identified one recessive and two semidominant ucu1 alleles, the most extreme of which cause severe dwarfism and a constitutive photomorphogenic response. Following a map-based strategy, we have cloned the UCU1 gene, which was found to encode an intracellular kinase closely related to SHAGGY, one of the components of the Wingless/Wnt animal signalling pathway. The responses of ucu1 mutants to exogenous plant hormones and the genetic analyses of double mutants involving ucu1 alleles indicate that UCU1 is a key
Pro dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the Pro catabolic pathway. In Arabidopsis, this enzyme is encoded by At-PDH. To investigate the role of Pro catabolism in plants, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of PDH by sense (PDH-S plants) and antisense (PDH-AS plants) strategies. Free Pro levels were reduced by up to 50% in PDH-S plants under ...
Genome sequences can be conceptualized as arrangements of motifs or words. The frequencies and positional distributions of these words within particular non-coding genomic segments provide important insights into how the words function in processes such as mRNA stability and regulation of gene expression. Using an enumerative word discovery approach, we investigated the frequencies and positional distributions of all 65,536 different 8-letter words in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Focusing on promoter regions, introns, and 3 and 5 untranslated regions (3UTRs and 5UTRs), we compared word frequencies in these segments to genome-wide frequencies. The statistically interesting words in each segment were clustered with similar words to generate motif logos. We investigated whether words were clustered at particular locations or were distributed randomly within each genomic segment, and we classified the words using gene expression information from public repositories. Finally, we investigated
Sampling the Arabidopsis transcriptome with massively parallel pyrosequencing.: Massively parallel sequencing of DNA by pyrosequencing technology offers much hi
The central problem of genetics is gene interaction since genes in the course of individual organism development interact with other genes, thats why their effects may change. Studies for the last 100 years managed to discover that the entire diversity of inter-gene interactions is presented in four major forms: complementarity, epistasis, polymery, and modifying effect of genes. However, gene interaction mechanism which is reflected on the segregation nature of variously crossed hybrids has not been sufficiently studied. Exclusive of molecular genetics, biochemistry and physiology, a genetic analysis of inheritance of characteristics in gene interaction taken by itself cannot reveal nature of this interaction. Lately, molecular-genetic and physiological studies on A. thaliana mutants have enabled to isolate and sequence a wide range of genes controlling certain links of the signalling chain. At the same time, effect of the plant development regulation signalling system on interaction of these genes in
p,In plants, tasiRNAs form a class of endogenous secondary siRNAs produced through the action of RNA-DEPENDENT-RNA-POLYMERASE-6 (RDR6) upon microRNA-mediated cleavage of non-coding TAS RNAs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, TAS1, TAS2 and TAS4 tasiRNA production proceeds via a single cleavage event mediated by 22nt-long or/and asymmetric miRNAs in an ARGONAUTE-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. By contrast, tasiRNA production from TAS3 seems to follow the so-called two-hit process, where dual targeting of TAS3, specifically mediated by the 21nt-long, symmetric miR390, initiates AGO7-dependent tasiRNA production. Interestingly, features for TAS3 tasiRNA production differ in other plant species and we show here that such features also enable TAS3 tasiRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis, and that a single miR390 targeting event is, in fact, sufficient for this process, suggesting that the one-hit model underpins all the necessary rudiments of secondary siRNA biogenesis from plant TAS transcripts. Further results ...
Sex-biased genes are genes with a preferential or specific expression in one sex and tend to show an accelerated rate of evolution in animals. Various hypotheses-which are not mutually exclusive-have been put forth to explain observed patterns of rapid evolution. One possible explanation is positive selection, but this has been shown only in few animal species and mostly for male-specific genes. Here, we present a large-scale study that investigates evolutionary patterns of sex-biased genes in the predominantly self-fertilizing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Unlike most animal species, A. thaliana does not possess sex chromosomes, its flowers develop both male and female sexual organs, and it is characterized by low outcrossing rates. Using cell-specific gene expression data, we identified genes whose expression is enriched in comparison with all other tissues in the male and female gametes (sperm, egg, and central cell), as well as in synergids, pollen, and pollen tubes, which also play an ...
Brief periods of heat stress of even a few days can have a detrimental effect on yield production worldwide causing devastating economical and sociological impacts. Here we report on the identification of a new heat-response regulon in plants controlled by the multiprotein bridging factor 1c (MBF1c) protein of Arabidopsis thaliana. Members of the highly conserved MBF1 protein family function as non DNA-binding transcriptional co-activators involved in regulating metabolic and development pathways in different organisms from yeast to humans. Nonetheless, our studies suggest that MBF1c from Arabidopsis functions as a transcriptional regulator which binds DNA and controls the expression of 36 different transcripts during heat stress, including the important transcriptional regulator DRE-binding protein 2A (DREB2A), two heat shock transcription factors (HSFs), and several zinc finger proteins. We further identify CTAGA as a putative response element for MBF1c, demonstrate that the DNA-binding domain ...
Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene was directly quantified under normoxia, hypoxia (0.1-1.0% O2), or full anoxia. The production of both gases was increased with reduced expression of either of the Hb genes GLB1 or GLB2, whereas NO emission decreased in plants overexpressing these genes. NO emission in plants with reduced Hb gene expression represented a major loss of nitrogen equivalent to 0.2mM nitrate per 24h under hypoxic conditions. Hb gene expression was greatly enhanced in flooded roots, suggesting induction by reduced oxygen diffusion. The function could be to limit loss of nitrogen under NO emission. NO reacts with thiols to form S-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content ...
We use five general approaches to create genetically diverse plants:. (1) Directed Transformation. Directed transformation of plants based on known gene sequence. We have hundreds of transgenic potato, tomato, tobacco, and Arabidopsis plant lines on hand and the transformation of rice and Lotus is established and routinely applied.. (2) Creation of Mutant Collections. Generation of large Arabidopsis mutant collections using T-DNA random insertion/activation lines or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. We currently have about 67,000 T-DNA-tagged lines and large stocks of EMS mutagenised Arabidopsis seed. These collections are used for forward screening.. (3) RILs and NILs. Generation of recombinant inbred lines and near isogenic lines. We have recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and near isogenic inbred lines (NILs) from about 350 homogenised naturally-occurring Arabidopsis accessions (ecotypes) and are currently generating four RIL and one NIL population(s). Tomato introgression lines are also ...
