Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Diseases of plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The absence of light.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
The imide of phthalic acids.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/18423)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast. (2/18423)

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved and widely distributed eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. One 14-3-3 protein, AFT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, was found to be able to activate transcription in yeast. When fused to the DNA-binding domain of a bacterial protein LexA, AFT1 can activate transcription of reporter genes that contain LexA operator sequences in their promoters. Although the in vivo function of AFT1 is not completely known, its similarity to previously identified proteins found in transcription complexes of Arabidopsis and maize suggests that AFT1 and some other 14-3-3 proteins may activate gene expression in other systems as well.  (+info)

A plant 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase with a novel repeat structure. Cloning and functional expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (3/18423)

Phosphatidylinositol metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in animals and is also believed to be of importance in signal transduction in higher plants. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a previously unidentified 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (AtPI4Kbeta) from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The novel protein possesses the conserved domains present in animal and yeast PI 4-kinases, namely a lipid kinase unique domain and a catalytic domain. An additional domain, approximately 300 amino acids long, containing a high percentage (46%) of charged amino acids is specific to this plant enzyme. Recombinant AtPI4Kbeta expressed in baculovirus-infected insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol exclusively at the D4 position of the inositol ring. Recombinant protein was maximally activated by 0.6% Triton X-100 but was inhibited by adenosine with an IC50 of approximately 200 microM. Wortmannin at a concentration of 10 microM inhibited AtPI4Kbeta activity by approximately 90%. AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels were similar in all tissues analyzed. Light or treatment with hormones or salts did not change AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels to a great extent, indicating constitutive expression of the AtPI4Kbeta gene.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (4/18423)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (5/18423)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VIII. Sequence features of the regions of 1,081,958 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 and TAC clones. (6/18423)

A total of 17 Pl and TAC clones each representing an assigned region of chromosome 5 were isolated from P1 and TAC genomic libraries of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the clones sequenced in this study summed up to 1,081,958 bp. As we have previously reported the sequence of 9,072,622 bp by analysis of 125 P1 and TAC clones, the total length of the sequences of chromosome 5 determined so far is now 10,154,580 bp. The sequences were subjected to similarity search against protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling. As a consequence, a total of 253 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions were identified. The positions of exons which do not show apparent similarity to known genes were also assigned using computer programs for exon prediction. The average density of the genes identified in this study was 1 gene per 4277 bp. Introns were observed in 74% of the potential protein genes, and the average number per gene and the average length of the introns were 4.3 and 168 bp, respectively. The sequence data and gene information are available on the World Wide Web database KAOS (Kazusa Arabidopsis data Opening Site) at  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (7/18423)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (8/18423)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR, is the model organism database for the fully sequenced and intensively studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Data in TAIR is derived in large part from manual curation of the Arabidopsis research literature and direct submission …
The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase genome and extend into centromeric regions. …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Kaul, Samir. AU - Koo, Hean L.. AU - Jenkins, Jennifer. AU - Rizzo, Michael. AU - Rooney, Timothy. AU - Tallon, Luke J.. AU - Feldblyum, Tamara. AU - Nierman, William. AU - Benito, Maria Ines. AU - Lin, Xiaoying. AU - Town, Christopher D.. AU - Venter, J. Craig. AU - Fraser, Claire M.. AU - Tabata, Satoshi. AU - Nakamura, Yasukazu. AU - Kaneko, Takakazu. AU - Sato, Shusei. AU - Asamizu, Erika. AU - Kato, Tomohiko. AU - Kotani, Hirokazu. AU - Sasamoto, Shigemi. AU - Ecker, Joseph R.. AU - Theologis, Athanasios. AU - Federspiel, Nancy A.. AU - Palm, Curtis J.. AU - Osborne, Brian I.. AU - Shinn, Paul. AU - Dewar, Ken. AU - Kim, Christopher J.. AU - Buehler, Eugen. AU - Dunn, Patrick. AU - Chao, Qimin. AU - Chen, Huaming. AU - Theologis, Athanasios. AU - Osborne, Brian I.. AU - Vysotskaia, Valentina S.. AU - Lenz, Catherine A.. AU - Kim, Christopher J.. AU - Hansen, Nancy F.. AU - Liu, Shirley ...
Genetic transformation is often associated with different rearrangements of the plant genome at the site of insertion. Therefore the question remains weather these T-DNA insertion sites are more prone to genotoxic stresses. Here, we studied the impact of propagation through generations, the influence of gene stacking and of photo oxidative stress caused by high light intensity on the stability of the transgene and its flanking regions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Conformational Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE), RFLP and sequencing were deployed in this analysis in order to study the proximal 100 bp and the long range T-DNA flanking sequences. By screening seven transgenic lines no evidence for occurrence of mutation events were found, implying that the flanking regions of the studied T-DNA insertion events are relatively stable ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Zea mays MATH-BTB protein (ZmMAB1) has been shown to have a role in regulation and proper asimetric cell divisions during the male and female gametophyte development. Its role has been demonstrated in proteasomal degradation as part of a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. ZmMAB1 gene expression in Zea mays is precisely regulated, and the protein product is a short-lived protein. Therefore ZmMAB1 gene expression research in a homolougus system is difficult. Cullin is a structural component of many E3 ligases. It has been shown that Cul3a protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. forms complexes with MAB1 from Zea mays, so Arabidopsis thaliana has been chosen for expression regulation research of MAB1 in a heterologous system. For the cause of better understanding the role and regulation of ZmMAB1 protein, GFP florescent protein labeled ZmMAB1 protein has been inserted in the genome of A. thaliana with bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Goal of this thesis was to determine on which level of ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh and Oryza sativa L., a large number of genes encode proteins of unknown functions, whose characterization still remains one of the major challenges. With an aim to characterize these unknown proteins having defined features (PDFs) in plants, we have chosen to work on proteins having a cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain. CBS domain as such has no defined function(s) but plays a regulatory role for many enzymes and thus helps in maintaining the intracellular redox balance. Its function as sensor of cellular energy has also been widely suggested. Our analysis has identified 34 CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs) in Arabidopsis and 59 in Oryza. In most of these proteins, CBS domain coexists with other functional domain(s), which may indicate towards their probable functions. In order to investigate the role(s) of these CDCPs, we have carried out their detailed analysis in whole genomes of Arabidopsis and Oryza, including their classification, nomenclature, sequence
Description of disease Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment Arabidopsis thaliana. Symptoms and causes Arabidopsis thaliana Prophylaxis Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia ( ...
For genetic analysis of mechanisms of leaf morphogenesis, we chose Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. as a model for leaf development in dicotyledonous plants. Leaves of the angustifolia mutant were the same length as but narrower and thicker than wild-type leaves. The total number of cells in leaf blades of angustifolia plants was the same as in the wild type. At the cellular level in the angustifolia mutant it was found that the cells were smaller in the leaf-width direction and larger in the leaf-thickness direction than in wild type, revealing the function of the ANGUSTIFOLIA gene, which is to control leaf morphology by regulating polarity-specific cell elongation. The existence of similar genes that regulate leaf development in the length direction was, therefore, predicted. Three loci and several alleles associated with short-leaved mutants were newly isolated as rotundifolia mutants. The rotundifolia3 mutant had the same number of cells as the wild type, with reduced cell elongation in the ...
Arabidopsis thaliana + , Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. + , Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) + , Arbisopsis thaliana + , mouse-ear cress + , thale cress + , thale-cress + ...
Gene expression profiling studies are usually performed on pooled samples grown under tightly controlled experimental conditions to suppress variability among individuals and increase experimental reproducibility. In addition, to mask unwanted residual effects, the samples are often subjected to relatively harsh treatments that are unrealistic in a natural context. Here, we show that expression variations among individual wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions contain as much information on the underlying gene network structure as expression profiles of pooled plant samples under controlled experimental perturbations. We advocate the use of subtle uncontrolled variations in gene expression between individuals to uncover functional links between genes and unravel regulatory influences. As a case study, we use this approach to identify ILL6 as a new regulatory component of the jasmonate response pathway. ...
The simultaneous analysis of multiple genomic loci is a powerful approach to studying the effects of population history and natural selection on patterns of genetic variation of a species. By surveying nucleotide sequence polymorphism at 334 randomly distributed genomic regions in 12 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined whether a standard neutral model of nucleotide sequence polymorphism is consistent with observed data. The average nucleotide diversity was 0.0071 for total sites and 0.0083 for silent sites. Although levels of diversity are variable among loci, no correlation with local recombination rate was observed, but polymorphism levels were correlated for physically linked loci ...
The other IBA-response mutants utilize stored fatty acids during germination normally (Figure 3, Table 2). Because these mutants are generally as resistant to IBA as the putative peroxisomal mutants (Figure 2), we do not believe that they are simply extremely leaky peroxisomal mutants. These nonperoxisomal mutants can be further subdivided into three classes. The class 2 mutants (ibr1-1, ibr1-2, ibr2, and ibr3) are resistant to the auxin effects of IBA on both root elongation and lateral root proliferation, but have wild-type responses to other auxins (IAA and 2,4-D) and auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA, and HFCA). The class 2 mutants could be defective in enzymes that convert IBA to IAA but are not necessary for the β-oxidation of seed storage lipids. Alternatively, these mutants may be defective in an IBA receptor, signaling pathway, or response factor. If these mutants have normal IBA to IAA conversion, it will suggest that IBA plays at least two roles in the promotion of lateral roots, ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - GLOBAL TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS AND THE CONTROL OF SEED DORMANCY CYCLING IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH. AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE. AU - Finch-Savage, W.E.. AU - Footitt, S.. AU - Cadman, C.S.C.. AU - Dent, K.C.. AU - Toorop, P.E.. AU - Lynn, J.R.. AU - Hilhorst, H.W.M.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Abstract. SP - 42. BT - 9th ISSS Conference on Seed Biology, Olsztyn, Poland, 6 - 11 July, 2008. ER - ...
In the year 2000, the first complete nuclear genome of a plant species - Arabidopsis thaliana - was released into the wild (a.k.a to bunch of salivating scientists). Less than twenty years later, we had a total of 1135 genomes… for Arabidopsis alone! Today were talking about Arabidopsis races, and how they are a powerful tool for unravelling plant secrets.. Arabidopsis likely diverged from its closest relative about 10 million years ago, and the invasive weed has since spread through Northern Eurasia. In the literally millions of years following, the species diversified into hundreds of race-like ecotypes: populations of plants that have settled in, and then adapted to, certain geological areas. While there has been some cross-talk (i.e, cross breeding) between the ecotypes, there has also been a whole lot of time spent alone - leading to evolution of traits that can differ from one ecotype to the next. Arabidopsis ecotypes (also called accessions) can differ from each other in their size, ...
