A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Relating to the size of solids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
When aqueous lithium sulfate is heated, the electrical conductivity also increases. The molarity of lithium sulfate also plays ... and Chromates. NSRDS. 1975, 56, 2-12 Fordland, T.; Keogh, M. J. The structure of the High temperature Modification of lithium ... 1995, 40, 987-991 Thomson T. P.; Smith D. E.; Wood R. H. Enthalpy of dilution of aqueous Na2SO4 and Si2SO4 J Chem. Eng. 1974, ... Angel C.; Sobron F.; Jose I. Density, Viscosity, and Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium Sulfate. J. Chem. ...
In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. Circular motion In physics, circular motion is a ... Chromate Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr 2O2− 7. They are ... Buffer solution A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a ... in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color ...
In a base, dichromates convert into chromates and some of the chromates are insoluble in water. Note - "Ammonium oxide" does ... 293.15 K). Any box that reads "soluble" results in an aqueous product in which no precipitate has formed, while "slightly ... "Chromate and dichromate", Wikipedia, 2019-09-25, retrieved 2019-11-25 "Ammonium Selenide", JACS, 1898-02-26 Hazen, Jeffery L.; ... However, its theoretical molecular formula (NH4+)2O2- accurately represents that of aqueous ammonia. Solubility rules Compounds ...
A third mineral form of calcium iodate is dietzeite, a salt containing chromate with the formula Ca2(IO3)2CrO4. Lautarite, ... Processing of the ore entails reduction of its aqueous extracts with sodium bisulfite to give sodium iodide. Via a ...
Aqueous solutions and solvents tending to be basic such as methanol and ethanol, and those containing traces of water and basic ... Chromates and molybdates produce the same reaction. The major drawback of the test is the deterioration of stock solution of ... Accordingly, non-aqueous Ethyl acetate and acetone were the better solvents, Diphenylcarbazide solutions of which are stable ... Reacting a Diphenylcarbazide with Chromium (VI) compounds, such as chromates or dichromates produces diphenylcarbazone, which ...
In contrast, related oxidants such as chromate are considered environmentally hazardous K2FeO4 has also attracted attention as ... aqueous solutions are stable. The deep purple solutions are similar in appearance to potassium permanganate (KMnO 4). It is ... from aqueous solutions. Tonnage quantities were proposed to help remediate the effects of the Chernobyl disaster in Belarus. ...
An improved route involves the reaction of chromyl chloride and potassium chromate: K2CrO4 + CrO2Cl2 → 2KCrO3Cl The salt ... Although air-stable, its aqueous solutions undergo hydrolysis. With concentrated hydrochloric acid, it converts to chromyl ...
Chromate ([CrO4)]2−) can for example be converted to the tetraperoxide [Cr(O2)4]2−. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ... aqueous titanium(IV) gives a brightly colored peroxy complex that is a useful test for titanium as well as hydrogen peroxide. ...
Chromium alum is produced from chromate salts or from ferrochromium alloys. Concentrated aqueous solutions of potassium ...
... is a useful reagent with good selectivity and is stable in aqueous solution of high pH, remaining soluble in an aqueous ... It has a tetrahedral molecular geometry, isostructural with the chromate and permanganate ions. Ferrates are excellent ... Ferrate(VI) salts are formed by oxidizing iron in an aqueous medium with strong oxidizing agents under alkaline conditions, or ... Aqueous solutions of ferrates are pink when dilute, and deep red or purple at higher concentrations. The ferrate ion is a ...
Immerse the block into a 2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for another 2 days. Cut sections approx. 20-100 µm thick. ... Cells thus stained are filled by microcrystallization of silver chromate. According to SynapseWeb, this is the recipe for ... 10x5 mm) of formaldehyde-fixed (or paraformaldehyde- glutaraldehyde-perfused) brain tissue into a 2% aqueous solution of ...
Method for Determination of Dissolved Inorganic Anions in Aqueous Matrices Using Capillary Ion Electrophoresis and Chromate ... Guide for Monitoring Aqueous Nutrients in Watersheds D6147 - 97(2020) Test Method for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic ... Practice for the Prediction of Contaminant Adsorption On GAC In Aqueous Systems Using Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests D6587 - 12 ... Test Method for Freezing Point of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Base Engine Coolants by Automatic Phase Transition Method D6661 - 17 ...
The generally yellow chromates or orange dichromates turn to dark blue as chromium(VI) peroxide is formed. Chromate or ... An aqueous solution of chromium peroxide A very dilute solution of chromium peroxide chromium(VI) oxide peroxide stabilized in ... In this way, the chromium(VI) peroxide (unstable in the aqueous phase in which it is newly formed) is dissolved in the ... Therefore, CrO5 is a good oxidizing agent, even better than chromates and dichromates due to the presence of two reactive ...
... and aqueous chromate ions, and tend to react via redox reactions to liberate chromium(IV). Chromate esters are the key reactive ... A chromate ester is a chemical structure that contains a chromium atom (symbol Cr) in a +6 oxidation state that is connected ... Chromate esters of allyl alcohols may isomerize via formal [3,3]-sigmatropic shift to give rearranged enone products. An ... The Cr itself is in its chromate form, with several oxygens attached, and the Cr-O-C attachment makes this chemical group ...
2 NaCl In aqueous solution the dihydrate is obtained, which loses water to afford the anhydrate at 200 °C.[citation needed] It ... Calcium chromate is an inorganic compound with the formula CaCrO4, i.e. the chromate salt of calcium. It is a bright yellow ... Calcium chromate is formed from the salt metathesis reaction of sodium chromate and calcium chloride: Na2CrO4 + CaCl2 → CaCrO4 ... The compound is occasionally used as a yellow inorganic pigment, or a corrosion inhibitor as part of the chromate conversion ...
... the silver chromate will precipitate out of the aqueous reaction mixture: 2 AgNO 3(aq) + K 2CrO 4(aq) → 2 KNO 3(aq) + Ag 2CrO 4 ... Silver chromate is usually produced by the salt metathesis reaction of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) ... Robbins, David J.; Day, Peter (1977-09-01). "Why is silver chromate red? The 4·2 K polarized electronic spectrum of chromate in ... of silver chromate is rather unlike other chromates which are typically yellow to yellowish orange in appearance. This ...
This is called the aqueous slurry-coating process. The kettle is tumbled to obtain a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is wet ... lead chromate and 10% lamp black. RDX classes A, B, E, and H are all suitable for use in C-4. Classes are measured by ...
