Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (1/452)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Expression and localization of aquaporins in rat gastrointestinal tract. (2/452)

A family of water-selective channels, aquaporins (AQP), has been demonstrated in various organs and tissues. However, the localization and expression of the AQP family members in the gastrointestinal tract have not been entirely elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression and distribution of several types of the AQP family and to speculate on their role in water transport in the rat gastrointestinal tract. By RNase protection assay, expression of AQP1-5 and AQP8 was examined in various portions through the gastrointestinal tract. AQP1 and AQP3 mRNAs were diffusely expressed from esophagus to colon, and their expression was relatively intense in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, AQP4 mRNA was selectively expressed in the stomach and small intestine and AQP8 mRNA in the jejunum and colon. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated cellular localization of these AQP in these portions. AQP1 was localized on endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in the submucosa and lamina propria throughout the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 was detected on the circumferential plasma membranes of stratified squamous epithelial cells in the esophagus and basolateral membranes of cardiac gland epithelia in the lower stomach and of surface columnar epithelia in the colon. However, AQP3 was not apparently detected in the small intestine. AQP4 was present on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cells in the lower stomach and selectively in the basolateral membranes of deep intestinal gland cells in the small intestine. AQP8 mRNA expression was demonstrated in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum and colon by in situ hybridization. These findings may indicate that water crosses the epithelial layer through these water channels, suggesting a possible role of the transcellular route for water intake or outlet in the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cells along the rat nephron revealed by antigen retrieval. (3/452)

The Na/K-ATPase plays a fundamental role in the physiology of various mammalian cells. In the kidney, previous immunocytochemical studies have localized this protein to the basolateral membrane in different tubule segments. However, intercalated cells (IC) of the collecting duct (CD) in rat and mouse were unlabeled with anti-Na/K-ATPase antibodies. An antigen retrieval technique has been recently described in which tissue sections are pretreated with sodium dodecyl sulfate before immunostaining. This procedure was used to reexamine the presence of Na/K-ATPase in IC along the rat nephron using monoclonal antibodies against the Na/K-ATPase alpha-subunit. Subtypes of IC along the nephron were identified by their distinctive staining with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the 31-kD vacuolar H+ -ATPase subunit, whereas principal cells (PC) were labeled with a polyclonal antibody to the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). In PC, the Na/K-ATPase and AQP-4 staining colocalized basolaterally. In contrast to previous reports, we found that IC of all types showed basolateral labeling with the anti-Na/K-ATPase antibody. The staining was quantified by fluorescence image analysis. It was weak to moderate in IC of cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts and most intense in IC of the initial inner medullary collecting duct. IC in the initial inner medulla showed a staining intensity that was equivalent or stronger to that in adjacent principal cells. Models of ion transport at the cellular and epithelial level in rat kidney, therefore, must take into account the potential role of a basolateral Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cell function.  (+info)

Renal expression of aquaporins in liver cirrhosis induced by chronic common bile duct ligation in rats. (4/452)

Semiquantitative immunoblotting was used to investigate the expression levels of the four major renal aquaporins, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb, the type 3 Na-H exchanger, and the Na-K-ATPase in kidneys from rats with cirrhosis secondary to common bile duct ligation (CBDL). These rats had significant water retention and hyponatremia. In contrast to models of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride, aquaporin-2 expression in CBDL-induced cirrhosis was decreased. Thus, these results show that in the setting of extracellular fluid volume expansion, excessive water retention with hyponatremia can occur in the absence of increases in aquaporin-2 abundance. In addition, the expression levels of the two basolateral collecting duct aquaporins (aquaporin-3 and -4) were decreased in CBDL rats relative to sham-operated control rats. Similarly, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb and the type 3 Na-H exchanger showed decreases in expression. In contrast, the expression levels of aquaporin-1 and the all subunit of the Na-K-ATPase were not decreased. Thus, dysregulation of multiple water channels and ion transporters may play a role in water balance abnormalities associated with CBDL-induced cirrhosis in rats.  (+info)

High-resolution immunogold cytochemistry indicates that AQP4 is concentrated along the basal membrane of parietal cell in rat stomach. (5/452)

Gastric parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid in stomach. Because the secreted HCl solution is isotonic with the plasma fluid, it should accompany the water transport across the membranes of parietal cells. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that play the central role in the cellular handling of water in various mammalian tissues. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that AQP4 was expressed only in parietal cells of rat gastric mucosa. Immunogold electron microscopy study further demonstrated that AQP4 was mostly localized at the basal membrane of parietal cells. In the basal membrane, AQP4 was prominently enriched on the portion contacting with the basement membrane surrounding gastric glands. These results suggest that the contact between basement membrane and basal membrane may generate the signal involved in the targeting of AQP4 in gastric parietal cells.  (+info)

Role of aquaporin-4 in airspace-to-capillary water permeability in intact mouse lung measured by a novel gravimetric method. (6/452)

The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4, or AQP1/AQP4 together. An apparatus was constructed to measure lung weight continuously during pulmonary artery perfusion of isolated mouse lungs. Osmotically induced water flux (J(v)) between the airspace and capillary compartments was measured from the kinetics of lung weight change in saline-filled lungs in response to changes in perfusate osmolality. J(v) in wild-type mice varied linearly with osmotic gradient size (4.4 x 10(-5) cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1)) and was symmetric, independent of perfusate osmolyte size, weakly temperature dependent, and decreased 11-fold by AQP1 deletion. Transcapillary osmotic water permeability was greatly reduced by AQP1 deletion, as measured by the same method except that the airspace saline was replaced by an inert perfluorocarbon. Hydrostatically induced lung edema was characterized by lung weight changes in response to changes in pulmonary arterial inflow or pulmonary venous outflow pressure. At 5 cm H(2)O outflow pressure, the filtration coefficient was 4.7 cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) and reduced 1.4-fold by AQP1 deletion. To study the role of AQP4 in lung water transport, AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice were generated by crossbreeding of AQP1 and AQP4 null mice. J(v) were (cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) x 10(-5), SEM, n = 7-12 mice): 3.8 +/- 0. 4 (wild type), 0.35 +/- 0.02 (AQP1 null), 3.7 +/- 0.4 (AQP4 null), and 0.25 +/- 0.01 (AQP1/AQP4 null). The significant reduction in P(f) in AQP1 vs. AQP1/AQP4 null mice was confirmed by an independent pleural surface fluorescence method showing a 1.6 +/- 0.2-fold (SEM, five mice) reduced P(f) in the AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice vs. AQP1 null mice. These results establish a simple gravimetric method to quantify osmosis and filtration in intact mouse lung and provide direct evidence for a contribution of the distal airways to airspace-to-capillary water transport.  (+info)