general regulatory factor 10 (GRF10); FUNCTIONS IN: protein phosphorylated amino acid binding, ATP binding; INVOLVED IN: brassinosteroid mediated signaling pathway; LOCATED IN: mitochondrion, chloroplast stroma, plasma membrane, cytoplasm; EXPRESSED IN: 24 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 17 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: 14-3-3 protein (InterPro:IPR000308); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: general regulatory factor 11 (TAIR:AT1G34760.1); Has 2707 Blast hits to 2699 proteins in 383 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 1258; Fungi - 330; Plants - 762; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 357 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Arabidopsis AT5G10810.1 protein: implicated in pyrimidine biosynthesis, regulation of transcription from Pol II promoter, and the cell cycle; GenBank U67398
Analyses of functional genetic diversity in natural populations may provide important new insights into gene function and are necessary to understand the evolutionary processes maintaining diversity itself. The importance of including diversity within and between local populations in such studies is often ignored although many of the processes affecting genetic diversity act on this scale. Here we examine the molecular diversity in RPW8 (Recognition of Powdery Mildew), a gene conferring broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildews in Arabidopsis thaliana stock-center accessions. Our eight UK study populations of the weedy A. thaliana were from locations judged to be subject to a minimum of anthropogenic disturbance and potentially long established. The majority of populations comprised considerable variation both in disease phenotype and RPW8 genotype. Although resistant individuals shared a major RPW8 genotype, no single allele was uniquely associated with resistance. It is concluded that RPW8 ...
The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase AtTPS I is involved in regulating sugar metabolism and partitioning in connection with plant morphogenesis and development in an as yet unknown fashion. AtTPS I expressed in yeast supports the synthesis of trehalose as well as an essential regulatory function in glucose consumption. The gene is essential for embryo development in Arabidopsis and its overproduction leads to sugar insensitivity as well as increased drought tolerance. Here we report on AtTPS I protein containing complexes in Arabidopsis and in yeast. AtTPS I co-migrated in FPLC separated extracts with 600-800 kDa protein complexes containing the cell cycle kinase CDKA; I and tubulin. In two hybrid experiments, the N-terminal domain of AtTPS I interacted with CDKA; I and the CDKA; I interacting kinesin KCA 1. In vitro precipitation tests using CDKA; I affinity beads showed that AtTPS 1 co-precipitated with KCA 1 and tubulin. This protein complex was predominantly observed in inflorescence tissue. ...
Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed with constructs composed of the aquaporin AthH2 promoter and the coding sequence of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene. The transgenic plants obtained were treated with different light qualities or phytohormones and the activity of the AthH2 promoter was determined in situ using a specific GUS assay. With blue light (400-550 nm) and white light, significant activation of the promoter was observed. The same was true for the application of gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). In contrast, red light and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) had only minor effects on the promoter activity. The significance of sequence elements with relation to GA or ABA was confirmed by deletion analyses of the AthH2 promoter. Likewise, a promoter segment with importance for hydathoid specific expression was identified.. ...
Under natural conditions, plants have to cope with a multitude of stresses, two of those are light-stress and herbivory. Plants have evolved several mechanisms to avoid the damage done by strong and fluctuating light and one important photoprotection mechanism is the qE-type of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) where the PsbS protein is involved. We have compared. Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and two "photoprotection genotypes", npq4 and oePsbS that, respectively, lack and overexpress PsbS. In dual-choice feeding experiments on field-grown plants with a specialist (Plutella xylostella) and a generalist (Spodoptera littoralis) insect herbivore, both herbivores preferred the plants with higher expression of PsbS. Also both herbivores survived equally well on the different genotypes but for oviposition, female adults of Plutella xylostella preferred plants with lower expression of PsbS. No difference in the amount and composition of the ten most prominent glucosinolates - the most important ...
Zhang, P.-J., Broekgaarden, C., Zheng, S.-J., Snoeren, T. A. L., van Loon, J. J. A., Gols, R. and Dicke, M. (2013), Jasmonate and ethylene signaling mediate whitefly-induced interference with indirect plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytologist, 197: 1291-1299. doi: 10.1111/nph.12106 ...
Functional genomics tools provide researchers with the ability to apply high-throughput techniques to determine the function and interaction of a diverse range of genes. Mutagenised plant populations are one such resource that facilitate gene characterisation. They allow complex physiological responses to be correlated with the expression of single genes in planta, through either reverse genetics where target genes are mutagenised to assay the affect, or through forward genetics where populations of mutant lines are screened to identify those whose phenotype diverges from wild type for a particular trait. One limitation of these types of populations is the prevalence of gene redundancy within plant genomes, which can mask the affect of individual genes. Activation or enhancer populations, which not only provide knock-out but also dominant activation mutations, can facilitate the study of such genes. We have developed a population of almost 50,000 activation tagged A. thaliana lines that have been
The Arabidopsis genome contains approximately 200 genes that encode proteins with similarity to the nucleotide binding site and other domains characteristic of plant resistance proteins. Through a reiterative process of sequence analysis and reannotation, we identified 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes in the Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia) genomic sequence. Fifty-six of these genes were corrected from earlier annotations. At least 12 are predicted to be pseudogenes. As described previously, two distinct groups of sequences were identified: those that encoded an N-terminal domain with Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor homology (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL), and those that encoded an N-terminal coiled-coil motif (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL). The encoded proteins are distinct from the 58 predicted adapter proteins in the previously described TIR-X, TIR-NBS, and CC-NBS groups. Classification based on protein domains, intron positions, sequence conservation, and genome distribution defined four subgroups of CNL proteins, eight ...
The disproportionately large number of mutations recovered in the HOTHEAD complementation group suggest that this locus may represent an unusually large gene (or at least a very large target for the mutagen EMS). One corroborating piece of evidence comes from our analysis of recombination frequencies between different hth alleles. Based on estimates derived from these recombination data the HTH locus may span as much as 1.6 cM. This is dramatically larger than similar recombination estimates for other Arabidopsis genes (0.07 cM for GA1; Koornneefet al. 1983; 0.01 cM for CSR1; Mouradet al. 1994). A number of possibilities may explain this discrepancy. First, it is possible that the apparent recombinants actually represent reversion of one of the two mutations (presumably hth-8, since hth-10 was present in both crosses). While we have not attempted to measure this directly, we consider this an unlikely explanation since it would indicate a spontaneous reversion rate of 1.6 × 10−2. Second, it is ...
In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synthesis and excretion of iron-mobilizing phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere, a process that is involved in both iron acquisition and ISR signaling. Here, we show that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ISR-inducing Pseudomonas bacteria are important elicitors of MYB72. In response to VOC treatment, MYB72 is co-expressed with the iron uptake-related genes FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE2 (FRO2) and IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) in a manner that is dependent on FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT), indicating that MYB72 is an intrinsic part of the plants iron-acquisition response that is typically activated upon iron starvation. However, VOC-induced MYB72 expression is activated ...