Purpose and Methodology: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of DRG and GFP in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis by examining whether any DRG mutant combination inhibits the formation of heat stress granules (HSGs) following exposure of plants to heat stress. Methods utilized in the experimentation include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis to screen for plants containing the desired combination of genes, a root-growth assay to study the relationship between phenotype and genetic composition, and confocal microscopy to observe the formation of HSGs in root tips. Findings: The genetic composition of DRG genes and GFPs does have an effect on the phenotype of Arabidopsis. Conversely, the presence of a wild type DRG gene fused to GFP (DRGI-GFP or DRG2-GFP) does not complement the non-functional DRG genes ...
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtTome: Arabidopsis Transcriptome Functional Genomics Database. gebd Arabidopsis Genome Browser. iSect Tools, iView Tools and Gene Expression Atlas. Collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA/Ds, Full-length cDNA, Marker, EST, MPSS, SAGE, miRNA, sRNA, Arabidopsis Tiling Array and Gene Expression Data. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
Thale cress flowers from April to May and again from September to October, although it may be found in flower throughout the year. Some populations require vernalisation before flowering is initiated others do not. The flowers are automatically self-pollinated but can be cross-pollinated. Plants have been known to produce seeds just 4 weeks after emergence. Seed pods contain an average of 33 seeds. The average seed number per plant is 2,739.. Light quality during seed development can influence the level of seed dormancy. Plants grown under a higher ratio of red to far red light produce non-dormant seed. In the field, light and nitrate levels are limiting factors for field germination of some strains of thale cress but others are indifferent to light. Germination levels are much lower under a canopy of leaves. Some forms of thale cress are short-day plants others do not respond to daylength. In the UK, thale cress may appear to behave as a winter annual but winter and summer races are thought to ...
Phytohormones auxins play an important role in plant growth development and abiotic stress responses. The active auxin may be released from the amino acid conjugates by the action of auxin-amidohydrolase enzymes, which thereby participate in the auxin homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of auxin-amidohydrolase AtILL2 from Arabidopsis thaliana in the plant response to salinity and osmotic stress. Four homozygous lines of A. thaliana ecotypes Ws of potential overexpressors for AtILL2 fusion protein with GFP and / or His tags were analyzed. The presence of transgene was verified as insertion into DNA, RNA transcript, and recombinant protein by using PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, affinity chromatography and western-hybridization assay. In three lines, the presence of transgene in genomic DNA and RNA transcript was confirmed, although the recombinant protein was not demonstrated in any of the lines. Root growth bioassay confirmed the increased resistance of one line to the ...
We investigated the role of membrane fatty acids in basal proton leaks and uncoupling protein (UCP)-dependent proton conductance in Arabidopsis mitochondria. Using wild-type cells, cold-sensitive fad2 mutant cells, deficient in ω-6-oleate desaturase, and cold-tolerant FAD3+ transformant cells, overexpressing ω-3-linoleate desaturase, we showed that basal proton leak in the non-phosphorylating state was dependent on lipid composition. The extent of membrane proton leak was drastically reduced in the fad2 mutant, containing low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, this proton leak was higher in FAD3+ mitochondria that exhibit a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content and high protein to lipid ratio. The dependency of membrane leaks upon membrane potential was higher in FAD3+ and lower in fad2. UCP content was higher in both the fad2 mutant and FAD3+ transgenic lines compared with wild-type cells and so was the UCP activity, assayed by the reduction of phosphorylation yield ...
A prime example of across organisms and borderless scientific activities in IIGB was achieved by Thomas Eulgem and Karine Le Roch, with a well-executed collaboration bringing together researchers working in very different areas of genome biology. The project was initiated in Thomas Eulgems lab as the PI on the critical roles of the chromatin-associated Arabidopsis thaliana protein EDM2 in coordinating plant immune responses. Karine Le Rochs group contributed expertise and experience on epigenome profiling to the study.. The PLOS Genetics paper, The Arabidopsis PHD-finger protein EDM2 has multiple roles in balancing NLR immune receptor gene expression, can be viewed here.. ...
Author Summary During growth and development, all plants and animals must replicate their DNA. This process is regulated to ensure that all sequences are completely and accurately replicated and is limited to S phase of the cell cycle. In the cell, DNA is packaged with histone proteins into chromatin, and both DNA and histones are subject to epigenetic modifications that affect chromatin state. Euchromatin and heterochromatin are chromatin states marked by epigenetic modifications specifying open and closed conformations, respectively. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the time at which a DNA sequence replicates is influenced by the epigenetic modifications to the surrounding chromatin. DNA replication occurs in two phases, with euchromatin replicating in early and mid S phase and heterochromatin replicating late. DNA replication time has been linked to gene expression in other organisms, and this is also true in Arabidopsis because more genes are active in euchromatin when
It has been more than 50 years since Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was first introduced as a model organism to understand basic processes in plant biology. A well-organized scientific community has used this small reference plant species to make numerous fundamental plant biology discoveries (Provart et al., 2016). Due to an extremely well-annotated genome and advances in high-throughput sequencing, our understanding of this organism and other plant species has become even more intricate and complex. Computational resources, including CyVerse,3 Araport,4 The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR),5 and BAR,6 have further facilitated novel findings with just the click of a mouse. As we move toward understanding biological systems, Arabidopsis researchers will need to use more quantitative and computational approaches to extract novel biological findings from these data. Here, we discuss guidelines, skill sets, and core competencies that should be considered when developing curricula or ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. The specifics of BR mechanisms involving miRNAs are unknown. Using customized miRNA array analysis, we identified miRNAs from A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) regulated by 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR). We found that miR395a was significantly up-regulated by EBR treatment and validated its expression under these conditions. miR395a was over expressed in leaf veins and root tissues in EBR-treated miR395a promoter::GUS plants. We integrated bioinformatics methods and publicly available DNA microarray data to predict potential targets of miR395a. GUN5-a multifunctional protein involved in plant metabolic functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway-was identified as a possible target. ABI4 and ABI5, both genes
We have previously shown that changes in gene expression occur in Arabidopsis thaliana. L. (Heyn) during cold acclimation (SJ Gilmour, RK Hajela, MF Thomashow [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 745-750). Here we report the isolation of cDNA clones of four cold-regulated (cor) genes from Arabidopsis and examine their expression in response to low temperature, abscisic acid (ABA), water stress, and heat shock. The results of Northern analysis indicated that the transcript levels for the four cor genes, represented by clones pHH7.2, pHH28, pHH29, and pHH67, increased markedly between 1 and 4 hours of cold treatment, reached a maximum at about 8 to 12 hours, and remained at elevated levels for as long as the plants were kept in the cold (up to 2 weeks). Returning cold acclimated plants to control temperature resulted in the levels of the cor transcripts falling rapidly to those found in nonacclimated plants; this occurred within 4 hours for the transcripts represented by pHH7.2 and pHH28, and 8 hours for ...
The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral
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Regulation of gene expression is crucial for organism growth, and it is one of the challenges in systems biology to reconstruct the underlying regulatory biological networks from transcriptomic data. The formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana is stimulated by a cascade of regulators of which only the interactions of its initial elements have been identified. Using simulated gene expression data with known network topology, we compare the performance of inference algorithms, based on different approaches, for which ready-to-use software is available. We show that their performance improves with the network size and the inclusion of mutants. We then analyze two sets of genes, whose activity is likely to be relevant to lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, and assess causality of their regulatory interactions by integrating sequence analysis with the intersection of the results of the best performing methods on time series and mutants. The methods applied capture known interactions ...
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The ability of the AtERFs to regulate transcription in plant cells was tested by using transient assays (Figure 5). A luciferase (LUC)-encoding reporter gene, 4×HLS, which contains four copies of the GCC box sequence from the Arabidopsis HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) promoter (Lehman et al., 1996) fused to LUC, and an effector plasmid consisting of each AtERF under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (Figure 5A) were delivered to Arabidopsis leaves by particle bombardment. LUC activity increased at least 12-fold when the reporter plasmid was coexpressed with AtERF1, AtERF2, or AtERF5 effector plasmids (Figure 5B). No such increase in LUC activity by the AtERFs was detected when a LUC reporter plasmid containing a mutated GCC box (ATCCTCC) was used (data not shown). These data indicate that AtERF1, AtERF2, and AtERF5 are able to function as GCC box sequence-specific transactivators in Arabidopsis leaves.. Some genes containing the GCC box in their promoter region are known to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative investigations of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system in Arabidopsis suspension cells and hypocotyls. AU - Alvarez, Sophie. AU - He, Yan. AU - Chen, Sixue. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr. Robert J. Ferl and Ms. Beth Laughner for generating Arabidopsis suspension cells, Dr. Charles Guy and Mr. Dale Haskell for providing access to a lyophilizer, Dr. Ikuko Hara-Nishimura for providing antibodies against the myrosinase TGG1 and TGG2, Dr. Lloyd Sumner and David Huhman for assistance in glucosinolate identification, Dr. Catherine Benedict for critical reading of the manuscript, and Mr. Mark Jackson and other members in the Chen lab for assistance. The work was supported by faculty startup funds from University of Florida and a grant for Outstanding Young Scholar Overseas from the National Science Foundation of China to S Chen (No. 30528013).. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Upon hydrolysis by ...
New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. HTG; HTGS_PHASE1. ATF11C1 AL132976 105644bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F11C1 ATF15G16 AL132959 104868bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F15G16 ATF18N11 AL132953 91275bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F18N11 ATF1P2 AL132955 101154bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F1P2 ATF24B22 AL132957 100285bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24B22 ATF24M12 AL132980 129515bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24M12 ATF2A19 AL132962 95993bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2A19 ATF2K15 AL132956 130956bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2K15 ...