Aquaporin-4 is expressed in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments in mouse kidney. (7/452)

Because of the availability of knockout mouse models to examine renal transport mechanisms, it has become increasingly important to describe the cellular distribution of major renal transporters in mice. We have used immunocytochemistry and freeze-fracture electron microscopy to compare the renal distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with that previously described in rat. In rat kidney AQP4 is present exclusively in basolateral membranes of collecting duct principal cells. In mice, however, AQP4 was also detected by immunocytochemistry in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments, and not detected in S1 and S2 segments of proximal tubule. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed orthogonal arrays of intramembrane particles (OAPs) on the basolateral membranes of the S3 segment. In AQP4-knockout mice, immunostaining was absent and OAPs were found neither in collecting ducts nor in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. The urinary concentrating capacity after deletion of both AQP1 and AQP4 was further reduced compared with that of AQP1 or AQP4 null mice, suggesting an additive effect of AQP1 and AQP4 in the concentrating mechanism. The functional significance of the apparent species-dependent expression of AQP4 in proximal tubules is unknown, but may relate to physiological differences between rats and mice.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of two bovine aquaporin-4 cDNA isoforms and their expression in brain endothelial cells. (8/452)

Two cDNA isoforms of bovine aquaporin-4 (bAQP4-A and bAQP4-B) were newly isolated. Sequence analysis of both cDNAs revealed open reading frames of 972 (bAQP4-A) and 906 nucleotides (bAQP4-B) with deduced proteins of 323 (bAQP4-A) and 301 amino acid residues (bAQP4-B). Partial 5'-genomic sequence analysis showed that the 5'-noncoding sequences specific to bAQP4-A and -B transcripts were contained in distinct exons, exon 0 for bAQP4-A and new exon X for bAQP4-B. RNase protection assay demonstrated the definite expression of both isoforms in bovine brain. The deduced amino acid sequence of bAQP4-A was highly homologous to the human (97%), rat (95%), and mouse (93%) AQP4. Reverse transcription-PCR detected the expression of AQP4 mRNAs in bovine brain endothelial cells as well as in a variety of bovine organs such as brain, lung, spleen, and kidney. Northern blot analysis indicated that a 6.0 kb message is predominantly expressed in bovine brain and lung.  (+info)

Homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment is essential for its normal function and is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB proper is made up of endothelial cells (ECs) interconnected by tight junctions (TJs) that reveal a unique morphology and biochemical composition of the bodys vasculature. In this article, we focus on developmental aspects of the BBB and describe morphological as well as molecular special features of the neuro-vascular unit (NVU) involved in barrier induction. Recently, we and others identified the Wnt/b-catenin pathway as crucial for brain angiogenesis, TJ and BBB formation. Based on these findings we discuss other pathways and molecular interactions for BBB establishment and maintenance. At the morphological level, our concept favors a major role for polarized astrocytes (ACs) therein. Orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) that are the morphological correlate of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are specifically formed in the
Anti-Aquaporin 2 (254-271) Rabbit pAb Anti-Aquaporin 2 (254-271), rabbit polyclonal, recognizes the ~40 and ~29 kDa forms of aquaporin-2 in rat kidney membrane. Supplied with a control peptide. It is validated for WB, IHC, and IP. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Recovery from neuronal activation requires rapid clearance of potassium ions (K+) and restoration of osmotic equilibrium. The predominant water channel protein in brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is concentrated in the astrocyte end-feet membranes adjacent to blood vessels in neocortex and cerebellum by association with alpha-syntrophin protein. Although AQP4 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain edema, its functions in normal brain physiology are uncertain. In this study, we used immunogold electron microscopy to compare hippocampus of WT and alpha-syntrophin-null mice (alpha-Syn-/-). We found that ,10% of AQP4 immunogold labeling is retained in the perivascular astrocyte end-feet membranes of the alpha-Syn-/- mice, whereas labeling of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel, Kir4.1, is largely unchanged. Activity-dependent changes in K+ clearance were studied in hippocampal slices to test whether AQP4 and K+ channels work in concert to achieve isosmotic clearance of K+ after neuronal ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in the brains water balance, including edema formation and clearance. There are 6 splice variants; the shorter ones assemble into functional, tetrameric square arrays; the longer is palmitoylated on N-terminal cysteyl residues) (Suzuki et al., 2008). The longest, Aqp4e, has a novel N-terminal domain and forms a water channel in the plasma membrane although various shorter variants dont (Moe et al., 2008). AQP4, like AQP0 (1.A.8.8.2), forms water channels but also forms adhesive junctions (Engel et al., 2008) (causes cytotoxic brain swelling in mice (Yang et al., 2008)) Mice lacking Aqp4 have impaired olfactions (Lu et al., 2008). Aqp4 is down regulated in skeletal muscle in muscular dystrophy (Au et al. 2008). The crystal structure is known to 2.8 Å resolution (Tani et al., 2009). The structure reveals 8 water molecules in each of the four channels, supporting a hydrogen-bond isolation ...
Aquaporin 10 antibody, C-term (aquaporin 10) for WB. Anti-Aquaporin 10 pAb (GTX45889) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Anti-Aquaporin 3 Antibody (#AQP-003) from Alomone Labs is a highly specific rabbit polyclonal Ab directed against an epitope of rat AQP3. Applications: IFC, IHC, IP, WB. Free samples available. Control antigen included. Lyophilized. Global shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for aquaporin research!
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Aquaporin 5 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Aquaporin 5 antibodies.
About OAP OAP Cleaner is an innovative sanitizing solution that kills 99.9% of bacteria, germs, microbes, and viruses, within 1 minute of application. OAP Cleaners carefully formulated, proprietary solution (BPA, Persulfate, and Chlorine Free) is able to rid virtually all-dental and orthodontic appliances of harmful disease causing agents. OAP Cleaners unique formula provides for germicidal, bacterial and fungal protection, in addition to anti-viral protection. […]. ...
Polyclonal antibody for AQUAPORIN 3/AQP3 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. AQUAPORIN 3/AQP3 information: Molecular Weight: 31544 MW; Subcellular Localization: Basolateral cell membrane; Multi-pa
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 0 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 3 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Rat. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 2 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
SIPs are the states means for attaining the NAAQSs within the air-quality regions within them. How long are the states SIPs allowed to provide attainment
Polyclonal antibody for AQP5 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. AQP5 information: Molecular Weight: 28292 MW; Subcellular Localization: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.
