Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Diglycerides1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.CDPdiacylglycerol-Serine O-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC 2.7.8.8.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Arachidonic AcidsCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.TriglyceridesGlycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Phospholipases A1: A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Cytidine Diphosphate Choline: Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.Cytidine Diphosphate Diglycerides: The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).TritiumMicrosomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase: A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Myo-Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.Group VI Phospholipases A2: A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Lipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
In an aqueous system, the polar heads of lipids align towards the polar, aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails ... Glycerophospholipids, usually referred to as phospholipids (though sphingomyelins are also classified as phospholipids), are ... So in an aqueous environment, the water molecules form an ordered "clathrate" cage around the dissolved lipophilic molecule.[64 ... Most of the fat found in food is in the form of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Some dietary fat is necessary to ...
Wilschut, Jan; Papahadjopoulos, Demetrios (1979). "Ca2+-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles monitored by mixing of aqueous ... Mixing of aqueous contents from vesicles as a result of lysis, fusion or physiological permeability can be detected ... The aqueous contents enclosed by each bilayer also remain separated. Fusion is involved in many cellular processes, ... Assays of membrane fusion report either the mixing of membrane lipids or the mixing of the aqueous contents of the fused ...
These techniques enable detection of phospholipids, sphingolipids and glycerolipids in tissues such as heart, kidney and brain ... Also, their largest constituent, monogalactosyl diglyceride or MGDG, does not form aqueous bilayers. Nevertheless, dynamic ... Plant chloroplast thylakoid membranes however, have unique lipid composition as they are deficient in phospholipids. ... "Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids esterified to phospholipids in human red blood cells by ...
Phospholipids forming lipid vesicles. Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22 ... Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... The cell membrane consists of three classes of amphipathic lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols. The amount of each ... The fatty chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 16 and 20. ...
The phospholipid bilayer is formed due to the aggregation of membrane lipids in aqueous solutions. Aggregation is caused by the ... To enable the membrane as a whole to grow evenly, half of the new phospholipid molecules then have to be transferred to the ... As seen in the fluid membrane model of the phospholipid bilayer, the outer leaflet and inner leaflet of the membrane are ... The phospholipid bilayer contains charged hydrophilic headgroups, which interact with polar water. The lipids also contain ...
In the inward facing conformation, the binding site on the A domain is open directly to the surrounding aqueous solutions. This ... This allows hydrophobic molecules to enter the binding site directly from the inner leaflet of the phospholipid bilayer. After ... 3.A.1.211 The Cholesterol/Phospholipid/Retinal (CPR) Flippase Family (ABCA) 9.B.74 The Phage Infection Protein (PIP) Family ... in lipid A and phospholipid biosynthesis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (20): 12466-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.20. ...
... injection of a phospholipid solution into the aqueous buffer solution membranes. In this way aqueous vesicle solutions can be ... Phospholipid vesicles have also been studied in biochemistry. For such studies, a homogeneous phospholipid vesicle suspension ... If there is only one phospholipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called ... "A simple method for the preparation of homogeneous phospholipid vesicles". Biochemistry. 16 (12): 2806-10. doi:10.1021/ ...
In aqueous solution, its phospholipids can form either liposomes, bilayer sheets, micelles, or lamellar structures, depending ... Egg-derived phospholipids as an ingredient in term and preterm infant formula, Food and Drug Administration, USA Unisci.com, ... Egg lecithin is a type of lecithin, a group of compounds primarily containing phospholipids, that is derived from eggs. Egg ... Introduction to Lecithin (University of Erlangen) Phosphatidylcholine info The International Lecithin & Phospholipid Society ...
... a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space. Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. ... This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, ...
Phospholipids, a class of amphiphilic molecules, are the main components of biological membranes. The amphiphilic nature of ... When placed in an immiscible biphasic system consisting of aqueous and organic solvents, the amphiphilic compound will ... Although phospholipids are principal constituents of biological membranes, there are other constituents, such as cholesterol ... They arrange themselves into bilayers, by positioning their polar groups towards the surrounding aqueous medium, and their ...
This leads to the surrounding of the droplet in a phospholipid monolayer that allows it to disperse within the aqueous ... The lipid component of MFGM is rich in phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids make up approximately ... of total phospholipids. Phospholipids and sphingolipids play central roles in cerebral neurogenesis and migration during fetal ... While MFGM only makes up an estimated 2% to 6% of the total milk fat globule, it is an especially rich phospholipid source, ...
