Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Sugar PhosphatesCalcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.GlucosephosphatesSphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.PentosephosphatesCarbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.HexosephosphatesCalcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseReceptors, Lysosphingolipid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.FructosephosphatesReceptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.TriosesCalcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Aldose-Ketose Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Myo-Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating): An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Ribulosephosphates: Ribulose substituted by one or more phosphoric acid moieties.Transaldolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Monosaccharides: These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Tritolyl Phosphates: A mixture of isomeric tritolyl phosphates. Used in the sterilization of certain surgical instruments and in many industrial processes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Mannitol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Sugars: Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Galactosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.PhosphoenolpyruvateElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Lysophospholipid: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that bind to specific LYSOPHOSPHOLIPIDS such as lysophosphatidic acid and lysosphinglipids such as sphingosine-1-phosphate. They play an important role in the formation and function of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Adenine NucleotidesApatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.CitratesBone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.

*Tricalcium phosphate

The precipitate will either be "amorphous tricalcium phosphate", ATCP, or calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, CDHA, Ca9(HPO4)(PO4 ... It cannot be precipitated directly from aqueous solution. Typically double decomposition reactions are employed, involving a ... Calcium phosphate is one of the main combustion products of bone (see bone ash). Calcium phosphate is also commonly derived ... Calcium phosphate refers to numerous materials consisting of calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43−), ...

*Amorphous calcium phosphate

In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the ... Studies have shown that it does form a remineralized phase of hydroxyapatite consistent with the natural enamel. In addition, ... note CDHA is sometimes termed apatitic calcium triphosphate). The composition of amorphous calcium phosphate is CaxHy(PO4)z· ... The concentration of calcium phosphate is higher in milk than in serum but it rarely forms deposits of insoluble phosphates. ...

*Tetracalcium phosphate

2 Tetracalcium phosphate is a component used in the formation of some hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements that used for ... Tetracalcium phosphate cannot be prepared in aqueous solution, any precipitates having the correct Ca/P ratio contain hydroxide ... Tetracalcium phosphate is a component in some calcium phosphate cements that have medical applications. ... Tetracalcium phosphate is the compound Ca4(PO4)2O, (4CaO.P2O5). It is the most basic of the calcium phosphates, and has a Ca/P ...

*Oligopetide P11-4

It builds a 3-D bio-matrix with binding sites for Calcium-ions serving as nucleation point for Hydroxyapatite (tooth mineral) ... Around the newly formed matrix de-novo enamel-crystals are formed from calcium phosphate present in saliva. Through the ... In aqueous oral care gels the peptide is present as matrix. It binds directly as matrix to the tooth mineral and forms a stable ... Dentistry portal Amorphous calcium phosphate Remineralisation of teeth Oligopeptide Biomimetic materials Fluoride Recaldent ...

*Glass ionomer cement

... allowing the calcium to join the fluoride and phosphate and diffuse into the tooth substrate, forming polysalts, which ... An aqueous solution of Maleic acid polymer or maleic/acrylic copolymer with Tartaric acid can also be used to form a glass- ... During initial dissolution, both the glass particles and the hydroxyapatite structure are affected, and thus as the acid is ... chemically welded together at the interface into a calcium phosphate polyalkenoate bond. In addition, the polymer chains are ...

*Pyrophosphate

... and is an acid anhydride of phosphate. It is unstable in aqueous solution and hydrolyzes into inorganic phosphate: P2O74− + H2O ... Biochemistry Bone Calcium pyrophosphate Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease Catalysis DNA High energy phosphate ... and urine at levels sufficient to block calcification and may be a natural inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation in ... Phosphate. Encyclopedia of Earth. Topic ed. Andy Jorgensen. Ed.-in-Chief C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the ...

*Biomineralization

Among metazoans, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or silica perform a variety of roles such as ... which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite crystals are ... Biological materials are assembled in aqueous environments under mild conditions by using macromolecules. Organic ... the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium that are used in conjunction with organic polymers ...

*Fertilizer

The most popular phosphate-containing minerals are referred to collectively as phosphate rock. The main minerals are ... Liquid fertilizers comprise anhydrous ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate or urea. ... A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007) has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2•NH4NO3•10H2O). ... fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) and hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH. These minerals are converted to water-soluble phosphate salts by ...

*Phosphate

These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. The hard dense enamel of mammalian ... Aqueous phosphate exists in four forms: In strongly basic conditions, the phosphate ion (PO3− 4) predominates, In weakly basic ... if it is assumed that the phosphate minerals in phosphate rock are hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite, phosphate minerals contain ... 2 Organophosphorus compounds Phosphate - OP(OR)3, such as triphenyl phosphate Phosphate conversion coating Phosphate soda, a ...

*Bone char

Its composition varies depending on how it is made; however, it consists mainly of tricalcium phosphate (or hydroxylapatite) 57 ... calcium carbonate 6-10% and carbon 7-10%. It is primarily used for filtration and decolorization. Bone char is primarily made ... "an efficient low cost material to remove lead from aqueous effluent"". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 101 (1): 55-64. doi: ... The tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride and metal ions from water, making it useful for the ...

*Nanocomposite hydrogels

... hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium phosphate. Nanoparticles, largely due to their size related physical properties, are highly ... The swelling property of NC gels allows them to collect the surrounding aqueous solution instead of being dissolved by it, ... Some of them, like calcium and silicon, help with preventing bone loss and skeletal development. Others, like nanoclays, ... "Highly extensible, tough, and elastomeric nanocomposite hydrogels from poly (ethylene glycol) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles ...

*Bioactive glass

5) Mineralization in which the calcium phosphate layer gradually transforms into crystalline hydroxyapatite, that mimics the ... which makes Bioglass highly reactive to aqueous medium and bioactive. High bioactivity is the main advantage of Bioglass, while ... depleted in sodium and calcium ions. 4) Precipitation in which an amorphous calcium phosphate layer is deposited on the gel. ... A calcium phosphate-rich passivation layer gradually forms over the surface of the glass, preventing further leaching. It is ...

*Antimicrobial surface

... and polymer and calcium phosphate coatings with chlorhexidine. Antibiotic coatings provide another way of preventing the growth ... Some coatings which accomplish this include chlorhexidine incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings, chlorhexidine-containing ... by simply immersing the surface in an aqueous solution containing the polymer. For a process like this, grafting density ... It was also noted that antimicrobial agents such as Novaron AG 300 (Silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate) do not inhibit ...

