Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Relating to the size of solids.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A trihydroxy bile salt that is used as a digestive aid in dietary supplements. It is used in culture media and in conjunction with PAPAIN and PANCREATIN.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Atul Kumar has reported multicomponent reaction Hantzsch ester synthesis in Aqueous Micelles using ultrasound. Some water ... typically small) point. Sonochemistry can also be used to weld metals which are not normally feasible to join, or form novel ...
The adsorbed ligands can form micelles around the particles and form small-particle colloids improving stability and phase ... Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN ... The particle sizes are typically less than 0.1 mm (100 µm), but sometimes sizes smaller than 7-10 µm are required.[20] There is ... These collectors coat a particle's surface with a monolayer of non-polar substance to aid separation from the aqueous phase by ...
... such as micelles or living cell walls. Thus, the concentration of the dye is kept small, at the nanomolar level, so that the ... The first dye used was Nile red which is nonfluorescent in aqueous solution but fluorescent when inserted into a hydrophobic ... The I s {\displaystyle I_{s}} value is smaller than in STED, making super-resolution imaging possible at a much smaller laser ... A single, tiny source of light can be located much better than the resolution of a microscope usually allows for: although the ...
As the individual micelles are squeezed, they collapse to form increasingly larger micelles. Colloidal stability is inversely ... However, non-aqueous electrophoretic deposition applications are known. Applications of non-aqueous EPD are currently being ... As more and more charged groups are concentrated into a smaller volume, this increases the ionic strength of the medium, which ... The aqueous process which is commonly used has less risk of fire relative to the solvent-borne coatings that they have replaced ...
... the mobile phase in MLC consists of micelles in an aqueous solvent, usually with a small amount of organic modifier added to ... Light scattering should not be a concern due to the small size, a few nanometers, of the micelle. The effect of organic ... Poor wetting of the stationary phase by the micellar aqueous mobile phase, slow mass transfer between the micelles and the ... The addition of micelles to the mobile phase introduces a third phase into which the solutes may partition. Micelles are ...
In water the biohybrid micelles with a diameter of 30 to 70 nanometer form aggregates. The use of a Cu catalyst in water was an ... An aqueous protocol for performing the cycloaddition with free-radical polymers is highly desirable. The CuAAC click reaction ... Most variations in coupling polymers with other polymers or small molecules have been explored. Current shortcomings are that ... As Cu(I) is unstable in aqueous solvents, stabilizing ligands are effective for improving the reaction outcome, especially if ...
Nippon Kayaku Announces FDA Orphan Drug Designation to New Polymeric micelle Anti-Cancer Drug NK012 for Small Cell Lung Cancer ... followed by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous media. It has completed phase II clinical trials for ... NK012 is a 'nanodevice' formulation of SN-38 (an irinotecan metabolite). NK012 is an SN-38-releasing polymeric micelle ... 2008). "Novel SN-38-Incorporated Polymeric Micelle, NK012, Strongly Suppresses Renal Cancer Progression". "Search of: NK012 - ...
A micelle is an aggregation of surfactants or block copolymer in aqueous solution or organic solution, often spherical. ... The coagulation value is smaller when the alkyl chain length of the coagulator is longer. Hydrophobic coagulation occurs when a ... P. Mukerjee and K. J. Mysels, "Critical Micelle Concentration of Aqueous Surfactant Systems", NSRDS-NBS 36, US. Government ... In ionic micelles the monomers are typically fully ionized, but the high electric field strength at the surface of the micelles ...
"Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering study on the spatial distribution of hydrophobic molecules in polymer micelles". Polymer ... Studying a myriad of biological substances (e.g. DNA) that are often suspended in an aqueous solution. Polymers Static light ... This makes small-angle measurements in neutrons and X-rays a bit more tedious, as very small angles are needed, and the data in ... However, when the small-angle scattering condition is met, k R g ≪ 1 {\displaystyle kR_{g}\ll 1} , the sinc term can be ...
... as found for micelle- and vesicle-forming surfactants, which have a critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a critical vesicle ... Da Silva, R.C.; Spitzer, M.; Da Silva, L.H.M.; Loh, W. (1999). "Investigations on the mechanism of aqueous solubility increase ... but the hydrophobic part is generally too small to cause spontaneous self-aggregation. Hydrotropes do not have a critical ... However, the term has been used in the literature to designate non-micelle-forming substances, either liquids or solids, ...
In aqueous solutions, micelles are assemblies of amphipathic molecules with their hydrophilic heads exposed to solvent and ... Bicelles can be thought of as a segment of bilayer encapsulated and solubilized by a micelle. Bicelles are much smaller than ... First, a small aperture is created in a thin layer of a hydrophobic material such as Teflon. Typically the diameter of this ... Detergent micelles are another class of model membranes that are commonly used to purify and study membrane proteins, although ...
In an aqueous solutions, two kinds of biphasic particles can be distinguished. The first type are particles which are truly ... The first type of self-assembled aggregates look like small clusters, similar to what is found for the case of Janus particles ... The second type is noticeably larger than the first and has been termed 'super micelles'. Unfortunately, the structure of the ... In particular, they have been observed to self-assemble in a specific way in aqueous or organic solutions. In the case of ...
... whereas smaller lipids (lipids with shorter acyl chains, up to 8 carbons in length), such as detergents, will form micelles if ... Synthetic membranes can be obtained by preparing aqueous solutions of certain lipids. The lipids will then "aggregate" and form ... On the other hand, lipids with smaller acyl chain area to polar head group area ratio tend to curve positively, in other words ... the CMC (critical micelle concentration) is reached. A biological membrane is commonly described as a two-dimensional surface, ...
The phases are highly viscous and small air bubbles trapped within the preparation have highly distorted shapes. Size and ... type I hexagonal phase mosaic/focal conic optical texture of type I hexagonal phase Lamellar phase Lipid polymorphism Micelle ... shapes of lamellar, micellar and hexagonal phases of lipid bilayer phase behavior and mixed lipid polymorphism in aqueous ...
In an aqueous system, the polar heads of lipids align towards the polar, aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails ... Micelles and bilayers form in the polar medium by a process known as the hydrophobic effect. When dissolving a lipophilic or ... Hence the citric acid cycle can start at acetyl-CoA when fat is being broken down for energy if there is little or no glucose ... So in an aqueous environment, the water molecules form an ordered "clathrate" cage around the dissolved lipophilic molecule. ...
In the solvation shell of small nonpolar particles, the restriction amounts to some 10%. For example, in the case of dissolved ... The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water ... Detergents are composed of amphiphiles that allow hydrophobic molecules to be solubilized in water by forming micelles and ... Tanford C (1973). The hydrophobic effect: formation of micelles and biological membranes. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-84460 ...
... in aqueous solution. In aqueous solution large numbers of Alcian blue molecules stack together as micelles of very large size, ... Only a very small shoulder of the absorption curve at 670-680 nm represent the monomeric dye, which is usually the minority and ... The aqueous solution is bright greenish-blue. Though the compound alcian blue itself is unstable (see stability below) the ... In aqueous solution Alcian blues continue to be metachromatic at molar concentrations one hundredth those at which toluidine ...
With a small ligand such pyridine that binds manganese from inside the cavity of the rotaxane, epoxidation happens outside the ... Non-discrete and structurally poorly defined system such as micelle and dendrimers are not included. The term supramolecular ... Fujita, M.; Yoshizawa, M.; Tamura, M. (2006). "Diels-Alder in Aqueous Molecular Hosts: Unusual Regioselectivity and Efficient ... Although high raise in effective concentration is observed, molecules that employ this mode of catalysis have tiny rate ...
... even though neither surfactant formed micelles when present alone. Such aggregates can help carry other small molecules, such ... Since the nitrogen atom is in an amide linkage, the nitrogen is not pH active and is neutrally charged in all aqueous solutions ... stable vesicles in aqueous mixtures". J. Colloid Interface Sci. 358 (1): 208-216. Bibcode:2011JCIS..358..208G. doi:10.1016/j. ... to water led to the formation of micelle-like aggregates, ...
Transactions of the Faraday Society 1955;51:561-9 Mukerjee, P.; Mysels, K. J. In Critical Micelle Concentrations of Aqueous ... If the concentration of the surfactant is kept a little above the CMC, the additional amount covers the dissolution with ... Micelles only form above critical micelle temperature. For example, the value of CMC for sodium dodecyl sulfate in water ( ... The CMC is the concentration of surfactants in the bulk at which micelles start forming. The word bulk is important because ...
Micelles are colloid-sized clusters of molecules which form in conditions as those above, similar to the critical micelle ... Some types of soluble fibers bind to bile acids in the small intestine, making them less likely to re-enter the body; this in ... the stomach and upper gastrointestinal contents consist of food compounds complex lipids/micellar/aqueous/hydrocolloid and ... Carey MC, Small DM and Bliss CM. Lipid digestion and Absorption. Annual Review of Physiology. 1983. 45:651-77. Edwards CA, ...
