Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Eye ProteinsLipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Lutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal DiseasesRetinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Prodigiosin: 4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Visual pigments are located in the brains of more complex organisms, and are thought to have a role in synchronising spawning ... The light sensitive opsins are borne on a hairy layer, to maximise the surface area. The nature of these "hairs" differs, with ... Thus, countless organisms with small eyes are active in direct sunlight and survive with no focus mechanism at all. As a ... aqueous fluid, blood vessels, ganglion cells, amacrine cells, horizontal cells, and bipolar cells before they reach the light- ...
"Pigment Brown 6", "Pigment Brown 7", and "Pigment Red 101". Some of them, e.g. Pigment Red 101 and Pigment Brown 6, are ... In concentrated aqueous alkali, Fe2O3 gives [Fe(OH)6]3−. The most important reaction is its carbothermal reduction, which gives ... A mixture of zinc oxide with about 0.5% iron(III) oxide is called calamine, which is the active ingredient of calamine lotion. ... ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. Paint and Surface Coatings: Theory and Practice. William Andrew Inc. ISBN 1-884207-73-1. Banerjee, Avijit ( ...
A shortcoming of many of the metallo-PCs is their tendency to aggregate in aqueous buffer (pH 7.4), resulting in a decrease, or ... The particles had a hydrodynamic size of 37.66 ± 0.26 nm (polydispersity index = 0.06) and surface charge of −2.76 ± 1.83 mV.[ ... The positively charged zinc complexed PC is less photodynamically active than its neutral counterpart in vitro against V-79 ... This absorption in the near infrared region makes NCs candidates for highly pigmented tumours, including melanomas, which ...
Most liquids and aqueous solutions are highly transparent. For example, water, cooking oil, rubbing alcohol, air, and natural ... This results in transmission (provided no other absorption mechanisms are active). Most of the time, it is a combination of the ... Another term commonly used for this type of reflection is "light scattering". Light scattering from the surfaces of objects is ... If a dielectric material does not include light-absorbent additive molecules (pigments, dyes, colorants), it is usually ...
The search for Martian biosignatures has become more promising due to the discovery that surface and near-surface aqueous ... Surface reflectance features: Large-scale reflectance features due to biological pigments, which could be detected remotely. ... "Differentiating biotic from abiotic methane genesis in hydrothermally active planetary surfaces". PNAS. 109 (25): 9750-9754. ... On Mars, surface oxidants and UV radiation will have altered or destroyed organic molecules at or near the surface. One issue ...
The major active ingredient of saffron is the yellow pigment crocin 2 (three other derivatives with different glycosylations ... Thus, in aqueous solution at pH about 7, typical of biological systems, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation indicates they exist ... Higher weight acids (>C20) are found in suberin present at vegetal surfaces (outer bark, root epidermis). C16 to C26 a, ω-dioic ... Crocetin is the core compound of crocins (crocetin glycosides) which are the main red pigments of the stigmas of saffron ( ...
These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in complexes called antenna proteins. In such proteins, the pigments are ... The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of ... The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions and a ... Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids (grana), ...
IL-6 and IL-8 are present in significantly higher quantities in the aqueous humour in patients with both quiescent and active ... Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer ... Busacca nodules, inflammatory nodules located on the surface of the iris in granulomatous forms of anterior uveitis such as ... Successful treatment of active uveitis increases T-regulatory cells in the eye, which likely contributes to disease regression ...
The concentration of chlorine-based bleaches is often expressed as percent active chlorine where one gram of a 100% active ... A weak solution of 2% household bleach in warm water is typical for sanitizing smooth surfaces prior to brewing of beer or wine ... Colors typically arise from organic dye and pigments, such as beta carotene. Chemical bleaches work in one of two ways: An ... Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, is an unstable gas and is used in situ or stored as dilute aqueous solutions. Despite these limitations ...