An Old Bailey caseworker accused of murdering an elderly widow told a psychiatrist he killed her because she owed him £30, a court heard.
Age Cymru has raised concerns about poverty among pensioners after one of its reports revealed 50,000 elderly people in Wales were living in severe poverty.
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Matcha Tea Market 2017 Forecast to 2022. Matcha is shade-grown green tea, and it is famous for being used in the tea ceremony of Japan; the leaves of which are hand-picked, steamed, air dried, de-stemmed and slow-ground on granite wheels to produce a calming, antioxidant powerhouse drink which burns fat and increases energy and focus. Scope of the .... January 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is uncommon in children, and often seronegative for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG). We conducted a retrospective study of 67 children presenting to a single Australian center with acquired demyelinating syndromes over a 7-year period. All patients were tested for AQP4-IgG. Five children (7.5%) had neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. One child was seropositive for AQP4-IgG (1.5%) and had a relapsing disease course with mild residual deficits. She also had a concomitant motor axonal neuropathy that improved with immunosuppressive therapy. Of the remaining 4 children, 3 had a monophasic course and 1 a relapsing course. Two were tested for anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) antibody and both were seropositive. This study confirms that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is uncommon in children, and that AQP4-IgG seropositivity is rare. Anti-MOG antibodies should be tested in children with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Coinciding with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31. AU - Takahashi, Yoshiaki. AU - Manabe, Yasuhiro. AU - Morihara, Ryuta. AU - Narai, Hisashi. AU - Yamashita, Toru. AU - Abe, Koji. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. PY - 2017/5/17. Y1 - 2017/5/17. N2 - We report the unusual case of a 63-year-old man with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 31 who developed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) 14 years after the onset of cerebellar symptoms. In addition to cerebellar atrophy, magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple high-intensity areas in the brain and a long thoracic cord lesion from Th1/2 to Th11. The combination of NMOSD and SCA31 is accidental. However, our case suggests that inflammatory processes could be involved in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and SCA31.. AB - We report the unusual case of a 63-year-old man with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 31 who developed neuromyelitis optica ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. NMO spectrum disorders are rarely reported in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A previously healthy 42-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment, he presented with acute generalized weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active tuberculosis. It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while
In NMOSD, the likelihood of recurrence of disease activity is greater than 90%. Attacks in NMOSD can be devastating. Prior to the expansion of diagnoses about 50% of those diagnosed with NMOSD and untreated were dependent on a wheelchair and/or functionally blind by 5 years. With the advent of the antibody test we have recognized a wide variety of outcomes, but the condition is still considered potentially devastating. Therefore, it is generally thought that ongoing treatment with medications that suppress the immune system is necessary. There are two FDA-approved medications for maintenance in NMOSD, but anything else that is prescribed is done off-label. Soliris®️ (eculizumab) was the first FDA-approved complement inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adults with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Uplizna™ (inebilizumab-cdon) has also been granted approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ...
AstraZeneca and its global biologics research and development arm, MedImmune, today announced that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has granted orphan designation to inebilizumab (formerly MEDI-551) for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Developed by MedImmune, inebilizumab is currently in Phase IIb clinical development for NMOSD.. NMOSD is a rare, life-threatening autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which the bodys immune system attacks healthy cells, most commonly in the optic nerves and spinal cord, resulting in severe damage. NMOSD may cause severe muscle weakness and paralysis, loss of vision, respiratory failure, problems with bowel and bladder function and neuropathic pain.1 There is currently no cure or approved medicine for NMOSD, which affects about five in 100,000 people.. Bing Yao, Senior Vice President, R&D and Head of the Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Innovative Medicines unit, MedImmune, said: The EMAs orphan ...
Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) announced today that data from SAkuraSky, a pivotal phase III study of the investigational medicine satralizumab for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), were published in the 27 November 2019 online issue of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).. The positive results from the pivotal SAkuraSky study of satralizumab support the hypothesis that IL-6 plays a key role in NMOSD, which is a debilitating and potentially fatal condition, said Levi Garraway, M.D., Ph.D., Roches Chief Medical Officer and Head of Global Product Development. Satralizumab has shown robust efficacy sustained for 144 weeks across a broad patient population in two phase III studies, whether given as a monotherapy or in combination with baseline therapy. Were encouraged that satralizumab may soon provide a new treatment option for people living with NMOSD.. People with NMOSD experience unpredictable, severe relapses that directly cause cumulative, ...
Irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is largely attributed to neuronal and axonal degeneration, which, along with inflammation, is one of the major pathological hallmarks of these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that has been used in MS, NMOSD, and other diseases to quantify damage to the retina, including the ganglion cells and their axons. The fact that these are the only unmyelinated axons within the central nervous system (CNS) renders the afferent visual pathway an ideal model for studying axonal and neuronal degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to obtain anatomical information about the CNS and to quantify evolving pathology in MS and NMOSD, both globally and in specific regions of the visual pathway including the optic nerve, optic radiations and visual cortex. Therefore, correlations between brain or optic nerve ...
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) comprises a group of central nervous system disorders of inflammatory autoimmune origin that mainly affect the optic nerves and the spinal cord and can cause severe visual and general disability. The clinical signs are similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS), with the result that it is often difficult to differentiate between the two, thus leading to misdiagnosis. As the treatment and prognosis of NMOSD and MS are different, it is important to make an accurate and early diagnosis of NMOSD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that enables a quantitative study of the changes that the optic nerve and the macula undergo in several neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies have shown that some of these changes, such as retinal nerve fiber layer thinning or microcystic macular edema, can be related to alterations in the brain due to neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this mini-review is to show how OCT can be useful for the
The redefining of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in 2006 has revealed cases with unique and previously unrecognised presentations. We describe a case of an NMOSD relapse in which seizures were the main clinical feature.. A twenty three year old female first presented in 2006, then thirteen with hyponatraemia and bilateral, severe optic neuritis, in the context of hypothalamic and optic chiasm lesions on MRI brain. Central pontine myelinosis was initially diagnosed but this was revised to an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in 2013. She remained well for nine years albeit with residual neurological disabilities, including mild spastic paraparesis, global hyperreflexia and bilateral extensor plantar responses. She had almost complete loss of vision in both eyes with peripheral sparing evidenced by bilateral optic atrophy. In September 2015 she presented with generalised seizures. MRI brain showed contrast enhancement in the right cingulate gyrus (DWI negative). ...