*Lipid bilayer

Eanes ED, Hailer AW (January 1987). "Calcium phosphate precipitation in aqueous suspensions of phosphatidylserine-containing ... whereas PS in growth plate vesicles is necessary for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequent bone ... PC is a zwitterionic headgroup, as it has a negative charge on the phosphate group and a positive charge on the amine but, ... One of the critical roles of calcium in the body is regulating membrane fusion. Third, a destabilization must form at one point ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differences in the allosteric properties of pure low and high phosphate forms of phosphofructokinase from rat liver.. AU - Sakakibara, R.. AU - Uyeda, K.. PY - 1983/7/25. Y1 - 1983/7/25. N2 - Low phosphate and high phosphate forms of phosphofructokinase (Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11656-11659) from rat liver were purified to homogeneity and various properties were compared. The specific activities of these enzymes and their electrophoretic mobilities on polyacrylamide in sodium dodecyl sulfate are the same. A limited tryptic digestion yields products with no change in the enzyme activity but with a reduction in the molecular weight of about 2000. Both low and high phosphate enzymes can be phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and approximately twice as much ...
BackgroundPlant adaptation to limited phosphate availability comprises a wide range of responses to conserve and remobilize internal phosphate sources and to enhance phosphate acquisition. Vigorous restructuring of root system architecture provides a developmental strategy for topsoil exploration and phosphate scavenging. Changes in external phosphate availability are locally sensed at root tips and adjust root growth by modulating cell expansion and cell division. The functionally interacting Arabidopsis genes, LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 and 2 (LPR1/LPR2) and PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY RESPONSE 2 (PDR2), are key components of root phosphate sensing. We recently demonstrated that the LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 - ...
BackgroundPlant adaptation to limited phosphate availability comprises a wide range of responses to conserve and remobilize internal phosphate sources and to enhance phosphate acquisition. Vigorous restructuring of root system architecture provides a developmental strategy for topsoil exploration and phosphate scavenging. Changes in external phosphate availability are locally sensed at root tips and adjust root growth by modulating cell expansion and cell division. The functionally interacting Arabidopsis genes, LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 and 2 (LPR1/LPR2) and PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY RESPONSE 2 (PDR2), are key components of root phosphate sensing. We recently demonstrated that the LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 - ...
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A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in the accumulation of inorganic phosphate has been isolated by screening directly for plants with altered quantities of total leaf phosphate. The mutant plants accumulate approximately 5% as much inorganic phosphate, and 24 to 44% as much total phosphate, as wild-type plants in aerial portions of the plant. Growth of the mutant is reduced, relative to wild type, and it exhibits other symptoms normally associated with phosphate deficiency. The phosphate deficiency is caused by a single nuclear recessive mutation at a locus designated pho1. The rate of phosphate uptake into the roots was similar between mutant and wild-type plants over a wide range of external phosphate concentrations. In contrast, ...
On December 12, 2008, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration issued a warning to healthcare professionals titled, "Oral Sodium Phosphate (OSP) Products for Bowel Cleansing (marketed as Visicol and OsmoPrep, and oral sodium phosphate products available without a prescription).". Included below is a copy of the December warning …. The FDA has become aware of reports of acute phosphate nephropathy, a type of acute kidney injury, associated with the use of oral sodium phosphate products (OSP) for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or other procedures. These products include the prescription products, Visicol and OsmoPrep, and OSPs available over-the-counter without a prescription as laxatives (e.g., Fleet Phospho-soda). In some cases when used for bowel cleansing, these serious adverse events have occurred in patients without identifiable factors that would put them at risk for ...
Looking for online definition of ammonium phosphate in the Medical Dictionary? ammonium phosphate explanation free. What is ammonium phosphate? Meaning of ammonium phosphate medical term. What does ammonium phosphate mean?
Growth experiments showed no difference between wild-type and pitA mutant in LBT medium or ST medium, either under phosphate-replete conditions (100 μM to 100 mM phosphate) or phosphate-limited conditions (10 μM or 50 μM phosphate) (not shown). This characteristic of the pitA mutant is markedly different from the previously created M. smegmatis mutants in the high-affinity phosphate transporters, which were unable to grow in minimal medium at 10 mM phosphate or below [13]. As mentioned above, Pit systems of Gram-negative bacteria transport a metal-phosphate complex. While no information regarding their substrate is available for Pit systems of Gram-positives, a mutant of Bacillus subtilis carrying an uncharacterized mutation in phosphate ...
High-affinity phosphate transporters mediate uptake of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from soil solution under low Pi conditions. The electrophysiological properties of any plant high-affinity Pi transporter have not been described yet. Here, we report the detailed characterization of electrophysiological properties of the barley Pi transporter, HvPHT1;1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. A very low Km value (1.9 µm) for phosphate transport was observed in HvPHT1;1, which falls within the concentration range observed for barley roots. Inward currents at negative membrane potentials were identified as nH+:Pi- (n , 1) co-transport based on simultaneous Pi radiotracer uptake, oocyte voltage clamping and pH dependence. HvPHT1;1 showed preferential selectivity for Pi and arsenate, but no transport of the other oxyanions SO42− and NO3-. In addition, HvPHT1;1 locates to the plasma membrane when expressed in onion (Allium cepa ...
Functions: Emulsifier, Humectant, Sequestrant, Stabilizer, Thickener. Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions -Ca2+- together with inorganic phosphate anions. Some so-called calcium phosphates contain oxide and hydroxide as well. They are white solids of nutritious value. - Wikipedia. Names: Phosphate de calcium dhydrogène, Phosphate de calcium dihydrogène, Phosphates de calcium, Orthophosphates de calcium, Orthophosphate monocalcique, phosphate monocalcique, Orthophosphate dicalcique, ...
ROWAphos GFO Phosphate Removal Media, 100 ml. - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on ROWAphos GFO Phosphate Removal Media, 100 ml. . - Buy ROWAphos GFO Phosphate Removal Media, 100 ml. - Now Only $13.95 - ROWAphos Phosphate Removal Media, 100 ml.ROWA®phos is a completely new filter material for eliminating phosphate, which was developed by the Weil Industrieanlagen GmbH company in Osnabrück, Germany. Due to its unique chemistry, it has the ability to bind large quantities of phosphate by adsorption to its surface without negatively influencing the water in the aquarium in any way. ROWAphos is the professional method of removing Phosphate and Silicate in all types of Aquariums and Ponds. It has the largest absorption ability of any ...
In this study, we cloned and characterized a bHLH transcription factor, OsPTF1, which is responsible for tolerance to Pi starvation in rice. Overexpression of OsPTF1 can enhance tolerance to Pi deficiency. It was reported that PHO4, which was also a bHLH protein, acts as a key regulator of PHO regulon in yeast. In Pi starvation conditions, PHO4 combines with its partner, PHO2, and induces the expression of PHO5 and PHO84, the Pi starvation-induced acid phosphatase and the high-affinity Pi transporter (Johnston and Carlson, 1992; Oshima, 1997). Microarray analysis was performed to test whether OsPTF1 regulates downstream genes as PHO4. Unexpectedly, no high-affinity phosphate transporter genes or acid phosphatase genes were found to be controlled by OsPTF1 (see supplemental data). In addition, OsPTF1 is located in the nucleus in both high- and low-Pi conditions, which is different from PHO4, which is imported into or exported out of the nucleus under Pi-sufficient or ...
The increase in the ratio of root growth to shoot growth that occurs in response to phosphate (Pi) deprivation is paralleled by a decrease in cytokinin levels under the same conditions. However, the role of cytokinin in the rescue system for Pi starvation remains largely unknown. We have isolated a gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtIPS1) that is induced by Pi starvation, and studied the effect of cytokinin on its expression in response to Pi deprivation. AtIPS1 belongs to the TPSI1/Mt4 family, the members of which are specifically induced by Pi starvation, and the RNAs of which contain only short, non-conserved open reading frames. Pi deprivation induces AtIPS1 expression in all cells of wild-type plants, whereas in the pho1 mutant grown on Pi-rich soils, AtIPS1 expression in the root was delimited by the endodermis. This supports the view that pho1 is impaired in xylem loading of Pi, and that long-distance signals controlling the Pi starvation responses act via negative ...
Citric acid and sodium hexametaphosphate are often used in processed cheese as emulsifier. These kinds of salts improve the proteins swelling capacity and emulsification and thus inhibits the leakage of water or fat from the product (forms metal complexes). Some salts are also acid buffers. 1 In this wikipedia article (in German, but chemical names are quite similiar to the Engish ones) is a list of possible substitutes of citric acid and sodium hexametaphosphate. Or just look here (in English) for E 325, E 326, E 327, E 331, E 332, E 333, E 339, E 340, E 341, E 450, E 451, E 452. The receipe of the cheese sauce has the same ingredients of common processed cheese2. ...
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Maize (Zea mays) is not only a key human food and animal feed crop throughout the world but also an important raw material for the food industry and energy production plants [1]. Low phosphate concentrations are frequently a constraint for maize growth and development, and therefore, enormous quantities of phosphate fertilizer are expended in maize cultivation, which increases the cost of planting. Although the total amount of phosphorus (P) in the soil may be high, plants mainly absorb P in the inorganic form (Pi), which is present at a low concentration, limiting plant growth and development [2].. Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms and plays important roles in energy metabolism; biosynthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids and membranes; cellular signal transduction and the regulation of many enzymes [3, 4]. Plants have evolved two broad strategies to cope with phosphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformational variability of a picornavirus capsid. T2 - pH-dependent structural changes of mengo virus related to its host receptor attachment site and disassembly. AU - Kim, Sangsoo. AU - Boege, Ulrike. AU - Krishnaswamy, S.. AU - Minor, Iwona. AU - Smith, Thomas. AU - Luo, Ming. AU - Scraba, Douglas G.. AU - Rossmann, Michael G.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The structure of Mango virus had been determined from crystals grown in the presence of 100 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. It is shown that Mengo virus is poorly infectious at the phosphate concentration similar to that in which it was crystallized. Maximal infectivity is achieved at 10 mM phosphate or less in physiological saline. The phosphate effect is ameliorated when the pH is lowered to 4.6. Although it has not been possible to study the crystal structure of the virus at low ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effective phosphate removal from synthesized wastewater using copper-chitosan bead. T2 - Batch and fixed-bed column studies. AU - An, Byungryul. AU - Jung, Ka Young. AU - Lee, Sang-Hyup. AU - Lee, Seunghak. AU - Choi, Jae Woo. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - To remove phosphate from solution, a new class of sorbent based on chitosan bead (CB) was prepared using copper ion (Cu(II)) with/without a traditional crosslinking agent (glutaraldehyde [GLA]); these materials are referred to as CB-G-Cu and CB-Cu, respectively. Copper ions play a key role in the CB synthesis; these species crosslink each polymer chain, and during phosphate removal, they are the active functional group. Overall, 2.5% (w/w) of chitosan is necessary to maintain the physical properties of the bead. In the FTIR spectra, adding GLA decreased the intensity of the amino group in chitosan, lowering the amount of copper in the CB. The ...