The phospholipid heads interact with each other and aqueous media, while the hydrocarbon tails orient themselves in the center ... Like phospholipids, these fatty acid derivatives have a polar head and nonpolar tails. Unlike phospholipids, sphingolipids have ... For example, fatty acids join together to form phospholipids. In turn, phospholipids and cholesterol interact noncovalently in ... The foundation of all biomembranes consists of a bilayer structure of phospholipids. The phospholipid molecule is amphipathic; ...
Of the phospholipids, the most common headgroup is phosphatidylcholine (PC), accounting for about half the phospholipids in ... The primary role of the lipid bilayer in biology is to separate aqueous compartments from their surroundings. Without some form ... Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as ... When phospholipids are exposed to water, they self-assemble into a two-layered sheet with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward ...
The thylakoid lumen is a continuous aqueous phase enclosed by the thylakoid membrane. It plays an important role for ... The thylakoid membranes of higher plants are composed primarily of phospholipids and galactolipids that are asymmetrically ... Thylakoid membranes are richer in galactolipids rather than phospholipids; also they predominantly consist of hexagonal phase ...
They are also important to cell membranes composed of amphiphilic phospholipids that prevent the internal aqueous environment ... The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous solution and exclude water ...
... phospholipids and 6.5% sulfolipids in spinach chloroplasts. The thylakoid membrane encloses a single, continuous aqueous ... The lipid composition of the outer membrane has been found to be 48% phospholipids, 46% galactolipids and 6% sulfolipids, while ... the inner membrane has been found to contain 16% phospholipids, 79% galactolipids and 5% sulfolipids in spinach chloroplasts. ...
The phospholipid bilayer is formed due to the aggregation of membrane lipids in aqueous solutions.[4] Aggregation is caused by ... Cross-sectional view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution ... To enable the membrane as a whole to grow evenly, half of the new phospholipid molecules then have to be transferred to the ... Biological membranes, in the form of eukaryotic cell membranes, consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and ...
These phospholipid molecules form bilayers with the polar phosphate groups facing the aqueous solution inside or outside of the ... A phospholipid molecule is composed of a long fatty acid, often called the tail of the molecule, and a phosphate group, which ... Phospholipid membranes can range widely in the structure of the fatty acid tail, which is composed of mostly hydrocarbons. ... A tetraether phospholipid is a molecule containing two hydrocarbon tails, each coming from one ester bond and one phosphate ...
The most abundant phospholipids that are found in cell membranes of mammalian cells are examples of amphiphiles that readily ... In aqueous media, the driving force of the aggregation is the "hydrophobic effect". The aggregates formed by amphiphilic ... Laughlin R.G. (1996). The Aqueous Phase Behaviour of Surfactants. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-437760-2. Fennell Evans D. ... Examples of amphiphilic compounds are the salts of fatty acids, phospholipids. Many simple amphiphiles are used as detergents. ...
... (abbreviated ChoP) is the hydrophilic polar head group of some phospholipids, which is composed of a ... like some phospholipase A2 renders the phosphorylcholine moiety exposed to the external aqueous phase, and thus accessible for ... Phosphorylcholine is part of platelet-activating factor; the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine as well as sphingomyelin, the ... only phospholipid of the membrane that is not built with a glycerol backbone. Treatment of cell membranes, like those of RBCs, ...
Rearrangements of glycosphingolipids, phospholipids, as well as cholesterol explains changes in membrane fluidity. Some studies ... This means that the fluorescent part of the molecule is located towards the aqueous environment, which makes the reorientation ... It is used to investigate membrane qualities of the phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes. One of its most important ... Streekanth, V; Bajaj, A.. (Oct 2013). "Number of free hydroxyl groups on bile Acid phospholipids determines the fluidity and ...
... whereas the polar residues face inwards into the center of the β-barrel to form the aqueous channel. The phospholipids that ...
... commercially available formulations of phospholipids have been designed to spread rapidly over an air-aqueous interface, ... Phospholipids are important natural surfactant lipids used in enhancing penetration and bioavailability. Phospholipids act by ... Anti-asthmatic combinations comprising surface active phospholipids PHOSPHOLIPID-BASED INHALATION SYSTEM UpToDate Patient ...
The phospholipid composition of a cell membrane affects the arrangement of cholesterol within the membrane and the ability for ... A concerted mechanism of insertion is required so that the hydrophilic surfaces of the β-hairpins remain exposed to the aqueous ... Even with the 3-β-OH group near the membrane surface, it is not very exposed compared to the phospholipid head groups. The ... Some factors that affect cholesterols availability are size of the polar head groups and the ability of the phospholipid to ...