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is an autoimmune disease. Learn about the hereditary and environmental factors, and lifestyle causes and risks.
Conditions: Multiple Sclerosis; Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Attack; Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Relapse; Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Progression; Optic Neuritis Intervention: Diagnostic Test: Reflex (Brightlamp Inc., Purdue University) Sponsor: University of ...
Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with considerable relapse-related disability. Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment but many patients do not tolerate first-line immunosuppressive agents, or experience ongoing relapses. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of methotrexate in aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive NMO spectrum disorders. Methods: Retrospective observational case series of 14 aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO and NMO spectrum disorder patients treated with methotrexate at two specialist centres within the UK. Annualised relapse rates, Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and tolerability were evaluated. Results: Median duration of treatment with methotrexate was 21.5 months (range 6-28 months) and only three patients were prescribed it first line. Median annualised relapse rate signi ficantly decreased following treatment (0.18 during methotrexate therapy vs 1.39 premethotrexate; p | 0.005). On
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are demyelinating autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) that are characterized by a high relapse rate and the presence of anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) in the serum. Azathioprine (AZA) is a first-line immunomodulatory drug that is widely used for the treatment of patients with NMOSD. However, the efficacy and safety of AZA vary in different individuals. Thirty-two patients with NMOSD who regularly took AZA were enrolled in the study at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. The efficacy of AZA was evaluated using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the annual relapse rate (ARR). The erythrocyte concentrations of AZA metabolites were detected using an LC-MS/MS method. The erythrocyte concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGNs) and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPNs) were 202.03 ± 63.35 pmol/8*108 RBC and 1618.90 ± 1607.06 pmol/8*108 RBC, respectively. After the patients had received
An increasing interest in the role of monocytes in the immune response has yielded findings that monocyte dysregulation is deeply involved in autoimmune diseases such as MS, SLE, and RA. For example, MS monocytes have been reported to be easily activated [30] and to have increased levels of inflammatory cytokine transcription and translation [31] and cell-surface molecule expression [32]. In this study, we hypothesized that NMOSD monocytes are dysregulated in much the same way that MS monocytes are. The data presented here demonstrate that NMOSD monocytes are readily activated and show increased production of inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of IL-10, increased expression of inflammatory surface molecules, and increased frequencies of a non-classical monocyte subset compared to HC monocytes. Interestingly, NMOSD monocytes have an even more inflammatory characteristic in some measures than MS monocytes, which are well-known to be highly inflammatory.. To examine monocyte cytokine ...
Natalizumab, rituximab, and fingolimod usage is associated with reactivation of John Cunningham virus and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with MS.5 Side effects for newer therapies such as eculizumab, inebilizumab, satralizumab, and tocilizumab in NMOSD are unclear, partly because of the relatively short duration and small numbers of patients exposure to these medications. Because these DMDs interfere with multiple arms of the immune system, altered immune functions in these patients are expected. Despite this anticipated risk, we did not observe an escalated rate of COVID-19 infection, even at the epicenter of the outbreak in Wuhan. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to all the provinces of China from the Wuhan epicenter since January 2020. The overall incidence of COVID-19 infection in China is estimated at 6/105 subjects comparable with the estimated incidence of NMOSD in China. These results from China are consistent with observations in some MS centers from Korea, Japan, and ...
Conclusions: Effectiveness of subcutaneous TCZ in NMOSD appears to be similar to that reported for the IV formulation and has an advantage of at-home administration. Prospective, comparative studies of subcutaneous TCZ for NMOSD are warranted....
Jueves 26 Julio. 08:00 - 08:30 Differential diagnosis and evaluation in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating disorders. Prof. Brenda Banwell. 08:30 - 09:00 Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in children and adolescents. Prof. Silvia Tenembaum. 09:00 - 09:10 Q & A. 09:10 - 09:40 Consensus definitions for pediatric MS and other demyelielinating disorders in childhood. Prof. Silvia Tenembaum. 09:40 - 10:10 Update in MS therapy in children and adolescents. Prof. Brenda Banwell. 10:10 - 10:15 Q & A. 10:15 - 10:40 Coffee. 10:40 - 11:40 Simposio Satélite Biogen Spinal Muscular Atrophy treatment prospects, real-life data with antisense oligonucleotide technology. Prof. Samuel Ignacio Pascual-Pascual. 11:40 - 12:10 Diagnostic approach to Multiple Sclerosis. Prof. Friedemann. 12:10 - 13:10 Simposio Merck Effect of SIRT therapy on cerebral atrophy. Prof. Nicola De Stefano. 13:10 - 13:35 Lunch. 13:35 - 14:20 Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) & MOG antibody-associated inflammatory ...
Dean M. Wingerchuk, Brenda Banwell, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Philippe Cabre, William Carroll, Tanuja Chitnis, Jérôme De Seze, Kazuo Fujihara, Benjamin Greenberg, Anu Jacob, Sven Jarius, Marco Lana-Peixoto, Michael Levy, Jack H. Simon, Silvia Tenembaum, Anthony L. Traboulsee, Patrick Waters, Kay E. Wellik, Brian G. Weinshenker ...
ABSTRACTCentral nervous system is the most complex and largest part of the nervous system. It plays a crucial role in aligning the activities of all body parts and ...
A 4-year-old boy presented with a 3-week history of rapidly progressive weakness involving the lower limbs followed by upper limbs and bilateral painless visual loss, preceded by a self-limiting febrile illness. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology ¦ Volume 22 ¦ Issue 4 ¦ October-December 2019 541 Sir, A 4-year-old boy presented with a 3-week history of rapidly progressive weakness involving the lower limbs followed by upper limbs and bilateral painless visual loss. His symptoms had begun 8 months ago when he had fever followed by acute-onset hearing loss. He was treated with high-dose steroids, resulting in partial recovery. Five months later, he had fever followed by acute ataxia. He was again treated with intravenous steroids, resulting in complete recovery. His current hospitalization was for increasing unsteadiness, clumsiness while walking, slurring of speech, and irritability. He had become bed-bound. The current episode was preceded by a self-limiting febrile illness.