These interactions are relatively weak at the physiological ionic strength (0.14M NaCl): ~3 to 4 kcal/mol for small cationic ... Therefore, they remain completely in aqueous solution and do not penetrate into the lipid bilayer, which would be energetically ... Lipases can also digest lipids that form micelles or nonpolar droplets in water. Membrane-targeting domains associate ... as estimated by Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The boundary region between the hydrophobic inner core and the hydrophilic ...
The A-version applies to aqueous or apolar solutions of proteins, nucleotides, and sugars. The B-version applies to isolated ... 45A3 - suitable to apply to lipid aggregates such as membranes and micelles, for mixed systems of aliphatics with or without ... 53A5 - optimised by first fitting to reproduce the thermodynamic properties of pure liquids of a range of small polar molecules ...
In PTFE processing, PFOA is in aqueous solution and forms micelles that contain tetrafluoroethylene and the growing polymer. ... The highest PFOA levels in drinking water were found in the Little Hocking water system, with an average concentration of 3.55 ... ECF production continues on a smaller scale in Europe and Asia. PFOA is also synthesized by the telomerization represented ... which have small sample sizes. A longitudinal study focused on residents living in Mid-Ohio Valley concluded that PFOA ...
Aqueous and polymer phases were used in the development of a novel partitioning scale. Partitioning methods have many drawbacks ... 1990). "Amino acids in AOT reversed micelles. 2. The hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding as driving forces for interfacial ... it is especially useful for treating changes in water-protein interactions that are too small to be accessible to conventional ... These parameters include the silica surface area and pore diameter, the choice and pH of aqueous buffer, temperature and the ...
The structures which can be negatively stained are much smaller than those studied with the light microscope. Here, the method ... Negative staining transmission electron microscopy has also been successfully employed for study and identification of aqueous ... lipid aggregates like lamellar liposomes (le), inverted spherical micelles (M) and inverted hexagonal HII cylindrical (H) ...
The micelles they form in the aggregate are prolate. The lipophilic group is typically a large hydrocarbon moiety, such as a ... When placed in an immiscible biphasic system consisting of aqueous and organic solvents, the amphiphilic compound will ... Hydropathic waves optimize the description of the small (40,42 aa) plaque-forming (aggregative) Aβ fragments. Antimicrobial ... while exposing the hydrophilic part to the aqueous medium, altering their physical behavior and sometimes disrupting them. Aβ ...
Nave S, Eastoe J, Penfold J (November 2000). "What Is So Special about Aerosol-OT? 1. Aqueous Systems". Langmuir. 16 (23): 8733 ... Sodium docusate is the most widely used surfactant in reverse micelle encapsulation studies. As a surfactant, docusate sodium ... Perfusion studies suggest that docusate inhibits fluid absorption or stimulates secretion in the portion of the small intestine ... and it has a rich variety of aqueous-phase behavior including multiple liquid crystalline phases. Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate ...
P. Mukerjee, P. & Mysels, K. J. (1971), "Critical Micelle Concentration of Aqueous Surfactant Systems," NSRDS-NBS 36, ... A series of small crossover studies (25-34 patients) have supported the efficacy of SLS in the reduction of VSCs, and its ... it has amphiphilic properties that allow it to form micelles, and so act as a detergent. The critical micelle concentration ( ... "Precision Relative Aggregation Number Determinations of SDS Micelles Using a Spin Probe. A Model of Micelle Surface Hydration ...
... shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle. In this way, the small oil droplet becomes water-soluble. ... A micelle - the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain ... Because the amount of charge separated in such dipoles is usually smaller than a fundamental charge, they are called partial ... They can form a micelle and are a vital in forming cell membranes ...
Food fat is dispersed by the action of bile into smaller units called micelles. The breaking down into micelles creates a much ... Aqueous pancreatic secretions from pancreatic duct cells contain bicarbonate ions which are alkaline and help with the bile to ... The small intestine is subdivided into the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. The cecum marks the division between the small ... This can cause vitamin deficiencies due to the improper absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. The small intestine can ...
The proteins are held together by small clusters of colloidal calcium phosphate, the micelle also contains lipase, citrate, ... and rennet derived from aqueous extracts from the fourth stomach of calves, kids or lambs, in an amount consistent with good ... At a pH of 6.5 the casein micelles repulse each other due to the electronegativity of the outer layer of the micelle.[8] During ... its structure also assists in the reactivity of the micelle.[10] The formation of casein molecules into the micelle is very ...
In the bulk aqueous phase, surfactants form aggregates, such as micelles, where the hydrophobic tails form the core of the ... Anti-fog - Chemicals that prevent the condensation of water as small droplets on a surface ... of the micelle. The compounds that coat a micelle are typically amphiphilic in nature, meaning that micelles may be stable ... Schematic diagram of a micelle of oil in aqueous suspension, such as might occur in an emulsion of oil in water. In this ...
... hydrophilic polymers results in formation of micelle-like structures that can protectively assist drug delivery through aqueous ... A significant change in structure and properties can be induced by a very small stimulus. Once that change occurs, there is no ... Hydrogels are polymer networks that do not dissolve in water but swell or collapse in changing aqueous environments. They are ...
Exogenous CoQ10 is absorbed from the small intestine and is best absorbed if taken with a meal. Serum concentration of CoQ10 in ... US 4483873, Ohashi, H.; T. Takami & N. Koyama et al., "Aqueous solution containing ubidecarenone", published 1984 ... which facilitates emulsification and micelle formation required for absorption of lipophilic substances.[39] Food intake (and ... This process in the human body involves secretion into the small intestine of pancreatic enzymes and bile, ...
Stronger acids have a smaller pKa than weaker acids. Experimentally determined pKa at 25 °C in aqueous solution are often ... The cell membrane of nearly all organisms is primarily made up of a phospholipid bilayer, a micelle of hydrophobic fatty acid ... Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous ... The word acid is derived from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour.[3] An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and ...
... β-Peptides are conformationally more stable in aqueous solution than naturally occurring peptides, especially for small chains ... The third mechanism responsible for the translocation is based on the formation of the inverted micelles. Inverted micelles are ... thus generating the formation of an inverted micelle inside of the lipid bilayer. The structure of the inverted micelles ... "Small-molecule mimics of an α-helix for efficient transport of proteins into cells". Nature Methods. 4 (2): 153-159. doi: ...
... calculator for aqueous solutions containing the ions H+, NH+. 4, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO2−. 4, NO−. 3, Cl−, CO2 ... Surface tension forces acting on a tiny (differential) patch of surface. δθx and δθy indicate the amount of bend over the ... Decrease surface tension until certain critical concentration, and no effect afterwards: surfactants that form micelles ... For not very small drops the effect is subtle, but the pressure difference becomes enormous when the drop sizes approach the ...
Casein micelles have a diameter ranging from 15-20 nanometers and are composed of flexible aggregates alpha, beta, and kappa- ... This explains why the can has a small rubber plug on its base. The can design also ensures that the cheese can be dispensed ... thixotropy and dynamical viscoelasticity of sodium alginate aqueous solutions. Food Hydrocolloids, 38, 119-128. Retrieved ... All of the negative charges causes the casein micelles to initially repel each other and provides stability to the matrix by ...
The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar ... such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in an aqueous solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three ... William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of ... Smaller-scale production involves the traditional batch processes. The three variations are the cold process, wherein the ...
However, in sharp contrast to surfactant micelles, the interior of a casein micelle is highly hydrated. The caseins in the ... As a result, it has relatively little tertiary structure. It is relatively hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water. It ... it is readily dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as aqueous sodium oxalate and sodium acetate. ... Dalgleish DG (1998). "Casein Micelles as Colloids: Surface Structures and Stabilities". J. Dairy Sci. 81 (11): 3013-8. doi: ...
Micelles are colloid-sized clusters of molecules which form in conditions as those above, similar to the critical micelle ... a b Carey MC, Small DM and Bliss CM. Lipid digestion and Absorption. Annual Review of Physiology. 1983. 45:651-77. ... complex lipids/micellar/aqueous/hydrocolloid and hydrophobic phases. *hydrophilic phases. *solid, liquid, colloidal and gas ... Resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine. foods providing nutrients are digested by gastric acid and ...
Micelles and nanoparticlesEdit. A drug design with curcuminoids in complex with micelles could be one solution of the ... It is possible to increase curcuminoid solubility in aqueous phase with surfactants or co-surfactants.[3] Curcumin derivatives ... and co-emulsifier are increased but the lipid amount is constant the surface of the SLN which is formed will be too small to ... The micelles are dissolved in a suitable solvent where the headgroups of the micelles interact with the solvent. Curcuminoids ...
... even though neither surfactant formed micelles when present alone. Such aggregates can help carry other small molecules, such ... Since the nitrogen atom is in an amide linkage, the nitrogen is not pH active and is neutrally charged in all aqueous solutions ... stable vesicles in aqueous mixtures". J. Colloid Interface Sci. 358 (1): 208-216. Bibcode:2011JCIS..358..208G. doi:10.1016/j. ... to water led to the formation of micelle-like aggregates, ...