Under physiological conditions phospholipid molecules in the cell membrane are in the liquid crystalline state. It means the ... Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... The amount of each depends upon the type of cell, but in the majority of cases phospholipids are the most abundant, often ... The phospholipid bilayer structure (fluid mosaic model) with specific membrane proteins accounts for the selective permeability ...
Cross section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids. They can form a micelle and are a vital in forming ...
phospholipid. acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first and committed step in de ... Samples were held at −20°C until analysis, at which point, 2.8 ml of 1 M aqueous potassium chloride was added (8:4:3 ratio CHCl ... novo triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, converting glycerol 3-phosphate into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In ...
We describe here some properties of monosaccharide transport from phospholipid vesicles into which brush border proteins ... Characterization of membrane-bound MgATPases, purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning, from young sugar beet roots *Goran ... Reconstitution in phospholipid vesicles of a glucose transport system from pig small intestine. *DOUGLAS R. FERGUSON1. & ... FERGUSON, D., BURTON, K. Reconstitution in phospholipid vesicles of a glucose transport system from pig small intestine. Nature ...
Dynamic characterization of phospholipid/protein competitive adsorption at the aqueous solution/chloroform interface. ... Dynamic characterization of phospholipid/protein competitive adsorption at the aqueous solution/chloroform interface. Wu, J., ... competitive adsorption at the aqueous solution/chloroform interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering ... Li, J. B., Zhao, J., & Miller, R. (2000). Dynamic characterization of phospholipid/protein ...
Find phospholipid Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the ... Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of membrane Structure. Vector illustration for biology, ... See phospholipid stock video clips.. Related: cell membrane phospholipid, lipid molecules, phospholipid bilayer, lipid ... The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. A phospholipid molecule consists of a ...
... from membranes of Escherichia coliand transport activity reconstituted in proteoliposomes containing different phospholipids. ... Colorimetric estimation of phospholipids in aqueous dispersions.J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 2:251-255Google Scholar ... Role of phospholipids in calcium-dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Enzymatic and ESR studies with phospholipid- ... The phospholipid requirement for activity of the lactose carrier ofEscherichia coli.J. Biol. Chem. 259:10150-10158Google ...
We discarded most of the top (aqueous) phase. The bottom phase was extracted by using a glass Pasteur pipette and dried under ... Chemical structures of the major phospholipids in E. coli and NAO. For simplicity, phospholipids are shown with unsaturated 18- ... Localization of Anionic Phospholipids in Escherichia coli Cells. Piercen M. Oliver, John A. Crooks, Mathias Leidl, Earl J. Yoon ... Localization of Anionic Phospholipids in Escherichia coli Cells. Piercen M. Oliver, John A. Crooks, Mathias Leidl, Earl J. Yoon ...
This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent ... A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review. ... Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can ... Figure 3. (1) Photographs showing a minor part of an aqueous solution at the bottom and a nonaqueous solution above. (A-C) ...
Interactions of Aqueous Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Mixtures with Solid-Supported Phospholipid Vesicles. ... Here we use dissipative quartz crystal microbalance QCM-D to examine the effect of aqueous imidazolium-based ionic liquid ... in real time the effect of the cation chain length and the anion nature on a supported vesicle layer of the model phospholipid ...
Phospholipids 12. Penetrating lipid bilayer 13. Cell junctions 14. Energy requirements for transport 15. Oral rehydration 16. ... Overview: 1. Membrane components 2. Lipids and aqueous barriers 3. Hydrophobic forces 4. Osmosis 5. Membrane transport 6. ...
NMR structures of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers - Volume 47 Issue 3 - Jasmina Radoicic, George J. Lu, Stanley J. ... Finer, E. G., Flook, A. G. & Hauser, H. (1972). The nature and origin of the NMR spectrum of unsonicated and sonicated aqueous ... NMR structures of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers. * Jasmina Radoicic (a1), George J. Lu (a1) and Stanley J. Opella ... NMR structures of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers. * Jasmina Radoicic (a1), George J. Lu (a1) and Stanley J. Opella ...
Thus, the key to developing QDs as a tool in biological systems is to achieve good dispersion ability in an aqueous medium and ... 2.1 Phospholipid polymers as the platform of bioinspired interfaces. 2.1.1 Phospholipid assembly on the surface. Many studies ... a) Covalent bonding to substrate with phospholipids with reactive groups. (b) Polymerization of phospholipids with ... d) Grafting of polymerizable phospholipids. (e) Immobilization of phospholipid polar groups on the surface. ...
Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of membrane Structure. Vector illustration for biology, ... Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. A detailed diagram models of membrane Structure. illustration for biology, ... The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. A phospholipid molecule consists of a ... The phospholipid bilayer of an animal cell is a thin membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. A phospholipid molecule ...
One milliliter of chloroform was added to the aqueous fraction and the extraction was performed once more. The organic layer of ... 2014) Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids. Chem Phys ... 1999) Monoclonal autoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage ... 2011) Oxidized phospholipid-induced inflammation is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2. Free Radic Biol Med 51:1903-1909. ...
SBIR/STTR Phase I: Formulation of Non-Phospholipid Nanoparticles for Delivery of Drugs with Poor Aqueous Solubility. Period of ... This Phase I Project proposes to solve these problems by using a proprietary mixture of non-phospholipid lipids for drug ...
Studies on Trypsin-Membrane Interactions in both Aqueous and Hydrocarbon Solvents Biochem Soc Trans (October, 1974) ... Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Studies of Phospholipid-Steroid Relationships in Lipid Bilayers RORY J. M. SMITH; RORY J. M. SMITH ... RORY J. M. SMITH, COLIN GREEN; Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Studies of Phospholipid-Steroid Relationships in Lipid Bilayers. ...
Amphipathic molecules (phospholipids). - In aqueous conditions bilayer forms to exclude water from hydrophobic region. - ...
... but you may not know too much about phospholipids. Although these two lipids have similar structures, they both play very ... This barrier keeps the aqueous contents of the cell separate from the aqueous exterior. However, the phospholipid membrane does ... What Phospholipids Do. Because the phosphate group in the phospholipid is charged, it allows this lipid to mix with both fat ... Phospholipids and Triglycerides in Food. Because your body is able to make enough on its own, phospholipids are not called ...
Fatty acid motions in aqueous lecithin dispersions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 298, 1-7 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Effects of particle size on spectra of phospholipid dispersions. J. Magn. Reson. 13, 76-86 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wu, S.H., McConnell, H.M.: Phase separations in phospholipid membranes. Biochemistry 14, 847-854 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Yeagle, P.L., Hutton, W.C., Huang, C., Martin, R.B.: Structure in the polar head group region of phospholipid bilayers: A 31P { ...
Background It has been suggested that the high phospholipid (PL) requirement in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fry is due to ... are the main constituent of all biological cell membranes and separate the intracellular and extracellular aqueous environments ... Eighteen families of homologous genes in phospholipid (PL) de-novo synthesis (a), lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) synthesis (b) and ... Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;82(1):113-28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The amount of water and its organization and mobility change with its distance from the aqueous phase to the surfaces [43, 55- ... Phospholipids play multiple and essential roles in cells, as components of biological membranes. Although phospholipid bilayers ... Nonenzymatic Reactions above Phospholipid Surfaces of Biological Membranes: Reactivity of Phospholipids and Their Oxidation ... The half-life of phospholipids is consequence of a constitutive recycling of membrane phospholipids by a complex biochemical ...
They are formed by the self-assembly of non-ionic surfactants in aqueous media.  They can be used to encapsulate aqueous ... Phospholipids are GRAS (generally recognised as safe) ingredients.. Nanoliposomes 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology. ... 16 . Enhance aqueous solubility 14/12/2011 Birla Institute of Technology.  They are present in small quantities in many fruits ... created by the extrusion of phospholipids. Mesra.  The first liposomal cosmetic product to appear on the market was the anti- ...
The IOP can be lowered by either decreasing aqueous production or increasing aqueous outflow. Aqueous outflow can be increased ... The total amount of phospholipids in all four classes normalized to total amount of proteins in the corresponding aqueous phase ... showed across the board decrease of phospholipid species, but no selective absence or appearance of a phospholipid species as a ... careful analyses of statin users reflect very little changes in phospholipids systemically,28 supporting that phospholipids ...
These sheets then join tails-to-tails to form a bilayer membrane in a phospholipid sphere with an aqueous center. Liposomes can ... Liposomes can be comprised of stabilized natural phospholipid mixtures, synthetic identical-chain phospholipids, glycolipid- ... 10 mg/mL aqueous suspension with ˜9.5 106 beads/μL; (b) 2.8 μm in diameter, 10 mg/mL aqueous suspension with ˜6.5 105 beads/μL ... and when the liposomes form these materials are trapped in the aqueous center. The liposome wall, being a phospholipid membrane ...
An important step in the process is formation of micelles, which allows the lipid aggregates to be miscible in the aqueous ... Dietary lipids include fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone (mono-, di-or triglycerides); phospholipids; sterols, ... For dietary lipids to be digested and absorbed, they must be emulsified in the aqueous environment of the intestinal contents; ... which may be esterified; waxes; and the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Digestion of triglycerides (TG), phospholipids ( ...