Results Median annualized relapse rate (ARR) was not significantly different between these groups. Pooled analysis of all fixed dosing (n=31, median duration 25 months) versus all variable dosing (n=36, median duration 38 months) showed median and mean ARRs of 0.00 and 0.10 in both groups. Patients on fixed dosing received a median 3.9 infusions/year; those on variable doing received only 1.5 infusions/year. ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optic neuritis or longitudinally extensive myelitis in Sjogren syndrome (SS) suggests a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, brain abnormalities of SS remain to be elucidated for the association with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: Twelve primary SS patients (all women, 42 +/- 13.2 years) who had recurrent central nervous system (CNS) manifestations with brain involvement were retrospectively identified. Brain MRI, and neurologic and serologic findings were analyzed with the measurement of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). RESULTS: All patients showed brain lesions characteristic of NMO as follows: 1) the involved sites adjacent to the third and fourth ventricles and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, 2) unique configurations, such as the longitudinal course from the internal capsule to the midbrain, large cerebral or cerebellar lesions over 3 cm, and cavity-like formations. AQP4-Ab was positive in six of eight patients tested, and all
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p | 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p | 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of |= 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p | 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse,
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p , 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p , 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p , 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse, ...
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p , 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p , 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p , 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse, ...
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sj grens syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. In addition, whereas NMOSD was initially thought to spare the brain, it is now recognized that brain lesions occur in a majority of NMOSD patients. Therefore, it is important for the multi-disciplinary team of physicians who care for SS patients to understand this widening spectrum of NMOSD as encompassing brain lesions. In this case-report we describe clinical features, radiographic findings, and ...
Brain. 2019 Jun 1;142(6):1598-1615. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz106.. Cotzomi E1,2, Stathopoulos P1,2, Lee CS1,2, Ritchie AM3, Soltys JN3, Delmotte FR2, Oe T2, Sng J2, Jiang R2, Ma AK4, Vander Heiden JA1, Kleinstein SH2,4,5, Levy M6, Bennett JL3, Meffre E2, OConnor KC1,2.. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) constitute rare autoimmune disorders of the CNS that are primarily characterized by severe inflammation of the spinal cord and optic nerve. Approximately 75% of NMOSD patients harbour circulating pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the aquaporin-4 water channel (AQP4). The source of these autoantibodies remains unclear, but parallels between NMOSD and other autoantibody-mediated diseases posit compromised B cell tolerance checkpoints as common underlying and contributing factors. Using a well established assay, we assessed tolerance fidelity by creating recombinant antibodies from B cell populations directly downstream of each checkpoint and testing them for polyreactivity and ...
Understanding neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the role of interleukin-6 in the inflammation that occurs in people with NMOSD.
We present recent clinical and diagnostic advances in spinal cord imaging. Because of the overlap of different pathologic entities, good knowledge of clinical information is necessary. Degenerative diseases of the spine can sometimes be misleading when the question of a possible tumor rises. The essentials of spinal cord tumors are discussed.. In patients with suspicion of demyelinating disease, the following considerations are of importance: multiple sclerosis (MS) should be differentiated from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and AQP4 and MOG-antibodies should be searched for. There is a growing body of evidence that there is an overlap between NMOSD and acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM).. Acute transverse myelitis is often a diagnosis of exclusion after viral myelitis or autoimmune causes have been excluded. The involvement of specific areas can give an indication for the diagnosis, e.g., area postrema or conus medullaris. New MRI equipment enables more robust ...
Antibody-associated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases account for an important part in neuroimmunology. Early studies mainly focused on paraneoplastic onconeural antibodies with a target on intracellular antigens (such as Hu, Yo, Ri, etc.). The past decade has witnessed a surge of discovery of novel neural antibodies, along with a series of new CNS disorders mediated by those antibodies, such as autoimmune encephalitis represented by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, aquaporin 4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease, and autoimmune glial fibillary acidic protein astrocytopathy.With a surge of antibody-associated CNS disorders, clinicians are faced with emerging challenges, including (1) the clinical significance and diagnostic value of antibodies; (2) the diagnostic dilemma in circumstances of
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is associated with autoantibodies to aquaporin-4. Treatment options for prevention of clinical relapses of NMO include immunosuppressive medications. Plasma exchange (PLEX) is commonly used as a rescue therapy for NMO relapses but ongoing, regular PLEX procedures (maintenance PLEX) is sometimes used to prevent relapses. This observational registry will record feasibility, tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy data regarding maintenance PLEX for participants with NMO, NMO spectrum disorders, and recurrent idiopathic longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis ...
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic, severe, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, that causes severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks. Early discrimination between multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO is important, as optimum treatment for both diseases may differ considerably. ----- CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a patient who initially presented as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), having spastic upper extremities diparesis and spastic paraplegia, C2/C3 sensory level and urinary incontinence, as well as extensive inflammatory spinal cord lesions from C2 level to conus. After 5 months the patient had another attack of transverse myelitis, had electrophysiological findings consistent with optic neuritis, was seropositive for NMO-IgG (aquaporin-4 IgG) and thus fulfilled NMO diagnostic criteria. Following treatment of disease attacks with pulse corticosteroid therapy and intravenous immunoglobulins, we included oral ...
The characteristic symptoms of neuromyelitis optica are either optic neuritis or myelitis; either may occur as the first symptom. Optic neuritis is inflammation, of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) leading to pain inside the eye which rapidly is followed by loss of clear vision (acuity). Usually, only one eye is affected (unilateral) although both eyes may be involved simultaneously (bilateral). Neuromyelitis optica may or may not be preceded by a prodromal upper respiratory infection.. The other cardinal syndrome is inflammation of the spinal cord, a condition known as transverse myelitis because the symptoms tend to affect all motor, sensory and autonomic functions (bladder and bowel) below a certain level on the body. Affected individuals may experience pain in the spine or limbs, and mild to severe paralysis (paraparesis to paraplegia) of the lower limbs, and loss of bowel and bladder control. Deep tendon reflexes may be diminished or absent initially and later become exaggerated. A variable ...
Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO) is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV) and grey matter volumes (GMV) and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON) attacks, myelitis attacks and/or
It has been shown in some scientific studies that the the antibody marker specific for neuromyelitis optica (NMO), known as NMO-Immunoglobulin G (IgG), causes inflammation in brain tissues by activating a substance called complement. Complement can greatly increase the immune attack in the optic nerves (causing optic neuritis (ON)), spinal cords (causing transverse myelitis (TM)) and brains of patients with NMO. Eculizumab has already been shown to be effective in a rare blood disorder known as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Attacks of PNH are also mediated through complement. Therefore, the investigators of this study are investigating whether by turning off complement in NMO, further attacks of NMO can be prevented.. The primary (most important) objectives of this study are to determine:. Whether Eculizumab reduces relapse frequency in patients with relapsing NMO. The number of attacks during the one year treatment period will be compared to the number of attacks that occurred ...
Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves of the eyes and the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the bodys own tissues and organs. In neuromyelitis optica, the autoimmune attack causes inflammation of the nerves, and the resulting damage leads to the signs and symptoms of the condition.Neuromyelitis optica is characterized by optic neuritis, which is inflammation of the nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain (optic nerve). Optic neuritis causes eye pain and vision loss, which can occur in one or both eyes.Neuromyelitis optica is also characterized by transverse myelitis, which is inflammation of the spinal cord. The inflammation associated with transverse myelitis damages the spinal cord, causing a lesion that often extends the length of three or more bones of the spine (vertebrae). In addition, myelin, which is the covering that protects ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) may be a unique central nervous system demyelinating disease with distinct clinical and MRI manifestations, as well as different immune and pathological characteristics as compared to multiple sclerosis (MS).
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although AQP4-IgG-driven complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is critical for the formation of NMO lesions, the molecular mechanisms governing optimal classical pathway activation are unknown. We investigated the molecular determinants driving CDC in NMO using recombinant AQP4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4 rAbs) derived from affected patients. We identified a group of AQP4 rAbs targeting a distinct extracellular loop C epitope that demonstrated enhanced CDC on target cells. Targeted mutations of AQP4 rAb Fc domains that enhance or diminish C1q binding or antibody Fc-Fc interactions showed that optimal CDC was driven by the assembly of multimeric rAb platforms that increase multivalent C1q binding and facilitate C1q activation. A peptide that blocks antibody Fc-Fc interaction inhibited CDC induced by AQP4 rAbs and polyclonal NMO patient sera. ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although AQP4-IgG-driven complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is critical for the formation of NMO lesions, the molecular mechanisms governing optimal classical pathway activation are unknown. We investigated the molecular determinants driving CDC in NMO using recombinant AQP4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4 rAbs) derived from affected patients. We identified a group of AQP4 rAbs targeting a distinct extracellular loop C epitope that demonstrated enhanced CDC on target cells. Targeted mutations of AQP4 rAb Fc domains that enhance or diminish C1q binding or antibody Fc-Fc interactions showed that optimal CDC was driven by the assembly of multimeric rAb platforms that increase multivalent C1q binding and facilitate C1q activation. A peptide that blocks antibody Fc-Fc interaction inhibited CDC induced by AQP4 rAbs and polyclonal NMO patient sera. ...
Checkout the best price to buy Oster OAP706 Air Purifier Air Purifier in India. Know full specification of Oster OAP706 Air Purifier Air Purifier) along with its features.
Plasma Exchange (PLEX) if no improvement occurs with corticosteroids. The goal of PLEX is to lower the level of NMO-IgG in the blood.PLEX involves removing blood from the body through a needle and tubing. Through a series of steps, the plasma (the liquid part of the blood) is separated from blood cells and replaced with an artificial plasma substitute; the plasma substitute and blood cells are combined and returned to the body through an intravenous line. The procedure lasts several hours and may be repeated multiple times over a number of days ...
This case study presents a patient living in a suburban/rural community who received appropriate referral to secondary and tertiary care for nausea and vomiting, accompanied by waxing and waning neurological symptoms, yet proved difficult to diagnose. This patient is presented to draw attention to a rare neurological disorder which should be included in the differential diagnosis of nausea and vomiting with some key neurological complaints, even in the absence of physical findings.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on American Journal of Neuroradiology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, which is characterized by autoantibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As one of the main water regulators in the central nervous system, APQ4 is supposed to be involved in the dynamics of brain edema. Cerebral edema seriously affects clinical outcome after ischemic stroke; we therefore aimed to investigate whether NMO-antibodies may exert the same functional effects as an AQP4-inhibitor in-vivo in acute ischemic stroke. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups twice receiving either purified NMO-IgG or immune globulin from healthy controls, 24 hours and 30 minutes before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. T2-weighted MRI was carried out 24 hours after MCAO. MRI-examination showed a significant increase of infarct size in relation to the cerebral hemisphere volume with NMO-IgG treated animals (27.1% ± 11.1% vs. 14.3% ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) when corrected for the
Qdos Pump Replaces Three Diaphragm Pumps at Major Water Treatment Plant in impeller.net, the online pump magazine with the PumpSelector
MRI red flags proposed over a decade ago by the European Magnetic Resonance Network in MS (MAGNIMS) have guided clinicians in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the past 10 years have seen increased recognition that vascular disease can coexist and possibly interact with MS, improvements in the reliability of ways to differentiate MS from novel antibody-mediated CNS disorders (such as anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated diseases) and advances in MRI techniques. In this Review, MAGNIMS updates the imaging features that differentiate the most common mimics of MS, particularly age-related cerebrovascular disease and neuromyelitis optica, from MS itself. We also provide a pragmatic summary of the clinically useful MRI features that distinguish MS from its mimics and discuss the future of nonconventional techniques that have identified promising disease-specific features. ...
I was diagnosed with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) also known as Devics disease (similar to MS) last month after my MRI scans showed optic neuritis and brain lesions - and its completely shattered me.. Seven years ago, I experienced the same heartbreak in a cold office when the doctor told me I had systemic lupus. No matter how long youve lived with chronic pain, youre never quite prepared for the next invasion of torment. The pain from NMO fused with the suffering of lupus are unbearable at times. I feel ambushed. Walking is a joke as my knees have turned to brick. The pain is unreal. All I want to do is curl up in a blanket, take pain medicine, and sleep all the time (if I could sleep). At least when Im sleeping, Im not crying from the unbearable waves of pain or feeling the sting of missing the things I could once do normally.. Living with chronic disease wrecks you emotionally and it devastates all parts of your life. Im a teacher, and Ive missed sixteen days of work and its barely ...
Results A total of 173 patients were included in the cohort. Fifty patients (28.9%) were AQP4-Ab-positive and diagnosed with NMOSD-ON. Of 123 patients with seronegative AQP4-Ab, 37 (30.1%) patients had atypical ON, with male predominance (25, 67.6%). The atypical ON group (compared with the typical ON and NMOSD-ON groups) had a significantly lower female:male ratio (1:2.1 vs 1.8:1 and 9:1, respectively, p=0.001 and p,0.001), an older mean age of onset (44.8, 13-71 years vs 36.9, 13-73 years and 36.2, 13-66 years, p=0.003 and p=0.004), a lower rate of good (≥0.5) visual recovery (6.7% vs 79.8% and 30.9%, p,0.001 and p,0.001) and (compared with the NMOSD-ON group) a lower recurrence rate during a 2-year follow-up (29.3% vs 60%, p=0.009). However, none developed to multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica in the atypical ON group. ...