The search for Martian biosignatures has become more promising due to the discovery that surface and near-surface aqueous ... Surface reflectance features: Large-scale reflectance features due to biological pigments, which could be detected remotely. ... March 2006). "Cassini observes the active south pole of Enceladus". Science. 311 (5766): 1393-401. Bibcode:2006Sci...311.1393P ... On Mars, surface oxidants and UV radiation will have altered or destroyed organic molecules at or near the surface.[3] One ...
Older specimens generally have dry and velvety cap surfaces. The texture of the cap surface is rough, at first because of ... Pigments present in the fungal hyphae are dissolved or react differently with various chemicals, and the color reactions may be ... When a drop of 10% aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide is applied to the cap of B. mirabilis, the tissue turns a fleeting ... which form the active feeding and growing structures of the fungus. The mushrooms, or fruit bodies are created solely for the ...
Eye color change surgery through an iris implant, known as Brightocular, or stripping away the top layer of eye pigment, known ... Grave's Disease is a condition (often associated with over-active thyroid problems) in which the eye muscles swell. Because the ... Laser eye surgery or laser corneal surgery is a medical procedure that uses a laser to reshape the surface of the eye. This is ... that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by ...
Preočanin, Tajana; Kallay, Nikola (2006). "Point of Zero Charge and Surface Charge Density of TiO2 in Aqueous Electrolyte ... When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally, it is sourced from ilmenite ... "Preparation and Characterization of Mesoporous Visible-Light-Active Anatase". Solid State Sciences. 5 2003: 1159-1166.. ... PigmentEdit. Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, ...
"Solar radiation is the primary energy source for surface planetary life, so that pigments are fundamental components of any ... It remains metabolically active in temperatures down to -20 C, and can absorb small amounts of liquid water in an environment ... "Our results disprove the view that the lowest temperature at which life is possible is ≈-17°C in an aqueous environment, as ... Martian surface or near surface life is likely to be strongly resistant to cosmic radiation, with repair mechanisms to repair ...
If the active ingredient of a tablet is sensitive to acid, or is irritant to the stomach lining, an enteric coating can be used ... Aqueous solutions have the advantage of being safer to deal with than solvent-based systems but may not be suitable for drugs ... Modern tablet coatings are polymer and polysaccharide based, with plasticizers and pigments included. Tablet coatings must be ... and the tablet is ejected from the die by lifting the lower punch until its upper surface is flush with the top face of the die ...
Typically, the pigment is crushed very finely (7 to 10 micrometres) while being mixed with castor oil and is then mixed with a ... The original active ingredient of antiperspirants was aluminium chloride but complaints of skin irritation led to the increased ... An experiment with mice found that applying an aqueous solution of aluminum chloride to the skin resulted in "a significant ... were once used in some high-end skin-care products to increase moisture retention and to create a smooth skin surface, however ...
The upper surface of these lobes contains red anthocyanin pigments and its edges secrete mucilage. The lobes exhibit rapid ... Aqueous leaf extracts have been found to contain quinones such as the naphthoquinone plumbagin that couples to different NADH- ... As the trap became more and more active, the energy required to "wrap" the prey increased. Plants that could somehow ... If the prey is unable to escape, it will continue to stimulate the inner surface of the lobes, and this causes a further growth ...
These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in complexes called antenna proteins. In such proteins, the pigments are ... The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of ... 4. stroma (aqueous fluid). 5. thylakoid lumen (inside of thylakoid). 6. thylakoid membrane. 7. granum (stack of thylakoids). 8 ... The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions and a ...
Gaseous hydrogen cyanide may be dissolved in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to produce sodium cyanide.[citation needed] ... The enzymes called hydrogenases contain cyanide ligands attached to iron in their active sites. The biosynthesis of cyanide in ... as a result of its being first obtained by the heating of the pigment known as Prussian blue. ... 3. Electrostatic potential surface. 4. "Carbon lone pair". See also: Isocyanide. In IUPAC nomenclature, organic compounds that ...