Micelle. *Microsome. *Protocell. *Spitzenkörper, a structure of many small vesicles found in fungal hyphae ... injection of a phospholipid solution into the aqueous buffer solution membranes.[24] In this way aqueous vesicle solutions can ... After the living tissue is crushed into suspension, various membranes form tiny closed bubbles. Big fragments of the crushed ... Multivesicular body, or MVB, is a membrane-bound vesicle containing a number of smaller vesicles. ...
... s (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and ... Pi, X. D.; Yu, T.; Yang, D. (2014). "Water-dispersible silicon-quantum-dot-containing micelles self-assembled from an ... Hydrogel encapsulation of quantum dots allows for quantum dots to be introduced into a stable aqueous solution, reducing the ... In this regime, smaller particles grow faster than large ones (since larger crystals need more atoms to grow than small ...
... "micelles". Water could penetrate between the micelles, and new micelles could form in the interstices between old micelles. The ... Dumetz AC, Chockla AM, Kaler EW, Lenhoff AM (Jan 2008). "Protein phase behavior in aqueous solutions: crystallization, liquid- ... but it is small enough to enable the LAF-1 droplets to flow like a liquid. Generally, interaction strength (affinity) and ... The modern usage of 'micelle' refers strictly to lipids, but its original usage clearly extended to other types of biomolecule ...
In DSC, a small sample is heated in a way that generates a very precise change in temperature with respect to time. During ... This is done so as to 'hide' the hydrophobic tail of the amphiphile inside the micelle core, exposing a hydrophilic (water- ... soluble) surface to aqueous solution. These spherical objects do not order themselves in solution, however. At higher ... The objects created by amphiphiles are usually spherical (as in the case of micelles), but may also be disc-like (bicelles), ...
Since PE has a small headgroup and readily forms inverted micelle phases it should, according to the stalk model, promote the ... Mixing of aqueous contents from vesicles as a result of lysis, fusion or physiological permeability can be detected ... The aqueous contents enclosed by each bilayer also remain separated. Fusion is involved in many cellular processes, ... Assays of membrane fusion report either the mixing of membrane lipids or the mixing of the aqueous contents of the fused ...
With discoveries, scientists create tiny apatite crystals in bones, vesicles formed out of membranes, pores in membranes for ... The IMPRS on Multiscale Bio-Systems addresses the fundamental levels of biosystems as provided by macromolecules in aqueous ... This includes inorganic and metallic nanoparticles, polymers and peptide structural units, their micelles and organised phases ... fuel cells and microcapsules as vehicles for medical drugs - all are larger than an atom, yet too small to be seen with the ...
Small uncharged apolar molecules diffuse through lipid bilayers many orders of magnitude faster than ions or water. This ... The primary role of the lipid bilayer in biology is to separate aqueous compartments from their surroundings. Without some form ... zero intrinsic curvature it will not form a bilayer and will instead form other phases such as micelles or inverted micelles. ... Addition of small hydrophilic molecules like sucrose into mixed lipid lamellar liposomes made from galactolipid-rich thylakoid ...
Within a hydrogel encapsulation, the ZnSe shell surface may be charged to bind to the hydrophobic interior of a micelle, which ... The ability to visualize the chemical and biological processes of DNA allows feedback to optimize and learn about these small ... In order to use quantum dots in many biology related applications, the quantum dots must be soluble in aqueous environments. ... This allows quantum dots functionalized with DNA to be used in the aqueous conditions often found in biology and medical ...
By a minimization of free energy argument, the relation that predicted the smaller new contact angle is the state most likely ... Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together, forming micelles. Water on hydrophobic surfaces will exhibit a high ... aggregation of non-polar molecules in aqueous solutions Hydrophobicity scales Lipophobicity, also known as oleophobicity Rare ... The larger particles were observed to protect the smaller particles from mechanical abrasion. In recent research, ...
A typical vesicle or micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with ... Protocells composed of fatty acids would have been able to easily exchange small molecules and ions with their environment. ... In an aqueous environment in which all known cells function, a non-aqueous barrier is required to surround a cell and separate ... Later, in 2002, it was discovered that by adding montmorillonite to a solution of fatty acid micelles (lipid spheres), the clay ...
Small-angle laser light scattering has provided information about spatial density fluctuations or the shape of growing crystal ... Molecular crystals, liquid crystals, colloids, micelles, emulsions, phase-separated polymers, thin films and self-assembled ... electrically charged macromolecules in an aqueous environment can exhibit long-range crystal-like correlations with ... Periodic ordered lattices behave as linear viscoelastic solids when subjected to small amplitude mechanical deformations. ...
... and Intermicellar Interactions of Wormlike SDS Micelles in NaBr Aqueous Solutions. *Lise Arleth, Magnus Bergström, Jan Skov ... Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of the Growth Behavior, Flexibility, ...
Journal Article Song, Yang ; Wang, Mingming ; Li, Suiqiong ; ... - Small The design and synthesis of biocompatible ... Title: Hierarchical Assembly of Peptoid-Based Cylindrical Micelles Exhibiting Efficient Resonance Energy Transfer in Aqueous ... title = {Hierarchical Assembly of Peptoid-Based Cylindrical Micelles Exhibiting Efficient Resonance Energy Transfer in Aqueous ... Hierarchical Assembly of Peptoid-Based Cylindrical Micelles Exhibiting Efficient Resonance Energy Transfer in Aqueous Solution ...
... block copolymers in aqueous solution. Hickl, Peter; Ballauff, Matthias ... Small-angle X-ray contrast variation study of micelles formed by poly(styrene)- poly(ethylene oxide) ...
... wherein each worm-like micelle comprises one or more wholly synthetic, polymeric, super-amphiphilic molecules that s ... Provided are worm-like micelles, capable of encapsulating at least one encapsulant, ... Worm micelles have been formed from small (˜500-1000 g/mol) amphiphiles (Walker, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 6:451 (2001 ... Worm micelles assembled from PEO-based nonionic copolymers prove extremely stable in aqueous media, and the dynamics of the ...
Her research focuses on physiochemical investigations of micelles and polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions; techniques used ... include light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, neutron spin-echo spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy. She has served ...
... form unimolecular micelles (unimer micelles) in aqueous solutions of a wide range of concentrations if the hydrophobe contents ... of the micelle should be equal to or smaller than the length of the fully extended Chol-PAMPS chain. For Chol-PAMPS of DP = 72 ... The micelle formation of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous solutions has been the focus of great interest in a number of ... Even if most of the polymers have one Chol group at one chain end and they form spherical micelles, a small number of polymer ...
... which formed micelles by heating its aqueous solution above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The micelles were ... The micelles showed a small size (30 nm) and high loading capacity (16.0 ± 0.1%) for paclitaxel and released paclitaxel for ... which formed micelles by heating its aqueous solution above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The micelles were ... Anthracene functionalized thermosensitive and UV-crosslinkable polymeric micelles Y. Shi, R. M. Cardoso, C. F. van Nostrum and ...
The adsorbed ligands can form micelles around the particles and form small-particle colloids improving stability and phase ... Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN ... The particle sizes are typically less than 0.1 mm (100 µm), but sometimes sizes smaller than 7-10 µm are required.[20] There is ... These collectors coat a particles surface with a monolayer of non-polar substance to aid separation from the aqueous phase by ...
The structure of the aescin micelles was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at 10 and 40 ∘ C. At low ... because the acidic aescin has the ability to lower the pH value in aqueous solution. ... The radii of gyration were determined to ≈31 Å (rods) and ≈21 Å (ellipsoid). The rod-like shape of the aescin micelles at low ... The critical micelle concentration ( c m c ) of aescin is determined from the concentration-dependent autofluorescence (AF) of ...
Micelles consist of single lipid layers arranged into a sphere. In aqueous solutions, the hydrophobic ends point towards the ... To be able to engineer that in a small molecule is almost impossible. There are not enough elements in a small molecule to ... Like micelles, liposomes can carry molecules in their interior cavity; in aqueous solutions, cargo is generally water soluble. ... Nanomaterials are not so small that they are rapidly eliminated through the kidney, yet they are small enough that they are ...
However, the bulk of the stable micelles, made up of the surfactant/alcohol complex, remains and there is little or no ... but rapidly gravity separate into clean layers with little or no emulsion turbidity. The lower aqueous phase takes on a color ... thus producing a concentrated additive that is then mixed with the aqueous acid phase. However, the mixing of the aqueous acid ... a) An aqueous acid solution;. (b) a surfactant characterized by the chemical formula: ##STR4## where R is an alkyl or alkyl- ...
Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate ... Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate ... and solid dispersion have been explored towards improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. Dendrimers, a ... and solid dispersion have been explored towards improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. Dendrimers, a ...
Atul Kumar has reported multicomponent reaction Hantzsch ester synthesis in Aqueous Micelles using ultrasound. Some water ... typically small) point. Sonochemistry can also be used to weld metals which are not normally feasible to join, or form novel ...