Shuangren-Anshen capsule (SAC) is a traditional Chinese herb that was improved in our laboratory. An orthogonal experiment [L9(3)4] was used to optimize the extraction conditions. In vivo, a hemorrhage mouse model was established and the hemoglobin contents of normal control, model control, and treated mice were measured. Additionally, the sedative and hypnotic effects of SACs were assessed based on pharmacological parameters such as changes in locomotive activity, forelimb raising, sleep latency, sleep duration, and number of mice that fell asleep.
Q: What is Devics disease? Is it a kind of multiple sclerosis?A: Doctors Devic and Gault first described Devics disease (now called neuromyelitis optica or NMO) in 1894 from their experience with 16 patients. NMO is a rare disease of the central nervous system, affecting about 4000 Americans every year. It can affect anyone, but is much more common in women than men, with a mean age of onset of about 40.NMO is an autoimmune disease (the bodys own antibodies attack normal
Lawrence Steinman is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Induction of Paralysis and Visual System Injury in Mice by T Cells Specific for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantigen Aquaporin-4
Cells, Disease, Encephalomyelitis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Granulocyte, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, Optic Nerve, Pathology, Sclerosis, Spinal Cord, Th17 Cells, Treatment
The early diagnosis of certain types of cancer, as well as nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, may soon be facilitated by the use of a nanometric sensor capable of identifying biomarkers of these pathological conditions.
The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, and Excretory Systems.Circulatory system diseases. Lessons. Coronary artery disease.The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the human body. The result is excessive urination and a disease called diabetes insipidus.. Just Passing Through Kidney. or excretory, system in the human body. When the kidney fails due to disease or accident,.From asthma to ulcers, this section is loaded with articles about diseases and conditions that can affect teens.Answers from specialists on diseases that affect the excretory system.Human Excretory System. Protection from Disease - The intact skin prevents invasion of micro-organisms and dust into the body.Malfunctioning of kidneys can lead to accumulation of urea in blood, a condition called uremia, which is.. In this resource from CK-12 we look at some common kidney diseases and dialysis.The classics are clearly Multiple Sclerosis, and far less common, Neuromyelitis Optica, yet, some cases of immune ...
Hoffmann, Frank; Kraft, Andrea; Heigl, Franz; Mauch, Erich; Koehler, Jürgen; Harms, Lutz; Kuempfel, Tania; Koehler, Wolfgang; Ehrlich, Sven; Bayas, Antonios; Weinmann-Menke, Julia; Beuker, Carolin; Henn, Karl-Heinz; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Hellwig, Kerstin; Klingel, Reinhard; Fassbender, Cordula Marie; Fritz, Harald; Slowinski, Torsten; Weihprecht, Horst; Brand, Marcus; Stiegler, Thomas; Galle, Jan; Schimrigk, Sebastian (2018): Tryptophan immunoadsorption during pregnancy and breastfeeding in patients with acute relapse of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. In: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, Vol. 11 [PDF, 241kB] ...
Evaluation of new immunological targets in neuromyelitis optica.(2013) Chanson JB, Paolini I, Collongues N, Alcaro MC, Blanc F, Barbetti F, Fleury M, Peroni E, Rovero P, Rudolf G, Lolli F, Trifilieff É, Papini AM, de Seze J. J Pept Sci. 19(1):25-32. ,doi: 10.1002/psc.2470 ...
The Priority Programme for Drinking Water Supply and Irrigation 2020-2027 has recently been launched in Morocco. It will make it possible to allocate 115 billion Moroccan dirhams (€10.7 billion) to water infrastructure.
Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). Aquaporin 8 mRNA is found in pancreas and colon but not other tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Peptides , Phosphopeptides , Aquaporin-2 (254-267), pSER261, human; This peptide is a fragment of the human aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylated at Ser261. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in vasopressin signaling in renal-collecting duct. Phosphorylation at several AQP2 residues including Ser256 and Ser261, is altered in response to vasopressin. It is possible that both sites are involved in vasopressin-dependent AQP2 trafficking.; RQSVELH-pS-PQSLPR; H-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Glu-Leu-His-pSer-Pro-Gln- Ser-Leu-Pro-Arg-OH
Welcome back to my crazy house blog, let me tell you its been a crazy week. Take my son for his six week follow up after chipping his upper right humerus from falling on ice… Continue Reading Saved by Olaf!. ...
Optimal Design of a Washer using a Response Surface Method - Design of Experimental;Response Surface Analysis;Orthogonal Array;Washer;
A major water main break floods the University of California, Los Angeles campus and strands motorists. Vanessa Johnston reports.\rVideo provided by Reuters
There are 4 major water testing labs specializing in saltwater analysis: ATI Lab, AquaMedic AWT, ICP-Analysis.com, and Triton Lab. We sent identical water samples to each and discuss our test results in this comprehensive review.. ...
The proposed pipeline will cross the Mni Wiconi water pipeline twice. The Mni Wiconi is a major water source for Rosebud, Pine Ridge and Lower Brule reservations, and officials on those reservations have said they are concerned about the safety of the crossings. Read more: http://rapidcityjournal.com/news/celebrity-activist-protests-pipeline-at-pine-ridge/article_b86b55c0-0119-11e1-a2a7-001cc4c03286.html#ixzz1c5VMAIAd
Page contains details about porphyrin supramolecular assemblies . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
This 120-hour course combines online instruction and a preceptorship (clinical work experience).. When used with the Bridging the Gap course, the Healthcare Activity Director course fulfills the requirements for the 90-hour MEPAP, 2nd Edition, Part I. It is prerequisite for Activity Director Part II (OAP 7016) ...
ugg short waterproof 5842 black boots you darl xx:. Mystery as OAP, 70, spontaneously combusts while walking. Cohen and Greenfield were not about to let this
Two previous articles in this series on aquaporins have discussed their history, mechanism and stimulation. The current article describes the role of AQP3 in regulating skin cell growth.
In 2005 they identified the aquaporin 4 protein as the target of the disease, and developed first in-house test to aid in the ... In more than 80% of cases, IgG autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (anti-AQP4+) are the cause, and in 10-40% of the remaining ... In more than 80% of cases, NMO is caused by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4), the most abundant water ... Some authors propose to use the name "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for these diseases, while others prefer a more ...