In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. potassium chromate potassium dichromate Chromates ... In aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate anions exist in a chemical equilibrium. 2 CrO2− 4 + 2 H+ ⇌ Cr 2O2− 7 + H2O The ... Normally the chromate solution is further processed to make chromium metal, but a chromate salt may be obtained directly from ... Chromates and dichromates are used in chrome plating to protect metals from corrosion and to improve paint adhesion. Chromate ...
It was initially thought that it would be a good replacement for chromate, when chromate was banned for toxicity. However, ... Molybdates (especially FeMoO4, Fe2(MoO4)3, NiMoO4, CoMoO4 and MnMoO4) have been used as anode or cathode materials in aqueous ... In MoO2− 4 the four oxygens are equivalent as in sulfate and chromate, with equal bond lengths and angles. Mo 2O2− 7 can be ... The behaviour of molybdenum is different from the other elements in group 6. Chromium only forms the chromates, CrO2− 4, Cr 2O2 ...
In aqueous solution an octahedral complex, [Zn(H2O)6]2+ is the predominant species. Aqueous solutions of zinc salts are mildly ... zinc chromate ZnCrO 4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds), zinc arsenite Zn(AsO2)2 (colorless powder) and zinc arsenate ... It is amphoteric, dissolving in acids to give the aqueous Zn2+ ion and in alkali to give the zincate (a.k.a. ... Zinc salts are usually fully dissociated in aqueous solution. Exceptions occur when the anion can form a complex, such as in ...
Chromate-dyed textiles or chromate-tanned leather shoes can cause skin sensitivity. In the U.S., the OSHA PEL for airborne ... Attempts have been made to test the removal or reduction of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions and environment. For ... Yet, soluble chromates are a confirmed carcinogen so it would be prudent to consider all chromates carcinogenic. Chronic ... Both insoluble salts of lead and barium chromates as well as soluble chromates were negative in the implantation model of lung ...
Various possible methods of formation include: sublimation from volcanic gases deposition from aqueous solutions and ... chromates, molybdates and tungstates, phosphates, arsenates and vanadates, and silicates. The environments of mineral formation ...
Inhibitors-such as chromates, phosphates, silicates, nitrates, fluorides, benzoates, soluble oils, and certain other chemicals- ... Phosphate compounds are mentioned in patents regarding electrolytic capacitors with aqueous electrolytic systems. Since ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) NON-AQUEOUS ELECTROLYTES and THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, FaradNet Electrolytic Capacitors, ... which protects the base aluminium metal against the aggressiveness of aqueous alkali solutions. However, some impurities or ...
... a yellow solution is obtained due to the formation of chromate ions (CrO2− 4). For example, potassium chromate is produced ... In an aqueous solution the color change exhibited can be used to test for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones. Aldehydes ... Alternatively, it can be also obtained from potassium chromate by roasting chromite ore with potassium hydroxide. It is soluble ...
Okan, S. Erol; Champeney, D. C. (April 1997). "Molar conductance of aqueous solutions of sodium, potassium, and nickel ... Nickel perchlorate, Ni(ClO4)2 • 6H2O, nickel chlorate, Ni(ClO3)2 • 6H2O, nickel chromate (NiCrO4), nickel chromite (NiCr2O4), ... precipitates when an alkali bicarbonate is added to a Ni aqueous solution. Basic nickel carbonate, zaratite, with the formula ...
This oil, after being washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove acidic components (chiefly various phenols), and with ... Oxidation can also be effected using conventional stoichiometric chromate or permanganate reagents. Most naphthalene is derived ... are used in many industrial applications as nondetergent wetting agents that effectively disperse colloidal systems in aqueous ...
The chromate ion, CrO2− 4, is the predominant species at high pH. As pH rises the chromate ion becomes ever more predominant, ... If central atom is not in Group VII or VIII If central atom is in Group VII or VIII In aqueous solution, oxyanions with high ... The case of the chromate ion provides a relatively simple example. In the predominance diagram for chromate, shown at the right ... PO3− 4 + H+ ⇌ HPO2− 4 HPO2− 4 + H+ ⇌ H 2PO− 4 H 2PO− 4+ H+ ⇌ H3PO4 The extent of protonation in aqueous solution will depend on ...
It is a typical salt, forming neutral aqueous solutions. Like all compounds of Sr, this salt emits a bright red colour in a ... Strontium chloride is the precursor to other compounds of strontium, such as yellow strontium chromate, strontium carbonate, ... Strontium chloride can be prepared by treating aqueous strontium hydroxide or strontium carbonate with hydrochloric acid: Sr(OH ... 2 + 2 HCl → SrCl2 + 2 H2O Crystallization from cold aqueous solution gives the hexahydrate, SrCl2·6H2O. Dehydration of this ...
The different forms exist both as solids, and in aqueous solutions. Several members are known of the series of [CrCl3−n(H2O)n] ... 12 HCl The hydrated chlorides are prepared by treatment of chromate with hydrochloric acid and methanol. Slow reaction rates ... The reaction is usually performed using two moles of CrCl3 per mole of lithium aluminium hydride, although if aqueous acidic ...
Fountain solution is the water-based (or "aqueous") component in the lithographic process that moistens the non image area of ... chromates or phosphates, and magnesium nitrate. Alcohol is added to the water to lower the surface tension and help cool the ...
... chromates, molybdates and tungstates, phosphates, arsenates and vanadates, and silicates.[9] ... deposition from aqueous solutions and hydrothermal brines. *crystallization from an igneous magma or lava ...
Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley and Sons. LCCN 67019834 ... Chromates reduce biofouling in addition to effective corrosion inhibition in the cooling water system, but residual toxicity in ... Concentrations of polyphosphates or phosphonates with zinc and chromates or similar compounds have been maintained in cooling ... chromates and phosphates.[5][6] The first two have toxicity concerns;[7] and the last has been associated with eutrophication.[ ...
"Chromic acid and chromates". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for ... Chromic acid in aqueous sulfuric acid and acetone is known as the Jones reagent, which will oxidize primary and secondary ... It is a Lewis acid and can react with a Lewis base, such as pyridine in a non-aqueous medium such as dichloromethane (Collins ... Hexavalent chromium compounds (including chromium trioxide, chromic acids, chromates, chlorochromates) are toxic and ...