Ionized selenium (Se+24) is one of the active mediums used in X-ray lasers. Selenium is a catalyst in some chemical reactions, ... Selenium transmits an electric current proportional to the amount of light falling on its surface. This phenomenon was used in ... In fact, the angiosperms (the dominant type of plant today) and most of their antioxidant pigments evolved during the late ... These include silver selenite (Ag2SeO3) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3). Hydrogen sulfide reacts with aqueous selenous acid to ...
PigmentEdit. Zinc white is used as a pigment in paints and is more opaque than lithopone, but less opaque than titanium dioxide ... ZnO forms cement-like products when mixed with a strong aqueous solution of zinc chloride and these are best described as zinc ... ZnO discs, acting as a varistor, are the active material in most surge arresters.[36][37] ... This anomaly of ZnO is not fully explained.[25] However, studies using wurtzoid structures explained the origin of surface ...
It forms strong films on metallic surfaces and is a common additive to HPHT greases - in the event of a catastrophic grease ... The most important role of molybdenum in living organisms is as a metal heteroatom at the active site in certain enzymes. In ... Lead molybdate (wulfenite) co-precipitated with lead chromate and lead sulfate is a bright-orange pigment used with ceramics ... 4 SO2 The oxidized ore is then usually extracted with aqueous ammonia to give ammonium molybdate: MoO3 + 2 NH3 + H2O → (NH4)2( ...
They function in both aqueous and nonaqueous media. Surface coating[edit]. In order to provide optimal performance, pigment ... A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface- ... Then effectively spread throughout a larger volume of water than the surface from where the oil was dispersed. They can also ... Unfortunately, colloidal dispersions such as the pigment dispersions in liquid coatings are inherently unstable, and they must ...
The thylakoid lumen is a continuous aqueous phase enclosed by the thylakoid membrane. It plays an important role for ... Each antenna complex has between 250 and 400 pigment molecules and the energy they absorb is shuttled by resonance energy ... Grana contribute to chloroplasts' large surface area to volume ratio. Different interpretations of electron tomography imaging ... and is active in both noncyclic and cyclic electron transport. In cyclic mode, the energized electron is passed down a chain ...
... is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other kinds of ... Active international groups can be found on social media networks such as Facebook and Yahoo! Groups, as well as sites like the ... A wide variety of colors are used today in place of the historic pigment colors. Plastic broom straw can be used instead of ... A shallow tray is filled with water, and various kinds of ink or paint colors are carefully applied to the surface with an ink ...
A Niosome is a non-ionic surfactant-based Vesicle (biology and chemistry). Niosomes are formed mostly by non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol incorporation as an excipient. Other excipients can also be used. Niosomes have more penetrating capability than the previous preparations of emulsions. They are structurally similar to liposomes in having a bilayer, however, the materials used to prepare niosomes make them more stable. Niosomes are lamellar structures that are microscopic in size. They constitute of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. The surfactant molecules tend to orient themselves in such a way that the hydrophilic ends of the non-ionic surfactant point outwards, while the hydrophobic ends face each other to form the bilayer. The figure in this article on Niosomes gives a better idea of the lamellar orientation of the surfactant molecules. Niosomes are osmotically active, ...
Most anionic and non-ionic surfactants are nontoxic, having LD50 comparable to sodium chloride. The toxicity of quaternary ammonium compounds, which are antibacterial and antifungal, varies. Dialkyldimethylammonium chlorides (DDAC, DSDMAC) used as fabric softeners have low LD50 (5 g/kg) and are essentially non-toxic, while the disinfectant alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride has an LD50 of 0.35 g/kg. Prolonged exposure to surfactants can irritate and damage the skin because surfactants disrupt the lipid membrane that protects skin and other cells. Skin irritancy generally increases in the series non-ionic, amphoteric, anionic, cationic surfactants.[3] Surfactants are routinely deposited in numerous ways on land and into water systems, whether as part of an intended process or as industrial and household waste.[5][6][7] Anionic surfactants can be found in soils as the result of sludge application, wastewater irrigation, and remediation processes. Relatively high concentrations of surfactants ...