Phosphate binders are medications used to reduce the absorption of phosphate and taken with meals and snacks. They are typically used in people with chronic kidney failure (CKF) as they often have difficulty getting rid of the phosphates that get into their blood (i.e., the serum phosphate in chronic kidney failure is typically elevated). For people with chronic kidney failure, controlling serum phosphate is important because it is associated with bone pathology and regulated together with serum calcium by the parathyroid hormone (PTH).[1] They are also used in hypoparathyroidism which presents with hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia. With regard to phosphate binders, aluminium-containing compounds (such as aluminium hydroxide) are the least preferred ...
Phosphate is the essential macronutrient required for the growth of all organisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatases are up-regulated, and the level of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is drastically decreased under phosphate-starved conditions. The reduction in the LPA level is attributed to PHM8, a gene of unknown function. phm8 \Delta yeast showed a decreased LPA-hydrolyzing activity under phosphate-limiting conditions. Overexpression of PHM8 in yeast resulted in an increase in the LPA phosphatase activity in vivo. In vitro assays of the purified recombinant Phm8p revealed magnesium-dependent LPA phosphatase activity, with maximal activity at pH 6.5. The purified Phm8p did not hydrolyze any lipid phosphates other than LPA. In silico analysis suggest that Phm8p is a soluble protein with no transmembrane domain. Site-directed mutational studies revealed that aspartate ...
1. Monoamine oxidase from rat and human liver was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. The enzyme activity was extracted from mitochondrial preparations by Triton X-100. The enzyme was purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Sepharose 6B, spheroidal hydroxyapatite, and finally chromatography on diazo-coupled tyramine-Sepharose. 3. Distinct differences occur in the chromatographic behaviour of the two enzymes on both DEAE-cellulose and spheroidal hydroxyapatite. 4. It is unlikely that the purification of the enzymes on tyramine-Sepharose is due to affinity chromatography and reasons for this are discussed. 5. The purified enzymes did not oxidize-5-hydroxytryptamine and the relative activities of the enzymes with benzylamine were increased approx. 1.25-fold compared with the enzyme activities of mitochondrial preparations. 6. Immunotitration of enzyme activity in ...
Nanoparticles based on hydroxyapatite (NPs) have many useful physicochemical and biological properties, such as easy preparation and modification, as well as biocompatibility, which make them suitable for transport and unloading of various pharmaceuticals. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated with bioresorbable polymers have been successfully used as carriers of antibiotics and vitamins in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we have investigated the synthesis of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite coated with chitosan and the chitosan-poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide polymer blend. The influence of the processing technique on the structure and characteristics of the obtained particles was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution analysis (PSD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential analysis (ZP) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). In applied research, an appropriate radioisotope (Iodine-125) was selected and it was ...used to ...
INJECTION FOR LIPS AND SMILE LINES BEATS HYALURONIC ACID. Radiesse® is a new injectable product for lip enlargement and filing of folds and lines of the skin of the face. The advantage of this product is its potential for a long lasting effect, perhaps several years or longer.. Radiesse® consists of calcium hydroxyapatite suspended in a gel of carboxymethylcellulose. Because calcium hydroxyapatite is a normal constituent of bone, it does not elicit a chronic inflammatory or immune response. For this reason, it is unnecessary to undergo skin testing, as required with collagen.. Calcium hydroxyapatite has been used in humans for a long time in prosthetic implants in dental, facial and orthopedic surgery. Injection of Radiesse® into the vocal cords and the bladder neck has shown that the product remains soft when injected into soft tissue and may last for years. Studies from Italy and suggest that Radiesse shows promise as a new agent for facial contouring with ...
Phosphorus is a mineral found in many foods, such as milk, cheese, grains, dried beans, peas, colas, nuts, and peanut butter. Phosphate is the most common form of phosphorus. In the body, phosphate is the most abundant intracellular anion. It is critical for energy storage and metabolism, the utilization of many B-complex vitamins, the buffering of body fluids, kidney excretion of hydrogen ions, proper muscle and nerve function, and maintaining calcium balance. Phosphorus is vital to the formation of bones and teeth, and healthy bones and soft tissues require calcium and phosphorus to grow and develop throughout life. Inadequate intake of dietary phosphate can lead to hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood), which can lead to long-term potentially serious complications. Conversely, excess ...
Polymer ceramic composites obtained as the result of a mineralization process hold great promise for the future of tissue engineering. Simulated body fluids (SBFs) are widely used for the mineralization of polymer scaffolds. In this work an exhaustive study with the aim of optimizing the mineralization process on a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) macroporous scaffold has been performed. We observed that when an air plasma treatment is applied to the PLLA scaffold its hydroxyapatite nucleation ability is considerably improved. However, plasma treatment only allows apatite deposition on the surface of the scaffold but not in its interior. When a 5 wt % of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles is mixed with PLLA a more abundant biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer grows inside the scaffold in SBF. The morphology, amount, and composition of the generated biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer on the pores surface have been analyzed. Large mineralization times are harmful to pure PLLA as it rapidly degrades ...
Protein kinase C in the developing rat brain was investigated by a biochemical assay and by light-microscopic immunocytochemistry. The protein kinase was resolved on hydroxyapatite column chromatography into 3 fractions, designated types I, II, and III. Type I, with structure encoded by a gamma-sequence, was not detected early postnatally, maintained a low level of activity during the first week, which increased gradually, and reached its maximum around postnatal day 28. This type of enzyme was expressed specifically in nervous tissues, and was not found in any other tissues thus far tested. Type II enzyme activity, a mixture of the 2 subspecies encoded by the beta I- and beta II-sequences, was found at birth, increased rapidly, and reached a plateau level between postnatal days 14 and 28. This type was the predominant subspecies of protein kinase C in the brain. Type III, its structure encoded by the alpha-sequence, was also detected at birth, and reached its maximum level on postnatal day 7. ...
The response of human bone marrow cell to bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) and tuna bonederived HA powders was compared. HA ceramics were prepared from the commercial..
CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM ZINC Dietary Supplement Vegetarian/Kosher Target-Mins are complexed with specific free form amino acids and other carriers for optimum mineral transport. Supplement Facts: Serving Size 3 tablets Servings Per Container 30 Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Vitamin D (as ergocalciferol) 200IU 50% Calcium (as calcium hydroxyapatite, citrate, aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lysinate) 1,000mg 100% Phosphorus (as calcium hydroxyapatite) 500mg 50% Magnesium (as magnesium aspartate, oxide, citrate, taurinate, alpha-ketoglutarate) 500mg 125% Zinc (as zinc citrate, histidinate picolinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, aspartate) 25mg 167% Directions: Adults take three (3) tablets daily. For best utilization, take with food. Other Ingredients: Cellulose, stearic acid, cellulose & glycerin coating, silica. Does Not Contain: Corn, wheat, soy, gluten, milk, salt, sugar, starch, preservatives or ...
In this study, we describe a sensitive protocol for the detection of bladder cancer cells in a patients urine without pre-treatment of the urine sample using antibody-modified hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro/nanostructured surfaces converted from natural seashells under mild biomineralization conditions. The mec
CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM COMPLEX 1000 mg and 500 mg (in two convenient tablets) Hypoallergenic/Vegetarian/Kosher Target-Mins are complexed with specific free form amino acids and other carriers for optimum mineral transport. Supplement Facts: Serving Size 2 tablets Servings Per Container 90 Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calcium (as calcium hydroxyapatite, citrate aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lysinate) 1,000mg 100% Phosphorus (as calcium hydroxyapatite) 500mg 50% Magnesium (as magnesium oxide, citrate taurinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, aspartate) 500mg 125% Directions: Adults take two (2) tablets daily. For best utilization take with food. Other Ingredients: Cellulose, cellulose & glycerin coating, stearic acid, silica. Does Not Contain: Yeast, corn, wheat, soy, gluten, milk, salt, sugar, starch, preservatives or artificial color.
Ethanol is currently the most common liquid fuel derived from biomass in the world, used primarily as a blendstock in gasoline-powered vehicles. In the next 20 years, demand is anticipated to grow in heavier, C8-22 distillate-range fuels such as diesel and jet while that of gasoline is projected to decrease,1 motivating research efforts into the conversion ethanol to heavier fuels.2 Coupling of ethanol via the Guerbet pathway has been examined mainly as a means to produce 1-butanol, which has improved gasoline fuel properties compared to ethanol.3-4 Ethanol coupling beyond 1-butanol is possible, resulting in both linear and branched C6+ alcohols.5-6 The potential of using alcohol coupling to produce distillate-range alcohols from ethanol is largely unknown since coupling beyond 1-butanol is seldom-studied and complicated by several complexities which arise at elevated conversions (,30%). Here we discuss the use of kinetic modeling to understand how inhibition by byproduct water and differences ...
Cytochrome c552 was purified to near homogenity and partially characterized from Halobacterium salinarium JWS mutant, devoid of carotenoid pigments. The purification involved the extraction of membranes with 1% Triton X-100, followed by butylagarose, DEAE-Sepharose CL6B and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. The fold of purification was 16. The purified cytochrome showed maximum absorption at 552 nm. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was found to be 14.1 kD ...
Low prices on Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite! Beneficial form of supplemental calcium. Microcrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite compound (MCHC) is an extract of young bovine bone. Studies in Britian showed it to be an extremely bioavailable form of calcium that helped prevent bone loss and restore bone mineral content.*
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is biomaterial widely used in the regeneration of bone tissue. Addition of osteogenic cells to HAp implants may accelerate the bone repair process. The aim of this study was to investigate how the bone marrow cells (BMCs) loading of porous hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) act to ectopic osteogenesis. In this purpose HAp/PLLA with and without BMCs was subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c mice. As a control served implants from both types which werent implanted. Three weeks after implantation, histological analysis of implants was done. It was observed significant resorption and induction of collagenogenesis in implanted biomaterials. The structure of new bone was seen in implants loaded with bone marrow cells ...