In a previous transactivation screen, two Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factors, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29, along with the already characterized HAG1/MYB28, were identified as putative regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Molecular and biochemical characterization of HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 functions was performed using transformants with increased or repressed transcript levels. Real-time PCR assays, cotransformation assays and measurements of glucosinolate contents were used to assess the impact of both MYB factors on the steady-state level of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates. Both HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 were shown to be positive regulators of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Expression of promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions indicated GUS activities in both vegetative and generative organs, with distinct characteristics for each MYB factor. HAG1/MYB28, HAG2/MYB76 and HAG3/MYB29 reciprocally transactivated ...
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Here, we report our effort in generating an ORFeome collection for the Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) genes. In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. All the ORFeome inserts have also been mobilized into a yeast expression destination vector, with an estimated 85% rate of expressing the respective proteins. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed that 34 of them did not match with either the reported cDNAs or current predicted open-reading-frame sequences. Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. However, those alternative splicing events do not appear to be differentially regulated among distinct Arabidopsis tissues examined. Lastly, expression of those TF genes in 17 distinct Arabidopsis organ types and the cultured cells was profiled using a ...
Sappl P.G., Onate-Sanchez L., Singh K.B., Millar A.H.. Plant glutathione S -transferases (GSTs) are a large group of multifunctional proteins that are induced by diverse stimuli. Using proteomic approaches we identified 20 GSTs at the protein level in Arabidopsis cell culture with a combination of GST antibody detection, LC-MS/MS analysis of 23-30 kDa proteins and glutathione-affinity chromatography. GSTs identified were from phi, tau, theta, zeta and DHAR sub-sections of the GST superfamily of 53 members. We have uncovered preliminary evidence for post-translational modifications of plant GSTs and show that phosphorylation is unlikely to be responsible. Detailed analysis of GST expression in response to treatment with 0.01-1 mM of the plant defence signal salicylic acid (SA) uncovered some interesting features. Firstly, GSTs appear to display class-specific concentration-dependent SA induction profiles highlighting differences between the large, plant specific phi and tau classes. Secondly, ...
ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4) is necessary and sufficient for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Root hair length is determined by the duration for which RSL4 protein is present in the developing root hair. The aim of this research was to identify genes regulated by RSL4 that affect root hair growth. To identify genes regulated by RSL4, we identified genes whose expression was elevated by induction of RSL4 activity in the presence of an inhibitor of translation. Thirty-four genes were identified as putative targets of RSL transcriptional regulation, and the results suggest that the activities of SUPPRESSOR OF ACTIN (SAC1), EXOCSYT SUBUNIT 70A1 (EXO70A1), PEROXIDASE7 (PRX7) and CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE11 (CPK11) are required for root hair elongation. These data indicate that RSL4 controls cell growth by controlling the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cell signalling, cell wall modification and secretion.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inter-cell-layer signalling during Arabidopsis ovule development mediated by the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. AU - Fulton, Lynette. AU - Vaddepalli, Prasad. AU - Yadav, Ram. AU - Batoux, Martine. AU - Schneitz, Kay. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Plant organs, such as ovules and flowers, arise through cellular events that are precisely co-ordinated between cells within and across clonally distinct cell layers. Receptor-like kinases are cell-surface receptors that perceive and relay intercellular information. In Arabidopsis the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) is required for integument initiation and outgrowth during ovule development, floral organ shape and the control of the cell division plane in the first subepidermal cell layer of floral meristems, among other functions. A major goal is to understand SUB-mediated signal transduction at the molecular level. Present evidence suggests that SUB affects neighbouring cells in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. ...
Studies on epidermal cell fate determination have been important for gaining insight into the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to the differentiation and patterning of cells. In Arabidopsis, the organization and development of many epidermal characters including trichomes, root hairs and the seed coat have been found to be controlled by a single combinatorial transcription factor complex consisting of a WD-repeat containing protein, Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1), and various MYB and bHLH proteins. The work here consists of identification of Glabra2 (GL2) and Transparent Testa Glabra2 (TTG2) as direct transcriptional targets of the TTG1 combinatorial complex, further characterization of GL2 function, and identification of transcriptional targets of GL2 and TTG2. Both GL2 and TTG2 are important in the regulation of trichomes, root hairs and seed coat development. vii GL2 has been identified as an important regulator of epidermal cell fate for over fifteen years yet there is little ...
Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered
The Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulator, APRR1, has a unique structural design containing a pseudo-receiver domain and a C-terminal CONSTANS motif. This protein was originally characterized as a presumed component of the His-to-Asp phosphorelay systems in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recently, it was reported that APRR1 is identical to the TOC1 gene product, a mutational lesion of which affects the periods of many circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis plants. TOC1 is believed to be a component of the presumed circadian clock (or central oscillator). Based on these facts, in this study four more genes, each encoding a member of the APRR1/TOC1 family of pseudo-response regulators were identified and characterized with special reference to circadian rhythms. It was found that all these members of the APRR1/TOC1 family (APRR1, APRR3, APRR5, APRR7, and APRR9) are subjected to a circadian rhythm at the level of transcription. Furthermore, in a given 24 h period, the APRR-mRNAs started accumulating sequentially ...
Leung, J., M. Bouvier-Durand, P.C. Morris, D. Guerrier, F. Chefdor, and J. Giraudat. 1994. Arabidopsis ABA-response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Science 264: 1448-1452.. Leung, J., S. Merlot, and J. Giraudat. 1997. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Plant Cell 9: 759-771.. Meyer, K., M.P. Leube, and E. Grill. 1994. A Protein Phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 264: 1452-1455.. Morris, E.C. 1999. Effect of localized placement of nutrients on root competition in self-thinning populations. Ann. Bot. 78: 353-364.. Niklas, K.J. 1994. Plant Allometry. Chicago: Chicago University Press, pp. 101-125.. Pei, Z.M., M. Ghassemian, C.M. Kwak, P.M. Court, and J.I. Schroeder. 1998. Role of farnesyktransferase in ABA regulation of guard cell anion channel and plant water loss. Science 282: 287-290.. Thomas, S.C. ...
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that ...
The availability of the complete genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana together with those of other organisms provides an opportunity to decipher the genetic factors that define plant form and function. To begin this task, we have classified the nuclear protein-coding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana on the basis of their pattern of sequence similarity to organisms across the three domains of life. We identified 3,848 Arabidopsis proteins that are likely to be found solely within the plant lineage. More than half of these plant-specific proteins are of unknown function, emphasizing the general lack of knowledge of processes unique to plants. Plant-specific proteins that are membrane-associated and/or targeted to the mitochondria or chloroplasts are the most poorly characterized. Analyses of microarray data indicate that genes coding for plant-specific proteins, but not evolutionarily conserved proteins, are more likely to be expressed in an organ-specific manner. A large proportion (13%) of plant
TY - JOUR. T1 - High auxin and high phosphate impact on rsl2 expression and ros-homeostasis linked to root hair growth in arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Mangano, Silvina. AU - Denita-Juarez, Silvina P.. AU - Marzol, Eliana. AU - Borassi, Cecilia. AU - Estevez, José M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by a grant from ANPCyT (PICT2014-0504 and PICT2016-0132) and ICGEB (CRP/ARG16-03. PY - 2018/8/14. Y1 - 2018/8/14. N2 - Root hair size determines the surface area/volume ratio of the whole roots exposed to the nutrient and water pools, thereby likely impacting nutrient and water uptake rates. The speed at which they grow is determined both by cell-intrinsic factors like hormones (e.g., auxin) and external environmental signals like nutrient availability in the soil (e.g., phosphate). Overall root hair growth is controlled by the transcription factors RSL4 and RSL2. While high levels of auxin promote root hair growth, high levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the media are able to ...
Title:Biosynthesis and Metabolic Engineering of Anthocyanins in Arabidopsis thaliana. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Ming-Zhu Shi and De-Yu Xie. Affiliation:Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.. Keywords:Anthocyanins, Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthetic pathway, structural diversity, transcriptional regulation.. Abstract:Arabidopsis thaliana is the first model plant, the genome of which has been sequenced. In general, intensive studies on this model plant over the past nearly 30 years have led to many new revolutionary understandings in every single aspect of plant biology. Here, we review the current understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in this model plant. Although the investigation of anthocyanin structures in this model plant was not performed until 2002, numerous studies over the past three decades have been conducted to understand the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. To date, it appears that all pathway genes of anthocyanins ...
Despite the importance of secondary growth in plants, relatively few genes regulating this process have been identified to date. By using data from detailed transcript profiling of the poplar wood-forming tissues, 150 genes that are differentially expressed within the zone of secondary growth were identified. In order to determine the possible function of these poplar genes, potential Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs were identified and gene knockout lines analysed. Three selection filters were used to identify the most likely orthologous genes using poplar and Arabidopsis sequence comparisons, expression profiling in secondary thickened Arabidopsis hypocotyls and global expression analysis of Arabidopsis tissues. Three genes encoding AtCSLA2 (At5g22740), the AtGUT1 GT47 glycosyltransferase (At1g27440) and a protein with no proposed function AtUNKA (At4g27435) were selected for further detailed analysis of their role in secondary growth in Arabidopsis. The presented genome-based approach using ...
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. In addition,
Dear Colleagues, JASPAR ( is the open access reference database for transcription factor (TF) DNA binding profiles. Its used in major projects such as ENCODE or FANTOM or tools such as the MEME suite. Plants are underrepresented in the current Jaspar version and I am currently collecting information to include as many Arabidopsis TF as possible in the next Jaspar release. This effort will be useful for the Arabidopsis community as many tools using Jaspar will become available for Arabidopsis in the future if the database is populated with Arabidopsis TF. The TF specificity can be derived from ChIP-chip, ChIP-Seq, Selex/BSSA, Protein binding microarray. I have collected from the literature but I might have missed some factors. If you have generated such data in the past, or if such data exists for TF youre working on, it would be very helpful if you could send me a short mail indicating the TF name and the reference. You can also share unpublished ChIP or Selex data ...
Water stress has been shown to cause root hairs to become short and bulbous. Because abscisic acid (ABA) mediates a variety of water-stress responses, we investigated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs to ABA. When wild-type root hairs were treated with ABA, they exhibited the water-stress response. The Arabidopsis mutants abi1 and abi2, which are insensitive to ABA at the seedling stage, did not display the root hair response. These data suggest that ABA may mediate the response of root hairs to water stress. The drought response of root hairs resulting in an inhibition of tip growth will provide an easy screen to select mutations that are insensitive to ABA and/or involved in tip growth.