Aqueous species[edit]. In aqueous solution, the Bi3+. ion is solvated to form the aqua ion Bi(H. 2O)3+. 8 in strongly acidic ... In comparison with lead chromates, it does not blacken due to hydrogen sulfide in the air (a process accelerated by UV exposure ... "Milk of bismuth" (an aqueous suspension of bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate) was marketed as an alimentary cure-all ... Persson, Ingmar (2010). "Hydrated metal ions in aqueous solution: How regular are their structures?". Pure and Applied ...
Pemberton RC, Mash CJ (1978). "Thermodynamic properties of aqueous non-electrolyte mixtures II. Vapour pressures and excess ... Pyridinium chloro chromate, PCC).[18] ...
chromic acid, which has never been detected, forms di-tert-butyl chromate ... Hydrolysis of orthoesters in aqueous acid. *Cellulolysis via esterification[18]. *Ozonolysis of alkenes using a work up in the ...
Tetko IV, Tanchuk VY, Kasheva TN, Villa AE (2001). „Estimation of Aqueous Solubility of Chemical Compounds Using E-State ... Potassium chromate. Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kalijum_hromat&oldid=9302774" ...
It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia. Iron(III) sulfate ... Its formation can be used as a simple wet chemistry test to distinguish between aqueous solutions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ as they ... Both of these are oxidized in aqueous solution and precipitate in even mildly elevated pH as iron(III) oxide.[37] ... The standard reduction potentials in acidic aqueous solution for some common iron ions are given below:[6] ...
Hoechst 33258 contains a terminal hydroxyl group and is thus more soluble in aqueous solution, however this characteristics ... thus precipitating silver chromate in some cells (see Golgi's method). Other cells are argyrophilic. These reduce silver ... Often used in fluorescence microscopy for DNA staining, Hoechst stains appear yellow when dissolved in aqueous solutions and ... It fluoresces strongly when partitioned into lipids, but practically not at all in aqueous solution. ...
Acidification of the resulting aqueous extract with sulfuric acid or carbon dioxide affords the dichromate: 2. Na. 2. CrO. 4. + ... Dichromate and chromate salts are oxidizing agents. For the tanning of leather, sodium dichromate is first reduced with sulfur ...
2O and the chromate ZnCrO. 4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other common inorganic compounds of ... The oxide ZnO is a white powder that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is amphoteric, dissolving in both ... In aqueous solution an octahedral complex, [Zn(H. 2O)6]2+. is the predominant species.[39] The volatilization of zinc in ...
Calculators: surface tensions, and densities, molarities and molalities of aqueous sodium sulfate ... where sulfuric acid is added to sodium chromate solution forming sodium dichromate, or subsequently chromic acid. Alternatively ...
Cells thus stained are filled by microcrystallization of silver chromate. Technique[edit]. According to SynapseWeb,[3] this is ... 10x5 mm) of formaldehyde-fixed (or paraformaldehyde- glutaraldehyde-perfused) brain tissue into a 2% aqueous solution of ... Immerse the block into a 2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for another 2 days. ...
As a result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface, such as passivation and chromate conversion, can increase a ... Glass disease is the corrosion of silicate glasses in aqueous solutions. It is governed by two mechanisms: diffusion-controlled ... chromates, phosphates, polyaniline, other conducting polymers and a wide range of specially-designed chemicals that resemble ... In closed systems the consumption of protons from the aqueous phase increases the pH and causes a fast transition to hydrolysis ...
This oil, after being washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove acidic components (chiefly various phenols), and with ... Oxidation can also be effected using conventional stoichiometric chromate or permanganate reagents. ... are used in many industrial applications as nondetergent wetting agents that effectively disperse colloidal systems in aqueous ...
It reacts with alkaline aqueous solution to give the perosmate anion OsO. 4(OH)2−. 2.[15] This species is easily reduced to ... This is isoelectronic with permanganate and chromate ions. Synthesis[edit]. OsO4 is formed slowly when osmium powder reacts ... Osmeth can be dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and diluted in an aqueous buffer solution to make a dilute (0.25%) working ...
... , or electroless plating may be used as a way to render a metal part radioactive, by using an aqueous solution ... "Inhalation cancer risk assessment of hexavalent chromium based on updated mortality for Painesville chromate production workers ...
... is as bright as orpiment or chromate of lead. It is thought to be more permanent; but time only can prove its pretension to so ... An Evaluation of the Solubility in Water and Aqueous Electrolyte Solution" (PDF). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (NIST data review). ...
In contrast to chemical and physical methods, microbial processes for synthesizing nanomaterials can be achieved in aqueous ... nitrates and chromates when grown anaerobically. This species is referred to as S. oneidensis MR-1, indicating "manganese ...
Such caustic aqueous solutions are typically used by antique dealers who aim to restore old furniture by stripping off worn ... Chromate-based inhibitors give the mixture a characteristic yellow color. Other possibilities include polyphosphates, silicates ...
Ruthenium exhibits an aqueous cationic chemistry in its low oxidation states similar to that of iron, but osmium does not, ... It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia. Iron(III) sulfate ... Its formation can be used as a simple wet chemistry test to distinguish between aqueous solutions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ as they ... Both of these are oxidized in aqueous solution and precipitate in even mildly elevated pH as iron(III) oxide. Large deposits of ...
In this compound, as in all chromates and dichromates, chromium is in a +6 oxidation state, commonly known as hexavalent ... Photosensitive films containing PVA, ammonium dichromate, and a phosphor are spin-coated as aqueous slurries in the production ...
Chromate conversion coating converts the surface aluminium to an aluminium chromate coating in the range of 0.00001-0.00004 ... After passivation, the parts are neutralized using a bath of aqueous sodium hydroxide, then rinsed with clean water and dried. ... Aluminium chromate conversion coatings are amorphous in structure with a gel-like composition hydrated with water. Chromate ... Some compounds, dissolved in solutions (chromates, molybdates) form non-reactive and low solubility films on metal surfaces. In ...
In an acidic aqueous solution, thorium occurs as the tetrapositive aqua ion [Th(H2O)9]4+, which has tricapped trigonal ... and chromates, and their hydrated forms. They are important in thorium purification and the disposal of nuclear waste, but most ... Persson, I. (2010). "Hydrated metal ions in aqueous solution: How regular are their structures?". Pure and Applied Chemistry. ...
Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon.(Report) by Pakistan Journal of Analytical and ... Aqueous+Solutions+by...-a0568960910. *APA style: Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon ... MLA style: "Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon.." The Free Library. 2018 Asianet- ... It was concluded that the anion exchange sorption was involved in removing the chromate anion from the aqueous system into the ...
Potassium chromate. , Potassium chromate 5% in aqueous solution. Potassium chromate 5% in aqueous solution. Supplier: VWR ...