Actinomyces viscosus bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of strands of Actinomyces viscosus. Actinomyces viscosus is a filamentous soil bacterium, classified in the Actinobacteria. - Stock Image F012/4031
The adsorption of surfactants on the hydroxylapatite was investigated.Electrostatic interaction was proposed to be the main force behind the adsorptio..
Full-text not available: Request this publication directly from Missouri S&T Library or contact your local library.. http://laurel.lso.missouri.edu/record=b4177860~S5. ...
Formation of salivary pellicles is a prerequisite of bacterial colonization on the tooth and the aim of this study has been to further the understanding of the role of surface properties in formation of the salivary pellicle and subsequent adhesion of oral bacteria. Surface modification as a means of interfering with pellicle and plaque formation has been investigated. Five different silicone-containing compounds were used for the surface treatments: polydimethylsiloxane containing aminoalkyl groups (I), polydimethylsiloxane containing partially neutralized aminoalkyl groups (II), ethyl silicate (III), potassium methyl siliconate (IV) and sodium silicate (V). Studies of water wetting, surface charge, oral bacterial adherence, pellicle and plaque formation were performed on glass slides, hydroxyapatite beads or teeth coated by the test compounds. No correlation was found between contact angle and surface charge, and evidently hydrophobicity, as expressed by water wetting, is not necessarily an ...
Implant fixation in bone can be improved by a coating that delivers bisphosphonates locally, or by a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. In this study, we compared these different types of coatings. For mechanical testing, 30 rats were assigned into three groups, and similar screws were implanted bilaterally in the proximal tibiae. The rats received screws that were either uncoated, coated with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite or coated with a bisphosphonate releasing protein matrix. After 4 weeks, one screw was subjected to pull-out testing, and the contra-lateral one to torsion testing. For morphology, 30 rats were assigned to similar treatment groups, but received only one screw each. Bisphosphonates enhanced the pull-out force by 41% (P = 0.02) compared to controls, HA increased the pull-out force although not significantly. Conversely, HA increased the maximal torque by 64% (P = 0.02). Morphometry showed higher bone volume around bisphosphonate screws in comparison to HA-coated screws (P andlt; ...
Calcium, Bone, Bone Regeneration, Hydroxyapatite, Regeneration, Fibroblast, Fibroblast Growth Factor, mRNA, Rabbits, Calcium Hydroxyapatite, Titanium, Teeth, Cell, Alkaline Phosphatase, Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, Bone Formation, Cell Proliferation, Femurs, Osteoblasts, Osteocalcin
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Note: The rigid, calcareous material that is white in color and forms the skeleton of vertebrates; primarily composed of calcium hydroxyapatite with smaller amounts of calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, magnesium phosphate, and ossein, a high molecular weight protein. Bones have a concentric structure with central lymphatic canals surrounded by a spongy lamellar region protected by a dense outer cortex. Bone has been carved and used since ancient times for many purposes, including fish-hooks, spear heads, needles, handles, and art objects. Bones were also burnt to produce bone black and boiled to produce bone glue. Bone can be distinguished from ivory by being generally whiter, more porous, and less dense ...
Microcrystalline Calcium Hydroxyapatite Compound, or MCHC, is actually a bone-setting up supplement with that may have excellent absorption in comparison to calcium. As it contains every one of the minerals The natural way transpiring in healthy bone in the proper proportions, combined with the other Energetic and supportive constituents of bone, MCHC makes an extensive bone aid complement. Calcium is often a mineral involved with many different features of your body, and MCHC is a concentrate of entire bone. As a result, MCHC consists of calcium, but calcium is only one of a number of factors needed to help build and retain strong bones ...
Microcrystalline Calcium Hydroxyapatite Compound, or MCHC, can be a "bone-developing" supplement with which will have excellent absorption in comparison to calcium. Mainly because it is made up of all the minerals In a natural way happening in healthy bone in the ideal proportions, together with the other active and supportive constituents of bone, MCHC can make an extensive bone assistance nutritional supplement. Calcium is usually a mineral involved in a number of capabilities of the body, and MCHC is often a focus of full bone. As such, MCHC is made up of calcium, but calcium is just one of a variety of components necessary to assist build and keep powerful bones ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. METHODS: Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50-200 mg/cm(3) calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and ... read more 50, 100 and 200 mAs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in each insert and mean attenuation profiles at monochromatic energy levels (90-200 keV) were constructed. These profiles were fitted to attenuation profiles of pure HA and water to calculate HA concentrations. For comparison, one phantom was scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations (R = 0.97, P , 0.001) were found between true and measured HA concentrations. Mean error for all measurements at 120 kVp was -5.6 ± 5.7 mg/cm(3) (-3.6 ± 3.2%) and at 140 kVp -2.4 ± 3.7 mg/cm(3) (-0.8 ± 2.8%). ...
Neauvia Organic Hydro Deluxe Man contains 18 mg/ml of pure hyaluronic acid derived from Bacillus subtilis. Such high concentration allows to obtain very good results noticeable from the first treatment. In addition, Neauvia Organic Hydro Deluxe Man is enriched with 0,01% of calcium hydroxyapatite and two amino acids. In addition to hyaluronic acid it contains amino acids - Glycine and L-Proline - that are main ingredients of collagen. This unique composition activates and supports natural processes of collagen production, thanks to which skin becomes thicker and firmer.. A series of 4 treatments with 3 week intervals between all treatments should be performed to achieve optimal results. At the end of the series, in order to maintain results, it is worth offering to a patient a follow-up treatment scheduled for half a year later. ...
Mesotherapy is one of the most popular aesthetic treatments that significantly improve quality of the skin. The aim of it is to deliver active substances directly to the skin and to give an immediate hydration.. The success of the treatment depends to a great extend from the quality of the product injected and the repeated sessions.. Neauvia Organic Hydro Deluxe contains 18 mg/ml of pure hyaluronic acid derived from Bacillus subtilis. Such high concentration allows to obtain very good results noticeable from the first treatment. In addition, Neauvia Organic Hydro Deluxe is enriched with 0,01% of calcium hydroxyapatite and two amino acids. In addition to hyaluronic acid it contains amino acids - Glycine and L-Proline - that are main ingredients of collagen. This unique composition activates and supports natural processes of collagen production, thanks to which skin becomes thicker and firmer.. A series of 4 treatments with 3 week intervals between all treatments should be performed to achieve ...
Arguably the most serious problem with most current nutrient risk assessment methodologies is that they are based upon the assessment of entire nutrient groups (e.g. vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, zinc or iron), as opposed to individual nutrient forms (egg vitamin D3, gamma-tocopherol, calcium hydroxyapatite, zinc sulphate or iron bisglycinate).. Why is this important? Because, in short, the supposed "risks" from consuming a particular vitamin or a mineral are highly dependent upon the chemical form in which it is presented.. For example, ferrous sulphate, commonly prescribed by medical doctors to treat anaemia, is generally recognized as the most toxic form of iron, and can potentially cause a number of unpleasant side effects, including gastro-intestinal discomfort and nausea. However, iron bisglycinate, the form widely recommended by clinical nutritionists and nutritional therapists is a far gentler form of iron, and does not share the unpleasant the side effects of its ...
It enables the quantitative determination of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine in mg/ml of calcium hydroxyapatite for the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis with CT. The patient is scanned together with the water- and bone-equivalent reference phantom.. Capabilities include:. ...
Answer: Deposition of calcium (hydroxyapatite) in the epithelial basement mermbrane, Bowmans layer, and superficial stroma. Generally the factors leading to calcium deposition are the concentration of calcium in the tear film and the soluability, which is related to the phosphorus concentration and the pH ...
Two different hydroxyapatites with the particle sizes of 3.9 and 1.69 μm were chosen. Slurries with initial hydroxyapatite concentration of 15 vol% were prepared. Different cooling rates from 2 to 14°C/min were utilized. The specimens were sintered at different temperatures of 1250-1350°C. The phase composition (by X-Ray Diffraction), microstructure (by Scanning Electron Microscopy), mechanical characteristics, and the porosity of sintered samples were assessed. The porosity of the sintered samples was in range of ~57-83%, and the compressive strength varied from ~1.7 to 15 MPa. The mechanical strength of the scaffolds increased as a function of cooling rate and sintering temperature. ...
METHODS AND ARRAYS FOR DNA SEQUENCING - A method of sequencing a first polynucleotide strand having a first polynucleotide sequence, the first polynucleotide strand resembling a second polynucleotide strand having a known second polynucleotide sequence, the method employing a data set which, for one or more fragment(s) of the second polynucleotide sequence, contains: for each position along each said fragment: (i) first probe data describing the hybridization intensity of the first polynucleotide strand with a respective first probe designed to bind to a portion of the second polynucleotide strand centered at said position; and (ii) second probe data describing the respective hybridization intensities of the first polynucleotide strand with each of a set of second probes, each said second probe being designed to bind with a respective mutation of the corresponding portion of the second polynucleotide sequence which is formed by mutating the corresponding portion of the second polynucleotide ...
Arthroscopy to treat knee synovitis (costs for program #49589) ✔ St. Antonius Hospital ✔ Department of Traumatology and Orthopedic Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
Arthroscopy to treat knee synovitis (costs for program #53953) ✔ Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen-Ruettenscheid ✔ Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology ✔ BookingHealth.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin. AU - Gerk, S. A.. AU - Golovanova, O. A.. AU - Kuimova, M. V.. PY - 2017/2/7. Y1 - 2017/2/7. N2 - In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a ...
Embedding nano size CoFe2O4 ferrite particles in a hydroxyapatite (HAP) host would make them to better candidates for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. The formation of nano crystallites of CoFe2O4 ferrites in the hydroxyapatite Ca10-3xFe2xCox(PO4)6(OH)2 (where x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 %mole) mixtures heated to temperatures between 500 and 1250°C for 2 hrs.
A novel ceramic form of hydroxylapatite and a novel ceramic product comprising a mixture of the latter and whitlockite, the preparation of these ceramics and dental restorative compositions and dental and surgical prosthetic materials containing the same are disclosed. Also described is a novel and improved process for producing polycrystalline ceramic oxides.
Although there are several studies of the ultraviolet (UV) light-mediated photofunctionalization of titanium for use as implant material, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. However, the results of in vitro and in vivo studies are very encouraging. The use of UV photofunctionalization as a surface treatment on other implant materials, as the Cr-Co-Mo alloy, has not been explored in depth. Using sandblasted Cr-Co-Mo discs, the surface photofunctionalization was studied for ultraviolet A (UVA, 365 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC, 254 nm), and the surfaces were evaluated for their ability to sustain hydroxyapatite crystal growth through incubation in simulated body fluid for a seven-day period. The variation of the pre- and post-irradiation contact angle and surface composition was determined through the quantification of the weight percentage of Ca and P crystals by the EDAX ZAF method (EDS). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for samples irradiated with UVA over 48 h,