Surfactants are surface active agents that thermodynamically stabilize the very small dispersed micelles or reverse micelles in ... They are typically soluble in the aqueous reverse micelles and may be solids, liquids, or gases. In a preferred embodiment, ... This system is comprised of a plurality of very small spherical water pools (i.e., reverse micelles) that serve as reactors for ... This indicates that nanoparticle core nuclei first form in a small fraction of micelles; these then consume the reactant(s) in ...
By combining NMR (yielding H-1 chemical shift, spin relaxation, and self-diffusion data) and small-angle X-ray scattering ... The thesis presents work regarding amphiphilic molecules associated in aqueous solution or at the liquid/solid interface. Two ... one for pure micelles and one for micelles with solubilizates. The release behavior of systems with different initial HMDSO ... Release of Solubilizate from Micelle upon Core Freezing. Dai, Jing KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), ...
Liposomes are small vesicles consisting of a bilayer lipid membrane surrounding an aqueous interior compartment [49]. The ... Polymeric micelles. Paclitaxel. Genexol-PM™/Samyang Biopharmaceuticals. Breast cancer. Approved. Docetaxel. Genexol-PM™/Samyang ... Polymeric nanocarriers include micelles, dendrimers, and polymer-drug conjugates.. Many biodegradable polymers have been used ... These nanoparticles need to be small so that they can be superparamagnetic in order to avoid agglomeration after stoppage of ...
This enables bile salts to make small parcels (micelles) including several different molecules, with cholesterol as contents ... The hydrophobic aspect of the bile salt faces inwards, and the hydrophilic aspect faces outwards into the aqueous component of ... In races whose diets contain little animal fat (Japanese and Masai for example) the bile contains little cholesterol, and ... The way that the liver achieves this is not to include it in the centre of a micelle, but to attach, or conjugate, it to ...
... the coloring material comes to be enclosed instantaneously by the tri-block copolymer to form uniformly many small micelles. ... Aqueous ink, ink cartridge and ink jet recording method. US9593250. Jun 25, 2015. Mar 14, 2017. Canon Kabushiki Kaisha. Aqueous ... These inkjet methods usually use an aqueous dye solution as the ink. The aqueous ink tends to run on overlapping of the colors ... The block copolymer is preferred also for uniform micelle formation. Use of a microreactor for the treatment for the micelle ...
micelle* An aggregate of molecules in a colloid [1]. For example, phospholipids in aqueous solution form micelles - small ... micelle An aggregate of molecules in a colloid. For example, phospholipids in aqueous solution form micelles - small clusters ... micelles Emulsified droplets of partially hydrolysed lipids, small enough to be absorbed across the intestinal mucosa.. ... micelles A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ...
... created aqueous micelles that pair conjugated polyelectrolyte charge donors with fullerene acceptors at a much smaller ... As discussed above, aqueous solutions of PFT and trans-1,2 fullerenes show little PL quenching (Fig. 4, F and G), but they did ... An aqueous micelle can stabilize separated charges created by photoinduced electron transfer for several days. ... An aqueous micelle can stabilize separated charges created by photoinduced electron transfer for several days. ...
... aqueous environment to a hydrophobic environment and then back into an aqueous environment.Therefore the permeability of small ... Micelles are also at work in the human body. Micelles help the body absorb lipid and fat soluble vitamins. They help the small ... Micelles are lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions. The formation of a micelle is a ... Micelle formation is described by thermodynamics, driven by entropy and enthalpy. Function and Usage[edit]. Micelles usually ...
... extracted from aqueous samples in the presence of Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant and preconcentrated into the small ... After centrifuge and separation of aqueous phase, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 100 μL acetone and injected in the ... Micelle-Mediated Extraction Prior to LC-UV for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Bisphenol A in ... A simple and high sensitive preconcentration method based on micelle-mediated extraction followed by high performance liquid ...
... with smaller spherical micelles containing proportionally more water. The aqueous-oil droplet interface has a relatively ... except where the inverse micelles are spherical and small; here, there is little effect of dilution. Substitution of sorbitan ... Structure of High Internal Phase Aqueous-in-oil Emulsions and Related Inverse Micelle Solutions. 3. Variation of Surfactant The ... Structure of High Internal Phase Aqueous-in-oil Emulsions and Related Inverse Micelle Solutions. 4. Surfactant Mixtures The ...
The analysis shows that pure C(12)G(2) forms small globular micelles whereas C12E6 and the mixtures form elongated micelles of ... Mixed micelles formed in aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol (C12E6) and n-dodecyl-beta-D- ... spherical and cylindrical micelles) at all [NaCl], which is consistent with the fact that rather small micelles, as a rule, ... 12 form rather small spheroidal micelles rather than strictly spherical micelles. By means of comparing our present SANS ...
... circular dichroism studies of BtuC subunits in aqueous DDM micelles, at the same urea concentration, have shown little change ... we show that by maintaining detergent micelles in solutions, well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), it is ... Micelles Protect Membrane Complexes from Solution to Vacuum. By Nelson P. Barrera, Natalie Di Bartolo, Paula J. Booth, Carol V ... Micelles Protect Membrane Complexes from Solution to Vacuum. By Nelson P. Barrera, Natalie Di Bartolo, Paula J. Booth, Carol V ...
Because of the very small size of mixed micelles, they are dispersed in the aqueous environment of the intestinal lumen and can ... The micelles facilitate fat absorption by providing a high concentration of lipids in the unstirred water layer adjacent to the ... First of all the diameter of VLDL particles synthesised in the liver of laying hens is about 30 nm, significantly smaller than ... At any time, an ovary contains ova in various stages of development, ranging from very small, white ova, to almost mature ...
The compound is carried in tiny micelles to ensure solubility of fat soluble nutrients into the aqueous GI tract ... VM-75 is a suggested one a day multi built around a 75mg B Complex with smaller amounts of other nutrients. The VM-2000 is a ... Sublingual means under the tongue - if a B12 nugget is held under the tongue (or in the cheek) it is a small enough molecule to ... For example, Calcium carbonate powder would be a smaller pile than the same amount of calcium malate or citrate. In addition, ...
By simply heating up an aqueous polymer solution, compact spherical nanoparticles smaller than 100 nanometres are spontaneously ... Experiments have shown that various types of fat-soluble anticancer drugs could be enclosed in the core of these micelles. The ... The stabilised nanoballs accumulated to a larger extent in the tumours of tumour-carrying mice than traditional micelles. The ... The properties and life span of Rijckens so-called stabilised micelles can be completely controlled by changing the ...
... images show the presence of small micelles with a size of about 5 nm for all compounds. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) ... New living polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal systems. Vermonden, T. ; Koudijs, A. ; Marcelis, A.T.M. ; Sudhölter, E.J ... A small decrease in CMC was found upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the amino acid. The CMC of the tyrosine conjugate ... Micelle formation antimicrobial activity of cholic acid derivates with three permanent ionic head groups. Willemen, H.M. ; Smet ...
The reverse micelles themselves are inside a bubble of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide in the examples shown. ... Inside a bubble of aqueous solvent thats floating in an alkane bulk phase (and surrounded by an amphipathic layer), the ... youd have to assume that pretty much any part of it that can recognize a small molecule has been given its chance to do so. ( ... clogP,0.5 is enough? I would have thought 0, then basically no concentrating effect through the inverse micelles. Or am I ...