The adsorption capacity of the composite for removal of CrO42- from aqueous solutions was studied under different experimental ... "Removal of Chromate from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Clinoptilolite-Polyanillin Composite". Iranian Journal of Chemistry and ... Faghihian, H., Rasekh, M. Removal of Chromate from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Clinoptilolite-Polyanillin Composite. Iranian ... Removal of Chromate from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Clinoptilolite-Polyanillin Composite. ...
Zinc chromate CrO3: Dark-red, odorless flakes or powder. [Note: Often used in an aqueous solution (H2CrO< ... Chromic acid (CrO3), Chromic anhydride, Chromic oxide, Chromium(VI) oxide (1:3), Chromium trioxide, Zinc chromate ...
Competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate onto alumina in aqueous solutions The competitive adsorption of boric acid ... and chromate from aqueous solutions by alumina has been investigated by spectrophotometry at pH 8, ionic strength = 0.0, 0.1 ...
Add aqueous potassium chromate(VI) followed , (Confirmatory test for Pb2+) yellow precipitate is formed , Pb2+ confirm present ... Use separate portions of the filtrate for tests (i) to (v). (i) Add aqueous NaOH, then in excess, and warm. , White precipitate ... S2O32- may present , (iv) Add aqueous silver nitrate, followed by HNO3 , White precipitate, soluble in HNO3 / NH3 (aq), or SO32 ... Add aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate. (No reaction for Ca2+) , White precipitate insoluble in excess , Pb2+ may present , , ...
And theres no chromate in part c. So, once again, molar solubility. This is how much the Silver Chromate dissolves. We will ... And chromate is just s. Now here were going to assume that just a very small amount dissolves. So we can ignore this term, or ... 4.11 2.c Aqueous Equilibria Worked Example. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web ... Well write the same reaction that we wrote for part a and part b, and that is that the silver chromate. Solid is on the left ...
R825689C058 Radon-222 Method for Locating and Quantifying Contamination by Residual Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids in the Subsurface ... Title: Biotransformation of Lead and Chromate by Bacteria. Investigators: Blake, Robert C. Institution: Xavier University ... Biotransformation of Lead and Chromate by Bacteria. EPA Grant Number: R825689C030. Subproject: this is subproject number 030 , ... R825689C030 Biotransformation of Lead and Chromate by Bacteria. R825689C031 Magnetic Resonance Studies of Heavy Metals in Clays ...
In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. Circular motion In physics, circular motion is a ... Chromate Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr 2O2− 7. They are ... Buffer solution A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a ... in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color ...
In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. potassium chromate potassium dichromate Chromates ... In aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate anions exist in a chemical equilibrium. 2 CrO2− 4 + 2 H+ ⇌ Cr 2O2− 7 + H2O The ... Normally the chromate solution is further processed to make chromium metal, but a chromate salt may be obtained directly from ... Chromates and dichromates are used in chrome plating to protect metals from corrosion and to improve paint adhesion. Chromate ...
Because the dilute aqueous solution has very low viscosity (similar to water) and consequently is able to penetrate confined ... The objective of this research project was to develop a chromium-free zeolite coating that has comparable thickness to chromate ... This is a fairly dilute aqueous solution and the deposition process produces uniform coating on the substrate with little bulk ... Title: Zeolite Coatings by In-Situ Crystallization as an Environmentally Benign Alternative to Chromate Conversion and ...
Concentrations of 0.5% and below of aqueous potassium dichromate have been reported to elicit positive responses in patch ... The EU RAR covers the water soluble Cr (VI) compounds chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium ... The majority of reported studies were performed using aqueous solutions of sodium or potassium dichromate; while similar ...
... in aqueous solutions was successfully synthesized. The resultant composite demonstrated high... ... Chen S S, Hsu B C, Hung LW (2008). Chromate reduction by waste iron from electroplating wastewater using plug flow reactor. ... Cai Z, Fu J, Du P, Zhao X, Hao X, Liu W, Zhao D (2018). Reduction of nitrobenzene in aqueous and soil phases using ... Su J, Lin S, Chen Z, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2011). Dechlorination of pchlorophenol from aqueous solution using bentonite ...
Lead acetate formula barium hydroxide sodium hydrogen sulfate structure molybdenum piperidine chromate hydride ion phosphate ... In a dilute aqueous solution, potassium bromide tastes.... read more. Propane StructurePropane Structure. Chemical Structure / ...
Current density: 0 to 2 A/dm2 (for immersion chromate treatment) Coulomb: 0 to 2 As/dm2 (for immersion chromate treatment) ... Nickel has an effect to inhibit infiltration of an etching agent (an aqueous etching solution of H2SO4: 10 wt % and H2O2: 2 wt ... Conditions for immersion chromate treatment are shown below, but electrolytic chromate treatment may also be used. ... As the plating bath, representatively used is a mixed aqueous solution of at least one from bichromate such as K2Cr2O7 and Na2 ...
Aqueous alkaline solution comprising vinyl acetate copolymer, a chromate and water-soluble volatile base. ...
The removal of chromate from aqueous solutions, using finely ground pyrite and biotite, was investigated by batch experiments. ... The kinetics and mechanism of chromate reduction are discussed here. Chromate reduction by pyrite was about 100 times faster ... The reduction of chromate at pH 4 resulted in the precipitation of (Cr, Fe)(OH)3(s), which is believed to have limited the ... Kinetics of chromate reduction by pyrite and biotite under acidic conditions by Chul-Min Chon; Jae Gon Kim; Hi-Soo Moon (1469- ...
Typical inhibitors used to prevent corrosion of iron or steel in aqueous solutions are chromates, phosphates, and silicates. In ...
... the band is impregnated with a 0.3 percent aqueous potassium chromate solution and dried. Then, the thus-impregnated paper is ... saturated with a 0.5 percent aqueous silver nitrate solution, and during this process, uniformly distributed silver chromate is ...
Structure and Dynamics of the Chromate Ion in Aqueous Solution. An ab Initio QMCF-MD Simulation.. In: Inorganic Chemistry 49/17 ... Moin, S. Tarique; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M. (2014): Ionized CO2 and SO2 in aqueous environment: Ab initio QMCF-MD ... Canaval, Lorenz R.; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M. (2013): Structure and Dynamics of the Th4+-ion in Aqueous Solution ... Payaka, Apirak; Tongraar, Anan; Rode, Bernd M. (2010): QM/MM Dynamics of CH3COO−-Water Hydrogen Bonds in Aqueous Solution.. In ...