Also known as: IN Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis., Arabidopsis At, Arabidopsis AS, Arabidopsis, Ara-bidopsis, ARABIDOPSIS In, ARABIDOPSIS ...
The pathosystem of Arabidopsis thaliana and diploid biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) has been a model for investigating the molecular basis of Flors gene-for-gene hypothesis. The isolates Hpa-Noks1 and Hpa-Cala2 are virulent on Arabidopsis accession RMX-A02 whilst an F1 generated from a cross between these two isolates was avirulent. The F2 progeny segregated 3,1 (avirulent, virulent), indicating a single major effect AVR locus in this pathogen. SNP-based linkage mapping confirmed a single AVR locus within a 14 kb map interval containing two genes encoding putative effectors. The Hpa-Cala2 allele of one gene, designated H. arabidopsidis cryptic1 (HAC1), encodes a protein with a signal peptide and an RxLR/dEER motif, and triggers a defense response in RMX-A02. The second gene is heterozygous in Hpa-Cala2. One allele, designated Suppressor of HAC1Cala2 (S-HAC1Cala2) encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a dKEE motif with no RxLR motif; the other allele (s-hac1 Cala2) ...
The removal of Mg,Superscript,2+,/Superscript, is an important step in the chlorophyll degradation pathway and extracts from senescent and presenescent ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis thaliana,/Emphasis, leaves were analyzed for Mg-dechelatase activity, using chlorophyllin, an artificial derivative of the natural substrate, chlorophyllide. The optimum temperature and pH for this reaction were determined to be at approximately 50 °C and 7.2, respectively. Mg-dechelatase activity was enhanced by addition of EDTA and inhibited by MgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript,, HgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript, and reduced glutathione, indicating phenomenons such as retroinhibition by reaction products and dependence on the redox state of the mixture. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis,/Emphasis, leaf extracts, and Mg-dechelatase activity was found in the fraction corresponding to molecular mass of about 42 kDa, which indicates that the Mg-dechelating compound in ...
We have previously described the phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations at the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) locus (Clark, S. E., Running, M. P. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1993) Development 119, 397-418). Our investigations demonstrated that clv1 plants develop enlarged vegetative and inflorescence apical meristems, and enlarged and indeterminate floral meristems. Here, we present an analysis of mutations at a separate locus, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), that disrupt meristem development in a manner similar to clv1 mutations. clv3 plants develop enlarged apical meristems as early as the mature embryo stage. clv3 floral meristems are also enlarged compared with wild type, and maintain a proliferating meristem throughout flower development. clv3 root meristems are unaffected, indicating that CLV3 is a specific regulator of shoot and floral meristem development. We demonstrate that the strong clv3-2 mutant is largely epistatic to clv1 mutants, and that the semi- dominance of clv1 alleles is enhanced by double ...
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites present in Brassicaceae plants such as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Intact glucosinolates are believed to be biologically inactive, whereas degradation products after hydrolysis have multiple roles in growth regulation and defense. The degradation of glucosinolates is catalyzed by thioglucosidases called myrosinases and leads by default to the formation of isothiocyanates. The interaction of a protein called epithiospecifier protein (ESP) with myrosinase diverts the reaction toward the production of epithionitriles or nitriles depending on the glucosinolate structure. Here we report the identification of a new group of nitrile-specifier proteins (AtNSPs) in A. thaliana able to generate nitriles in conjunction with myrosinase and a more detailed characterization of one member (AtNSP2). Recombinant AtNSP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to test its impact on the outcome of glucosinolate hydrolysis using a gas chromatography-mass ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - AtJ6, a unique J-domain protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Kroczyńska, Barbara. AU - Coop, Nichole E.. AU - Miernyk, Jan A.. PY - 2000/2/7. Y1 - 2000/2/7. N2 - An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding a protein, AtJ6, related to Escherichia coli DnaJ was sequenced. Translation of the At J6 nucleotide sequence yields a protein with an N-terminal J-domain, but which lacks the G/F, and C-rich domains characteristic of DnaJ. In addition to the J-domain, one region of the sequence has homology with the prokaryotic FtsA protein. The remainder of the At J6 sequence is not notably related to anything in the sequence databases. The At J6 sequence represents a unique member of the A. thaliana J-domain protein family. The results of Northern analysis revealed that the At J6 mRNA is expressed in all organs of A. thaliana; expression was high in leaves, flowers, and siliques, and low in roots. The results of Southern analysis are consistent with a single unique gene.. AB - An Arabidopsis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - O-Acetylation of glucuronoxylan in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and its change in xylan biosynthesis mutants. AU - Chong, S L. AU - Virkki, L. AU - Maaheimo, Hannu. AU - Juvonen, M. AU - Derba-Maceluch, M. AU - Koutaniemi, S. AU - Roach, M. AU - Sundberg, B. AU - Tuomainen, P. AU - Mellerowicz, E J. AU - Tenkanen, M. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - O-Acetylglucuronoxylans (AcGX) in Arabidopsis thaliana carry acetyl residues on the 2-O and/or 3-O positions of the xylopyranosyl (Xylp) units, but the distribution of different O-acetylated Xylp units is partly unclear. We studied a possible correlation of xylan acetylation and the activities of different glycosyltransferases involved in xylan biosynthesis by analyzing the distribution of O-acetyl substituents on AcGX from Arabidopsis wild-type and mutants irx7, irx9-1, irx10, irx14 and gux1gux2. The relative contents of the Xylp structural units were determined with quantitative two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence ...
The WD motif (also known as the Trp-Asp or WD40 motif) is found in a multitude of eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Where studied, repeated WD motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD repeats (WDRs) are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, members of this superfamily are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events. We analyzed the predicted complement of WDR proteins from Arabidopsis, and compared this to those from budding yeast, fruit fly and human to illustrate both conservation and divergence in structure and function. This analysis identified 237 potential Arabidopsis proteins containing four or more recognizable copies of the motif. These were classified into 143 distinct families, 49 of which contained more than one Arabidopsis member. Approximately 113 of
Background: Plants have developed a variety of mechanisms to counteract aphid attacks. They activate their defences by changing the expression of specific genes. Previously we identified an activation tag mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana on which Myzus persicae population development was reduced. Activation tag mutants are gain-of-function in which the expression ... read more of a gene is increased by the insertion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer that acts on the natural promoter. By further characterizing this previously identified mutant we identified a gene that reduces performance of M. persicae and also provided clues about the mechanism involved.Results: We show that SKU5 SIMILAR 13 (SKS13), a gene whose expression in wild type plants is restricted to pollen and non-responsive to M. persicae attack, is overexpressed in the A. thaliana mutant showing reduced performance of M. persicae. Monitoring M. persicae feeding behaviour on SKS13 overexpressing plants indicated that M. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vernalization sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). T2 - The effects of latitude and FLC variation. AU - Stinchcombe, John R.. AU - Caicedo, Ana L.. AU - Hopkins, Robin. AU - Mays, Charlotte. AU - Boyd, Elizabeth W.. AU - Purugganan, Michael D.. AU - Schmitt, Johanna. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Latitudinal variation in climate is predicted to select for latitudinal differentiation in sensitivity to the environmental cues that signal plants to flower at the appropriate time for a given climate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, flowering is promoted by exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization), and several vernalization pathway loci are known. To test whether natural variation in vernalization sensitivity could account for a previously observed latitudinal cline in flowering time in A. thaliana, we exposed 21 European accessions to 0, 10, 20, or 30 d of vernalization and observed leaf number at flowering under short days in a growth chamber. We observed a ...
Arabidopsis thaliana[edit]. In 2005 a two hybrid system in plants was developed. Using protoplasts of A. thaliana protein- ... "Two-hybrid protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis protoplasts: establishment of a heterodimerization map of group ...
... , the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... "The Arabidopsis Information Resource. Retrieved 29 March 2016.. *^ Flora of NW Europe: Arabidopsis thaliana Archived 8 December ... 1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis *^ Rensink WA, Buell CR (June 2004). "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Arabidopsis thaliana trichome classification[edit]. Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes are classified as being aerial, epidermal, ... In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the GLABROUS1 protein. Knockouts of the ... Scanning electron micrograph of a trichome on a leaf Arabidopsis thaliana. The structure is a single cell. ... Many of what scientists know about trichome development comes from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, because their ...
Arabidopsis thaliana[edit]. Arabidopsis thaliana is a predominantly self-pollinating plant with an out-crossing rate in the ... Population genetic structure and outcrossing rate of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Abbott RJ, Gomes MF. Heredity 1989 62:411 ... "The evolution of selfing in Arabidopsis thaliana". Science. 317 (5841): 1070-2. doi:10.1126/science.1143153. PMID 17656687.. ...
Among those involved in pollen tube attraction are the LUREs, a group of ovular pollen-tube attractants in Arabidopsis thaliana ... May 2019). "Arabidopsis". Science. 364 (6443): eaau9564. doi:10.1126/science.aau9564. PMC 7184628. PMID 31147494. Costa LM, ... CRPs are numerous in plants, with 756 CRP-encoding genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Several CRPs bind known receptors ... Huang Q, Dresselhaus T, Gu H, Qu LJ (June 2015). "Active role of small peptides in Arabidopsis reproduction: Expression ...
Plants: Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vertebrates: Frog: Xenopus (X.laevis and tropicalis). Good embryo supply. Especially ... Pacifici E, Di Mambro R, Dello Ioio R, Costantino P, Sabatini S (August 2018). "Arabidopsis root". The EMBO Journal. 37 (16). ... July 2015). "An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel ... Plant development has focused on the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism. Blastocyst Body plan Cell signaling ...
Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis thaliana is a weed commonly found alongside roads and is frequently used in experiments which examine ... In Arabidopsis roots, the RALF- FER signal transduction pathways continues to control and moderate cell growth and hormone ... Feronia is the receptor to RALF and was found to regulate the effect of RALF in the cell elongation in the Arabidopsis roots. ... Feronia (FER)' mediates the inhibition caused by the S1P in Arabidopsis. FER is one of the known 17 proteins which play a part ...
Francis KE, Spiker S (February 2005). "Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana transformants without selection reveals a high ... Arabidopsis Book. 15: e0186. doi:10.1199/tab.0186. PMC 6501860. PMID 31068763. National Research Council (US) Committee on ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ... April 4, 2005 Plant gene replacement results in the world's only blue rose "Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase". Arabidopsis Reactome ...
Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (14 December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ... The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. ... The first plant genome sequenced was that of Arabidopsis thaliana which encodes about 25,500 genes. In terms of sheer DNA ...
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. Retrieved 21 June 2016. Wolfenbarger, L. L.; Phifer ...
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used in laboratories as a model organism to understand how genes control the growth and ... "About Arabidopsis". TAIR. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Engineering Life". NASA. Retrieved 21 June 2016. "Vaccines and animal cell ...
"DNA Microarrays: Techniques". Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2013. Shin ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme uses sinapaldehyde or coniferyl aldehyde or coumaraldehyde and NADPH to produce sinapyl ...
He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and ... Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A. (2016). "Regulation of Arabidopsis ... The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0161. doi:10.1199/tab.0161. PMC 3244904. PMID 22303259. Eastmond, Peter J.; van Dijken, Anja J. H.; ... is essential for Arabidopsis embryo maturation". The Plant Journal. 29 (2): 225-235. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2002.01220.x. PMID ...
Since that time many plant PRRs have been predicted by genomic analysis (370 in rice; 47 in Arabidopsis). Unlike animal PRRs, ... A survey of the yeast, fly, worm, human, Arabidopsis, and rice kinomes (3,723 kinases) revealed that despite the small number ... Since that time two other plants PRRs, Arabidopsis FLS2 (flagellin) and EFR (elongation factor Tu receptor)have been isolated. ... rice XA21 and Arabidopsis FLS2. In mammals, PRRs can also associate with members of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) ...
Moffatt BA, Ashihara H (April 2002). "Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 1: ...
Engqvist M, Drincovich MF, Flügge UI, Maurino VG (September 2009). "Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana ... Maurino, Veronica; Engqvist, Martin (2015). "2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 13: e0182. doi:10.1199 ... or in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (At4g36400) leads to massive accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate. In humans this ... dehydrogenases as alternative electron donors linking lysine catabolism to the electron transport chain of Arabidopsis ...
Some other members of the PIN family (e.g. PIN5 and 8 in Arabidopsis) localize mostly at the ER-membrane or have a dual PM and ... Most of the PIN proteins (e.g. PIN1/2/3/4/7 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana) localize at the plasma membrane (PM) where ... PID2 in Arabidopsis) and the D6PK kinase. "The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters". Genome Biol. 10: 249. ... PGP1 and PGP19 in Arabidopsis). These interactions result in a synergistic increase in auxin efflux. The activity and ...
Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung (December 6, 2011). "Plant ABC Transporters". The Arabidopsis Book. 9: e0153. doi:10.1199/tab.0153 ...
Tzin V, Galili G (2010-05-17). "The Biosynthetic Pathways for Shikimate and Aromatic Amino Acids in Arabidopsis thaliana". The ... Arabidopsis Book. 8: e0132. doi:10.1199/tab.0132. PMC 3244902. PMID 22303258. Nielsen LN, Roager HM, Casas ME, Frandsen HL, ...
first categorized PRR genes into two subgroups (APRR1 and APRR2, the A stands for Arabidopsis) due to two differing amino acid ... TOC1 (gene) CCA1 Circadian Clock Salomé, Patrice A.; McClung, C. Robertson (2004). "The Arabidopsis thaliana Clock". Journal of ... Shim, Jae Sung; Kubota, Akane; Imaizumi, Takato (2017-01-01). "Circadian Clock and Photoperiodic Flowering in Arabidopsis: ... Shim, Jae Shung; Imaizumi, Takato (2014). "Circadian Clock and Photoperiodic Response in Arabidopsis: From Seasonal Flowering ...
Rensink, WA; Buell, CR (June 2004). "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance our understanding of a crop ... and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana. (A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular ...
A red light induced positive phototropism has been recently recorded in an experiment that used Arabidopsis to test where in ... Li J, Li G, Wang H, Wang Deng X (2011). "Phytochrome signaling mechanisms". The Arabidopsis Book. 9: e0148. doi:10.1199/tab. ... The experiment consisted in the wild-type form of Arabidopsis, phyA-101(phytochrome A (phyA) null mutant), phyB-1 (phytochrome ... When placed in red light, Arabidopsis roots displayed a curvature of 30 to 40 degrees. This showed a positive phototropic ...
Several ABA-mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been identified and are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock ... Jan 2013). "Endodermal ABA Signaling Promotes Lateral Root Quiescence during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis Seedlings". The Plant ... Finkelstein, Ruth (2013-11-01). "Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response". The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant ... The Arabidopsis Book. 11: e0166. doi:10.1199/tab.0166. PMC 3833200. PMID 24273463. Zhang, Jianhua; Schurr, U.; Davies, W. J. ( ...
Jander G, Joshi V (1 January 2009). "Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana". The Arabidopsis Book. ... Zhu X, Tang G, Galili G (December 2002). "The activity of the Arabidopsis bifunctional lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/ ... "A seed high-lysine trait is negatively associated with the TCA cycle and slows down Arabidopsis seed germination". The New ... "Characterisation of the first enzymes committed to lysine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e40318. ...
If an Arabidopsis seedling becomes shaded, its petioles and internodes elongate. It may even lose rosette morphology. Studies ... In Arabidopsis, early flowering is linked to overall lower reproductive success due to lower seed production, smaller fruit, ... Arabidopsis was used to demonstrate PIF (Phytochrome Interacting Factor) involvement in auxin production. PIFs are ... Shade avoidance response in adult plants is less commonly studied than it is in seedlings, though adult Arabidopsis show more ...
CLV3 which belongs to the CLE family of genes is found within one or more tissues of Arabidopsis. All 32 members of the CLE ... Brand U, Fletcher JC, Hobe M, Meyerowitz EM, Simon R (July 2000). "Dependence of stem cell fate in Arabidopsis on a feedback ... Schoof H, Lenhard M, Haecker A, Mayer KF, Jürgens G, Laux T (March 2000). "The stem cell population of Arabidopsis shoot ... Most research that has been conducted on CLE peptide signaling has been conducted with Arabidopsis, since this genome contains ...
Drews GN, Koltunow AM (2011-12-26). "The female gametophyte". The Arabidopsis Book. 9: e0155. doi:10.1199/tab.0155. PMC 3268550 ... "Antipodal cells persist through fertilization in the female gametophyte of Arabidopsis". Plant Reproduction. 27 (4): 197-203. ...
Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis. Jan Van de Velde, Ken S. ... Inference of Transcriptional Networks in Arabidopsis through Conserved Noncoding Sequence Analysis Message Subject (Your Name) ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... "The Arabidopsis Information Resource. Retrieved 29 March 2016.. *^ Flora of NW Europe: Arabidopsis thaliana Archived 8 December ... 1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis *^ Rensink WA, Buell CR (June 2004). "Arabidopsis to rice. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
The Arabidopsis GRAS-type SCL28 transcription factor controls the mitotic cell cycle and division plane orientation Camila ... BAM1/2 receptor kinase signaling drives CLE peptide-mediated formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis roots Ashley D. Crook, ...
Emulating the much-praised first edition of Arabidopsis Protocols, leading scientists have generated an up-to-date work that ... DNA Embryo Genotyp Mutant Mutation PCR Seed arabidopsis thaliana biotechnology gene expression genes genetic engineering ... High-Throughput TILLING for Arabidopsis Bradley J. Till, Trenton Colbert, Christine Codomo, Linda Enns, Jessica Johnson, Steven ... Emulating the much-praised first edition of Arabidopsis Protocols, leading scientists have generated an up-to-date work that ...
n Arabidopsis Protocols internationally recognized experts offer a comprehensive collection of significant new methods for gene ... Arabidopsis Protocols will immediately become the standard reference for laboratories working with Arabidopsis, the plant of ... n Arabidopsis Protocols internationally recognized experts offer a comprehensive collection of significant new methods for gene ... These time-tested methods range from techniques for the successful growing of Arabidopsis to strategies for gene cloning. The ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana (Protein) [Bio-Analytic Resource] Expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana ( ... Subcellular localisation in Arabidopsis thaliana [Bio-Analytic Resource] Subcellular localisation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bio- ... annexin 6 [Arabidopsis thaliana] annexin 6 [Arabidopsis thaliana]. gi,15238094,ref,NP_196584.1, ... Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and ...
... © 2003 Michael Charters. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2009 Barry Breckling. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2008 Keir ... Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2003 Michael Charters. Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2009 Barry Breckling. More photos of Arabidopsis ... Previous taxon: Arabidopsis. Next taxon: Arabis. Name Search Contact/Feedback Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz ... Arabidopsis thaliana. MOUSE-EAR CRESS, THALE CRESS. Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). View Description. Dichotomous Key. ...
... Martin Lechowicz, Biology - McGill University EH39 at MCGILLA.BITNET Fri Jun 4 05:05:42 EST 1993 *Previous ... The focus of our efforts will be on plants grown in Conviron TC30 chambers that are designed primarily for growing Arabidopsis ... To those who grow Arabidopsis... I am unaware of any reasonably comprehensive trial designed to optimize growing conditions for ... Such trials are routine in horticultural research, but I have the impression that Arabidopsis growing methods have developed ...
unnamed protein product [Arabidopsis thaliana] unnamed protein product [Arabidopsis thaliana]. gi,8809640,dbj,BAA97191.1, ... Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.. Tabata S, Kaneko T, Nakamura Y, Kotani H, Kato T, ... Targeted interactomics reveals a complex core cell cycle machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana. [Mol Syst Biol. 2010] Targeted ... Mitochondrial GCD1 dysfunction reveals reciprocal cell-to-cell signaling during the maturation of Arabidopsis female gametes. [ ...
... Aliza Finkler alizaf at Sun Aug 13 06:32:31 EST 2006 *Previous message: [ ... Hi, I will be very grateful for any advice on nuclei isolation from Arabidopsis: if you have a good working protocol for high ...
Endosperm-based hybridization barriers explain the pattern of gene flow between Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa in ... Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abdul M. Chaudhury, Luo Ming, Celia Miller, Stuart Craig, ... Fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abdul M. Chaudhury, Luo Ming, Celia Miller, Stuart Craig, ... 1994) in Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development, ed Bowman J(Springer, New York), pp 372-377. ...
To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls ... the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to elucidate the cellular basis of LR development and the underlying gene ... We found that Arabidopsis thaliana using NH4⁺ as the sole N source has smaller cells with relatively thicker cell walls. ... The Arabidopsis thaliana LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 and notably their kinase activities were required for full activation of ...