Omics is a science that comprehensively embraces the four disciplines of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics (Fig. 2), and has developed rapidly in the past decade triggered by improvements in genome decoding techniques and processing speed. These improvements have led to some remarkable milestones in genomic research, including sequencing of the complete genomes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and soy-bean.. Similarly, the DNA microarray technique used in transcriptome analysis, the analysis of RNA transcribed from DNA, has also improved dramatically over the past decade. In this technique, hundreds of thousands of single-stranded DNA fragments are fixed in holes or spots on a glass substrate, and fluorescently labeled RNA are dropped onto the substrate surface. RNA complementary to a DNA fragment will become bound to the DNA, which causes the combined compound to emit fluorescent light. From the fluorescence intensity of each spot, researchers can ...
The twisted dwarf1 (twd1) mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified in a screen for plant architecture mutants. The TWD1 gene encodes a 42 kDa FK506-binding protein (AtFKBP42) that possesses similarity to multidomain PPIases such as mammalian FKBP51 and FKBP52, which are known to be components …
TY - JOUR. T1 - AMAP. T2 - A pipeline for whole-genome mutation detection in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Ishii, Kotaro. AU - Kazama, Yusuke. AU - Hirano, Tomonari. AU - Hamada, Michiaki. AU - Ono, Yukiteru. AU - Yamada, Mieko. AU - Abe, Tomoko. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Detection of mutations at the whole-genome level is now possible by the use of high-throughput sequencing. However, determining mutations is a time-consum-ing process due to the number of false positives provided by mutation-detecting programs. AMAP (automated mutation analysis pipeline) was developed to overcome this issue. AMAP integrates a set of well-validated programs for mapping (BWA), removal of potential PCR duplicates (Picard), realignment (GATK) and detection of mutations (SAMtools, GATK, Pindel, BreakDancer and CNVnator). Thus, all types of mutations such as base substitution, deletion, insertion, translocation and chromosomal rearrangement can be detected by AMAP. In addition, AMAP automatically distinguishes false ...
Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [ 1, 2 ]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [ 3 ]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [ 3-5 ] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [ 6 ]). In addition, PIF4 transcript accumulation is tightly controlled by the evening complex member EARLY FLOWERING 3 [ 7, 8 ]. According to the current understanding, PIF4 activates growth-promoting genes directly but also via inducing auxin biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in cell elongation. Based on a mutagenesis screen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with defects in temperature-induced hypocotyl ...
Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki (2005) Molecular dissection of Arabidopsis RAR1 and SGT1 functions in plant immunity. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Budhiraja, Ruchika (2005) Post-translational modification of proteins by SUMO in Arabidopsis thaliana. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Consonni, Chiara (2005) The function of MLO, a negative regulator of defence, is conserved in monocot and dicot plants. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Dittgen, Jan (2005) Genetische Analyse der Nichtwirtsresistenz gegenüber biotrophen Mehltaupilzen in Arabidopsis thaliana. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Ihnatowicz, Anna (2005) Functional Analysis of the D- and E- subunits of photosystem I in Arabidopsis thaliana. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Lauri, Andrea (2005) Molecular analysis of petal development by X-ChIP and two-hybrid technology. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Mauch, Stefan (2005) Molekulare Mechanismen der MLA-vermittelten Resistenz. PhD thesis, Universität zu Köln.. Mukhtar, Muhammad ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Infrared laser-mediated local gene induction in medaka, zebrafish and Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Deguchi, Tomonori. AU - Itoh, Mariko. AU - Urawa, Hiroko. AU - Matsumoto, Tomohiro. AU - Nakayama, Sohei. AU - Kawasaki, Takashi. AU - Kitano, Takeshi. AU - Oda, Shoji. AU - Mitani, Hiroshi. AU - Takahashi, Taku. AU - Todo, Takeshi. AU - Sato, Junichi. AU - Okada, Kiyotaka. AU - Hatta, Kohei. AU - Yuba, Shunsuke. AU - Kamei, Yasuhiro. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Heat shock promoters are powerful tools for the precise control of exogenous gene induction in living organisms. In addition to the temporal control of gene expression, the analysis of gene function can also require spatial restriction. Recently, we reported a new method for in vivo, single-cell gene induction using an infrared laser-evoked gene operator (IR-LEGO) system in living nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). It was demonstrated that infrared (IR) irradiation could induce gene expression in single cells without ...
Cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa genomes.: This paper provides a molecular framework for the discussion of cyclic
The ASRP website organizes information about Arabidopsis thaliana small RNAs. This site is funded by NSF grant MCB-1231726. All small RNAs have either been isolated by the ASRP or published by other labs ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 53623,_gap_,53244 in Arabidopsis thaliana 10. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 53623,_gap_,53244.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for AT1G10870.1 from Arabidopsis thaliana 10. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project. ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, In silico prediction and characterization of three-dimensional structure of Actin-1 of Arabidopsis thaliana - BioTechnologia
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1qo4: Arabidopsis Thaliana Peroxidase A2 At Room Temperature
Principal Investigator:NAITO Satoshi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:植物生理
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
FtsH (filamentation-temperature-sensitive protein H) proteases are a family of membrane-bound enzymes present in eubacteria, animals, and plants. Besides the 12 genes encoding proteolytically active members of the FtsH family in the genome of Arabidopsis, there are five genes coding for members that are assumed to be proteolytically inactive due to mutations in the protease domain; these are termed FtsHi (i for inactive). Despite their lack of proteolytic activity, these FtsHi members seem to be important for chloroplast and plant development as four out of five homozygous knockout-mutants of FtsHis are embryo-lethal. Here, we analysed the Darwinian fitness of weak homozygous (ftshi1,3,4) and heterozygous (ftshi/FTSHi2,4,5) mutants. We compared the growth and development of these mutants to their respective wild-type Arabidopsis plants under controlled laboratory conditions and in the field, and we also evaluated the photosynthetic efficiency by pulse-amplitude modulation fluorescence. ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from AT1G63290 Aldolase-type TIM barrel family protein available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:840-848...Yongqing Li, Britney O. Pennington, and Jian Hua...© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society...The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains more than 200 rapidly evolved resistance (R)-like genes coding for nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) and their related proteins. A dozen of them are shown to play key roles in plant responses to biotic attacks, and they need to be repressed in...
Welcome to the online resource for supplemental information for the Mockler labs genome-wide mapping of alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative splicing can enhance transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity. In plants, alternative splicing can be manifested at different developmental stages, and is frequently associated with specific tissue types or environmental conditions such as abiotic stress. We mapped the Arabidopsis transcriptome at single-base resolution using the Illumina platform for ultrahigh-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Deep transcriptome sequencing confirmed a majority of annotated introns and identified thousands of novel alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms. Our analysis suggests that at least ∼42% of intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis are alternatively spliced; this is significantly higher than previous estimates based on cDNA/expressed sequence tag sequencing. Random validation confirmed that novel splice isoforms empirically predicted by ...