Evaluation of modified mineral performance for chromate sorption from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J. 2012, 211-212, 77-88. [ ... El-Kamash, A.M. Evaluation of zeolite A for the sorptive removal of Cs+ and Sr2+ ions from aqueous solutions using batch and ... The working pH (7.0) of the aqueous solution was also higher than the pHPZC of HM and HZ; thus, HM and HZ were negatively ... The vials were shaken at 150 rpm for 2 d at 25 °C and centrifuged for 40 min at 1500 rpm to separate the aqueous solution. A ...
Standard Cr(VI) solutions were prepared from a 1 009 ± 5 mg·mL-1 aqueous chromate (CrO42-) analytical solution (Spectrascan, ... HE YT, CHEN CC and TRAINA SJ (2004) Inhibited Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe(II) under hyper-alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci ... 50 mL of each solution was used for aqueous trace metal analyses, while the remaining 50 mL was used for Cr(VI) analysis. All ... Treatment of BFD (and indeed any Cr(VI) containing FeCr waste) usually involve the aqueous reduction of Cr(VI) with an ...
... radical as well as chromate-V (Cr(V)) intermediates. While an aqueous solution of 0.1 molar spin trap alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide ... N- tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) containing either chromate or GSH alone ... and spin trap methodology were used to investigate the reduction of chromate (13907454) by glutathione (GSH) and find evidence ... radical as well as chromate-V (Cr(V)) intermediates. While an aqueous solution of 0.1 molar spin trap alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide ...
The equilibrium between the chromate (. ) and dichromate ions (. ) in aqueous solution is represented by (3) [15, 73].. ... Chromium ions may exist in the form of chromate (. ), dichromate (. ), and hydrogen chromate (. ), depending upon the solution ... In water, it can exist in the form of chromate ion (. ), chromic acid (H2CrO4), hydrogen chromate ion (. ), and dichromate ion ... Chromate (. ) ions are the dominant species at high pH values, while, at low pH, mainly dichromate ions (. ) exist in the ...
The resulting microgel particles are water-swellable and may be employed as stabilizers for use in the preparation of aqueous ... dispersions of film-forming resins containing smaller amounts of organic solvents than conventional aqueous dispersions of this ... coatings having less water sensitivity and improved adhesion as compared with coatings obtained from conventional aqueous ... Disclosed are carboxylic acid containing polymeric microgel particles which are prepared by polymerizing in aqueous emulsion a ...
2 The result is an aqueous solution. Chromates: Insoluble EXCEPT IA elements, ammonium, calcium chromate, and strontium ... The solubility of ionic compounds in aqueous solutions is wide and varied. Try this amazing AP Chemistry Solubility Rules Quiz ... They can be stated calcium chromate, and ammonium salts are soluble in hot water, bromides, acetates... Moderately soluble ( e. ... Are insoluble except IA elements, ammonium, calcium chromate, and ammonium salts are (. Chemical formula for each of the Solid ...
... of silver chromate in 1.4 M potassium chromate aqueous solution? In 1.4 M silver nitrate aqueous solution? In pure water? ... Silver chromate is sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions. The Ksp of Ag2CrO4 is 1.12× 10-12. What is the solubility (in mol/L ... There is a current being applied to an aqueous solution fo sodium bromide. What is produced at the cathode and anode? I said ... aqueous solution regardless of temperature.. would the only correct statement be [H+] = [OH-]? pH = 7.00 and pOH = ...
Raw and modified bentonite has been used to develop effective sorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid ... Adsorption of chromate and molybdate by cetylpyridinium bentonite . Appl. Clay Sci.. 41 ... Phosphate adsorption from aqueous solutions by disused adsorbents: chitosan hydrogel beads after the removal of copper(II) ... In this study, organic and inorganic bentonite was used for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions in a batch test. Several ...
  • This study was focused on adsorption of hexavalent chromium from the aqueous phase onto activated carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The hexavalent chromium exists in different forms of HCrO4-, Cr2O -2 and CrO -2 in aqueous phase [12, 13]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Several researchers studied the chromium adsorption from aqueous solution [16, 17] using different adsorbents to reduce the concentration of chromium in the aquatic environment. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, the mechanism of adsorption and thermodynamic studies of chromium (VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon have not been given due attention. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 9] Sahin Y., Ozturk A., Biosorption of Chromium (VI) Ions from Aqueous Solution by the Bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis , J. Process Biochem, 40 , p. 1895 (2005). (ac.ir)
  • 11] Mor S, Ravindra K, Bishnoi NR. Adsorption of Chromium From Aqueous by Activated Alumina and Charcoal , J Bioresour Technol . (ac.ir)
  • The objective of this research project was to develop a chromium-free zeolite coating that has comparable thickness to chromate conversion and anodization coatings and equivalent or superior performance in coating adhesion, corrosion protection, abrasion resistance, and paint adhesion. (epa.gov)
  • When used as oxidizing agents or titrants in a redox chemical reaction, chromates and dichromates convert into trivalent chromium, Cr3+, salts of which typically have a distinctively different blue-green color. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromium is oxidized to the hexavalent form, while the iron forms iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3: 4 FeCr2O4 + 8 Na2CO3 + 7 O2 → 8 Na2CrO4 + 2 Fe2O3 + 8 CO2 Subsequent leaching of this material at higher temperatures dissolves the chromates, leaving a residue of insoluble iron oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally the chromate solution is further processed to make chromium metal, but a chromate salt may be obtained directly from the liquor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EU RAR covers the water soluble Cr (VI) compounds chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium dichromate. (europa.eu)
  • The present study reports the use of raw, iron oxide, and aluminum oxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions from aqueous solution. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to synthesize a new resin through immobilization of the 4,4′-((1Z,11Z)-2,5,8,11-tetraazadodeca-1,8-diene-1,11-diyl)diphenol (TRA) onto silica gel modified (Si-CPTS) with 3-chloropropyltrimethoxy silane (CPTS) and its application for the removal of chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solution as well as from industrial wastewater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 3. The process of claim 1, wherein said chromium-oxygen compound is a chromate. (patentgenius.com)
  • Experiments were performed to characterize the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution via ion exchange with uncalcined hydrotalcite (HTC), [Mg2Al(OH)6]2CO3, a synthetic clay mineral ion exchange media. (aiche.org)
  • Since chromate reagents are a dark orange-red color ( VI oxidation state) and chromium III compounds are normally green, the progress of these oxidations is easily observed. (msu.edu)
  • Thirumalachari, R. Title: Simultaneous recovery of chromium and iron from chromite ore processing residue involves subjecting grog obtained by treating residue with metal hydroxide to aqueous leaching and forming chromate solution and iron rich residue. (clri.org)