... s are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. The aqueous phase may contain salt(s) and/or other ingredients, and the "oil" may actually be a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons and olefins. In contrast to ordinary emulsions, microemulsions form upon simple mixing of the components and do not require the high shear conditions generally used in the formation of ordinary emulsions. The three basic types of microemulsions are direct (oil dispersed in water, o/w), reversed (water dispersed in oil, w/o) and bicontinuous. In ternary systems such as microemulsions, where two immiscible phases (water and 'oil') are present with a surfactant, the surfactant molecules may form a monolayer at the interface between the oil and water, with the hydrophobic tails of the surfactant molecules dissolved in the oil phase and the hydrophilic head groups in the aqueous phase. IUPAC ...
The Krafft temperature (also known as Krafft point, or critical micelle temperature) is the minimum temperature at which surfactants form micelles. It is named after German chemist Friedrich Krafft. Below the Krafft temperature, there is no value for the critical micelle concentration (CMC), i.e., micelles cannot form. The Krafft temperature is a point of phase change below which the surfactant remains in crystalline form, even in aqueous solution. Visually the effect of going below the Krafft point is similar to that of going above the cloud point, with the solution becoming cloudy or opaque due to the surfactant molecules undergoing flocculation. Surfactants in such a crystalline state will only solubilize and form micelles if another surfactant assists it in overcoming the forces that keep it crystallized, or if the temperature increases, thus causing entropy to have a stronger force and encouraging the crystalline structure to break apart. Surfactants are usually composed of a ...
... s (also known as bolaform surfactants, bolaphiles, or alpha-omega-type surfactants) are amphiphilic molecules that have hydrophilic groups at both ends of a sufficiently long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. Compared to single-headed amphiphiles, the introduction of a second head-group generally induces a higher solubility in water, an increase in the critical micelle concentration (cmc), and a decrease in aggregation number. The aggregate morphologies of bolaamphiphiles include spheres, cylinders, disks, and vesicles. Bolaamphiphiles are also known to form helical structures, that can form monolayer microtubular self-assemblies. Fuhrhop, J-H; Wang, T. Bolaamphiphile, Chem. Rev. (2004), 104(6), 2901-2937. Chen, Yuxia; Liu, Yan; Guo, Rong. Aggregation behavior of an amino acid-derived bolaamphiphile and a conventional surfactant mixed system. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2009), 336(2), 766-772. CODEN: JCISA5 ISSN 0021-9797. AN 2009:776584 Yin, Shouchun; Wang, Chao; Song, ...
The surfactant's critical micelle concentration (CMC) plays a factor in Gibbs free energy of micellization. The exact concentration of the surfactants that yield the aggregates being thermodynamically soluble is the CMC. The Krafft temperature determines the solubility of the surfactants which in turn is the temperature that CMC is achieved. There are many parameters that affect the CMC. The interaction between the hydrophilic heads and the hydrophobic tails play a part, as well as the concentration of salt within the solution and surfactants. A micelle is an aggregation of surfactants or block copolymer in aqueous solution or organic solution, often spherical. Surfactants are composed of a polar head group that is hydrophilic and a nonpolar tail group that is hydrophobic. The head groups can be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, or nonionic. The tail group can be a hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, or a siloxane. Extensive variation in the surfactant's solution and interfacial properties is allowed ...