The proportion of non-tandem duplicated loci detected by DNA hybridization and the segregation of RFLPs using 90 independent randomly isolated cDNA probes was estimated by segregation analysis to be 17%. The 14 cDNA probes showing duplicate loci in progeny derived from a cross between Arabidopsis-thaliana ecotypes Columbia x Landsberg erecta detected an average of 3.6 loci per probe (ranging from 2 to 6). The 50 loci detected with these 14 probes were arranged on a genetic map of 587 cM and assigned to the five A. Thaliana chromosomes. An additional duplicated locus was detected in progeny from a cross between Landsberg erecta x Niederzenz. The majority of duplicated loci were on different chromosomes, and when linkage between duplicate locus pairs was detected, these loci were always separated by at least 15 cM. When partial nucleotide sequence data were compared with GENBANK databases, the identities of 2 cDNA clones which recognized duplicate unlinked sequences in the A. Thaliana genome were
Unlike animals, plants develop continuously in response to their environment. This developmental plasticity comes about because plant organs are constantly produced from a pool of undifferentiated stem cells at the tip of the shoot. Plants need to accomplish at least three things to convert undifferentiated cells in this pool into lateral organs such as leaves and petals. Firstly the pool of stem cells needs to be able to maintain itself, so that the rate of generation of new stem cells is equal to the rate of differentiation of the old cells. Secondly the position of the newly formed organ needs to be defined and its boundaries established. Finally the newly developing organ needs to adopt a specific tissue and cell identity - the cells need to know whether they are to become hairs or stomata, petals or ovules. We are interested in how a limited set of genes is able to direct these processes.. Although we mainly use the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we use a range of other species to make ...
Author Summary The production and turnover of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are conserved processes in eukaryotes, from single-cell organisms to plants and mammals. To some degree, this is also true for modulators of these processes, such as the Paf1 and SKI complexes. One particular protein, SKI8, has been described to have a role in the SKI complex, which influences mRNA stability, both in yeast and in mammals. Moreover, in yeast SKI8 has an additional role in meiotic recombination, whereas in humans it influences mRNA production through association with the Paf1 complex. This functional divergence is commonly thought to arise from differences in protein sequence between the yeast and mammalian SKI8 homologs. Here we show that the conserved SKI8 homolog of the model plant Arabidopsis acts in the SKI complex as well as the Paf1 complex, similar to human. However, using an Arabidopsis ski8 mutant as a tool, we show that yeast SKI8 can fulfill all roles of Arabidopsis SKI8 if introduced into Arabidopsis cells.
Frugoli, J. A. et al "Catalase Is Encoded by a Multigene Family in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh." Plant Physiology 112.1 (1996): 327-336. Web. 19 Feb. 2018. ...
MAP kinase 4; The ANPs-MKK6-MPK4 module is involved in the regulation of plant cytokinesis during meiosis and mitosis. Essential to promote the progression of cytokinesis and for cellularization (formation of the cell plate) during male-specific meiotic. Involved in cortical microtubules organization and stabilization by regulating the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP65-1. Involved in root hair development process. Negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and salicylic acid- (SA) mediated defense response. Required for jasmonic acid- [...] (376 aa ...
The original set of 420 RILs were derived from a cross between Bay-0 (accession N954) and Shahdara (accession N929); two accessions obtained from the NASC European Arabidopsis Stock Centre. Bay-0 and Shahdara were chosen because of their well characterized genetic, geographical, and ecological differences. Lines were propagated by single seed descent through the sixth generation (F6) without selection. One plant per line was then used for genotyping (420 RILs x 38 markers) and selfed to obtain F7 seeds. F8 seed stock generated by bulk multiplication of F7 plants are available for analysis for 411 of these RILs. Data sets in WebQTL include up to 415 BXS accessions and the two parental stock.. How to obtain these lines: The entire extant set of 411 lines was donated to the NASC and ABRC in 2002 and is available (Stock number N57920 and CS57920) for £450 / US $720 (academic fee). A core set of 18 lines are also available from the NASC and and ABRC (stock numbers N57922 and CS57922) for £25 / US ...
The Pecinka lab is hosted by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne, Germany. Our goal is to understand molecular and evolutionary mechanisms shaping plant genomes and epigenomes. We analyze how DNA sequence variation is generated by various mutagenic factors and how these forces are counteracted by the genome repair and maintenance mechanisms. To this end we use the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and several other Brassicaceae and analyze them by forward and reverse genetics, molecular, biochemical, cytogenetic and bioinformatic methods. read more... ...
2013) selfish: evolutionary download Frankenstein of dictionaries in the History of prophets, ASNs and scattering features. 02019;, a reconstruction stability of lens( Solanum method). 2012) The classification source baptism: craven language of tiering species. 2010) " and same government of conditions. 2007) discourse-based email of service course today by a large-scale information. 2012) The Arabidopsis Information Resource( TAIR): been similarity Tri-nucleotide and multiple functions. 2012) outdated method method with Bowtie 2. 2011) A barren download for SNP PhD, phenotyping criticism, language engineering and download future attempt system from Revisiting exploits. 2009) whole and inappropriate probable methyl country with Burrows-Wheeler model. 2011) Cutadapt is purpose windows from high-throughput sequencing examines. 2010) The Genome Analysis Toolkit: A gene dynamic for ignoring environment effect revealing systems. 1997) A 8th extent contrast for speech relations. 2007) KAAS: an ...
The goal of the Pecinka lab is to understand molecular mechanisms shaping plant genomes. To this end we use the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and several other Brassicaceae and analyze them by using forward and reverse genetics, molecular, biochemical, cytogenetic and bioinformatic methods. Pecinka lab is hosted by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne, Germany. Our wiki site was developed under OpenWetWare, an open access effort to promote sharing of information among biologists. read more... ...
Tbingen-based developmental geneticists research organ development in the plant embryo. In the beginning is the fertilized egg cell. Following numerous cell divisions, it then develops into a complex organism with different organs and tissues. The largely unexplained process whereby the cells simply "know" the organs into which they should later develop is an astonishing phenomenon. Scientists from the Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP) of the University of Tbingen and the University of Wageningen, in cooperation with colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, have investigated how this process is controlled. Based on their studies of the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, they have succeeded in demonstrating how the plant forms its first roots: the root founder cell in the tiny group of cells contained in the seed is activated by a combination of a plant hormone and a transcription factor. These insights could contribute to the breeding of plants with a ...