CO2-Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) are a class of second-generation non-aqueous chemically selective CO2-separating solvents ... The reorientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod placed at the air/phospholipid interface is used to calculate the surface ... Relating Surface Viscosity to Monolayer Packing In Model Phospholipid Films Using Active Microrheology. Source: AIChE ... viscosity of spread monolayers of phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ...
  • Specifically, we assess in real time the effect of the cation chain length and the anion nature on a supported vesicle layer of the model phospholipid DMPC. (uhasselt.be)
  • adding said vesicle to said aqueous system whereby said vesicle is incorporated into said biofilm and releases said biofilm control agent to contact said microorganisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated FA composition of uterus phospholipids during the implantation period in intact and seminal vesicle-excised (SVX) mated female mice. (scielo.br)
  • We also found that the seminal vesicle secretion could affect the levels of LNA, ARA, SFA, and PUFA in uterine phospholipids especially on second and third day. (scielo.br)
  • The thin aqueous spaces inside the thylakoids are believed to be connected with each other via these stroma thylakoids. (britannica.com)
  • Arrays of hydrogels that support curved aqueous lenses are deposited on two parallel substrates using lithography techniques on top of a network of Ag/AgCl electrodes. (spie.org)
  • Important applications of the fluorescent phosphatidylinositol derivatives as probes for signal transduction and various fluorescent phospholipids as phospholipase substrates are further described in Probes for Lipid Metabolism and Signaling-Section 17.4 . (thermofisher.com)
  • Dynamic characterization of phospholipid/protein competitive adsorption at the aqueous solution/chloroform interface. (mpg.de)
  • The Na + ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22 Na + partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22 Na + across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. (wiley.com)
  • 1. A stable, topically applicable cosmetic/pharmaceutical skin depigmenting composition comprising a combination depigmentation effective amount of mequinol and adapalene, formulated as an aqueous-alcoholic gel or gel-cream in a topically applicable, physiologically acceptable medium therefor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As indicated by its amino acid composition, CTT is hydrophobic, and its partitioning into phospholipid films could be verified by the monolayer technique. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The phospholipid fatty acids composition was monitored during the first five days of pregnancy using gas chromatography and also implantation rate was evaluated on fifth day of pregnancy. (scielo.br)
  • Since membrane FA of uterus cells are the main precursors of uterus PG ( 8 ) and there is a growing body of evidence about crucial roles of PG in embryo implantation, any change in FA composition of the uterus phospholipids during the implantation period may affect the implantation and consequently the pregnancy outcome. (scielo.br)
  • The changes in the phospholipid composition were also related to NaCI, which reverted when Ca2+ was also present in the nutrient solution. (csic.es)
  • Here, using an established mouse model of pharyngeal aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), we recovered SWCNTs from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf), purified them from possible contamination with lung cells, and examined the composition of phospholipids adsorbed on SWCNTs by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular speciation of these phospholipids was also consistent with pulmonary surfactant. (cdc.gov)
  • This study permits us to establish that the acidic phospholipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine can act as efficient Na + ionophores in this in vitro system, at physiological Na + concentrations and with kinetics comparable to those of systems involved in Na + transport (e.g. (wiley.com)
  • Polymerization of the diacetylene group results in a perfectly regular polymer, with a stable polymeric phospholipid. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Stable, topically applicable cosmetic/pharmaceutical skin depigmentation compositions contain a combination depigmentation effective amount of mequinol and adapalene, and optionally, at least one sunscreen, formulated as aqueous-alcoholic gels or gel-creams in topically applicable, physiologically acceptable media therefor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Stable and Fluid Multilayer Phospholipid-Silica Thin Films: Mimicing active multi-lamellar biological assemblies. (lanl.gov)
  • A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC 50 ) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mode of this interaction was direct, as shown by assays of dermcidin binding to phospholipid preparations, and specific, as the resistance to other AMPs was not affected. (asm.org)
  • Then, more studies are desirable which could correlate the biophysics of modified phospholipids with metabolism in processes such as aging and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a suite of biophysical techniques, we quantitatively studied the interaction of NAO with anionic phospholipids under physiologically relevant conditions. (asm.org)
  • We found that NAO is promiscuous in its binding and has photophysical properties that are largely insensitive to the structure of diverse anionic phospholipids to which it binds. (asm.org)
  • CO2-Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) are a class of second-generation non-aqueous chemically selective CO2-separating solvents. (aiche.org)