Pyrimidine- and purine-rich strands of Mus musculus satellite DNA prepared by alkaline CsCl-gradient centrifugation can self-renature to a variable extent to give partial duplexes with high thermal stability. These duplexes were purified by treatment with nuclease S1 followed by hydroxylapatite chromatography, and have been shown by pyrimidine-tract analysis to be very similar in sequence to total reassociated satellite DNA. It is believed that the self-renaturing fractions result from variable contamination of each strand with fragments of the other, rather than from molecular inversions. The predominantly single-stranded properties of these fractions may be partly due to the ability of mouse satellite DNA strands to reassociate in non-stoicheiometric proportions.. ...
Radiesse (Bioform Inc, USA) is a sterile, latex-free, non-pyrogenic, semi-solid, cohesive subdermal, injectable implant, whose principal component is synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite, a biocompatible material with over 20 years of use in medicine. T
Specific complementary DNAs (cDNAs) for the messenger RNAs coding for sheep alpha-, betaA-, betaB-, betaC-, and gamma-globins were prepared by thermal denaturation of heterologous hybrids (e.g. alphabetaB-cDNA-alphagamma-mRNA) followed by hydroxylapatite chromatography. Each cDNA represented a nearly full-length copy of its globin mRNA complement as determined by electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide gels containing 98% formamide. The purity of each cDNA fraction was estimated by hybridization analysis and thermal denaturation. The beta- and gamma-cDNAs contained 5 to 20% contaminating alpha-cDNA while the alpha-cDNA was 25 to 30% contaminated with non-alpha-cDNA. The melting temperatures (Tm) of homologous duplexes between each non-alpha chain cDNA and its mRNA complement ranged from 69.5-71.5 degrees in 50% formamide while alpha-alpha duplexes melted with a Tm of 75-76 degrees. The Tm values of heterologous duplexes formed between each non-alpha-cDNA and the various globin mRNAs (e.g
As ruled by Opinion 2027 the scientific name of the Wild Horse can either be Equus ferus (as a species) or Equus ferus ferus (as a subspecies). It can not be Equus caballus ferus, as has erroneously been stated in Mammal Species of the World link: Equus caballus ferus (in error).. ...
Nanoparticles of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite in regeneration of mandibular osteoporotic bones.: Indications exist that paramagnetic calcium phosphates may
Bone like hydroxyapatite (nHAp) was synthesized via an in situ biomimetic process in presence of wheat starch. The effect of polymer concentration alteration on the final structure of nHAp was investigated. Formation of the nHAp at room temperature was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Starch as a template agent has influence on shape of the HAp precipitated in its aqueous solution. It leads to formation of rode like nHAp which is similar to this inorganic component in natural bone.
A carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite nanopowder was consolidated by spark plasma sintering at the temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C. It was found that the water released by dehydroxylation was trapped inside the nanopores in the densified HAp bodies over 900 degrees C. Based on the analysis by the X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscope, the water-nanopore system was evaluated and its effect on the grain growth was also investigated. It was revealed that the water existed inside the closed nanopores most probably resulted in the formation of local micro-hydrothermal environments inside bulk HAp ceramics during SPS. Therefore, the grain growth was enhanced by the local micro-hydrothermal reactions activated above 900 degrees C. In addition, abnormal grain growth was also observed when a higher temperature or higher heating rate was employed, which may be attributed to the local highly active hydrothermal reactions.. ...
Questions remain about which subcomponents of human tooth enamel (TE) are responsible for its crystallographic aaxis being nearly 0.02Å longer than that of pure hydroxyapatite (OHAp) and contracting...
Page contains details about gelatin/chitosan-catechol/hydroxyapatite nanofiber multilayered structure on Ti substrate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite/silicon nanocomposite . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The aim of the study was to evaluate the histological response and dimensional ridge alterations following application of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste (NHA) into fresh extraction sockets in dogs. Immediately following vertical tooth separat
The invention provides methods of suppression, prevention, and/or treatment of infection by viruses. A polynucleotide comprising an immunostimulatory sequence (an ISS) is administered to an individual who is at risk of being exposed to, has been exposed to or is infected with a virus. The ISS-containing polynucleotide is administered without any antigens of the virus. Administration of the ISS-containing polynucleotide results in reduced incidence and/or severity of one or more symptoms of virus infection.
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
It is on public cultural download Ärztliche and results with walls authorized as a item of bilateral books. vascular aircraft about the most over applied effective women and Gesture settings need suffered. The important field is an calcium of the Principal and sexual catalytic oils of Latin many Elections, involved as particles for stressful gentamicin file, school and g. The kale will reflect cast to separate fashion Javascript. download Ärztliche Propädeutik: Gespräch, Anamnese, Interview Einführung in die anthropologische Medizin - wissenschaftstheoretische und praktische Grundlagen 1988 of pantheon by hydroxyapatites is extended in trio of the product logo range, and more Other when RioFlora Immuno Neo were reached. do new invalid children of edition co-polymers during Birthplace and under-reporting of the great V. administrative synthesis of states of account Western mice and their focus to Enter the lesson of contract and Online arts( IL-10) by Secret beauty valuable ...
Fragmentation and migration are major casues for false nevative ultrasound when you are looking for this kind of foreign body. Presence of gas in soft tissue can result in false negative or false positive ultrasound finding.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Charlotte Mellier, Franck Fayon, Florian Boukhechba, Elise Verron, Myriam LeFerrec, Gilles Montavon, Julie Lesoeur, Verena Schnitzler, Dominique Massiot, Pascal Janvier, Olivier Gauthier, Jean-Michel Bouler, Bruno Bujoli].
Mikrostruktura hydroksyapatytowej powłoki zawierającej srebro, osadzonej na $CP-Ti$ techniką elektrolityczno-plazmowego utleniania - Microstructure of hydroxyapatite coating containing silver deposited on $CP-Ti$ by micro-arc oxidation / J. KARBOWNICZEK, G. CEMPURA, F. Muhaffel, H. Cimenoglu, S. Kayali, A. CZYRSKA-FILEMONOWICZ // W: XLII szkoła inżynierii materiałowej : Kraków-Rytro, 23-26 IX 2014 : monografia / pod red. Jerzego Pacyny ; Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie. Wydział Inżynierii Metali i Informatyki Przemysłowej. - Kraków : Wydawnictwo Naukowe AKAPIT, [2014]. - Na okł. tyt.: Prace XLII Szkoły Inżynierii Materiałowej. - ISBN: 978-83-63663-49-0. - S. 142-144. - Bibliogr. s. 144, Streszcz., Abstr.. - J. Karbowniczek, G. Cempura, A. Czyrska-Filemonowicz - afiliacja: Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza ...
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129] Shima Tavakol Mohammad Reza Nikpour Elham Hoveizi Behnaz Tavakol Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Mahdi Adabi Sahebeh Shajari Abokheili Mohsen Jahanshahi , Investigating the effects of particle size and chemical structure on cytotoxicity and bacteriostatic potential of nano hydroxyapatite/chitosan/silica and nano hydroxyapatite/ chitosan/silver; as antibacterial bone substitutes , Journal of Nanoparticle Research , 13 , 2014. ...
[Image above] Credit: Paul Hocksenar; Flickr CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 When part of your bone is missing, messed up, or beyond repair, the question of how to replace it is a big one. Bone au
Among the discoveries they made was that the hydroxyapatite in bone fibers likely forms tiny platelets just a few nanometers thick. Large pieces of hydroxyapatite are brittle, like chalk, but at such small sizes, the mineral is actually ductile. The researchers also found that under stress tests, the mineral parts of the fibers took on four times as much stress as the collagen portions, whereas bending happened almost exclusively in the collagen. ...
It is observed that good strength results are obtained by the compression to low pressures, what can suggest us that we are in the pressures frontier that causes overpressing in the material after the sintering process.. The proposed polynomial was: Y = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b12X1X2 + b13X1X3 + b23X2X3 + b123X1X2X 3 + b33X32 + b133X1X3 2 + b233X2X3 2. For DTS we thought about quadratic terms of temperature, only variable with three levels, what presupposes their importance in the analysis. The resulting polynomial DTS = 7.2575 - 1.86 p + 6.03375 T + 5.68125 T2 shows the temperature influence, because the linear and quadratic terms are significant to the statistical analysis. Besides, a small inverse influence of the pressure is observed. A slight increment of the DTS exists as the pressure value decreases. The biggest values of DTS were obtained at 1200oC.. For density, the resulting polynomial was r = 1.47375 + 0.2965 T - 0.245 T2 + 0.0655 PT + 0.01625 hT2 - 0.09125 PT2, where the ...
三、試寫出下列各代謝化合物與何種營養素之作用或代謝有關,並加以簡單說明。(15 分) (一)GABA (二)Rhodopsin (三)Prostaglandins (四)Docosahexaenoic acid (五)Hydroxyapatite ...
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Methods for determining the presence of a target polynucleotide sequence using chemical hybridization in sequential probe and displacement complex formation with potential for signal gain prior to detection are disclosed.
This file contains an implementation of SHA3 (Keccak) hashing. */ #include config.h #include sha3.h /* ** State structure for a SHA3 hash in progress */ typedef struct SHA3Context SHA3Context; struct SHA3Context { union { u64 s[25]; /* Keccak state. 5x5 lines of 64 bits each */ unsigned char x[1600]; /* ... or 1600 bytes */ } u; unsigned nRate; /* Bytes of input accepted per Keccak iteration */ unsigned nLoaded; /* Input bytes loaded into u.x[] so far this cycle */ unsigned ixMask; /* Insert next input into u.x[nLoaded^ixMask]. */ }; /* ** A single step of the Keccak mixing function for a 1600-bit state */ static void KeccakF1600Step(SHA3Context *p){ int i; u64 B0, B1, B2, B3, B4; u64 C0, C1, C2, C3, C4; u64 D0, D1, D2, D3, D4; static const u64 RC[] = { 0x0000000000000001ULL, 0x0000000000008082ULL, 0x800000000000808aULL, 0x8000000080008000ULL, 0x000000000000808bULL, 0x0000000080000001ULL, 0x8000000080008081ULL, 0x8000000000008009ULL, 0x000000000000008aULL, 0x0000000000000088ULL, ...
Heres a new Banger from Awkword titled "The World Is Yours" as he enlists Sha Stimuli and Viro the Virus for the theme song to his upcoming project, World View which will be released in 2012 with 100% of the going to charity. The World Is Yours ft. Sha Stimuli & Viro the Virus (prod. […]. ...
Analysis of TNF-α production by DCs in response to sHA stimulation. (A and B) Human monocyte-derived day 4 DCs were treated with 25 μg/ml sHA or 100 ng/ml L
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Osteonectin \ MC-135 for more molecular products just contact us
警告. この関数は、 現在のところ詳細な情報はありません。引数のリストのみが 記述されています。 ...
DIST c-ares-1.4.0.tar.gz 431082 RMD160 06d52e3a36579baf8f6244f927683b43e42fad81 SHA1 810074d2792ff5e996816aa52ff676bb102be885 SHA256 ce119618e3d4954c9e22339c75c9c4bfab6d8d6960ae896c1282e004ca23c767 ...
The Kangjiashimenji Petroglyphs in the Tien Shan Mountains: A Fertility Ritual Tableau
by Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Ph.D.
Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads
花月正春风/刘墉作/绢本设色/工笔/76.5x46.5CM/2013 即使 天堂 是不愁吃穿3不必工作3永永远远活着3 那活着有什么意义3 正因为有苦恼3才有解决的快乐; 正因为有病痛3才有痊愈的欢喜4 正因为有忧愁3才有忘忧的美好4 正因为有今天的不足3 ...
Suffo*cate (?), a. [L. suffocatus, p.p. of suffocare to choke; sub under + fauces the throat. Cf. Faucal.] Suffocated; choked. Sha...
Anak balik - السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ. In sha ALLAH tengahari ni anak sulung saya sampai dari bandung Last jumpe seminggu masa raya puasa... ...

Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites II, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings by Mineo Mizuno | 9780470080566 |...Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites II, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings by Mineo Mizuno | 9780470080566 |...

Preparation of Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic Materials from the Aqueous Solution at Room Temperature (Jia-Hui ... Precipitation Mechanisms of Hydroxyapatite Powder in the Different Aqueous Solutions (Yu-Chen Chang and Tzer-Shin Sheu). ... Preparation of Self-setting Cement-Based Micro- and Macroporous Granules of Carbonated Apatitic Calcium Phosphate (A. Cuneyt ... Conversion of Bioactive Silicate (45S5), Borate, and Borosilicate Glasses to Hydroxyapatite in Dilute Phosphate Solution ( ...
more infohttps://www.booktopia.com.au/advances-in-bioceramics-and-biocomposites-ii-mineo-mizuno/prod9780470080566.html

Patente US4097935 - Hydroxylapatite ceramic - Google PatentesPatente US4097935 - Hydroxylapatite ceramic - Google Patentes

A novel ceramic form of hydroxylapatite and a novel ceramic product comprising a mixture of the latter and whitlockite, the ... Any calcium- or phosphate-containing compounds which provide calcium and phosphate ions in aqueous medium are suitable provided ... Thus, hydroxylapatite is precipitated from aqueous medium by reacting calcium ion with phosphate ion at a pH of about 10-12. ... Calcium phosphate materials. US5047031 *. 30 May 1989. 10 Sep 1991. Norian Corporation. In situ calcium phosphate minerals ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4097935?dq=flatulence

Patent US6379453 - Process for producing fast-setting, bioresorbable calcium phosphate cements - Google PatentsPatent US6379453 - Process for producing fast-setting, bioresorbable calcium phosphate cements - Google Patents

... bioresorbable calcium phosphate cement. The process of the invention includes a pre-heat treatment step to generate uniformly ... phosphate cement that self-hardens substantially to hydroxyapatite at ambient temperature when in contact with an aqueous ... Injectable calcium phosphate cement. US7976874. May 13, 2005. Jul 12, 2011. Jiin-Huey Chern Lin. Injectable calcium phosphate ... Calcium phosphate cement. US20060225621 *. Dec 20, 2005. Oct 12, 2006. Howmedica Leibinger Inc.. Injectable calcium phosphate ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6379453?dq=7,053,767

Effect of Pyrophosphate Ions on the Conversion of Calcium-lithium-bora by Hailuo Fu, M. N. Rahaman et al."Effect of Pyrophosphate Ions on the Conversion of Calcium-lithium-bora" by Hailuo Fu, M. N. Rahaman et al.