STYLISH 1; Transcription activator that binds DNA on 5-ACTCTAC-3 and promotes auxin homeostasis-regulating gene expression (e.g. YUC genes), as well as genes affecting stamen development, cell expansion and timing of flowering. Synergistically with other SHI- related proteins, regulates gynoecium, stamen and leaf development in a dose-dependent manner, controlling apical-basal patterning. Promotes style and stigma formation, and influences vascular development during gynoecium development. May also have a role in the formation and/or maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) (370 aa ...
AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, dr ...
Abiotic environmental stress, such as salinity and drought, is a major limitation in agricultural productivity. Plants have evolved organelle-to-nucleus signaling pathways that modify nuclear gene transcription in order to sustain or restore function in stressed organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, such signaling triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction is termed mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR) and enables plant cells to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity. Using transcriptomics and transgenic plants, Vanderauwera et al. showed that the transcription factor WRKY15 reduced salt tolerance in A. thaliana by inducing the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to salt stress. Transgenic plants that overexpressed WRKY15 (WRKY15OE) showed an increase in dose-dependent sensitivity to increasing NaCl concentrations compared with wild-type plants, exhibiting stunted growth, cellular degeneration, and decreased chlorophyll production. Transcriptomics in ...
Cell production sustains growth; additionally, we suggest that cell production can regulate organ growth rate. The regulation of organ growth rate has traditionally been viewed from two distinct perspectives. The first is a purely spatial perspective, in which the position of the zone of rapid elongation and its size are considered to be specified by positional controls acting on the process of expansion. This view has been applied explicitly to morphogenesis (Cooke and Lu, 1992; Kaplan, 1992) and is commonly implicit in physiological studies that characterize spatial profiles of expansion (Sharp et al., 1988). The second perspective is cellular. Recognizing that the extent of the zone of rapid elongation is determined by the trajectory of the cells that move through it, the cellular view holds that the trajectory of the cells is specified when the cell is formed, just prior to its leaving the meristem. A model based on cells acting independently and even stochastically has been used to predict ...
Unknown protein; FUNCTIONS IN: molecular_function unknown; INVOLVED IN: biological_process unknown; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: unknown protein (TAIR:AT4G21500.1); Has 30201 Blast hits to 17322 protei /.../780 species: Archae - 12; Bacteria - 1396; Metazoa - 17338; Fungi - 3422; Plants - 5037; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 2996 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Arabidopsis thaliana[edit]. In 2005 a two hybrid system in plants was developed. Using protoplasts of A. thaliana protein- ... "Two-hybrid protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis protoplasts: establishment of a heterodimerization map of group ...
... , the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... "The Arabidopsis Information Resource. Retrieved 29 March 2016.. *^ Flora of NW Europe: Arabidopsis thaliana Archived 8 December ... 1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis *^ Rensink WA, Buell CR (June 2004). "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Arabidopsis thaliana trichome classification[edit]. Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes are classified as being aerial, epidermal, ... In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the GLABROUS1 protein. Knockouts of the ... Scanning electron micrograph of a trichome on a leaf Arabidopsis thaliana. The structure is a single cell. ... Many of what scientists know about trichome development comes from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, because their ...
Arabidopsis thaliana[edit]. Arabidopsis thaliana is a predominantly self-pollinating plant with an out-crossing rate in the ... Population genetic structure and outcrossing rate of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Abbott RJ, Gomes MF. Heredity 1989 62:411 ... "The evolution of selfing in Arabidopsis thaliana". Science. 317 (5841): 1070-2. doi:10.1126/science.1143153. PMID 17656687.. ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ...
"Arabidopsis.info. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-19.. ...
... and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana.[51][52] (A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular ... "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance our understanding of a crop species". Plant Physiology. 135 (2 ...
"The Arabidopsis Book. 9: e0141. doi:10.1199/tab.0141. PMC 3266711. PMID 22303266.. ...
"The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0163. doi:10.1199/tab.0163. PMC 3711357. PMID 23864837.. ...
As an example of a database directed towards just one organism, but that contains lots of data about it, is the Arabidopsis ...
"The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant Biologists. 11: e0162. doi:10.1199/tab.0162. ISSN 1543-8120. PMC 3711358. PMID ... However, with the virulent bacteria applied to Arabidopsis plant leaves in the experiment, the bacteria released the chemical ... Research into the HIC gene using Arabidopsis thaliana found no increase of stomatal development in the dominant allele, but in ... "Stomagen positively regulates stomatal density in Arabidopsis". Nature. 463 (7278): 241-244. Bibcode:2010Natur.463..241S. doi ...
... controlling the development of the flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Arabidopsis thaliana flowers develop in four whorls ... "Clever Arabidopsis gene names". Clever gene names. Mikael Niku and Mikko Taipale. 2005-12-03. Archived from the original on ... Superman is a plant gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, that plays a role in controlling the boundary between stamen and carpel ... Box 3: The control of floral determinacy in Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis from Zsuzsanna Schwarz-Sommer, Brendan Davies & Andrew ...
Weigel, D. and Glazebrook, J. (2002) Arabidopsis. A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor ... Plant development has focused on the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism.[46] ... "An Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory map reveals distinct functional and evolutionary features of novel transcription ...
Crossing different species of Arabidopsis results in both higher activity of transposable elements[100] and disruption in ... A striking example is how the genome of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana contains the same number of genes as that of ... "Sizing up Arabidopsis genome evolution". Heredity. 107 (6): 509-10. doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.47. PMC 3242632. PMID 21712843 ...
Nowicki M, Müller F, Frentzen M (April 2005). "Cardiolipin synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana". FEBS Letters. 579 (10): 2161-5. ...
"A predicted interactome for Arabidopsis". Plant Physiol. 145 (2): 317-29. doi:10.1104/pp.107.103465. PMC 2048726. PMID ... "Inferring the Brassica rapa Interactome Using Protein-Protein Interaction Data from Arabidopsis thaliana". Frontiers in Plant ...
The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (2000). "Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Flowering Plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature ... Thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, the first plant to have its genome sequenced, remains the most important model organism. ... Arabidopsis was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, in 2000.[123] The sequencing of some other relatively small ... Model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana are used for studying the molecular biology of plant cells and the chloroplast. ...
The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). *MaizeGDB. *University of Missouri at St. Louis ...
Arabidopsis thaliana. 阿拉伯芥(擬南芥) 125,000,000 25,500 Drosophila melanogaster. 黑腹果蠅 180,000,000 13,350 ...
Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (14 December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ... The first plant genome sequenced was that of Arabidopsis thaliana which encodes about 25,500 genes.[75] In terms of sheer DNA ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.. ... The first plant receptors of conserved microbial signatures were identified in rice (XA21, 1995)[71] and in Arabidopsis ...