IUPAC definition Micelle: Particle of colloidal dimensions that exists in equilibrium with the molecules or ions in solution from which it is formed.Micelle (polymers): Organized auto-assembly formed in a liquid and composed of amphiphilic macromolecules, in general amphiphilic di- or tri-block copolymers made of solvophilic and solvophobic blocks. Note 1: An amphiphilic behavior can be observed for water and an organic solvent or between two organic solvents. Note 2: Polymeric micelles have a much lower critical micellar concentration (CMC) than soap or surfactant micelles, but are nevertheless at equilibrium with isolated macromolecules called unimers. Therefore, micelle formation and stability are concentration-dependent. A micelle (/maɪˈsɛl/) or micella (/maɪˈsɛlə/) (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic ...
... is the process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source. There are two types of self-assembly. These are intramolecular self-assembly and intermolecular self-assembly. Commonly, the term molecular self-assembly refers to intermolecular self-assembly, while the intramolecular analog is more commonly called folding. Molecular self-assembly is a key concept in supramolecular chemistry. This is because assembly of molecules in such systems is directed through noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π-π interactions, and/or electrostatic) as well as electromagnetic interactions. Common examples include the formation of micelles, vesicles, liquid crystal phases, and Langmuir monolayers by surfactant molecules. Further examples of supramolecular assemblies demonstrate that a variety of different shapes and sizes can be obtained using molecular ...
... is a disinfectant manufactured by Pfizer that is used in many animal care facilities and some biological laboratories. It is effective against bacteria including Mycoplasma, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, E. coli, and Salmonella. It also destroys viruses including canine parvovirus, parainfluenza-3 and pseudorabies. Roccal was originally produced by Winthrop Laboratories. Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and didecyldimethylammonium chloride. These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. The greatest bactericidal activity is associated with the C12-C14 alkyl derivatives. The current formulation of Roccal also includes tributyltin oxide ...
A micellar solution consists of a dispersion of micelles in a solvent (most usually water). Micelles consist of aggregated amphiphiles, and in a micellar solution these are in equilibrium with free, unaggregated amphiphiles. Micellar solutions form when the concentration of amphiphile exceeds the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or critical aggregation concentration - CAC, and persist until the amphiphile concentration becomes sufficiently high to form a lyotropic liquid crystal phase.[1][2][3][4] Although micelles are often depicted as being spherical, they can be cylindrical or oblate depending on the chemical structure of the amphiphile. Micellar solutions are isotropic phases. Micellar water has been used in France since 1913.[5] ...
An important characteristic of poloxamer solutions is their temperature dependent self-assembling and thermo-gelling behavior. Concentrated aqueous solutions of poloxamers are liquid at low temperature and form a gel at higher temperature in a reversible process. The transitions that occur in these systems depend on the polymer composition (molecular weight and hydrophilic/hydrophobic molar ratio). At low temperatures and concentrations (below the critical micelle temperature and critical micelle concentration) individual block copolymers (unimers) are present in solution. Above these values, aggregation of individual unimers occurs in a process called micellization. This aggregation is driven by the dehydration of the hydrophobic polyoxypropylene block that becomes progressively less soluble as the polymer concentration or temperature increases. The aggregation of several unimers occurs to minimize the interactions of the PPO blocks with the solvent. Thus, the core of the aggregates is made ...
Detergents are organic amphipathic (with hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head) surfactants. They are used to separate membrane proteins from membrane because the hydrophobic part of detergent can surround biological membranes and thus isolate membrane proteins from membranes.[5] Although detergents are widely used and have similar functions, it is important to understand the physical and chemical properties of the detergents of interest in order to determine the optimal one to use for your experiment. Detergents are often categorized as nonionic, anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic, based on their hydrophilic head group feature.[5] Nonionic detergents like Triton X-100 and zwitterionic detergents like CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) are nondenaturing (will not disrupt protein functions). Ionic detergents like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic detergents like ethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are denaturing (will disrupt protein functions).[6] Detergents ...
... is a surfactant used in cosmetics. It is a glycoside produced from glucose and lauryl alcohol. Decyl glucoside Octyl glucoside n-Dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside at Sigma- ...