  • More particularly, the invention is directed to aqueous, acidic passivation compositions that are characterized as being free of hexavalent chromium and free of peroxide and persulphate compounds. (wipo.int)
  • As the acid is consumed in the oxidation reaction, however, the pH at the surface-liquid interface increases: this diminishes the combining power of chromium in the aqueous phase and leads to the precipitation of a thin gelatinous film comprising chromium hydroxide and complexes of chromium ions and zinc. (wipo.int)
  • 1995). The synthesis solution used is a clear, dilute aqueous solution containing primarily molecular species of silicon and aluminum. (epa.gov)
  • In a dilute aqueous solution, potassium bromide tastes. (sentinellemedical.com)
  • The condensation reactions, which occur reversibly in dilute aqueous solution, involve formation of oxo bridges by elimination of water from two molecules of the weak acid. (britannica.com)
  • Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It was concluded that the anion exchange sorption was involved in removing the chromate anion from the aqueous system into the surface of activated carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Activated carbon is a good choice to be used for the decontamination of water from chromate anion because of its high surface area and excellent performance as compared to its counterparts reported in the literature [20]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two oxy-anion analogs to chromate were used: permanganate and molybdate. (unt.edu)
  • This was expected because Cr(VI) exists as the chromate anion in aqueous solution and anions are usually removed at different pH conditions than cations in ion exchange. (aiche.org)
  • therefore surfactant modified composite is a suitable candidate for removal of chromate anion from contaminated solutions. (scialert.net)
  • Chromate anion was effectively concentrated on an anion exchanger, layered double hydroxide (LDH), from aqueous solution. (elsevier.com)
  • We are ready to see how the silver chromate dissolves in the solution that contains silver nitrate. (coursera.org)
  • We'll write the same reaction that we wrote for part a and part b, and that is that the silver chromate. (coursera.org)
  • This is how much silver's presence before the Silver Chromate has ever had a chance to dissolve. (coursera.org)
  • This is how much the Silver Chromate dissolves. (coursera.org)
  • Silver chromate is sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions. (jiskha.com)
  • What is the solubility (in mol/L) of silver chromate in 1.4 M potassium chromate aqueous solution? (jiskha.com)
  • How many grams of silver chromate will precipitate when 150. (herokuapp.com)
  • Chromate and dichromate salts of heavy metals, lanthanides and alkaline earth metals are only very slightly soluble in water and are thus used as pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19. The process of claim 15, wherein said oxidant is included in an amount to maintain said ferric chloride content of at least about one half based on said total soluble iron content in said aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. (patentgenius.com)
  • Tabandeh, H., Aboofazelia, R., Ghasemi, Z. Preparation of Stable Plurilamellar Liposomes Dispersed in Two Soluble Types of Collagens and the Effect of Collagens on the Release Rate of Entrapped Sodium Chromate. (ac.ir)
  • COLD) from Henkle Co., on the release rate of sodium chromate (CHR) as a water-soluble model drug from stable plurilamellar vesicles (SPLVs) was evaluated. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, the effect of aqueous solutions of the collagen products COLLAPUR Ò (COL) and COLLAPURON-DAK Ò (COLD) from Henkle Co., on the release rate of sodium chromate (CHR) as a water-soluble model drug from stable plurilamellar vesicles (SPLVs) was evaluated. (ac.ir)
  • Using the solubility table (see below) we find both KNO 3 and NaCl are water-soluble (aqueous, or aq for short) products. (docplayer.net)
  • gem According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. (jeonjucj.kr)
  • The present invention is directed to aqueous, acidic passivation compositions comprising both phosphoric acid and at least one water-soluble polyphosphonic acid. (wipo.int)
  • The present invention relates to a method for controlling the formation and deposition of scale forming salts in aqueous media. (google.com.au)
  • Historically, passivation compositions have been based upon acidic aqueous solutions of chromate salts. (wipo.int)
  • Removal of Chromate from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Clinoptilolite-Polyanillin Composite', Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE) , 33(1), pp. 45-51. (ac.ir)
  • Faghihian, H., Rasekh, M. Removal of Chromate from Aqueous Solution by a Novel Clinoptilolite-Polyanillin Composite. (ac.ir)
  • The adsorption capacity of the composite for removal of CrO 4 2- from aqueous solutions was studied under different experimental conditions including initial concentration, pH, temperature, and contact time. (ac.ir)
  • 7] Gupta V.K., Rastogi A., Nayak A., Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Hexavalent Chromim from Aqueous Solution Using a Low Cost Fertilizer Industry Waste Material , J . Colloid Interface Sci . (ac.ir)
  • Polydopamine/[email protected] composite (PDA/[email protected]) with high removal efficiency of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous solutions was successfully synthesized. (springer.com)
  • Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) supported on sineguelas waste for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution: Kinetics, thermodynamic and mechanism. (springer.com)
  • The removal of chromate from aqueous solutions, using finely ground pyrite and biotite, was investigated by batch experiments. (chemweb.com)
  • Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by chitin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. (springer.com)
  • Removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera Lam. (springer.com)
  • In this work, kaolinite modified with zero-valent iron was synthesized and used as a sorbent for Pb(II) and Mo(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. (degruyter.com)
  • This study proposes the use of bentonite modified with l-histidine for the removal of Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, U and Zn from aqueous solutions such as those impacted by acidic drainage. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the performance of three zeolite membranes in the removal of trivalent metal ions from aqueous solution using a cross-flow mode of operation. (iwaponline.com)
  • Aqueous contaminant removal by metallic iron: is the paradigm shifting? (scielo.org.za)
  • Chemical reduction has long dominated thinking about the mechanism of aqueous contaminant removal in the presence of metallic iron (e.g. (scielo.org.za)
  • It should be explicitly stated that some researchers have insisted on the importance of adsorption and/or co-precipitation in the process of aqueous contaminant removal by Feº (Burris et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution is performed by using Poly (AMPS-co-IA) hydrogels and their disassembled form and the results are compared. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Because, the process involving the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium is strongly pH dependent and decreases with increase in pH [ 12 , 13 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Emission at 290 nm Accepted 16 January 2018 upon excitation at 226 nm was used for the sensing of iodide ions in aqueous medium through very high Available online 31 January 2018 luminescence quenching. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ion chromatography is a form of liquid chromatography used to separate ions in aqueous solutions. (multinivel.top)