  • Here, however, we show that by maintaining detergent micelles in solutions, well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), it is possible to protect interactions between cytoplasmic and transmembrane subunits and, through gas-phase activation, release intact membrane complexes. (
  • The properties of the polymeric micelles such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), mean size and morphology were investigated. (
  • Using a very popular and commonly used surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS, C18H29SO3Na) for a case study, we report a new method of monitoring different forms of surfactant molecules in aqueous solution and measuring their critical micelle concentration (CMC) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. (
  • The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is the concentration of surfactant in solution that must be reached for micelles to begin to form. (
  • The amphiphilic graft copolymers in aqueous media had critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range of 10 −6 to 10 −7 g/mL, which were determined by fluorescence method using pyrene as a probe. (
  • The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and critical vesicle concentration (cvc) were determined based on changes in conductivity, as well as by fluorescence measurements, and light scattering methods. (
  • Polymeric micelles are important nanovehicles for anticancer drug delivery. (
  • The lipophilic segment in polymeric micelle is an important factor to affect the drug loading properties. (
  • In our previous work, we have found that small molecules with π-π conjugated structures could be used to replace hydrophobic polymeric chains as lipophilic segments for anticancer drug delivery. (
  • Herein, we reported a novel polymeric micelle with π-π conjugated cinnamate moiety on glycerol dendrimer as lipophilic segment , the modified dendritic segment was connected to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) via click chemistry. (
  • Anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded in the polymeric micelles. (
  • The DOX loaded polymeric micelles exhibited efficient anticancer activity in vitro. (
  • 2012) In vitro evaluation of polymeric micelles based on hydrophobically-modified sulfated chitosan as a carrier of doxorubicin. (
  • To establish small-sized superparamagnetic polymeric micelles for magnetic resonance and fluorescent dual-modal imaging, we investigated the feasibility of MR imaging (MRI) and macrophage-targeted in vitro. (
  • A new class of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and Nile red-co-loaded mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION polymeric micelles was synthesized to label Raw264.7 cells. (
  • The physical characteristics of the polymeric micelles were assessed, the T2 relaxation rate was calculated, and the effect of labeling on the cell viability and cytotoxicity was also determined in vitro. (
  • The diameter of the mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION polymeric micelles was 33.8 ± 5.8 nm on average. (
  • We successfully synthesized dual-modal MR and fluorescence imaging mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION polymeric micelles with an ultra-small size and high MRI sensitivity, which were effectively and quickly uptaken into Raw 264.7 cells. (
  • mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION polymeric micelles might become a new MR lymphography contrast agent, with high effectiveness and high MRI sensitivity. (
  • At the same time, polymeric micelles display many advantages, including a small size, a long half-life, and easy passive targeting. (
  • Additionally, as an MR contrast agent, we can obtain polymeric micelles with the property of macrophage targeting by controlling the particle size and superparamagnetism by loading SPIO. (
  • Furthermore, we can load Nile red into core micelles to establish small-sized, superparamagnetic, dual-modal polymeric micelles, to evaluate the macrophage uptake efficiency of micelles in vitro, and investigate the feasibility of MRI in vitro. (
  • One of the approaches that have attracted significant attention is the polymeric micelles [ 12 ]. (
  • Enhancing oral bioavailability of quercetin using novel soluplus polymeric micelles. (
  • Bhuptani RS, Jain AS, Makhija DT, Jagtap AG, Hassan PAR, Nagarsenker MS. Soluplus based polymeric micelles and mixed micelles of lornoxicam: design, characterization and in vivo efficacy studies in rats. (
  • In mixed micelles, that phase transition still occurs accompanied by a reversible segregation of different surfactants into distinct aggregates. (
  • Conversely, for membrane protein complexes in micelles, the transition into the gas phase usually leads to the disruption of interactions, particularly between cytoplasmic and membrane subunits, and a mass spectrum dominated by large aggregates of detergent molecules. (
  • Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the sur-factant molecules in aqueous solutions. (
  • The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. (
  • The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. (
  • The smaller particles having a diameter of ∼50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of ∼400 nm gave rise to coacervation. (
  • Other surfactant molecules clump together into smaller aggregates called micelles, which also absorb monomer molecules. (
  • DLS data reveal the formation of small aggregates (micelles) and single chains in diblock copolymer solutions. (
  • The individual micelles were assumed flower-like micelles having some chains dangling in solution and the large clusters as the loose aggregates formed by the intermicellar connection through bridges. (
  • Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments unambiguously prove the existence of polymersomes, wormlike micelles and their aggregates in aqueous solution. (
  • Nanomicellar technology incorporates micelles, which are gelatinous aggregates of amphipathic molecules that are small enough to enter into corneal and conjunctival cells, thereby enabling delivery of high concentrations of CsA. (
  • Micelles are gelatinous aggregates of amphipathic (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) molecules, Sun explains in a press release, and the small size of the nanomicelles allows entry into corneal and conjunctival cells, "enabling delivery of high concentrations of CsA. (
  • Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. (
  • Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate bioavailability and therapeutic outcome. (
  • A number of different approaches including co-solvency, micellar solubilization, micronization, pH adjustment, chemical modification, and solid dispersion have been explored toward improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. (
  • The role of aqueous-solubility of any new chemical entity (NCE) or a drug is crucial and decisive in the development of its formulation. (
  • Though many of these entities are highly potent drug candidates, they are not taken further into the development due to their limited aqueous solubility. (
  • In order for a molecule to pass through the lipid bilayer it must move from an aqueous environment to a hydrophobic environment and then back into an aqueous environment.Therefore the permeability of small molecules is related to the solubility of said molecule in a nonpolar solvent versus the solubility of the molecule in water. (
  • This technology allows for increased solubility and can penetrate the eyes aqueous layer, preventing the release of active lipophilic molecule prior to this. (
  • Cequa's 0.09% concentration of cyclosporine A (CsA) is the highest on the market, and the product includes a unique 'nanomicellar' formulation that Sun Pharma says "allows the CsA molecule to overcome solubility challenges, penetrate the eye's aqueous layer and prevents the release of the active lipophilic molecule prior to penetration. (
  • Poor aqueous solubility limits the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. (
  • Saponins from Quillaja saponaria and Camellia oleifera improved the aqueous solubility of danazol and fenofibrate by more than two orders of magnitude. (
  • More than 40 % of the orally administered immediaterelease drug products are characterized by poor aqueous solubility [ 1 ]. (
  • One of the classical approaches to improve the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic drugs, which is still being widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, is to solubilize them in surfactant micelles [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • These formulations allow to improve the solubility and physical stability in aqueous media of poorly soluble drugs. (
  • The incorporation of hydrophobic groups into a hydrophilic polymer can alter its solution properties in an aqueous solution. (
  • An anthracene-functionalized thermosensitive block copolymer was synthesized, which formed micelles by heating its aqueous solution above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). (
  • All investigations were performed at a constant pH of 7.4, because the acidic aescin has the ability to lower the pH value in aqueous solution. (
  • 5. An acidic surfactant composition of claim 4 wherein said aqueous acid solution is a water and CO 2 phase. (
  • 14. A method according to claim 13 wherein said aqueous acid solution is a water and CO 2 phase. (
  • Previously, the pure micellar solution was demonstrated to exhibit core freezing at approximately 7-8 degrees C. At room temperature, we find that HMDSO solubilizes at a volume fraction of approximately 10% in the core of the C18E20 micelles, which consists of molten and thereby highly mobile alkyl chains. (
  • The thesis presents work regarding amphiphilic molecules associated in aqueous solution or at the liquid/solid interface. (
  • Properly designed assemblies can produce separated polaronic charges that are stable for days or weeks in aqueous solution. (
  • For example, phospholipids in aqueous solution form micelles - small clusters of molecules in which the nonpolar hydrocarbon groups are in the centre and the hydrophilic polar groups are on the outside. (
  • By simply heating up an aqueous polymer solution, compact spherical nanoparticles smaller than 100 nanometres are spontaneously formed. (
  • Inside a bubble of aqueous solvent that's floating in an alkane bulk phase (and surrounded by an amphipathic layer), the molarity of the fragments is increased to levels that you really shouldn't try to reach in bulk solution. (
  • Unlike commonly used detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate or polyethylene polyethyleneglycol, MPD does not form micelles in solution. (
  • Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60°C (ξ = 50 Å, ζ = 113 Å) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28°C (ξ = 47 Å, ζ = 115 Å) in aqueous phase [2] indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel. (
  • Micellar solution of nonionic surfactant n -dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 11 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) 10 OH], C 12 E 10 in D 2 O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60° C) both in the presence and absence of sugars. (
  • In aqueous solution above a critical micellar concentration ( cmc ), they self-assemble into micelles consisting of a hydrophobic core of tail groups surrounded by a shell of hydrophilic head groups and water. (
  • Typical time evolution of absolute SAXS intensities upon rapid mixing of SDS micelles (weight 1%) and 2 M NaCl solution. (
  • a) Time dependence for the aspect ratio of SDS micelles, in 0.5 M NaCl solution. (