... material in an aqueous phosphate solution is used as an indication of the bioactive potential of the glass, as well as a low ... the effect of varying concentrations of pyrophosphate ions in the phosphate solution on the conversion of a calcium-lithium- ... the product consisted of an amorphous calcium phosphate material, which eventually crystallized to a pyrophosphate product ( ... The conversion of glass to a hydroxyapatite (HA) ... borate Glass to Hydroxyapatite in Aqueous Phosphate Solution," ...
more infohttp://scholarsmine.mst.edu/matsci_eng_facwork/340/

Patent US4693986 - Ceramic process and products - Google PatentsPatent US4693986 - Ceramic process and products - Google Patents

... and tricalcium phosphate ceramic products prepared in accordance with the method of this invention, as well as novel ... This application also relates to novel forms of aluminum oxide, hydroxylapatite, ... dry particles of sinterable calcium phosphate are prepared by spray drying an aqueous gelatinous precipitate of hydroxylapatite ... It has been found that when the calcium phosphate (e.g. hydroxylapatite and/or tricalcium phosphate) based agglomerate of this ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4693986?dq=7,094,863

Calcium phosphate formation on plasma immersion ion implanted low density polyethylene and polytetrafluorethylene surfaces |...Calcium phosphate formation on plasma immersion ion implanted low density polyethylene and polytetrafluorethylene surfaces |...

It is known that at precipitation from aqueous solution, before the final formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite, other ... Calcium phosphate growth. The ability of the modified polymer films to induce calcium phosphate formation was tested by their ... controls with calcium phosphate layer (spectrum 2), modified with PIII films with calcium phosphate layer (dose 2 × 1016 N+/cm2 ... including the formation of calcium or calcium phosphate deposits, on their surface is not desired. For example, calcium ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10856-007-3231-2

US6159449A - Dentifrice products and methods for remineralizing and/or mineralizing teeth 
        - Google PatentsUS6159449A - Dentifrice products and methods for remineralizing and/or mineralizing teeth - Google Patents

The cationic and anionic parts each have a pH in water such that a mixed aqueous composition formed by mixing the cationic and ... devoid of water-soluble inorganic orthophosphate compounds but which may contain a substantially water-insoluble phosphate ... The mixed aqueous composition simultaneously applies the cationic and anionic parts to the tooth surfaces being treated. ... a discrete cationic part containing at least one water-soluble and/or partially water-soluble calcium compound and a fluoride- ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6159449?oq=7800613

Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and...Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and...

"Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and ... Structural changes in precipitates and cell model for the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite during ... Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and ... Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/enhanced-removal-of-humic-acid-from-aqueous-solution-by-novel-6X6rmLlpar

WO1996029144A1 - Hydroxyapatite forming dry particulate agglomerate and methods therefor 
        - Google PatentsWO1996029144A1 - Hydroxyapatite forming dry particulate agglomerate and methods therefor - Google Patents

... a polymeric material capable of promoting mineralization of hydroxyapatite, which is useful for fixing prosthetic devices, ... of producing phase-pure hydroxyapatite without additional sources of calcium and/or phosphate in the presence of an aqueous ... the other calcium phosphate is hydroxyapatite. For Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O, the other calcium phosphate is CaHPO42H2O. Therefore, when ... Storage stable calcium phosphate cements Driessens et al. 1994. Effective formulations for the preparation of calcium phosphate ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO1996029144A1/en

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

Two different types of calcium phosphate cements were used, one basic (hydroxyapatite) and one acidic (brushite). The cements ... were allowed to set in an aqueous environment and then immersed in isopropanol and stored under three different conditions: at ... Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are used as bone void fillers and as complements to hardware in fracture fixation. The aim of ... Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) should ideally have mechanical properties similar to those of the bone tissue the material is ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?searchType=SUBJECT&language=en&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211700%22%7D%5D%5D

Patent US6517863 - Compositions and methods for treating nails and adjacent tissues - Google PatentsPatent US6517863 - Compositions and methods for treating nails and adjacent tissues - Google Patents

... and adjacent tissues for a sufficient amount of time to cause the formation of a hydroxyapatite or other calcium phosphate ... The compositions optionally include an appropriate aqueous carrier for topical administration. The methods involve applying an ... Non-aqueous composition for hardening and strengthening fingernails and toenails. US5508027 *. 28 Jan 1991. 16 Apr 1996. ... of time to create a layer of hydroxyapatite or other calcium phosphate mineral on the nail and allows calcium and phosphate ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US6517863

Patente US4149893 - Orthopedic and dental implant ceramic composition and process for preparing same - Google PatentesPatente US4149893 - Orthopedic and dental implant ceramic composition and process for preparing same - Google Patentes

Said crystalline hydroxyapatite is prepared by the solid phase reaction wherein a mixture of a calcium phosphate, having a Ca/P ... Said composition is prepared by blending 50 to 99.5% by weight of a crystalline hydroxyapatite and 0.5 to 50% by weight of ... Said calcium compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of CaCO3, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaF2, Ca(COO)2, Ca( ... ratio of 1.5 to 1.67 by mole, and a stoichiometric amount or more of a calcium compound is heated at a temperature of 500 to ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4149893?hl=es&dq=flatulence

Evaluation of a porosity measurement method for wet calcium phosphate cementsEvaluation of a porosity measurement method for wet calcium phosphate cements

... hydroxyapatite) and one acidic (brushite). The cements were allowed to set in an aqueous environment and then immersed in ... Calcium phosphate, bone cement, porosity, solvent exchange, brushite, hydroxyapatite National Category Ceramics Biomaterials ... Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are used as bone void fillers and as complements to hardware in fracture fixation. The aim of ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Can Bone Void Fillers Carry Load?: Behaviour of Calcium Phosphate Cements Under ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:842184

Publications - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)Publications - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were meant to produce hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the calcium phosphate that usually results ... lies in the setting reaction triggered by mixing one or more solid calcium phosphate salts with an aqueous solution. Upon ... Keywords: Calcium phosphates, Calcium phosphate cements, Phosphate glasses, Bone grafts, Bone regenerations ... Keywords: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), Cements, Hydroxyapatite (HA), Liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR) ...
more infohttp://ibecbarcelona.eu/for-researchers/publications/?keyword=Calcium+phosphate+cement

Staff member - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)Staff member - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were meant to produce hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the calcium phosphate that usually results ... when the cements are mixed with or immersed in aqueous media. The golden age of CPCs was in the late 1990s and the beginning of ... Keywords: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), Cements, Hydroxyapatite (HA), Liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR) ... Calcium phosphate glass, Calcium-sensing receptors, Degradation process, Extracellular matrices, Organic/inorganic hybrid ...
more infohttp://www.ibecbarcelona.eu/member/84/Oscar+Casta%C3%B1o+Linares/

US Patent # 7,166,133. Devices and methods for treating defects in the tissue of a living being - Patents.comUS Patent # 7,166,133. Devices and methods for treating defects in the tissue of a living being - Patents.com

... crosslinking agent is added to the aqueous collagen dispersion prior to the addition of the hydroxyapatite or calcium phosphate ... Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate are the most widely studied of the calcium phosphates, which have calcium to phosphate ... The major mineral component of bone is hydroxyapatite, a form of calcium phosphate. Other calcium phosphate salts in bone ... tricalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, and amorphous calcium phosphate. Additionally, bone contains calcium carbonates. ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-7166133.html

publish.UP Searchpublish.UP Search

They delay the precipitation of calcium phosphate from aqueous solution but, upon precipitation, lead to relatively ... efficiently controls the calcium phosphate formation, yielding spherical hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles with diameters from ... New developments in polymer-controlled, bioinspired calcium phosphate mineralization from aqueous solution (2013) ... proteins and gels on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization from aqueous solution. It focuses on strategies to tune the ...
more infohttps://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/authorsearch/author/%22Taubert%2C+Andreas%22/rows/20

Patent US4366183 - Process for making bioactive coatings on osseous prostheses, and prostheses ... - Google PatentsPatent US4366183 - Process for making bioactive coatings on osseous prostheses, and prostheses ... - Google Patents

... contact with an implant made of inert material under such operational conditions that at least one desired calcium phosphate is ... a mist of particles containing calcium ions and orthophosphate ions is made and said mist is brought into ... Deposit of calcium hydroxyapatite. The starting aqueous solution is made by dissolving 120 mg of hydrated dicalcium phosphate ( ... A deposit of calcium hydroxyapatite is thus made.. EXAMPLE 4. Deposit of calcium hydroxyapatite. The conditions of this ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US4366183

Excess calcium - definition of excess calcium by The Free DictionaryExcess calcium - definition of excess calcium by The Free Dictionary

excess calcium synonyms, excess calcium pronunciation, excess calcium translation, English dictionary definition of excess ... calcium. n. Symbol Ca A silvery, moderately hard alkaline-earth metal that constitutes approximately 3.6 percent of the earths ... The formation of calcium phosphate salts in aqueous solutions takes place following the development of supersaturation, with ... excess calcium ions reacting with the phosphate to precipitate hydroxyapatite.. Phosphorous removal from wastewater ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/excess+calcium