Genes that shape inflorescence development have been studied at great length in Arabidopsis. LEAFY (LFY) is a gene that ... a gene affecting inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana". The Plant Journal. 2 (1): 103-116. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X ... "Inflorescence Commitment and Architecture in Arabidopsis". Science. 275 (5296): 80-83. doi:10.1126/science.275.5296.80. ISSN ... "LEAFY, a Homeotic Gene That Regulates Inflorescence Development in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 3 (8): 771-781. doi:10.1105/ ...
Overall, Arabidopsis DNA is highly methylated, mass spectrometry analysis estimated 14% of cytosines to be modified.[5] ... The principal Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase enzymes, which transfer and covalently attach methyl groups onto DNA, are DRM2 ... Significant progress has been made in understanding DNA methylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA methylation in ... of cytosines are methylated in Arabidopsis thaliana, 8% in Physarum,[1] 4% in Mus musculus, 2.3% in Escherichia coli, 0.03% in ...
GID1 was first identified in rice[47] and in Arabidopsis there are three orthologs of GID1, AtGID1a, b, and c.[1] GID1s have a ... Arabidopsis, a plant, and Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus, possess different GA pathways and enzymes.[9] P450s in fungi perform ... One or two genes encode the enzymes responsible for the first steps of GA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis and rice.[9] The null ... DELLA proteins, such as SLR1 in rice or GAI and RGA in Arabidopsis are repressors of plant development. DELLAs inhibit seed ...
Simpson, Gordon G.; Dean, Caroline (2002-04-12). "Arabidopsis, the Rosetta Stone of Flowering Time?". Science. 296 (5566): 285- ... The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been called the "Rosetta Stone of flowering time".[90] A Gamma ray burst (GRB) ...
In "APL regulates vascular tissue identity in Arabidopsis", Martin Bonke and his colleagues had stated that one of the two long ... Bonke M, Thitamadee S, Mähönen AP, Hauser MT, Helariutta Y (2003). "APL regulates vascular tissue identity in Arabidopsis". ...
Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis Message Subject (Your Name) ...
... Photo: Arabidopsis thaliana. Multinational Genome Research Project. (1) close-up of leaf (2) cross- ... section image of leaf (3) community of Arabidopsis plants. Source: Nature 408, 14 December 2000, Poster partially sponsored by ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... "The Arabidopsis Information Resource. Retrieved 29 March 2016.. *^ Flora of NW Europe: Arabidopsis thaliana Archived 8 December ... 1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis *^ Rensink WA, Buell CR (June 2004). "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Emulating the much-praised first edition of Arabidopsis Protocols, leading scientists have generated an up-to-date work that ... DNA Embryo Genotyp Mutant Mutation PCR Seed arabidopsis thaliana biotechnology gene expression genes genetic engineering ... High-Throughput TILLING for Arabidopsis Bradley J. Till, Trenton Colbert, Christine Codomo, Linda Enns, Jessica Johnson, Steven ... Emulating the much-praised first edition of Arabidopsis Protocols, leading scientists have generated an up-to-date work that ...
n Arabidopsis Protocols internationally recognized experts offer a comprehensive collection of significant new methods for gene ... Arabidopsis Protocols will immediately become the standard reference for laboratories working with Arabidopsis, the plant of ... n Arabidopsis Protocols internationally recognized experts offer a comprehensive collection of significant new methods for gene ... These time-tested methods range from techniques for the successful growing of Arabidopsis to strategies for gene cloning. The ...
Expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana (Protein) [Bio-Analytic Resource] Expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana ( ... Subcellular localisation in Arabidopsis thaliana [Bio-Analytic Resource] Subcellular localisation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bio- ... annexin 6 [Arabidopsis thaliana] annexin 6 [Arabidopsis thaliana]. gi,15238094,ref,NP_196584.1, ... Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and ...
... © 2003 Michael Charters. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2009 Barry Breckling. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2008 Keir ... Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2003 Michael Charters. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2009 Barry Breckling. More photos of Arabidopsis ... Previous taxon: Arabidopsis. Next taxon: Arabis. Name Search Contact/Feedback Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz ... Arabidopsis thaliana. MOUSE-EAR CRESS, THALE CRESS. Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). View Description. Dichotomous Key. ...
... Martin Lechowicz, Biology - McGill University EH39 at MCGILLA.BITNET Fri Jun 4 05:05:42 EST 1993 *Previous ... The focus of our efforts will be on plants grown in Conviron TC30 chambers that are designed primarily for growing Arabidopsis ... To those who grow Arabidopsis... I am unaware of any reasonably comprehensive trial designed to optimize growing conditions for ... Such trials are routine in horticultural research, but I have the impression that Arabidopsis growing methods have developed ...
I wish to join the Arabidopsis newsgroup. My group studies DNA- and RNA- binding proteins in Arabidopsis. I tried to cntact ... Arabidopsis newsgroup. BARZVI at BGUNVE.BGU.AC.IL BARZVI at BGUNVE.BGU.AC.IL Tue Jul 16 08:16:41 EST 1991 *Previous message: ...
... Rafael Maldonado rafael at howard.genetics.utah.edu Thu Oct 26 15:54:20 EST 1995 *Previous message ... Rafa __________________ Dear netters, I would like to know how to transform Arabidopsis. Any kind of protocol will be welcome. ...
unnamed protein product [Arabidopsis thaliana] unnamed protein product [Arabidopsis thaliana]. gi,8809640,dbj,BAA97191.1, ... Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.. Tabata S, Kaneko T, Nakamura Y, Kotani H, Kato T, ... Targeted interactomics reveals a complex core cell cycle machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana. [Mol Syst Biol. 2010] Targeted ... Mitochondrial GCD1 dysfunction reveals reciprocal cell-to-cell signaling during the maturation of Arabidopsis female gametes. [ ...
... Aliza Finkler alizaf at post.tau.ac.il Sun Aug 13 06:32:31 EST 2006 *Previous message: [ ... Hi, I will be very grateful for any advice on nuclei isolation from Arabidopsis: if you have a good working protocol for high ...
... Min Ni via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by nixxx008 from tc.umn.edu). Sat May 23 17:30:14 EST 2009 * ... 20 opening response and Arabidopsis seed development. We have identified =20= a few T-DNA-tagged mutants and characterized a ...
... Arul Varma arulvar at gmail.com Tue Mar 28 16:55:00 EST 2006 *Previous message: [Arabidopsis] seed ... We have lost our little , filter screen that we used to use to separate Arabidopsis seed from , chaff, and Im not sure where ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] BASTA concentration of JatY clones * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ] ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] BASTA concentration of JatY clones * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ] ...
... Ellen Wisman wismanp at pilot.msu.edu Wed Aug 16 14:53:13 EST 2000 *Previous message: ... AFGC Microarray deadline The cycle 3 deadline for proposals for microarray experiments to be carried out by the Arabidopsis ...