60 to 95 per weight of at least one pigment, (B) 5 to 40 percent by weight of at least one water-soluble anionic surface-active ... 5. A process for producing pigment preparations as claimed in claim 1, which comprises: wet-comminuting pigment (A) in aqueous ... Inorganic pigments can likewise be color pigments (chromatic, black and white pigments) and also luster pigments and the ... Solid pigment preparations containing water-soluble anionic surface-active additives that comprise carboxylate groups ...
... surface active additive triangulation. by JCT CoatingsTech; Business Chemicals, plastics and rubber Surface active agents ... FORMULATING A PIGMENT DISPERSION The formulation of aqueous pigment dispersions is enabled by the use of surface active agents ... ATTRIBUTES OF SURFACE ACTIVE ADDITIVES The role of surface active agents in an aqueous dispersion is multifaceted. These ... surface+active...-a0366348149. *APA style: Formulating optimized aqueous dispersions using: surface active additive ...
... at least one organic and/or inorganic pigment, (B) at least one polymeric dispersant of the formula I, where R 1 is aliphatic, ... Solid pigment preparations containing pigment derivatives and surface-active additives EP2147066B1 (en) 2010-08-04. Aqueous ... Pigment Red 3, Pigment Red 4, Pigment Red 5, Pigment Red 9, Pigment Red 12, Pigment Red 14, Pigment Red 53:1, Pigment Red 112, ... Pigment Red 38, Pigment Red 144, Pigment Red 214, Pigment Red 242, Pigment Red 262, Pigment Red 266, Pigment Red 269, Pigment ...
... surface active agents, dispersants. adhesives, adhesion promoters, coupling agents, commpatibilizers and others. End products ... Aqueous primary dispersions, method for preparation and use thereof. US6812298. 29 Oct 2002. 2 Nov 2004. Michigan Molecular ... Polymers, such as those produced in this invention, would find use in, for example, structured polymers for use in pigment ... Aqueous primary dispersions and coating matters, a method for producing same and the use thereof. ...
The inventive pigment mixtures are characterized in that component A is embodied as effect pigments while componen ... The invention relates to pigment mixtures comprising at least two components A and B. ... high-molecular-weight carbohydrates and/or surface-active assistants, etc.. The formulations comprising the pigment mixtures ... In the case of heterogeneous formulations having discrete aqueous and non-aqueous phases, the pigment mixtures according to the ...
... surface-active agents such as previously described; viscosity regulators; corrosion inhibitors; pigments such as titanium ... 0008] Surfaces or objects exposed to humid or aqueous environments are readily colonized by aquatic organisms such as algae, ... 0012] The present invention further provides a method of protecting a surface which comprises applying to the surface a ... grow on or adhere to various kinds of surfaces, in particular in humid or aqueous environments such as, marine waters, fresh ...
ADDING AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF A GELABLE HYDROPHILIC SUBSTANCE AND THEN SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT AND DISPERSING A LIQUID SOLVENT ... COATING PIGMENT PARTICLES IN CARBONLESS PAPER, ETC., WHICH CONSISTS OF (1) FORMING AN AQUEOUS EMULSION OR SUSPENSION OF THE ... DISPERSING A MIXTURE OF THE SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT AND THE LIQUID SOLVENT INTO THE AQUEOUS EMULSION OR SUSPENSION, TO FORM A ... IN CASE THE USED SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT IS MONO-VALENT METALLIC AND ADDING AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION CONTAINING MULTIVALENT METALLIC ...
The composition has a cosmetically acceptable vehicle, a cosmetic active, and a plurality of encapsulated pigment particles. ... The particles have an encapsulant and an entrapped pigment within the encapsulant. The encapsulant has silicon dioxide and ... The encapsulant essentially covers the entire surface of the pigment particle and takes the form of a coating or layering.. The ... The composition can be aqueous or non-aqueous. The composition may take the form of a solution, dispersion, suspension, or ...