AiMasc1, Ascobolus Masc1 (AAC49849); AtCMT3, Arabidopsis CMT3 (AAK69756); AtDRM2, Arabidopsis DRM2 (AAF66129); AtMET1, ... For example, the Arabidopsis genome contains four Dnmt1-class and three CMT-class genes, as well as three Dnmt3-like DRM genes ... 2001 Arabidopsis cmt3 chromomethylase mutations block non-CG methylation and silencing of an endogenous gene. Genes Dev. 15: ... 2002b Role of the Arabidopsis DRM methyltransferases in de novo DNA methylation and gene silencing. Curr. Biol. 12: 1138-1144. ...
On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting ... Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in GA transport. We show that ... Phylogenetic tree of the Arabidopsis NRT/PTR family. Protein sequences for Arabidopsis thaliana NRT/PTR family members were ... T-DNA insertion mutants were obtained from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center and Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre. ...
The thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana is increasingly popular among plant scientists: it is small, easy to grow, and makes ... 30 minutes acetic acid activity agar Agrobacterium alleles analysis antibody Appendix Arabidopsis thaliana assay buffer CAUTION ... Arabidopsis: A Laboratory Manual. Detlef Weigel,Jane Glazebrook. No preview available - 2002. ... The thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana is increasingly popular among plant scientists: it is small, easy to grow, and makes ...
... Clint Chapple chapple at Fri Jan 21 11:43:00 EST 1994 *Previous message: ... We have recently identified a mutant of Arabidopsis that is defective in the gene encoding ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) ( ... an individual with a background in plant molecular biology to study molecular aspects of cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis ...
... Dr. S. Vani via (by dr.s.vani At Thu Jan 4 07:49:18 ...
Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is ... Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is ... Vascular development in Arabidopsis Int Rev Cytol. 2002;220:225-56. doi: 10.1016/s0074-7696(02)20007-8. ... Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue ...
DFG-Kolloquium: Arabidopsis ...
Genus: Arabidopsis Species: A. arenosa - A. cebennensis - A. croatica - A. halleri - A. kamchatica - A. lyrata - A. neglecta - ... Taxonomy and phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). The Arabidopsis Book, eds. Somerville, C.R. & Meyerowitz, E.M. American ... Type species: Arabidopsis thaliana L. Sp. Pl. 2: 665. (1753). Synonyms[edit]. *Heterotypic *Stenophragma Čelak. Arch. Naturwiss ... Arabidopsis in BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae. Published on the ...
Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were taken to the Moon on the Change 4 lander in 2019, as part of a student experiment. Arabidopsis ... The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a curated online information source for Arabidopsis thaliana genetic and ... Al-Shehbaz, I. A., OKane, Steve L. (2002). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). The Arabidopsis Book: 1-22. ... Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; OKane Jr, Steve L. (2002). "Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae)". The Arabidopsis Book ...
... Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Mar 18;406(3):414-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc. ... that the histone deacetylase gene HDA6 is required for cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. HDA6 is ... conclude that HDA6 plays a critical role in regulating cold acclimation process that confers freezing resistance on Arabidopsis ...
A superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposons.. A Konieczny, D F Voytas, M P Cummings and F M Ausubel ... A superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposons.. A Konieczny, D F Voytas, M P Cummings and F M Ausubel ... A superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposons.. A Konieczny, D F Voytas, M P Cummings and F M Ausubel ... We describe a superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposable elements that consists of at least ten related families ...
... K. Shameer,1 S. Ambika,1 Susan Mary Varghese,2 N. Karaba,2 ... M. Garcia-Hernandez, T. Z. Berardini, G. Chen et al., "TAIR: a resource for integrated Arabidopsis data," Functional and ... A. Guo, K. He, D. Liu et al., "DATF: a database of Arabidopsis transcription factors," Bioinformatics, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. ... Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC), *D. K. Button, K. M. Gartland, L. D. Ball, L. Natanson, J ...
However, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing three photoprotective proteins had impaired growth rate under fluctuating light, ... To explore the range of application of this approach, we generated Arabidopsis VPZ lines. These lines triggered photoprotection ... 1 Arabidopsis VPZ lines display enhanced dynamics of photoprotection under the fluctuating light regime FL1.. The experiment ... Clough, S. J. & Bent, A. F. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, ... "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 2 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.". Lin X., Kaul S., Rounsley S.D., Shea T.P., Benito M ... "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.". Mayer K.F.X., Schueller C., Wambutt R., Murphy G., ... "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.". Tabata S., Kaneko T., Nakamura Y., Kotani H., Kato T ...
... closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lyrata are diploid plants that have a life span of two ... Arabidopsis species have also been eaten by indigenous people of Alaska, who eat the leaves by cooking them as a vegetable or ... The fruit of Arabidopsis lyrata are about 2-4.5 millimetres (0.08-0.18 in) in length, elongated, and papery, while the seeds ... Lastly, Arabidopsis does not survive in agro-ecosystems in which weeds are rampant; it performs best under low competition and ...
have now identified an ATP receptor in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by tracking down the cause of mutations that leave ... An Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase, DORN1, is the plant receptor for extracellular adenosine triphosphate. ... An Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase, DORN1, is the plant receptor for extracellular adenosine triphosphate. ...
  • My group studies DNA- and RNA- binding proteins in Arabidopsis. (
  • 2000 ) identified maize ( Zmet3 ) and Arabidopsis ( DRM ) genes encoding proteins closely related to Dnmt3 methyltransferases but containing a novel arrangement of the eight diagnostic methyltransferase amino acid motifs. (
  • At the root tips of the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana (cell walls shown in red), two proteins work together to control the uptake of water and nutrients. (
  • Confocal micrograph showing the expression of different fluorescent proteins in the stem of a thale cress seedling (Arabidopsis thaliana) used to study in vivo gene expression. (
  • Here we present a mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics approach that identified differentially phosphorylated sites in signaling and response proteins from Arabidopsis cells treated with either flg22 or xylanase. (
  • Our interest concerns the localization of Str proteins encoded in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. (
  • Higher plants have the greatest number and complexity of Clp proteins than any other group of organisms, and more than 20 different Clp isomers in plants have been identified (Paper I). Because of this diversity, we have adopted a functional genomics approach to characterise all Clp proteins in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. (
  • The ABCE model, supported by both molecular and genetic experiments in Arabidopsis , explains how a small number of regulatory genes (called floral homeotic genes or floral organ identity genes) act in different combinations to specify these different organ types. (
  • Arabidopsis genome has been fully sequenced in 2000 and contains approximately 28 000 genes. (
  • Gain of function and loss of function transgenic lines for specific Arabidopsis genes can be easily produced or obtained from public collections. (
  • In Arabidopsis , two COP9 signalosome complex (CSN) subunits, CSN5 and CSN6, are both encoded by two highly conserved genes, named CSN5A and CSN5B , and CSN6A and CSN6B , respectively. (
  • We performed an analysis of coexpression networks for 1,330 genes from the AraCyc database of metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). (
  • In two separate studies published in The Plant Cell, researchers identify key transcription factors that control the expression of genes related to secondary wall formation in the model herbaceous plant Arabidopsis. (
  • The aim of this project will be to identify, validate and functionally characterize genes contributing to natural variation for photosynthetic traits in Arabidopsis - especially those linked to common stress tolerance responses. (
  • Screening a large collection of mutants for these candidates, available from public Arabidopsis seed stocks, will narrow down the list of candidate genes with a role in photosynthesis. (
  • In 2015 Scientists from the John Innes Centre, the Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh and Stanford University in California, introduced genes from algae into arabidopsis (Atkinson et al. (
  • Large sets of microarray experiments are used in this analysis, specifically 2466 NASC Arabidopsis thaliana microarrays containing gene expression levels of over twenty thousand genes in a number of experimental conditions. (
  • 2021) Selective inheritance of target genes from only one parent of sexually reproduced F1 progeny in Arabidopsis. (
  • Two linked pairs of Arabidopsis TNL resistance genes independently confer recognition of bacterial effector AvrRps4. (
  • Wang J, Schwab R, Czech B, Mica E, Weigel D. Dual effects of miR156-targeted SPL genes and CYP78A5/KLUH on plastochron length and organ size in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Chang L, Ramireddy E, Schmülling T. Lateral root formation and growth of Arabidopsis is redundantly regulated by cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes. (
  • Apomixis has been described in a close relative of Arabidopsis , Arabis holboellii ( 3 ), and some genetic data support a one or two gene control of apomixis ( 3 ), so we reasoned that a mutational approach in Arabidopsis might detect mutants displaying some components of apomixis. (
  • ddm1 met1 double mutants were constructed to further our understanding of the mechanism of DDM1 action and the interaction between two major genetic loci affecting global cytosine methylation levels in Arabidopsis. (
  • Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in GA transport. (
  • A recent Arabidopsis grafting experiment with a variety of GA biosynthetic mutants demonstrated long-distance transport of the inactive GA 12 (ref. 20 ). (
  • Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. (
  • Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. (
  • His student Erna Reinholz published her thesis on arabidopsis in 1945, describing the first collection of arabidopsis mutants that they generated using x-ray mutagenesis . (
  • The study of Arabidopsis flowering mutants reveals much about the signaling pathways that regulate each of the flowering responses ( 6 ). (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana , the thale cress , mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis , is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa . (
  • The thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana is increasingly popular among plant scientists: it is small, easy to grow, and makes flowers, and the sequence of its small and simple genome was recently completed. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana , or the thale cress, is an annual plant with a short life cycle. (
  • This genus is of great interest since it contains thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), one of the model organisms used for studying plant biology and the first plant to have its entire genome sequenced. (
  • thale cress , mouse-ear cress or Arabidopsis ), is a species of Arabidopsis , native to Europe, Asia, and northwestern Africa, from the British Isles south to the Azores and Morocco, east to Japan, and southeast to northern India. (
  • Flower of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics. (
  • Since the completion of the genome sequence project four years ago (The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000), and many updates of the annotation later, biologists and bioinformaticians still devote much of their time to improve and decode the content of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. (
  • Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (2000) Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • all significant contributions to the 'Arabidopsis Genome Project' which, in 2000, after collaboration with biotechnology companies including Monsanto, released the complete Arabidopsis genome 3 years earlier than anticipated. (
  • The Arabidopsis information resource (TAIR): gene structure and function annotation," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 36, pp. (