  • For this purpose, we have conducted in vitro mannitol skin permeability and average skin electrical resistivity measurements upon exposure of the skin to an aqueous SCI contacting solution in the context of a hindered-transport aqueous porous pathway model of the SC. (
  • Herein we demonstrate that unequivocal step-change shifts in micelle populations occur over several weeks following transfer into a highly selective solvent.Notably, these results underscore fundamental similarities between assembly processes in amphiphilic polymer, small molecule and protein systems.Moreover, the non-equilibrium micelle size increase can have a major impact on the assumed stability of solution assemblies, for which performance is dictated by nanocarrier size and structure. (
  • These preparation strategies hinge on the assumption that macromolecular solution nanostructures are kinetically stable following transfer from an organic/aqueous cosolvent into aqueous solution. (
  • The unexpected micelle growth evolves through a distinct bimodal distribution separated by multiple fusion events and critically depends on solution agitation. (
  • Moreover, the non-equilibrium micelle size increase can have a major impact on the assumed stability of solution assemblies, for which performance is dictated by nanocarrier size and structure. (
  • One major obstacle in crystallizing membrane proteins was that they are actually membrane proteins and lipids together, meaning the membrane is partly hydrophobic and it is thus impossible to create an aqueous solution. (
  • In triblock copolymer aqueous solution, large clusters were the dominant scatterers in addition to the micelles and single chains. (
  • Stearic acid (SA) grafted CSO (CSO-SA) was prepared by coupling reaction through carboxyl group of SA and the amino groups of CSO, Which can form nanoparticle with positive electrical charge in aqueous solution and enter the cancer cells [ 10 , 11 , 25 ]. (
  • Small-angle neutron scattering experiments showed that these substrates form micelles in solution. (
  • 6. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said electrolytic cell is used for the production of halogen and alkali metal hydroxide from an aqueous alkali metal halide solution. (
  • NIST researcher Ted Heilweil, National Research Council postdoctoral fellow Catherine Cooksey and NIST Summer Undergraduate Research Fellow Ben Greer from Carnegie Mellon University found their solution in the form of nanoscale droplets made of soap-like molecules called micelles. (
  • Electrostatic self-assembly of oppositely charged macromolecules in aqueous solution is a versatile strategy to construction of functional nanostructures with easily controlled properties. (
  • This thesis constitutes a systematic investigation of PECs formed by a series of cationic bottle-brush polyelectrolytes and a series of anionic linear polyelectrolytes in aqueous solution. (
  • However, the size limitations of solution NMR due to the slow tumbling problem have restricted comprehensive structural characterization of membrane protein NMR structures to the relatively small β-barrel proteins or helical proteins of simple topology. (
  • DLS showed that the micelles were stable in aqueous solution. (
  • This article concerns the adsorption of the diblock polyampholyte poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl metharylate) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA) from aqueous solution on silicon substrates. (
  • Using dynamic light scattering polyampholytic structures with diameters around 50 nm were found in aqueous solution. (
  • Triton X-100 in Aqueous Solution. (
  • Pastor, O., Junquera, E. and Aicart, E. (1998) Hydration and Micellization Processes of n-Octyl-β-D-Glucopyranoside in Aqueous Solution. (
  • Aliquots of the peptide solution were titrated to the micelle solution to reach a peptide-to-micelle molar ratio of 1: 220. (
  • This solution was titrated with the HSA fragment by adding small amounts of an ~ 0.3 mM protein solution in the aqueous buffer and recording the spectrum after incubation for a few minutes after each addition. (
  • pH responsive surfactants, [C H N(CH ) (CH ) SCOCH ]Br (C nSAc, n = 4, 11, 12), were prepared, and their properties in aqueous solution were examined. (
  • A particular form of phase transition, core freezing, was detected as a function of temperature in micelles composed by a single sort of Brij-type surfactants. (
  • Structure of inverse micelles and emulsion-gels with fluorinated nonionic surfactants. (
  • We have made measurements by flow calorimetry and flow densimetry that have led to apparent and partial molar heat capacities and also apparent and partial molar volumes of aqueous solutions of surfactants (cationic, anionic, and non-ionic) at concentrations both smaller and larger than the critical micelle concentrations. (
  • Much more is known about the molecular properties of their smaller micellar counterparts where model systems using surfactants such as dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT or Aerosol-OT) have been illuminating. (
  • Aggregation and pH Responsive Behavior of Thioester Surfactants and Formation of Disulfide Linkages in Aqueous Solutions. (
  • In the mixed systems of free bile salts with nonionic surfactants, the dissociation state of carboxyl groups in mixed micelles depends on the species of hydrophilic group of nonionic surfactants as well as on mole fraction in the surfactant mixture. (
  • Some cholesterol derivatives are known to form ordered structures which indicate thermotropic and lyotropic liquid-crystalline, monolayers, multilayers, micelles, and liposomes. (
  • These transfection compounds share a number of characteristics with their natural counterparts, including the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of each molecule which allow for the formation of spheroid liposomes under aqueous conditions. (
  • Alternatives to liposomes include non-liposomal lipids and polymers capable of forming complexes with nucleic acid to form micelles, or tiny encapsulating droplets. (
  • A unique feature of cell membranes as well as micelles, microemulsions, liposomes, etc is a molecular organization that controls processes, reactions, and/or change the spectroscopy properties of probes. (
  • Micelles form spontaneously in water, as stated above this spontaneous arrangement is due to the amphipathic nature of the molecule. (
  • Lipid bilayers" form rapidly and spontaneously in an aqueous media and are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, Van der Waals attractive forces, and electrostatic interactions. (
  • In aqueous solutions, amphiphiles spontaneously assemble into micelles. (
  • Figure 1 depicts the typical evolution of background-subtracted normalised SAXS intensities upon mixing solutions of 1 weight % of SDS with 2 M NaCl, corresponding to a final salt concentration of 1 M. At this salt concentration, worm-like micelles form spontaneously. (
  • When fatty acids are in an aqueous environment, they spontaneously arrange so that their hydrophilic, or water-loving, "heads" interact with the surrounding water molecules and their hydrophobic, or water-fearing, "tails" are shielded from the water, resulting in the formation of tiny spheres of fatty acids called micelles. (
  • To be able to engineer that in a small molecule is almost impossible. (
  • There are not enough elements in a small molecule to allow you to build in those controls. (
  • The polar head groups of micelles form the outside surface of the molecule, facing the aqueous environment, and their hydrophobic chains are clustered in the interior, where water is excluded since they are nonpolar. (
  • One of those examples is interleukin 1-beta, which is certainly a representative of proteins that don't give you a lot to work with as far as small-molecule binding sites. (
  • The small molecule 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) was used to stabilize the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA) utilized as host for the construction of a rhodium-based biohybrid catalyst. (
  • In a second approach, conjugated polymers are end-capped with a small molecule that can form self-complementary quadrupole hydrogen bonding associations. (
  • Notably, these results underscore fundamental similarities between assembly processes in amphiphilic polymer, small molecule and protein systems. (
  • Szostak's group took a creative approach to this research challenge and made a significant contribution to our understanding of small molecule transport through membranes," said Luis Echegoyen, director of the NSF Division of Chemistry. (
  • The critical concentration for micelle formation, as well as corresponding value of the area per surfactant molecule of Gibbs surface excess, are determined. (
  • The RIXS and XAS measurements show the electronic structure in bulk water and the influence of the chemical surrounding of the water molecule in bulk water and of the water molecules confined in a micelle lattice. (
  • What this new paper does is increase the concentration of the fragments around the protein of interest by using reverse micelles, as shown at right. (
  • And you use less material as well - amounts of compound that would correspond to 0.8 mM in bulk are actually about 40 mM inside the reverse micelles. (
  • The reverse micelles themselves are inside a bubble of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide in the examples shown. (
  • SAXS data are consistent with the formation of small spherical reverse micelles with core diameters (approx. (
  • Here we detail an approach for the encapsulation of integral membrane proteins in reverse micelles, allowing for their study in low viscosity solvents and thus limiting the slow tumbling issue. (
  • We are able to confirm the helical structure of KcsA's transmembrane domains in reverse micelles, as well as proper quaternary arrangement of the monomers and preservation of potassium coordination in the selectivity filter. (
  • Additionally we show that the solvation properties of the channel in reverse micelles are analogous to a membrane protein solubilized by a traditional aqueous micelle. (
  • The surface active behavior of these esters, as a result of short length of lipophilic chain, changes significatively with small variations in hydrophilic character of their alcoholic groups. (
  • The transfection is usually performed under aqueous conditions, which enables the lipophilic portion of the amphiphilic compound, or the part of the droplet that displays affinity for fatty-acid compounds such as the cell membrane, to form the micelle capsule that encases the exogenous nucleic acids. (
  • 3. The worm-like micelle of claim 1, wherein all of the super-amphiphilic molecules comprising the micelle are block copolymers. (
  • 5. The worm-like micelle of claim 4, wherein increasing molecular weight of the copolymers increases both core diameter of the worm-like micelle and its stiffness in terms of persistence length. (
  • The micelle formation of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous solutions has been the focus of great interest in a number of excellent reviews [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Water is a selective solvent for amphiphilic block copolymers, allowing for the formation of spherical micelles. (
  • It is shown that increasing content of fluorine in the poly(2-oxazoline) copolymers results in a morphological transition from bilayered or multi-layered vesicles to wormlike micelles for solutions prepared by direct dissolution. (
  • Formation of PECs by bottle-brush copolymers with high density of side-chains results in small, watersoluble, molecular complexes having nonspherical shape, independent of concentration. (
  • micelles Emulsified droplets of partially hydrolysed lipids, small enough to be absorbed across the intestinal mucosa. (
  • Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. (