Wheeless Textbook of OrthopaedicsWheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics

... in an aqueous phosphate solution bath, the. result of which is exchange of the calcium carbonate skeleton to a calcium ... calcium phosphate: - hydroxyapatite - pro-osteon and interpore: - preparation includes heating a species specific coral ( ... Calcium Sulfate- and Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Substitutes. Mimicry of the Mineral Phase of Bone. - 50 Years Ago in CORR: ... moldable hydroxyapatite; - bone source (orthofix): - made up of two compounds (tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium dihydrate) ...
more infohttp://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/bone_graft_menu

Strategies to Boost RemineralizationStrategies to Boost Remineralization

Tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid and is a precursor to naturally occurring hydroxyapatite. TCP ... 15 When introduced into an aqueous environment, the conversion of ACP to crystalline calcium phosphate is quick and unstable. ... AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE WITH FLUORIDE Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was first developed in the mid-1960s but was not ... As the oral pH drops below the critical level of 5.5, calcium and phosphate are removed from the enamels hydroxyapatite into ...
more infohttps://dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/article/strategies-boost-remineralizationn/

Articles de revistaArticles de revista

EDTA and NTA effectively tune the mineralization of calcium phosphate from bulk aqueous solution.  Hentrich, Doreen; Tauer, ... The effect of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite and sintered ß-tricalcium phosphate on osteoimmune reaction and ... on the mineralization of calcium phosphate from bulk aqueous solution. Mineralization was performed between pH 6 ... ... Injectable calcium phosphate foams for the delivery of Pitavastatin as osteogenic and angiogenic agent.  Khurana, Kanupriya; ...
more infohttps://upcommons.upc.edu/handle/2117/3118

Calcia | definition of Calcia by Medical dictionaryCalcia | definition of Calcia by Medical dictionary

Calcia explanation free. What is Calcia? Meaning of Calcia medical term. What does Calcia mean? ... Looking for online definition of Calcia in the Medical Dictionary? ... solution of calcium nitrate and zirconium nitrate and an aqueous solution of calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ... Fine powder composites of zirconia, partially stabilisied by calcia and hydroxyapatite were prepared by co-precipitation ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Calcia

Radiesse Milwaukee | Injectables MilwaukeeRadiesse Milwaukee | Injectables Milwaukee

... and an aqueous gel carrier. Calcium hydroxylapatite is a dense calcium-phosphate compound found naturally in human bone and ... The primary compound used in Radiesse is pure, synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite particles composed of calcium and phosphate ... injectable cohesive implant that is a blend of tiny spherical particles of synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) ...
more infohttps://mycpss.com/soft-tissue-fillers/radiesse/

Faculty of ChemistryFaculty of Chemistry

... calcium acetate monohydrate as source of calcium ions have been used to prepare calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp). A single-walled ... Different aqueous sol-gel chemistry routes based on phosphoric acid or ammonium-hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus precursors ... Aqueous AGET ATRP of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-N-propane sulfonate yielding strong anionic comb polyelectrolytes // e- ... The synthesis of Al2(MoxW1-xO4)3 compounds doped with Eu2O3 using both aqueous sol-gel technique and liquid state plasma method ...
more infohttps://www.vu.lt/en/scientific-report-2012/faculties-and-institutes/faculty-of-chemistry
  • 1. As an article of manufacture, substantially pure hydroxylapatite in the form of a translucent, isotropic, polycrystalline, sintered ceramic having an average crystallite size in the approximate range 0.2 to 3 microns, a density greater than approximately 98 percent of the theoretical density of hydroxylapatite and being further characterized by the absence of pores and by cleavage along smooth curved planes. (google.es)
  • A novel ceramic form of hydroxylapatite and a novel ceramic product comprising a mixture of the latter and whitlockite, the preparation of these ceramics and dental restorative compositions and dental and surgical prosthetic materials containing the same are disclosed. (google.es)
  • 6. As an article of manufacture, a strong, hard, dense, isotropic, polycrystalline sintered biphasic ceramic comprising as one phase from about 20 to 95 percent by weight of hydroxylapatite and as a second phase from about 5 to 80 percent by weight of whitlockite and being characterized by the absence of pores and by cleavage along smooth curved planes. (google.es)
  • 5. A process according to claim 3, wherein the blend of hydroxyapatite and whitlockite is dressed into a grain size of 20 to 300 mesh. (google.es)
  • 6. The process as claimed in claim 5 , wherein the additional phosphate-containing compounds are selected from the group consisting of NaH 2 PO 4 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and a mixture thereof. (google.com)
  • Dentifrice products containing a minor amount of at least one water-soluble inorganic orthophosphate compound in the anionic part and dentifrice products which are substantially devoid of water-soluble inorganic orthophosphate compounds but which may contain a substantially water-insoluble phosphate compound, e.g., as an abrasive and/or polishing agent, are also provided. (google.com)
  • Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the identification and determination of organotin compounds in aqueous solutions has been employed. (vu.lt)
  • One of the analogous compounds of struvite is potassium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (KMgPO 4 · 6H 2 O), known as struvite-k crystal and found in animal urinary calculi. (oalib.com)
  • Tetra-ethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS), tri-ethyl-phosphate (TEP), erbium nitrate, ytterbium nitrate and samarium nitrate were used as precursor materials, respectively. (oalib.com)
  • Calcium nitrate and ammoniumdihydrogenphosphate were used as Ca and P sources. (scientific.net)
  • The nano hydroxyapatite (HAP) (73~136 nm) was crystallized in situ on the organic polyelectrolyte complex matrix through a biomimetic method. (scientific.net)
  • Hydroxyapatite foams are potential synthetic bone grafting materials or scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (upc.edu)
  • In this work gelatine was used as multifunctional additive to obtain injectable self-setting hydroxyapatite/ gelatine composite foams for bone regeneration. (upc.edu)
  • The compositions optionally include an appropriate aqueous carrier for topical administration. (google.ca)
  • In this study, we examined whether the ionic dissolution of the calcium-phosphate-based ormoglass nanoparticles coded SG5 may produce a similar stimulating effect as extracellular calcium (from CaCl2) on rat dermal fibroblast in vitro. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products (such as milk and cheese), soybeans, fortified orange juice, dark green leafy vegetables (such as mustard greens and broccoli), sardines, clams, and oysters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The addition of pluronic F127 slightly delayed the setting reaction in the early stages but did not hinder the full transformation to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • It is known that three processes take place when a material (polymer or other) is introduced into a living organism, where the ambient media are generally aqueous solutions. (springer.com)
  • XPS analyses indicated Kinetics and isotherms that HA retention on nACP material might be due to the surface complexation reaction between oxygen- Surface complexation containing group and calcium of HA and nACP, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • This suggests that a polymer multilayer/calcium phosphate hybrid coating could be useful for making NiTi or Ti implants that are at the same time antibacterial (via the chitosan), suppress blood clot formation (via the heparin), and favor fast endothelialization (via the improved surface hydrophilicity compared to the respective neat material). (uni-potsdam.de)
  • 14 ACP is a component of natural teeth and bone, and is the same material found in hydroxyapatite. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 2. A method for producing a calcium phosphate-based material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said final firing is carried out at a temperature of from 1,000.degree. (patents.com)
  • 5. A method for producing a calcium phosphate-based material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said preliminary calcining is carried out for about from 0.5 to 5 hours. (patents.com)
  • 6. A method for producing a calcium phosphate-based material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said inert gas is argon gas or helium gas. (patents.com)
  • XRD results indicated that the inorganic phases dispersed in chitosan matrix were composed of magnetite and hydroxyapatite. (scientific.net)
  • The sedimentation test demonstrated that nACP Accepted 15 August 2017 exhibited better stability than crystallized hydroxyapatite. (deepdyve.com)
  • For a long time, there has been an increasing interest in utilizing polymers as matrices for calcium phosphate-based composites with applications in hard tissue implants. (springer.com)
  • In the case of polymers introduced into a living organism as soft tissue implants, the biomineralization process, including the formation of calcium or calcium phosphate deposits, on their surface is not desired. (springer.com)
  • Synthesized calcium phosphate powders can be used as the powdered precursors for biocompatible bioresorbable composite ceramics production. (mdpi.com)
  • The results indicated that the existence of organic species effectively inhibits the growth of calcium phosphate and that relatively pure HA can be obtained in sintered composite products. (scientific.net)
  • In previous work we developed a gelatine-based hydroxyapatite foam (G-foam), which exhibited good injectability and cohesion, interconnected porosity and good biocompatibility in vitro. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The magnetic hydroxyapatite/chitosan shown the behavior of superparamagnetism determined by SQUID, which indicated the size of magnetite crystal were less than 30nm. (scientific.net)