... casper vroemen Casper.Vroemen at MAC.MB.WAU.NL Mon Dec 9 03:38:59 EST 1996 *Previous message ... I was wondering if ARABIDOPSIS really meant: ARt And BIology DO Produce Some Insane Scientists Judging the number of messages ... not related to Arabidopsis research, it is hard to consider this newsgroup a scientific newsgroup of use to real researches. It ...
... Kulbir Singh via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by kulbir18 from gmail.com). Thu May 22 17:34:40 EST ... I had given -80 degree treatment to the arabidopsis seeds to kill the thrips. After sterilization and plating there is no ...
Previous message: [Arabidopsis] Thrip infestion *Next message: [Arabidopsis] Graduate Research Assistantships at South Dakota ... Previous message: [Arabidopsis] Thrip infestion *Next message: [Arabidopsis] Graduate Research Assistantships at South Dakota ... Arabidopsis] GusPlus vectors. sdas from botany.du.ac.in via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by sdas from botany.du.ac.in). Sat Apr 23 ...
... Haiyang Wang hw75 at cornell.edu Thu Aug 11 11:14:11 EST 2005 *Previous message: [Arabidopsis] ... Previous message: [Arabidopsis] BY-2 cells *Next message: [Arabidopsis] Research Associate in Soybean Genome Mapping and ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] Research Associate in Soybean Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding- University of Missouri ...
... CRUTE at UK.AC.AFRC.EMRS CRUTE at UK.AC.AFRC.EMRS Mon Jun 22 07:33:00 EST 1992 *Previous message: ... Resistance of Arabidopsis to Albugo is also being investigated in a similar manner, however the system is less advanced. ... November 1990: Numerous Arabidopsis accessions were found which were resistant to Peronospora as defined by the lack of asexual ... Nevertheless, thirteen Arabidopsis accessions have been found on which sporulation by Albugo does not occur or is delayed ...
... C. Robertson McClung C.Robertson.McClung at Dartmouth.EDU Sat Dec 2 14:16:12 EST 2000 *Previous ...
... Ian Furner via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by ijf from mole.bio.cam.ac.uk). Sun Nov 6 03:32:24 EST 2011 ... I was wondering if anyone in the Arabidopsis community has seeds of this line. It is an ethionine resistant point mutant. If so ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] Seeking vectors for bicistronic construct (such as TMV IRES derived) ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] Seeking vectors for bicistronic construct (such as TMV IRES derived) ...
... Elena Baena-Gonzalez via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by elebae from gmail.com). Fri Feb 11 13:20:19 ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] Post-doc position at University of Minnesota * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] ... Next message: [Arabidopsis] Post-doc position at University of Minnesota * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] ... Previous message: [Arabidopsis] Postdoctoral Scholar - Plant Circadian Clock - University of California, Berkeley ...
Previous message: [Arabidopsis] About generation of specific antisera against plant protein *Next message: [Arabidopsis] 8 ... Previous message: [Arabidopsis] About generation of specific antisera against plant protein *Next message: [Arabidopsis] 8 ... Arabidopsis] Gramene Newsletter. Claire Hebbard via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by cer17 from cornell.edu). Fri Jun 1 11:00:49 EST ...
Endosperm-based hybridization barriers explain the pattern of gene flow between Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa in ... Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abdul M. Chaudhury, Luo Ming, Celia Miller, Stuart Craig, ... Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abdul M. Chaudhury, Luo Ming, Celia Miller, Stuart Craig, ... 1994) in Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development, ed Bowman J(Springer, New York), pp 372-377. ...
  • Apomixis has been described in a close relative of Arabidopsis , Arabis holboellii ( 3 ), and some genetic data support a one or two gene control of apomixis ( 3 ), so we reasoned that a mutational approach in Arabidopsis might detect mutants displaying some components of apomixis. (pnas.org)
  • Mutants of Arabidopsis that contain reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed growth characteristics at 22 degrees C that were very similar to wild type. (pnas.org)
  • Arabidopsis intron mutants provide and will continue to provide a valuable source of information on in vivo plant intron splicing. (nih.gov)
  • The splicing patterns observed in the Arabidopsis mutants parallel those seen in mutations causing some human genetic disorders underlining the emerging similarities in mechanisms of splice site selection and intron/exon definition between plant and vertebrate systems. (nih.gov)
  • To isolate genes that might control components of apomixis, we have isolated mutants of Arabidopsis in which some stages of seed development are initiated without pollination ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis from Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Newly generated research stocks, mutants or lines of Arabidopsis thaliana are donated as samples to NASC where they are maintained and thus are made available to scientists worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was shown through the loss of binding rhythms in Arabidopsis mutants with constitutive TOC1 expression that oscillations in TOC1 binding are regulated by the protein's abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutants of Arabidopsis Plant functional genomics A fortunate choice: the history of Arabidopsis as a model plant Toward a Systems Approach to Understanding Plant Cell Walls Biofuels Implementing industrial-academic partnerships to advance bioenergy research: the Energy Biosciences Institute Redei, G P (1975-12-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of fasciated mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and the role of cytokinin in this phenotype (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first collection of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were made around 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional conservation of plant secondary metabolic enzymes revealed by complementation of Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants with maize genes" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC), http://arabidopsis.info . (hindawi.com)
  • In Europe, the model organism resource centre for Arabidopsis thaliana germplasm, bioinformatics and molecular biology resources (including GeneChips) is the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre - NASC whilst in North America germplasm services are provided by the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center, (ABRC) based at the Ohio State University. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC) provides seed and information resources to the International Arabidopsis Genome Project and the wider research community. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Several ABA-mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been identified and are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre - both those deficient in ABA production and those with altered sensitivity to its action. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOTE: This message does not list any new Arabidopsis EST or BAC end sequences. (bio.net)
  • http://www.arabidopsis.org/servlets/Community?action=login (Forgot if you are registered with TAIR? (bio.net)
  • The Arabidopsis information resource (TAIR): gene structure and function annotation," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 36, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a curated online information source for Arabidopsis thaliana genetic and molecular biology research, and The Arabidopsis Book is an online compilation of invited chapters on Arabidopsis thaliana biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ordering system for ABRC was incorporated into The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) database in June 2001 whilst NASC has always (since 1991) hosted its own ordering system and genome browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABRC database functions and ordering system are incorporated into The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a community resource and online model organism database of genetic and molecular biology data for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly known as mouse-ear cress. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAIR collaborates with the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Consortium (ABRC) to allow researchers to search, browse and order seed and DNA stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • First map-based cloning of an A. thaliana gene Lead development of 'The Arabidopsis Information Resource' (TAIR) database and web resource Somerville, Chris (2000-01-07). (wikipedia.org)