The pigmented part continues over the ciliary body and iris. The neural part extends as far as the ora serrata. Aqueous Humor ... Active State. In Light. (-70mV). Na+ reduction equals a reduction in dark current. Hyperpolarization of the membrane is reach ... The surface contains small blood vessels that reach internal structures...can sometimes be visible as red lines. Transparent. ... Visual pigments are composed of the discs of the outer segement in rods and cones. Rhodopsin: visual pigment found in rods. It ...
The pigments and/or powders of the current invention may be surface treated to provide added stability of color and/or for ease ... The personal care compositions described herein may contain one or more skin care actives. "Skin care actives," or "actives," ... Aqueous Dispersion of Hydrophobically Modified Pigment Particles. EP2100642A1 *. 13 Mar 2008. 16 Sep 2009. 3M Innovative ... and include inorganic pigments, organic pigments and combinations thereof. Examples of such useful inorganic pigments include ...
Non-fluorescent to weak white fluorescence (pigment). Chemically inert, insoluble in water, organic solvents, aqueous alkalis; ... Absorbs strongly in the UV, is photochemically active but less so than anatase titanium dioxide. ... can be dissolved in sulfuric or hydrofluoric acid; slow to dry in oil without additives or surface treatment. ... some early anatase pigments may have contained up to 20% of coarse, gritty rutile. The white synthetic rutile pigment has ...
... by weight of the tin oxide and the composition forms a coating on a substrate that has a surface conductivity of at least 100 ... wherein the electrically conductive pigment is a silica which is either amorphous silica or a silica containing material, the ... by weight of film forming binder and pigment in a pigment to binder weight ratio of about 1:100 to 100:100; wherein the binder ... Active silica is conveniently prepared by gradually neutralizing an aqueous solution of sodium silicate or potassium silicate ...
... aqueous dispersion of polyurethane-ureas wherein said polyurethane-ureas contain(i) about 10 to 120 milliequivalents per 100 ... similarly they may be pigmented with electrolyte-active pigments or dyes. Another property of the dispersions according to the ... plastic materials and where solvent borne coatings can attack the surface are another important application for these aqueous ... 5. The aqueous dispersion of claim 4 wherein said alkali metal is sodium.. 6. The aqueous dispersion of claim 1 wherein said ...
1 actives) were weighed into a vial and mixed to create the hair treatment solution. When the two phases comprise an aqueous ... A bundle of 30-50 fibers was clamped to create a flat surface. A 3-5 uL drop of DI H.sub.2O was placed on the fiber surface and ... Other suitable additives may be chosen from non-polymeric thickeners, nacreous agents, opacifiers, dyes or pigments, fragrances ... aqueous solution/g hair). The hair was combed through until the solution was uniformly distributed over the surface of the ...
0385] 4% by active weight solutions were poured into polypropylene weighboats (similar surface energy to that of hair). When ... When the two phases comprise an aqueous phase and a non-aqueous phase, the two phases in the vial were agitated or shaken to ... Other suitable additives may be chosen from non-polymeric thickeners, nacreous agents, opacifiers, dyes or pigments, fragrances ... A bundle of 30-50 fibers was clamped to create a flat surface. A 3-5 uL drop of DI H.sub.2O was placed on the fiber surface and ...
Aqueous dispersions including at least one thermoplastic resin; at least one dispersing agent; and water; wherein the ... surface-active materials, 2) naturally occurring materials, 3) finely divided solids. Surface-active agents, also called ... pigments, and other components to form plastics. The term resin as used herein includes elastomers and is understood to include ... For example, when an aqueous dispersion is coated and dried on a surface of a substrate such as paper, fiber, wood, metal, or ...