  • Suppose 0.432g of zinc acetate is dissolved in 200.mL of a 16.0mM aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate. (jiskha.com)
  • The authors conclude that the results of the GS radical and Cr(V) at high GSH levels suggests that the synergistic reaction of the Cr(V) intermediate and the GS radical are perhaps responsible for the increased chromate-IV induced DNA strand breaks at high GSH levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction product is leached with methanol to remove the majority of the unreacted sodium hydroxide, then with water to remove the sodium chromate and the remainder of the sodium hydroxite. (cdc.gov)
  • I have trying 30% aqueous ammonia and there didn't seem to be a reaction. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The best-known and simplest example is the condensation of yellow chromate ion (CrO 4 2− ) to form the orange isopoly dichromate ion (Cr 2 O 7 2− ), an equilibrium reaction the extent of which depends on the pH . (britannica.com)
  • 2 Thus the molecular equation is more properly written: KCl(aq) + NaNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) but in terms of if something happens, we should write: KCl(aq) + NaNO 3 (aq) No Reaction Aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and silver(i) nitrate will undergo double replacement reaction to produce a white precipitate of silver(i) chloride and aqueous sodium nitrate. (docplayer.net)
  • 14. The aqueous dispersion of claim 1 wherein at any time (T) during the polymerization of a first 20% of the second shell stage polymer, no more than 6% unpolymerized monomer by weight, based on a weight of total reaction mixture at time (T) present in a reaction vessel. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • potassium chromate potassium dichromate Chromates react with hydrogen peroxide, giving products in which peroxide, O2− 2, replaces one or more oxygen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrations of 0.5% and below of aqueous potassium dichromate have been reported to elicit positive responses in patch testing studies. (europa.eu)
  • The resulting microgel particles are water-swellable and may be employed as stabilizers for use in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of film-forming resins containing smaller amounts of organic solvents than conventional aqueous dispersions of this type. (google.com)
  • Such dispersions are useful as coating compositions, yielding coatings having less water sensitivity and improved adhesion as compared with coatings obtained from conventional aqueous dispersions of film-forming resins. (google.com)
  • Aqueous silicon dispersions are used to produce pyrotechnic time delay compositions. (up.ac.za)
  • Chromate reduction by waste iron from electroplating wastewater using plug flow reactor. (springer.com)
  • Rare potassium chromate minerals and related compounds are found in the Atacama desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of chromate compounds in manufactured goods is restricted in the EU (and by market commonality the rest of the world) by EU Parliament directive on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive (2002/95/EC). (wikipedia.org)
  • International Standard ISO 9439 Water Quality - Evaluation in an aqueous medium of the "ultimate" aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds - Method by analysis of released carbon dioxide. (europa.eu)
  • Such as lead chromate and lead to thrombophlebitis and should include a seizure lasting more than behavior, inform the client or arrange for tests. (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • However, differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies showed that excessive silicon surface oxidation increased the ignition temperature and reduced the heat release of a near-stoichiometric silicon-lead chromate pyrotechnic composition. (up.ac.za)
  • 3. The composition of claim 2 wherein the pigment is a lead chromate-containing pigment. (google.com.au)
  • Suppose of copper (II) nitrate is dissolved in of a aqueous solution of sodium chromate. (jiskha.com)
  • mL of a 71.0 m M aqueous solution of sodium chromate. (jiskha.com)
  • Two such oxidants are Jones reagent (a solution of sodium dichromate in aqueous sulfuric acid) and pyridinium chlorochromate, C 5 H 5 NH (+) CrO 3 Cl (-) , commonly named by the acronym PCC and used in methylene chloride solution. (msu.edu)
  • We have shown that high-silica zeolite ZSM-5 coatings on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 (AA-2024-T3) and other metals offer remarkably better corrosion resistance than chromate conversion coating and anodization coating in strong acids and bases (0.5 M NaOH), and pitting aggressive environments (Cheng, et. (epa.gov)
  • Chromates and dichromates are used in chrome plating to protect metals from corrosion and to improve paint adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical inhibitors used to prevent corrosion of iron or steel in aqueous solutions are chromates, phosphates, and silicates. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Borax Decahydrate is incorporated in many aqueous systems requiring corrosion inhibition. (borax.com)
  • Accepta 0018 is a high performance cooling water treatment comprising an aqueous blend of corrosion and scale inhibitors scientifically formulated for the treatment and protection of open cooling water circuits operating under softened or low natural hardness water conditions. (accepta.com)
  • High performance aqueous blend of corrosion and scale inhibitors designed for use in open cooling water circuits. (accepta.com)
  • Chromate-induced activation of hydrogen peroxide for oxidative degradation of aqueous organic pollutants. (springer.com)
  • Ksp is a silver concentration squared times a chromate concentration. (coursera.org)
  • Nitrates, however, did not have a significant effect, even at concentrations comparable to the chromate concentration. (aiche.org)
  • The electrons required for half-equation \(\ref{2}\) are supplied from Equation \(\ref{1}\) via metallic conduction through the iron or by ionic conduction if the aqueous solution contains a significant concentration of ions. (libretexts.org)
  • Disclosed are carboxylic acid containing polymeric microgel particles which are prepared by polymerizing in aqueous emulsion a monomer mixture containing about 10-50% by weight of polymerizable carboxylic acid monomers, up to 5% of a difunctional crosslinking monomer and one or more carboxyl-free relatively water insoluble polymerizable vinyl monomers. (google.com)
  • Objective was to determine if the protective coating could be enhanced by filling intercrystalline spaces or by reinforcing the coating at intermetallic particles by exposure to aqueous transition metal salt solutions. (unt.edu)
  • An aqueous protective coating composition particularly useful for can coatings is based on a polymeric binder comprising epoxy crosslinked microgel particles. (google.com)
  • The microgel polymer is produced by dispersing into water a carboxyl functional, acrylic-epoxy grafted copolymer, and combined with a high molecular weight, branched, multifunctional epoxide resin, followed by coreaction and crosslinking between the carboxyl copolymer and branched epoxide to form stable aqueous dispersed microgel particles. (google.com)
  • An aqueous dispersion of polymeric particles and process for forming thereof is provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The aqueous dispersion of claim 1 comprising 10 to 33% by weight, based on the weight of the polymeric particles, of the first shell stage polymer and 67 to 90% by weight, based on the weight of the polymeric particles, of the second shell stage polymer. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In aqueous media, the carboxylic acid is usually the major product. (wikipremed.com)