  • Few previous reports show abnormal development in Arabidopsis. (bio.net)
  • Previous experience in plant transformation (such as Arabidopsis) or tissue culture and some experience with molecular biology preferred. (bio.net)
  • The focus of our efforts will be on plants grown in Conviron TC30 chambers that are designed primarily for growing Arabidopsis, but we will compare chamber grown plants to those grown in a typical 'lab bench' setup and in a greenhouse. (bio.net)
  • We analyzed their PTC+/PTC- ratios in wild-type Arabidopsis and upf3 mutant plants and showed that the PTC+/PTC- ratios were higher in atupf3 mutant plants than wild-type plants and that the atupf3 mutant was less able to degrade mRNAs with premature termination codons than wild-type plants. (nih.gov)
  • In 1982, the crew of the Soviet Salyut 7 space station grew some Arabidopsis, thus becoming the first plants to flower and produce seeds in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis plants that are entrained such that their subjective day is in-phase with Trichoplusia ni subjective day have increased resistance to herbivory. (pnas.org)
  • To test whether the plant endogenous clock enhances defense against insect pests, we compared herbivory on Arabidopsis plants entrained either in-phase or out-of-phase with the cabbage looper T. ni . (pnas.org)
  • Fifty percent of Arabidopsis thaliana plants transgenic for a hygromycin resistance gene failed to transmit the resistance phenotype to the progeny. (nih.gov)
  • Arabidopsis] Manager of Growth Facility Position Available at Performance Plants, Inc. (bio.net)
  • Arabidopsis lyrata are diploid plants that have a life span of two or more years, small white flowers and highly distinct basal leaves with a height of 10-40 centimetres (4-16 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Weigel began to work with plants during his postdoctoral research with Elliot M. Meyerowitz at Caltech, where he cloned the floral regulator LEAFY from Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shade avoidance response in adult plants is less commonly studied than it is in seedlings, though adult Arabidopsis show more complex response patterns than seedlings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to early availability of the genome sequence for three P. syringae strains and the ability of selected strains to cause disease on well-characterized host plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, and the tomato, P. syringae has come to represent an important model system for experimental characterization of the molecular dynamics of plant-pathogen interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic representation of kinesin motors: Fungi (yeast): 6 Plants (Arabidopsis thaliana): 61 Insects (Drosophila melanogaster): 25 Mammals (human): 45 Dyneins are microtubule motors capable of a retrograde sliding movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • To obtain any Arabidopsis DNA sequence use the NCBI retrieve e-mail server, retrieve at ncbi.nlm.nih.gov - send the word help and instructions will be returned. (bio.net)
  • Arabidopsis] ICAR 2014- Abstract Submission open! (bio.net)
  • SUBMIT YOUR ABSTRACTS**** Please note that the final day to submit your abstract for the 14th Conference on Arabidopsis Research is WEDNESDAY, APRIL 23RD. (bio.net)
  • The conference schedule is now on line at http://www.union.wisc.edu/conferenceservices/arabidopsis/schedule.html (a condensed version is below) And registration and abstract submission are available at http://www.union.wisc.edu/conferenceservices/arabidopsis/reginfo_arab.html Thanks, and see you in June! (bio.net)
  • About serving on NAASC: Members serve for four full calendar years, beginning around the date of the Annual International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, and rotating off following the Conference held in their fourth year of service. (bio.net)
  • Originally established in 1992 in response to the need for elected North American representatives to the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee, NAASC has evolved into the main organizing and fundraising body for the International Conference on Arabidopsis Research when it is held in North America. (bio.net)
  • March 1990: Investigation began of two obligate fungal biotrophs /Albugo candida/ and /Peronospora parasitica/ which commonly parasitize Arabidopsis in the UK. (bio.net)
  • July 1990: Methods were developed for routine, experimental manipulation of the two fungi on Arabidopsis. (bio.net)
  • November 1990: Numerous Arabidopsis accessions were found which were resistant to Peronospora as defined by the lack of asexual sporulation after inoculation. (bio.net)
  • When NASC started in 1990 it inherited hundreds of stocks from the Arabidopsis Information Service (AIS) - Started by Robbelen in 1965 and continued by Burger (1971), Kranz (1978), and Kranz and Kirchheim (1981, 1987), the AIS donated its complement of stocks listed in the 24th edition of the AIS stock book. (wikipedia.org)
  • I had given -80 degree treatment to the arabidopsis seeds to kill the thrips. (bio.net)
  • I was wondering if anyone in the Arabidopsis community has seeds of this line. (bio.net)
  • Dear all Does anybody has (or knows who has) arabidopsis seeds containing the non-GFP based ER marker to share with me? (bio.net)
  • He was the only person in the United States to work with the plant for about 20 years, having begun working with Arabidopsis in 1957 using seeds he had brought with him from Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus name, Arabidopsis , comes from Greek , meaning "resembling Arabis " (the genus in which Linnaeus had initially placed it). (wikipedia.org)
  • I was wondering if 'ARABIDOPSIS' really meant: ARt And BIology DO Produce Some Insane Scientists Judging the number of messages not related to Arabidopsis research, it is hard to consider this newsgroup a scientific newsgroup of use to real researches. (bio.net)
  • Hi Arabinettors, We're developing/adopting labs for a first-year biology course on ecology and evolution and would like to make use of Arabidopsis. (bio.net)
  • In the last two decades, Arabidopsis thaliana has gained much interest from the scientific community as a model organism for research on numerous aspects of plant biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • His certificate of election reads: Dolan is also en elected a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO)[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • or especially troublesome) for growing Arabidopsis to seed maturity, or at least to flowering. (bio.net)
  • One of these loci is coincident with the FRI locus identified as the major determinant for late flowering and vernalization responsiveness in the Arabidopsis ecotype Stockholm. (nih.gov)
  • We already have one (Axelos M, Curie C, Mazzolini L, Bardet C, Lescure B (1992) A protocol for transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. (bio.net)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. (uniprot.org)
  • Doctoral studies will focus on systems-oriented approaches using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with an emphasis on molecular phenotyping ('omics') technologies, data integration, and modelling. (bio.net)
  • Other names in common use include: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase alpha-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase alpha-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (NAD+ specific) alpha-hydroxyglutarate oxidoreductase alpha-ketoglutarate reductase hydroxyglutaric dehydrogenase D-alpha-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase D-alpha-hydroxyglutarate:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase Deficiency in this enzyme in humans (D2HGDH) or in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (At4g36400) leads to massive accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana-recognized as a model plant for scientific studies-two Thimet oligopeptidases, known as TOP1 and TOP2, have been identified as targets for salicylic acid binding in the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the user support program in the McGill University Phytotron, we are thinking of opening a more formal line of research on optimal growing conditions for Arabidopsis. (bio.net)