  • Depending upon chemical concentrations and the pH of their environment, micelles can convert into layered membrane sheets or enclosed vesicles. (
  • Micellular particles such as small unilamellar vesicles of less than 2000 A° loaded with 111 In are administered to BALB/c mice in which EMT 6 tumors had been induced. (
  • The sequence "bilayers in vesicles - bilayer fragments (flat mixed micelles) - tubular mixed micelles - globular mixed micelles" was suggested for the solubilization mechanism of DOPC vesicles from the combined turbidimetric and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) results. (
  • The diameter of C 11SAc, recorded by the dynamic light scattering measurements, was about 9.6 1.0 nm, which was slightly smaller than that for didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) vesicles. (
  • and wherein at least one of said super-amphiphilic molecules is a hydrophilic block copolymer, the weight fraction (w) of which, relative to total copolymer molecular weight, directs assembly of the amphiphilic molecules into the worm-like micelle of up to one or more microns in length, and determines its stability, flexibility and convective responsiveness. (
  • By combining NMR (yielding H-1 chemical shift, spin relaxation, and self-diffusion data) and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, we investigate the complex temperature dependence of the molecular and aggregate states in aqueous solutions of the surfactant [CH3(CH2)(17)(OCH2CH2)(20)OH], abbreviated as C18E20, and.hexamethyldisiloxane, HMDSO. (
  • The advantage of the amphiphilic MPD over micelle-forming detergents is demonstrated in the polymerization of phenylacetylene, showing a ten-fold increase in yield and increased molecular weights. (
  • The forms of SDBS micelles are also investigated by synthesizing and characterizing NiB nanoparticles using the micelles as molecular templates. (
  • The structure of the PECs formed with low molecular weight polyanions is consistent with the picture that several small linear polyelectrolyte molecules associate with the large bottle-brush. (
  • The effective molecular packing parameter δ = 0.5, corresponding to the mixed bilayer - mixed tubular micelle transition, was calculated from fragmental DOPC and LDAO volumes at the molar ratio LDAO:DOPC = 2.00 in bilayers, in the middle of transition region observed earlier experimentally by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). (
  • The investigated polyampholyte is characterized by a small molecular weight around 15,000 g/mol and a big positively charged PDMAEMA block. (
  • Nanoemulsions, unlike microemulsions, have seen little work done to characterize molecular interactions at their surfaces. (
  • These large molecules made of small building blocks are called macromolecules. (
  • While organic building blocks like sugars , amino acids , fatty acids, and nitrogen bases formed easily in multiple environments found on the primeval Earth, polymerization into functional macromolecules was a little trickier and certainly took more time. (
  • It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. (
  • Dendrimers are highly branched, globular macromolecules that are capable of interacting with DNA to form small complexes. (
  • The received amphiphiles self-assembled into micelles in aqueous medium. (
  • Upon aqueous self-assembly, these amphiphiles formed micelles which exhibited variation in size, stability, cytotoxicity and DOX loading/release based upon the PTAG selected. (
  • The predominant casein of human milk is b -casein, which forms micelles of relatively small volume and produces a soft, flocculent curd in the infant's stomach. (
  • Silica-coated nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating nano-sized cores from reagents dissolved in the aqueous compartment of a water-in-oil microemulsion. (
  • The loaded worm-like micelles of the present invention are particularly suited for the stable and controlled transport, delivery and storage of materials, either in vivo or in vitro. (
  • Through in vitro quantitative skin radioactivity assays using 14 C-radiolabeled SCI and pig full-thickness skin (p-FTS), we also show conclusively that SCI skin penetration is dose-independent, an important finding that provides additional evidence that the larger SCI micelles cannot penetrate into the SC through the smaller aqueous pores that exist in the SC, and therefore, cannot induce skin barrier perturbation. (
  • In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the micelles had a dose-dependent toxicity for HeLa cells, indicating a great potential for controlled release of 6-mercaptopurine in tumor cells. (
  • In addition, further evaluation of the application potential of the micelles was conducted via in vitro MRI. (
  • Compared with the hydrophilic SPIO, mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION micelles increased transversely (r2), leading to a notably high r2 from 1.908 µg/mL -1 S -1 up to 5.032 µg/mL -1 S -1 , making the mPEG-Lys3-CA4-NR/SPION micelles a highly sensitive MRI T2 contrast agent, as further demonstrated by in vitro MRI. (
  • Novel Soluplus®-TPGS mixed micelles for encapsulation of paclitaxel with enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity on breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. (
  • Micelle formation is favored when the cross-sectional area of the head group is greater than that of the acyl side chain(s), as in free fatty acids, more notably lysophospholipids (phospholipids lacking one fatty acid), and many detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. (
  • To solve this problem, detergents were needed, but they tend to form large micelles that can obscure the protein within. (
  • Also provide are methods of preparing and methods of using the worm-like micelles, particularly when loaded with one or more encapsulants. (
  • The results show that upon rapid change in salt concentration, "worm-like" micelles are formed by the fusion of globular and transient elongated micelles on a millisecond time scale in a similar fashion to a step-like polymerisation process. (
  • Here we have exploited the high brilliance and low instrumental background of the ID02 SAXS instrument to map the pathways of a well-known shape transformation from spherical to worm-like micelles in a prototypical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) upon the addition of NaCl. (
  • The upturn of intensity at low Q values indicates the formation of worm-like micelles. (
  • At higher salt concentration (1 M), the SAXS data are best described by a linear combination of ellipsoidal and worm-like micelles. (
  • Concomitantly, the contour length of worm-like micelles ( L ave ) increases linearly as indicated in (c) and finally exceeds the resolution limit of the SAXS configuration. (
  • Unlike other previous works, our use of amphiphilic guaiacylglycerol β- O -4 substrate (I) enables the formation of micelles. (
  • 2. Formation of micelles (self association). (
  • The one exception to this rule is water because water has a high concentration, small size, and a lack of a complete charge. (
  • Sizes of micelles range from 2 nm (20 A) to 20 nm (200 A), depending on composition and concentration. (
  • Micelle-based peptide delivery provides several advantages: single micelles deliver high concentration of peptides into cells, they stabilize peptide secondary structure(s), and they have the potential for combinatorial synthesis using multiple bioactive moieties targeting non-redundant cell death escape pathways. (
  • Small-angle neutron scattering studies have been carried out to check the structural integrity of citryltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) micelles in a magnetic fluid for different magnetic fluid concentrations at two different temperatures 303 and 333 K. It is found that the CTABr micelles grow with increasing magnetic fluid concentration and there is a decrease in the micellar size with increase in temperature. (
  • The presence of lower concentration of sugar reduces the size of micelles and it grows at higher concentration of sugar. (
  • At lower salt concentration (c.a. 0.5 M), micelles become more elongated but do not form worm-like chains. (
  • At low salt concentration (0.5 M), the aspect ratio increases roughly as an exponential function but the micelles remain globular as shown in (a). (
  • When the concentration gets high enough, however, the molecules begin to arrange themselves in hollow spheres, rods and disks called micelles. (
  • The most important physico-chemical characteristics describing detergent micelles are the CMC value and the aggregation number. (
  • Tummino, P.J. and Gafni, A. (1993) Determination of the Aggregation Number of Detergent Micelles Using Steady-State Fluorescence Quenching. (
  • This thesis concerns studies of aqueous soft matter systems, especially surfactant micelle systems. (
  • By the theoretical modelling a predictive model for the surfactant release from a binary surfactant micelle system has been obtained and the importance of different factors for surfactant release has been further clarified. (
  • Paradies, H.H. (1980) Shape and Size of a Nonionic Surfactant Micelle. (
  • This enables bile salts to make small parcels ('micelles') including several different molecules, with cholesterol as contents and bile salts as the wrapping. (
  • The bile micelles pass into the duodenum, where the detergent action of the bile salts emulsifies fats, which are then broken down by the enzyme lipase from the pancreas . (
  • Bile salts pass down the entire length of the small intestine, but instead of their being degraded or excreted in faeces, a remarkable phenomenon occurs. (
  • The bile salts are absorbed as whole molecules at the far end of the small intestine (the terminal ileum) and pass up the portal vein to the liver, whence they are re-secreted into bile. (
  • The products of fat digestion are dispersed into micelles by the action of bile salts, which facilitates their absorption in the small intestine. (
  • Micelles are lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions. (
  • The structure of lipids in aqueous solutions are usually bilayer sheets of lipids rather than spherical micelles. (
  • This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results. (
  • In the present work, an archetypical, simple surfactant system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulphate in aqueous salt solutions was investigated using time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with stopped-flow rapid mixing. (
  • We have recently shown that SDS forms small micelles in aqueous solutions contacting the skin relative to the aqueous pores in the stratum corneum (SC), and as a result, the SDS micelles can contribute to SDS skin penetration and induce skin barrier perturbation. (
  • Moreover, the final micelle sizes were similar for the specimens made from 10 % to 50 % by volume THF solutions, supporting the plateau in growth noted in the DLS results. (
  • We report on the self-assembly behavior of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-block-poly(2-octyl-2-oxazoline) comprising different terminal perfluoroalkyl fragments in aqueous solutions. (
  • C, for aqueous solutions of these three D-mannitol esters. (
  • Among the various applications of this solubilizer excipient, produced by BASF, such as the production of amorphous solid dispersions of insoluble drugs, Soluplus® has shown to be able to form nano-sized micelles in water or other aqueous solutions, characterized by a very small diameter and an exceptionally narrow size distribution. (
  • Two main topics are included: the temperature-dependent behavior of micelles and the adsorption of dispersants on carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. (