  • The chromate ion is the predominant species in alkaline solutions, but dichromate can become the predominant ion in acidic solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When biotite was used, the amounts of decreased Fe(II) and reduced Cr(VI) showed no stoichiometric relationship, which implies that not only was there chromate reduction by Fe(II) ions in the acidic solution, but also heterogeneous reduction of Fe(III) ions by structural Fe(II) in biotite. (chemweb.com)
  • The hydrogen chromate ion may be protonated, with the formation of molecular chromic acid, H2CrO4, but the pKa for the equilibrium H2CrO4 ⇌ HCrO− 4 + H+ is not well characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dichromate salt and aqueous sulfuric acid are used to prepare chromic acid in situ, which is among the most powerful oxidizing agents commonly available. (americans-world.org)
  • If aqueous solutions of potassium chromate and barium chloride are mixed, a bright yellow solid (barium chromat. (bartleby.com)
  • Chromate, perchlorate, and organic acids are examples. (multinivel.top)
  • Both the temperature and pH had a positive effect on the chromate uptake by activated carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 11 reported that their cryogel based on 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (pAMPS) reached equilibrium swelling almost 3600 times faster than the corresponding conventional hydrogel and has since applied these gels to persistent uptake of chromate from aqueous environments. (rsc.org)
  • Different models were tested to access the sorption maxima and to probe into the chromate adsorption mechanism. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The present study not only focuses to probe into the mechanism of chromate adsorption onto activate carbon but also to evaluate the thermodynamic feasibility of the process. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The kinetics and mechanism of chromate reduction are discussed here. (chemweb.com)
  • The resulting hydrate (structure shown below the aldehyde) meets both the requirements stated above, and is further oxidized by the same chromate ester mechanism. (msu.edu)
  • The redox potential shows that chromates are weaker oxidizing agent in alkaline solution than in acid solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhanced redox conversion of chromate and arsenite in ice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 9 . An aqueous composition according to claim 1 , further comprising a colorant. (google.es)
  • drying and curing the thus-coated aqueous composition. (google.es)
  • Reduction of nitrobenzene in aqueous and soil phases using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles. (springer.com)
  • Chromate reduction by pyrite was about 100 times faster than that by biotite, and was also faster at pH 3 than 4. (chemweb.com)
  • However, with biotite more than 400 h was required for the reduction of 90% of the initial chromate. (chemweb.com)
  • The results indicate that the rate of chromate reduction was strongly depending on the amount and dissolution rate of the Fe(II) in the minerals. (chemweb.com)
  • The reduction of chromate at pH 4 resulted in the precipitation of (Cr, Fe)(OH) 3(s) , which is believed to have limited the concentrations of dissolved Cr(III) and Fe(III) to less than the expected values. (chemweb.com)
  • This was because the oxidation of pyrite rapidly created Fe(II) ions, even in oxygenated solutions, and the chromate reduction by the Fe(II) ions was significantly faster than the Fe(II) ion oxygenation. (chemweb.com)
  • However, in the pyrite batches, there was no difference in the variations of the chromate reduction in relation to the pH control. (chemweb.com)
  • Electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trap methodology were used to investigate the reduction of chromate (13907454) by glutathione (GSH) and find evidence for the involvement of the glutathionyl (GS) radical as well as chromate-V (Cr(V)) intermediates. (cdc.gov)
  • 20. The process of claim 15, comprising the step of measuring the ferric chloride content in said aqueous hydrochloric acid solution by measuring the density, conductivity, or oxidation reduction potential by photometric analysis of said aqueoushydrochloric acid solution or combination thereof, and adding said oxidant to said aqueous hydrochloric acid solution based on said measured ferric chloride content. (patentgenius.com)
  • Ammonia can be used to dissolve copper chromate if good luck would have it even copper chromite itself. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Meanwhile, the adsorption characteristics of Cr(VI) onto the adsorbent in aqueous solutions was studied as a function of solution pH, ionic strength, contact time, and temperature. (scielo.cl)
  • Production of gas phase NO₂ and halogens from the photochemical oxidation of aqueous mixtures of sea salt and nitrate ions at room temperature. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Baron D. and Palmer C.D. (2002) Solid solution/aqueous solution interactions between jarosite and its chromate analog. (mspnet.org)
  • Use separate portions of the filtrate for tests (i) to (v). (i) Add aqueous NaOH, then in excess, and warm. (bartleby.com)
  • The Bureau procedure consists of reacting chromite with molten naoh under oxidizing conditions to form sodium chromate (na2cro4). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium chromate crystals were produced that contained less than 0.01 pct naoh. (cdc.gov)
  • v) Add aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate. (bartleby.com)
  • Raw and modified bentonite has been used to develop effective sorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. (iwaponline.com)
  • The competitive adsorption of boric acid and chromate from aqueous solutions by alumina has been investigated by spectrophotometry at pH 8, ionic strength = 0.0, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaClO4, T = 22 ± 3 °C and under normal atmospheric conditions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 21. The process of claim 15, comprising determining a weight of said stainless steel article being pickled by said aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and adding said oxidant in an amount based on said surface area. (patentgenius.com)
  • Comparative analysis indicated that the core molecular response to chromate, irrespective of the nutritional conditions tested, comprised seven up-regulated proteins belonging to six different functional categories including transcription, inorganic ion transport/metabolism, and amino acid transport/metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1.4 M silver nitrate aqueous solution? (jiskha.com)
  • Suppose 26.0g of sodium bromide is dissolved in 150mL of a 0.60M aqueous solution of silver nitrate. (jiskha.com)
  • This invention pertains to aqueous dispersed acrylic grafted epoxy polymers modified and crosslinked with high molecular weight branched epoxy resin to provide useful polymeric binders for protective surface coatings applied to substrates and particularly useful as can coatings for beverage and food containers. (google.com)
  • In the first step the alcohol forms a chromate ester. (wikipremed.com)
  • In each case a chromate ester of the alcohol substrate is believed to be an intermediate, which undergoes an E2-like elimination to the carbonyl product. (msu.edu)
  • 2. The oxygen atom must be bonded to a hydrogen atom so that a chromate ester intermediate (or other suitable leaving group) may be formed. (msu.edu)
  • 1 NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. (docplayer.net)
  • Most of the precipitation reactions that we will deal with involve aqueous salt solutions. (zilliantinnovations.com)