  • The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) is a curated online information source for Arabidopsis thaliana genetic and molecular biology research, and The Arabidopsis Book is an online compilation of invited chapters on Arabidopsis thaliana biology. (
  • The ordering system for ABRC was incorporated into The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) database in June 2001 whilst NASC has always (since 1991) hosted its own ordering system and genome browser. (
  • Araport integrates gene structure with public data from TAIR, UniProt, PubMed, BAR, EPIC-CoGe, and other sources and enables biologists to navigate from the Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 reference genome sequence to its associated annotation including gene structure, gene expression, protein function, and interaction networks. (
  • The TAC library, consisting of more than ten thousand TAC clones, is available from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) . (
  • The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) maintains a database of genetic and molecular biology data for the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Data available from TAIR includes the complete genome sequence along with gene structure, gene product information, gene expression, DNA and seed stocks, genome maps, genetic and physical markers, publications, and information about the Arabidopsis research community. (
  • TAIR also provides extensive linkouts from our data pages to other Arabidopsis resources. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (
  • Fennoscandinavia and the Baltic region) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (
  • The genus name, Arabidopsis , comes from Greek , meaning "resembling Arabis " (the genus in which Linnaeus had initially placed it). (
  • The most recent reclassification moves two species previously placed in Cardaminopsis and Hylandra and three species of Arabis into Arabidopsis, but excludes 50 that have been moved into the new genera Beringia, Crucihimalaya, Ianhedgea, Olimarabidopsis, and Pseudoarabidopsis. (
  • Arabidopsis means 'resembling Arabis (rock-cress). (
  • Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC), . (
  • In Europe, the model organism resource centre for Arabidopsis thaliana germplasm, bioinformatics and molecular biology resources (including GeneChips) is the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre - NASC whilst in North America germplasm services are provided by the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center, (ABRC) based at the Ohio State University. (
  • Genetic analysis of osmotic and cold stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis: interactions and convergence of abscisic acid-dependent and abscisic acid-independent pathways. (
  • Although Arabidopsis thaliana has little direct significance for agriculture, it has several advantages that made it the model for understanding the genetic, cellular, and molecular biology of flowering plants. (
  • Also, as an individual plant can produce several thousand seeds, each of the above criteria leads to Arabidopsis thaliana being valued as a genetic model organism. (
  • Indeed, its main features such as easy and fast growth, high seed production, easy genetic manipulation and a completely sequenced genome still place Arabidopsis as the best model for studying plants. (
  • Systems biology is currently being used in Arabidopsis to investigate the transcriptional networks regulating root development, the metabolic response to stress and the genetic regulation of metabolic variability. (
  • Alonso JM and Ecker JR (2006) Moving forward in reverse: genetic technologies to enable genome‐wide phenomic screens in Arabidopsis. (
  • The information portal also will provide access to integration of diverse data types, including expression data, protein interaction data, and data from the 1001 Genomes Project, which is an online catalogue of Arabidopsis genetic variation. (
  • These methods and results will aid in the prioritization of candidates for genetic analysis of metabolism in plants and contribute to the improvement of functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - A pair of genome-wide association studies online today in Science highlight genetic strategies that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uses to adapt to changing environmental conditions such as climate change. (
  • Even so, findings from another Science study exploring the genetics of environmental and climate adaptations in Arabidopsis challenge the view that the plant has the genetic capability to keep pace with very rapid changes to their climate or environment. (
  • For example, using a set of climate-associated genetic variants, the team demonstrated that they could accurately predict fitness for 147 Arabidopsis accessions from a variety of locations that were planted in the same garden in France. (
  • The goal of this research project is to record the genetic variation in the entire genome of many strains of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Loudet O, Chaillou S, Camilleri C, Bouchez D, Daniel-Vedele F ( 2002 ) Bay-0 x Shahdara recombinant inbred line population: a powerful tool for the genetic dissection of complex traits in Arabidopsis. (
  • For more information on the Bay-0 x Shadara Arabidopsis thaliana cross, the genotypic data, the genetic maps, and the trait data please visit the INRA Versailles QTL Arabidopsis site. (
  • The contributions of Arabidopsis have also diverged to the study of plant disease and once again, it is the genetic proximity of arabidopsis to other crops that has highlighted its utility as a model organism. (
  • While gene drive technology has been developed in insects to help stop the spread of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, researchers in Professor Yunde Zhao's lab, along with colleagues at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, demonstrated the successful design of a CRISPR-Cas9-based gene drive that cuts and copies genetic elements in Arabidopsis plants. (
  • The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis: structural and genetic diversity. (
  • Generic placement of species excluded from Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). (
  • Taxonomy and phylogeny of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). (
  • 2017. Arabidopsis in BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae . (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. (
  • Arabidopsis (rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae, closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Arabidopsis is a member of the mustard (Brassicaceae) family, which includes cultivated species such as cabbage and radish. (
  • Interestingly, although the autonomous pathway in Arabidopsis converges on FLC, this gene appears to be restricted to the Brassicaceae family, and seems to be absent from other dicotyledonous plants and from monocotyledonous plants ( Searle and Coupland, 2004 ). (
  • Currently, the genus Arabidopsis has nine species and a further eight subspecies recognised. (
  • Their findings confirm the species formerly included in Arabidopsis made it polyphyletic. (
  • All of the species in Arabidopsis are indigenous to Europe, while two of the species have broad ranges also extending into North America and Asia. (
  • Arabidopsis species provide the ability to address questions in speciation research due to the fact that they have a relatively short reproductive cycle and are easy to maintain. (
  • Arabidopsis species have also been eaten by indigenous people of Alaska, who eat the leaves by cooking them as a vegetable or use them as raw in salads. (
  • Further, discoveries made in Arabidopsis have been translated to other plant species such as economically important crops, as well as to animal systems, including complex human disease processes. (
  • Discoveries made in Arabidopsis can be easily translated to other plant species, as well as to animal systems. (
  • With this method 167 galactolipid species were detected in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Over the past 15 years studies in Arabidopsis, many conducted in the laboratories in the COMREC consortium, have provided both insights into the control of meiosis in plants and generated the tools to analyze this process in crop species. (
  • In 1842, the German botanist Gustav Heynhold erected the new genus Arabidopsis and placed the plant in that genus. (
  • Arabidopsis is quite similar to the Boechera genus. (
  • The rise of Arabidopsis as a model genus for polyploid and meiosis research has seen several new studies begin to shed light on this long standing question. (
  • b) Examples of the application of reverse genetics tools to the functional study of small gene families regulating crucial developmental pathways in Arabidopsis . (
  • Arabidopsis is not of major agronomic significance, but it offers important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology. (
  • This description of Arabidopsis root structure underpins future work on the developmental genetics of root morphogenesis. (
  • He has used biochemical genetics to dissect the main metabolic pathways controlling oil mobilisation in Arabidopsis seed and provided new insight into how a lipid based signal controls seed germination. (
  • I show that Arabidopsis leaf growth can be described with good precision by a conformal map, where expansion is locally isotropic (the same in all directions) but the amount of expansion can vary with position. (
  • Polymerized actin localization in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes, stage 4, during the transition to branch elongation. (
  • Here, we report on the analysis of the galactolipid subfraction of the Arabidopsis leaf lipidome by an improved HPLC/MS 2 -based method that is fast, robust, and comparatively simple in its performance. (
  • To further understand the mechanisms controlling leaf shape, we have studied the interactions between several loci leading to increased dissection of the Arabidopsis leaf margins. (
  • But for plant biologists, this member of the mustard green family is a valuable model for studying a wide array of biological processes-including the patterns of zinc acquisition shown so vividly in the Arabidopsis leaf above. (
  • An Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase, DORN1, is the plant receptor for extracellular adenosine triphosphate. (
  • Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase AtSERK. (
  • The original activation-tagging vector has been used in tissue culture to identify a His kinase from Arabidopsis, whose overexpression can bypass the requirement for cytokinin in the regeneration of shoots ( Kakimoto, 1996 ). (
  • Mutations in the Pto serine/threonine kinase in tomato ( 8 ) and Xa21 leucine-rich repeat kinase in rice ( 9 ) compromise the plant's resistance to race-specific pathogens, whereas mutations in receptor-like kinase FLS2 in Arabidopsis enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. (
  • Emulating the much-praised first edition of Arabidopsis Protocols, leading scientists have generated an up-to-date work that reflects recent advances in plant biology, the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence-essential for studying plant function-and the development of whole systems approaches that allow global analysis of gene expression, as well as protein and metabolite dynamics. (
  • Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and classification models. (
  • Several molecular tools have been established to identify Arabidopsis transcription profiles, epigenetic landscape, protein and metabolite composition. (
  • Leaves from the arc5 plastid division mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana were fixed, embedded, sectioned, reacted with antibodies to the FtsZ1-1 protein, a prokaryotic cell division protein that is a str. (
  • Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs. (
  • Here, we report the tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress response in Arabidopsis roots by monitoring expression patterns of immunoglobulin-binding protein 3 (BiP3), a representative marker for the response. (
  • The same result was obtained by transient expression of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts, whereas AtStr2 was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm by this method. (
  • In addition to ClpX, a nuclear-encoded ClpP protein, termed ClpP2, was identified from the numerous ClpP isomers in Arabidopsis and was also located in mitochondria. (
  • The activation of SOC1 expression has to overcome the repressive action of one of the most potent inhibitors of flowering in Arabidopsis - the MADS-domain protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) ( Michaels and Amasino, 1999 ). (
  • Arabidopsis has been at the centre of this research which led to the identification of the pathways that trigger the switch from vegetative to reproductive development (Simpson and Dean, 2002). (
  • two accessions obtained from the NASC European Arabidopsis Stock Centre. (
  • Overexpression of an Arabidopsis β -glucosidase gene enhances drought resistance with dwarf phenotype in creeping bentgrass," Plant Cell Reports , vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1677-1686, 2012. (
  • Exogenous peptide assays and overexpression of nematode CLEs in Arabidopsis demonstrated that CLV2 and CRN are required for perception of nematode CLEs. (
  • Overexpression of Arabidopsis COP1 results in partial suppression of light-mediated development: evidence for a light-inactivable repressor of photomorphogenesis. (