... active APE-free polymeric dispersant in water that improves pigment dispersion and stability in aqueous paints and inks. It ... Keim Additec Surface USA LLC Active Minerals Eagle Specialty Products Shepherd Color Company, The Pilot Chemical Company ... High Performance Pigments Market With an overall value of $4.76 billion, the market for high performance pigments is poised for ... calculated on pigment type and total pigment weight. Evonik Tego Chemie GmbH. Essen, Germany +49 201 173 2222. Fax: +49 201 173 ...
Disclosed are method for preparing toners by emulsiodaggregation techniques which permit control of the surface chemistry and ... The present process yields acrylic acid containing copolymer surface active material that aids in the particle aggregation step ... A two-phase acidic aqueous polymer composition was prepared by a stepwise emulsion polymerization process. In a 500 ml glass ... In emulsion/aggregation particle forming processes, toner can be prepared by, for example, aggregating and coalescing a pigment ...
Although segmental aqueous humor outflow has long been recognized, the details of this phenomenon are not well understood. In ... The dye stains cell plasma membranes without the need for active internalization by the cell, hence providing an alternative ... Previous methods of evaluating segmental outflow have relied primarily on adsorption of ocular pigment, cationic ferritin, ... microspheres or labeled dextran beads to charged surfaces, presumably primarily ECM components, within the outflow pathway. 34 ...
The secretion of the aqueous humor has been proposed to occur as the result of active Na+ transport by a ouabain-sensitive Na-K ... To show that the [3H]ouabain had free access to all of the membrane surfaces within the epithelium, in parallel experiments we ... Label could also be observed at a much lower density above other membranes and above the pigmented and nonpigmented cell ... Our experiments suggest that most of the active Na+ transport in ciliary body epithelium occurs across the basolateral membrane ...
As a result, the pigmented inks are made hydrophilic as pigment dispersants, and thus the pigments are dispersed in the aqueous ... or by introducing functional groups to pigment surfaces. In the case of pigmented inks used at present, grain sizes of pigments ... For this reason, in order to make the pigmented inks water-soluble, a resin, an active agent or the like is adhered to the ... pigment grains are generally not hydrophilic but hydrophobic. Accordingly, the pigment grains are not dissolved in the aqueous ...
... copolymer that can reduce the surface tension of aqueous formulas for improved spreading of actives and inorganic pigments in ... Superspreading: Silsoft Spread MAX spreading agent is typically stable in the aqueous phase from pH 2 - 12 and effective even ... As a 36 percent active non-yellowing micro-emulsion of a patented quaternized silicone terpolymer, Silsoft Silk conditioning ... accelerate the decomposition of peroxides and is an excellent choice to consider for quickly delivering water-soluble active ...
The new thickeners exhibit an unexpected increase in viscosity in aqueous systems as compared with prior art liquid polyether ... alkylene oxide by reacting said alkylene oxides with at least one active hydrogen-containing initiator having only one active ... New liquid thickeners for aqueous liquids are obtained by capping a liquid straight chain polyoxyalkylene compound derived from ... Polyoxyalkylene compounds, including high molecular weight materials are well known for use as surface-active agents, as ...
Nonionic surface active agent, excellent wetting and dispersing properties in aqueous systems and a foam destabiliser. Lower ... Pigment wetting and dispersing agent, for color pigments, in RMPC and most industrial systems. Superior wetting. Polymeric, ... A series of unique nonionic surface active agents, which provide both wetting and defoaming in the same product. Available in ... Pigment wetting and dispersing agent, for color pigments, in RMPC and most industrial systems. Superior wetting. Polymeric, ...
Aerosol dispensed solvated active: S.C. Johnson and Son Inc. discloses compositions containing one or more aqueous solvated ... thereby allowing for a more efficient active agent loading and reduced stickiness or tackiness on surfaces contacted during use ... These polymers find use in personal care applications such as pigmented products. In the personal care arena, solid products ... Preferably, the surfactant is present at approximately 0.1% to 3.0% w/w while the active agent is present at about 0.1% to 2.0 ...

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