  • Analogous regular structures were also found by scanning force microscopy (SFM) and grazing incidence, small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) at the silicon surface after the adsorption process. (
  • Liu S., Zhang R., Karpyn Z.T., Yoon H., Dewers T., " Investigation of accessible pore structure evolution under pressurization and adsorption for coal and shale using small-angle neutron scattering ", Energy & Fuels, 33, 2, 837-847 (2019). (
  • Adams A.A., " Multiscale Investigation of the Nonlinear Rheology of Wormlike Micelles ", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (2018). (
  • The oil solvency is further enhanced and selectively controlled by addition of an oil solvent (e.g., aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid esters, ketones, CS 2 , etc.) to the micelle. (
  • 2-O-n-Octanoyl-D-mannitol and 3-O-n-octanoyl-D-mannitol were obtained by esterification of 1,3;4,6-di-O-benzylidene-D-mannitol, or 1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol, with octanoyl chloride, in pyridine, and subsequent hydrolysis of intermediate esters with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid. (
  • Intact esters, however, did not alter cholesterol micellarization, nor did the esters themselves incorporate into micelles. (
  • 2013) Redox-sensitive shell-crosslinked polypeptide-block-polysaccharide micelles for efficient intracellular anticancer drug delivery. (
  • Typically surfactant micelles aggregate into highly dynamic nanostructures consisting of either spherical or non-spherical shapes such as ellipsoidal, cylindrical and discoidal shapes. (
  • 2. The worm-like micelle of claim 1, wherein the one or more super-amphiphilic molecules of the micelle comprise at least one di-block copolymer. (
  • 13. The process for producing a composition according to claim 1 , wherein the contacting is conducted in a liquid containing an aqueous liquid, and the colorant comprised of the coloring material and the block copolymer is dispersed in the aqueous liquid. (
  • A room temperature sphere-to-rod transition of the polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide-based triblock copolymer, (PEO) 20 (PPO) 70 (PEO) 20 micelles have been observed in aqueous medium under the influence of ethanol and sodium chloride. (
  • Besides this, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was also applied for structural characterization. (
  • Recently, we have succeeded in following the complete kinetics of micelle formation from a pool of monomers to globular micelles using time-resolved SAXS combined with stopped-flow mixing [2]. (
  • Quantitative analysis of the SAXS data in terms of a core-shell model yields the shape as well as the average size parameters of the micelles. (
  • Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses reinforced the trends seen in the DLS results and provided insight into changes in the micelle size dispersity following cosolvent removal. (
  • The transport properties have been investigated by low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy (LFDS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as a theoretical modelling. (
  • Results of these measurements lead to independent determinations of the critical micelle concentrations and also permit evaluations of ΔC p and ΔV values for micelle formation. (
  • By protecting a membrane protein complex within a n -dodecyl-β- d -maltoside micelle, we demonstrated a powerful strategy that will enable the subunit stoichiometry and ligand-binding properties of membrane complexes to be determined directly, by precise determination of the masses of intact complexes and dissociated subunits. (
  • And researchers have previously enhanced protein stability by incorporating proteins in micelles or sol-gel networks or by combining proteins with polyelectrolytes and other polymers. (
  • But the new heteropolymer preserves native protein function and structure more faithfully in both aqueous and organic media, say Ting Xu of the University of California, Berkeley, and coworkers, who developed it. (
  • Using the micelles as tiny test tubes, the team filled the hollow molecules with a small sample of water and the amino acid L-proline, a protein building block. (
  • However, when the lipids form micelles the hydrophobic tails interact with each other rather than with water. (
  • The lipids in the intestinal lumen of the hamsters did not show a hydrolysis-dependent partitioning of cholesterol between aqueous and oily phases, as was hypothesized. (
  • created aqueous micelles that pair conjugated polyelectrolyte charge donors with fullerene acceptors at a much smaller interface. (
  • This work investigates the temperature-dependent micelle formation as well as the micellar structure of the saponin aescin. (
  • The structural parameters like micelle shape and size, aggregation number and micellar density have been determined. (
  • The proteins of breastmilk can be divided into two categories: micellar caseins and aqueous whey proteins, present in the ratio of about 40:60 [8]. (
  • The results paint a compelling picture of surfactant assembly at these relatively large nanoemulsion surfaces and allow for an important comparison of AOT at smaller micellar (curved) and planar oil-water interfaces. (
  • 6. The worm-like micelle of claim 4, wherein at least a portion of the one or more super-amphiphilic molecules of the micelle are chemically cross-linked. (
  • Experiments have shown that various types of fat-soluble anticancer drugs could be enclosed in the core of these micelles. (
  • in the presence of small aqueous soluble molecules that have a pharmaceutical or biochemical relevance. (
  • More ambitious measurements on larger molecules such as small peptides, proteins, and DNA fragments will be more challenging, but he says it may be possible in the near future. (
  • Free ursodiol, 7-keto-lithocholic acid, and lithocholic acid are relatively insoluble in aqueous media and larger proportions of these compounds are lost from the distal gut into the feces. (
  • A growing number of viruses have been shown to produce small viral membrane proteins termed viroporins that modulate the permeability of membranes to ions or small molecules ( 25 ). (
  • Therefore, micelles usually have one hydrocarbon chain instead of two. (
  • Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates) [1]. (
  • The composite has its interior and exterior surfaces coated with a perfluoro ion exchange polymer to render the composite hydrophilic so as to resist gas locking in aqueous media. (
  • An inclusion-interaction assembly strategy was used to construct novel pH/redox responsive core-shell micelles with hydrophobic drug as the core and hydrophilic polymer as the shell. (
  • We assumed that, if a hydrophilic β-CD containing polymer and a dimer of hydrophobic drug could form an amphiphilic inclusion complex, with the dimer being partially embedded into the cavity of β-CD moiety, the complex should be able to self-assemble into a micelle, with dimer as core and the polymer as shell. (
  • In addition to forming micelles, the surfactant can isolate its hydrophobic groups from the aqueous phase by associating them with the hydrophobic moieties on a polymer. (
  • and, superabsorbency in aqueous media allows the creation of a surface-charged drug-polymer conjugate that is capable of acting as a sustained drug delivery system. (
  • The size of a micelle is more limited than that of a lipid bilayer. (
  • Small angle X-ray scattering studies above the melting temperature of the PEO block have revealed a composition dependent ordered morphologies of cubic arrangement of spheres (bcc), hexagonally packed cylinders (hpc) and lamellar microdomains. (
  • Agamalian M., Heroux L., Littrell K.C., Carpenter J.M., " Progress on The Time-of-Flight Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument at SNS ", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1021, 1, 012033 (2018). (
  • Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. (
  • The formation of a micelle is a response to the amphipathic nature of fatty acids, meaning that they contain both hydrophilic regions (polar head groups) as well as hydrophobic regions (the long hydrophobic chain). (
  • These small proteins contain an amphipathic or hydrophobic stretch that supports membrane insertion. (
  • These single chain fatty acids will usually form micelles as opposed to Glycolipids and other phospholipids with two hydrocarbon tails. (
  • Fatty acids from Glycolipids and phospholipids with their two hydrophobic chains are too bulky to fit into the a spherical shape as micelles do. (
  • There is a diversion in this journey: a small 50 ml sac - the gall bladder - fills with bile from the liver, and, by absorbing water across its walls, concentrates bile 5-6-fold. (
  • We show that micelle-forming cationic semiconducting polymers can coassemble in water with cationic fullerene derivatives to create photoinduced electron-transfer cascades that lead to exceptionally long-lived polarons. (
  • Separating the water from the hydrophobic tails during micelle formation increases the disorder of the system, and this increase in entropy is favorable. (
  • Measurements validated their hypothesis that the micelles would provide an aqueous environment that allows the amino acid to flex and bend while limiting the absorption of the terahertz radiation by water. (
  • It self-assembled into pH/redox responsive core-shell micelles in distilled water. (
  • If so, a drop of ancient water containing building blocks of proteins and RNA would also have contained trillions of tiny membrane-bound compartments. (
  • The surface of a micelle is a layer of polar heads dissolved in the water, while the inner portion consists of hydrophobic tails screened from the water by the hydrophilic heads. (
  • In order to maximize drug loading and tailor release, groups of the micelle core should be carefully selected in order to exploit inherent interactions between the selected drug and the carrier core. (
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers tremendous potential for the investigation of membrane proteins in aqueous environments with respect to structural characterization, relaxation properties, and the details of small ligand interactions. (
  • There are two kinds of interactions for the adsorbed micelles. (
  • First, the charged block of the chains is directly attracted to the substrate via electrostatic interactions, while the uncharged part of the chains is only hydrophobically attracted via the hydrophobic core of the adsorbed micelle. (
  • The BPA was quantitatively extracted from aqueous samples in the presence of Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant and preconcentrated into the small volume (about 30 μ L) of the surfactant-rich phase. (
  • 42% hydrophilic polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) and at least one hydrophobic block that drives self-assembly of the worm-like micelle. (
  • Self-assembly in aqueous medium was explored by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM. (
  • Further, it achieved the integration of drug-loading and self-assembly in preparing drug-loaded micelles, avoiding the multiple steps used in the covalent-bond method. (
  • They are used to disperse aqueous suspensions of insoluble dyes and perfumes . (
  • Eighty percent of lithocholic acid formed in the small bowel is excreted in the feces, but the 20% that is absorbed is sulfated at the 3-hydroxyl group in the liver to relatively insoluble lithocholyl conjugates which are excreted into bile and lost in feces. (
  • Floating monolayers on aqueous subphases have been shown to possess a complex polymorphism with phases whose structures may be compared to those of smectic mesophases. (
  • It also undergoes a variety of physicochemical degradations in aqueous media over time, which reduces its absorption and fluorescence 26 . (