  • Results show that PDAT overexpression increased the growth rate of Arabidopsis plants. (
  • In 2016, it was discovered that the pathogen which causes potato late blight ( Phytopthora infestans ) can also infect Arabidopsis, as long as another pathogen, Albugo laibachii , has already colonised the host plant (Belhaj et al. (
  • We have recently identified a mutant of Arabidopsis that is defective in the gene encoding ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) (Chapple et al. (
  • have now identified an ATP receptor in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by tracking down the cause of mutations that leave mutant plants unresponsive to ATP signals. (
  • The first mutant in arabidopsis was documented by Alexander Braun in 1873. (
  • T. D. Elich and J. Chory, "Biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis wild-type and mutant phytochrome B holoproteins," Plant Cell , vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2271-2180, 1997. (
  • The authors make use of a male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, in which sterility is due to a failure of anther dehiscence (and consequent failure to release pollen) resulting from an absence of secondary wall thickening in anther tissue. (
  • To analyze its function, we ectopically over-expressed GmPIF1 in wild type and pif1 mutant Arabidopsis . (
  • The focus of our efforts will be on plants grown in Conviron TC30 chambers that are designed primarily for growing Arabidopsis, but we will compare chamber grown plants to those grown in a typical 'lab bench' setup and in a greenhouse. (
  • In 1982, the crew of the Soviet Salyut 7 space station grew some Arabidopsis, thus becoming the first plants to flower and produce seeds in space. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata are diploid plants that have a life span of two or more years, small white flowers and highly distinct basal leaves with a height of 10-40 centimetres (4-16 in). (
  • These are Arabidopsis thaliana plants used in this study. (
  • I tested both hypotheses by experimentally crossing Arabidopsis lyrata plants (self-pollinated, cross-pollinated within the population, or cross-pollinated between populations) and measuring offspring performance over 3 years. (
  • Investigators at Brown University and elsewhere did a GWAS of Arabidopsis plants grown in Germany, the UK, Finland, and Spain, sites with a range of climates within the plant's normal range, looking for variants that corresponded to plant survival, fruiting body production (a measure of reproductive success), and local climate adaptation. (
  • Activation tagging using T-DNA vectors that contain multimerized transcriptional enhancers from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S gene has been applied to Arabidopsis plants. (
  • Potato late blight was previously thought to be a potato and tomato specialist, however, the behaviour and speed of infection in Arabidopsis bears close resemblance to that in susceptible potato plants and by studying any potential resistance in Arabidopsis it is hoped that this can be transferred to those key crops. (
  • Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia 0) plants was transformed with AtPDAT (phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase) gene behind the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. (
  • gemmifera (Matsumura) (Russian Far East, northeastern China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan) Arabidopsis lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz - sand cress A. lyrata subsp. (
  • The leaves of Arabidopsis lyrata have glucosinolates and trichomes as defense mechanisms against insect herbivores, and any other potential threats, such as fires and human activity. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata is found largely in subarctic or subalpine environments with thin soils, such as rock faces, eskers and talus slopes, or exposed coastal zones. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata has a circumpolar distribution, meaning it is found across northern and central Europe, Asia, and North America. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata has a large geographic range, but is often restricted to small, isolated populations, leading to conservation status that varies among jurisdictions. (
  • Nevertheless, Arabidopsis lyrata is not included in the IUCN Red List. (
  • Geographically isolated populations, within Europe, of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. (
  • North American populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata is eaten by many herbivores such as the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae. (
  • Lyre-leaved Rock-cress Arabidopsis lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz" (PDF). (
  • Arabidopsis lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz ssp. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana may be confused with A. lyrata, which has longer flower petals, larger seeds, and basal leaves with non-toothed to pinnately lobed margins. (
  • With the help of Albert Kranz, these were organised into the current ecotype collection of 750 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana from around the world. (
  • Researchers from the US and France genotyped 948 Arabidopsis accessions from across the plant's range at around 215,000 SNPs each, looking for SNPs that corresponded to 13 climate variables such seasonal temperature and rainfall and to 107 ecologically-relevant phenotypes. (
  • Following HTP photosynthesis phenotyping, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in our lab using natural population of 352 Arabidopsis accessions, that were grown under various abiotic stress conditions: low phosphate nutrition, low nitrate nutrition, fluctuations in temperature, and fluctuations in irradiance. (
  • To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. (
  • In Arabidopsis, lateral roots initiate along the primary root in a process preceded by periodic gene expression, a phenomenon known as the root clock. (
  • Use methylation-sensitive enzymes to explore epigenetics heritable changes in gene expression-that affect flowering in Arabidopsis . (
  • We describe the isolation and characterization of two missense mutations in the cytosine-DNA-methyl-transferase gene, MET1 , from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • A post-doctoral postion is currently available for an individual with a background in plant molecular biology to study molecular aspects of cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. (
  • For over two decades, Arabidopsis thaliana is the model system of choice for plant molecular geneticists (Meinke et al. (
  • 1 ) on page 1613 of this issue and Blázquez and Weigel ( 2 ) in a recent issue of Nature reveal the integrated network of molecular signals that induce flowering in the weed Arabidopsis thaliana under different environmental conditions. (
  • Arabidopsis has proven to be an ideal organism for studying plant development at the molecular, cellular, organismal and ecological levels. (
  • In the last two decades, Arabidopsis thaliana has gained much interest from the scientific community as a model organism for research on numerous aspects of plant biology. (
  • Yet the potential of arabidopsis as a model organism was not documented until 1943. (
  • Friedrich Laibach, known as the "father of Arabidopsis", published the chromosome number of arabidopsis in 1907 and proposed it as a model organism in 1943. (
  • In the 1950s and 1960s John Langridge and George Rédei played an important role in establishing arabidopsis as a useful organism for biological laboratory experiments. (
  • Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant, which has emerged as the primary experimental organism for the study of all aspects of plant biology. (
  • We first established a system to study rooting in Arabidopsis, the model organism in plant biology but only occasionally used to study adventitious rooting. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism in plant biology. (
  • In August 2017, a new breakthrough was made involving research on Arabidopsis. (
  • northwestern Italy and, presumably extinct, in adjacent SW Switzerland) Arabidopsis suecica (Fries) Norrlin, Meddel. (
  • Arabidopsis suecica Norrl. (
  • 9. Arabidopsis suecica (Fries) Norrlin, Meddel. (
  • C AMBRIDGE , Mass.-- Cereon Genomics has agreed to share its data on 39,000 Arabidopsis single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the Arabidopsis Information Resource, enabling academic researchers free access over the Internet. (
  • 2003) Genome‐wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • or especially troublesome) for growing Arabidopsis to seed maturity, or at least to flowering. (
  • To automatically generate a new full genome annotation for Arabidopsis that combines intrinsic gene prediction with the latest experimental data, we used the gene prediction platform EuGène, a flexible generic gene finding system for eukaryotic genomes. (
  • Araport produced and hosts an updated version of the annotation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 reference genome sequence, named Araport11 that includes splice variants computed with tissue-specific transcript assemblies from over 100 RNA seq data. (
  • Arabidopsis' story continues ( catch up on part 1 and part 2 ) and the weed now forms the foundation of thousands of studies around the world, including at the John Innes Centre. (
  • Since then Arabidopsis been used in a plethora of ways at the John Innes Centre including in work on epigenetics by Professor Dean's lab . (
  • Insensitivity to ethylene conferred by a dominant mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Phloem has two basic cell types, enucleate sieve elements (SE) and companion cells (CC). Scientists from the University of Helsinki have developmentally analyzed the process of phloem development in Arabidopsis plant and identified a mutation in a novel gene that is required for instructing phloem differentiation in young, developing plant tissue. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. (
  • We conclude that HDA6 plays a critical role in regulating cold acclimation process that confers freezing resistance on Arabidopsis. (
  • Furthermore perception of flg22, as well as other general elicitors, by Arabidopsis enhances disease resistance against bacterial pathogens ( 5 ). (
  • Accumulation of isochorismate-derived 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic 3-O-beta-D-xyloside in arabidopsis resistance to pathogens and ageing of leaves. (
  • GFP Loss-of-Function Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Here we report a collection of ethyl methansulfonate-induced GFP loss-of-function mutations in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • 1991 ). Mutations affecting body organisation in the Arabidopsis embryo. (
  • The stock ordering and information center for the ABRC (Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center at Ohio State Univ. (
  • In: Abstract for 8th international conference on Arabidopsis research. (
  • The WWW server carries detailed information about seed stocks, how to grow and store Arabidopsis, the control of pests and diseases, as well as information about the other Arabidopsis Centres. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is popular among botany graduate students and other researchers because it completes its life cycle in only a few weeks. (
  • A reduced-function allele reveals that EARLY FLOWERING3 repressive action on the circadian clock is modulated by phytochrome signals in Arabidopsis. (
  • Through a series of laboratory, greenhouse and field-based experiments using both broccoli and Arabidopsis, Professor Dean and her team were able to show that small changes in a single gene are responsible for the range of dates that different broccoli varieties flower. (
  • Arabidopsis is commonly known as mustard weed, and is one of the favored model organisms used by geneticists and developmental biologists. (
  • 2007) show that two plant-specific transcription factors, designated NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENINGS PROMOTING FACTOR1 (NST1) and NST3, regulate the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues (e.g. stem and hypocotyl) of Arabidopsis. (
  • It is also of note that Dodd et al use an existing mathematical model of the Arabidopsis clock ( Locke et al, Mol Syst Biol, 2005 ) to frame the expected effects of their predicted feedback loop. (
  • In this context, Arabidopsis thaliana still retains a central role in Plant Science, being the prominent plant model adopted worldwide. (
  • By concentrating their efforts on a single model system, Arabidopsis scientists have made outstanding advances in almost any field of plant research. (
  • Doubtfully occurring in Denmark) Arabidopsis cebennensis (D.C.) (SE France) Arabidopsis croatica (Schott) (Bosnia, Croatia) Arabidopsis halleri (L.) A. halleri subsp. (
  • Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer is an application tool to find the Arabidopsis genomic TAC clones that are precisely mapped to Arabidopsis chromosomes. (
  • J. A. Sullivan and X. W. Deng, "From seed to seed: the role of photoreceptors in Arabidopsis development," Developmental Biology , vol. 260, no. 2, pp. 289-297, 2003. (
  • Variations in flowering between different Arabidopsis populations have led to the identification of the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene ( FLC ), a crucial component of the autonomous pathway. (