Balo-like lesions have been reported in aquaporin-4 seropositive and seronegative NMOSD, and also in children, as part of an ... Nov 2010). "Aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Baló's disease". Acta Neuropathologica. 120 (5): 651-660. doi:10.1007/S00401-010-0733 ... similar to the one found in aquaporin-seropositive neuromyelitis optica. Though no anti-NMO antibodies have been found, the ... 75 (4): 428-435. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.4842. PMC 5885209. PMID 29404583.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Nicaise C, Soyfoo MS, Authelet M, De Decker R, Bataveljic D, Delporte C, Pochet R (December 2008). "Aquaporin4 Overexpression ... They release secretory compounds that influence the phenotype of endothelial cells and express aquaporin and potassium channels ... doi: 10.1007/s00702-010-0514-4. Tong M, He Z, Lin X, Zhou Y, Wang Q, Zheng Z, Chen J, Xu H, Tian N (January 2018). "Lithium ... 495(4):2525-2531. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.12.119 Noble LJ, Wrathall JR. Distribution and time course of protein extravasation ...
... some aquaporins, some AMPA receptors, as well as some enzymes. Ion-exchange chromatography is useful for isolating specific ... "Heterotetrameric Composition of Aquaporin-4 Water Channels". Biochemistry. 38 (34): 11156-63. doi:10.1021/bi990941s. PMID ... 3 (4): 267-73. doi:10.1038/nmeth861. PMC 2576293. PMID 16554831. Turner MA, Simpson A, McInnes RR, Howell PL (August 1997). " ... Conversely, a heterotetramer is a 4-subunit complex where one or more subunits differ. Examples of homotetramers include: ...
Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T. (2009). "Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke". ... In Beitz, Eric (ed.). Aquaporins. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 190. pp. 159-70. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79885-9_7. ISBN ... 50 (4): 427-34. doi:10.1002/glia.20207. PMID 15846805. Milligan, Erin D.; Watkins, Linda R. (2009). "Pathological and ...
... has been shown to interact with Dystrophin, Nav1.1 and Nav1.5, and Aquaporin 4. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "In vivo requirement of the alpha-syntrophin PDZ domain for the sarcolemmal localization of nNOS and aquaporin-4". J. Cell Biol ... "Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (24): ... "Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (24): ...
Aquaporin 4 may be connected to the dystrophin-associated protein complex. The dystrophin-associated protein complex is ... 315-335, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803196-4.00017-5, ISBN 978-0-12-803196-4, retrieved 2021-03-02 Ehmsen J, Poon E, Davies K (July ...
Clinical relevance of serum aquaporin-4 antibody levels in neuromyelitis optica. Neurochem Res. 2013;38(5):997-1001. doi: ...
... s, are a group of diseases characterized by auto-antibodies against aquaporin 4. After the discovery of anti- ... Some authors propose to use the name "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for these diseases, while others prefer a more ... Clinical relevance of serum aquaporin-4 antibody levels in neuromyelitis optica. Neurochem Res. 2013;38(5):997-1001. doi: ... Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF (February 2016). "Neuromyelitis optica and the evolving spectrum of autoimmune aquaporin-4 ...
Aquaporin-4 in Müller cell in rat, transfer water to vitreous body. It was reported that Müller cells can be damaged by niacin ... 4 (3): 247-52. doi:10.1038/85090. PMID 11224540. Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Grimes, William N.; Wohl, Stefanie G ... 4 (6): 786-800. doi:10.1242/dmm.006429. PMC 3209648. PMID 21757509. Sarthy, P.; Lam, D. M. (1978). "Biochemical studies of ...
"IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 202 (4 ... "Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression". Archives of Neurology. 63 (7): 964-968. ... 41 (1): 4-14. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.003. PMID 14727254. Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kiefel V, Grubert A, Kroll H, Weisheit ... 121 (4): 1239-44. doi:10.1378/chest.121.4.1239. PMID 11948059. Grunewald J, Eklund A, Olerup O (March 2004). "Human leukocyte ...
Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein. vol. 98 no. 24. John D. Neely, 14108- ... Journal of Neuroscience 1 January 1998, 18 (1) 128-137 Delayed K+ clearance associated with aquaporin-4 mislocalization: ...
NMO-IgG is the immunoglobulin that attacks Aquaporin-4 in Devic's disease. Multiple sclerosis patients do not have it in blood ... 226 (4): 276-9. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1109291. PMID 19384782. Green, A. J; McQuaid, S; Hauser, S. L; Allen, I. V; Lyness, R (2010 ... 3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 10553992. Tait AR, Straus SK (August 2008). "Phosphorylation of U24 from Human Herpes Virus type 6 (HHV-6) and ... 125 (4): 595-608. doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1082-0. PMC 3611040. PMID 23354834. Goodkin DE, Rooney WD, Sloan R, et al. (December ...
Aquaporin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP5 gene. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins ... "Entrez Gene: AQP5 aquaporin 5". Verkman AS (2003). "Role of aquaporin water channels in eye function". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Distribution of aquaporin water channels AQP1 and AQP5 in the ductal system of the human pancreas". Gut. 52 (7): 1008- ... 2007). "Stimulation of aquaporin-5 and transepithelial water permeability in human airway epithelium by hyperosmotic stress". ...
May 2007). "Pattern-specific loss of aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis". ... is characterized by neuromyelitis optica IgG antibodies which selectively bind to aquaporin-4. Optic neuritis is associated ... 64 (4): 475-86. doi:10.1002/glia.22899. PMC 4832258. PMID 26250643. Baloh RW (14 August 2018). Sciatica and chronic pain : past ... 3 (4): 109-20. doi:10.1177/2051013615599151. PMC 4591524. PMID 26478818. Gabbai AA, Castelo A, Oliveira AS (2013). "HIV ...
Two types of aquaporins are expressed in the CNS: aquaporin-1, which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the ... Aquaporins are membrane-bound channels that play critical roles in regulating the flux of water into and out of cells. Relative ... Aquaporin-4 expression in astrocytes is highly polarized to the endfoot processes ensheathing the cerebral vasculature. Up to ... Verkman AS, Binder DK, Bloch O, Auguste K, Papadopoulos MC (August 2006). "Three distinct roles of aquaporin-4 in brain ...
Aquaporin 4 in Müller cell in rats transports water to the vitreous body. The vitreous has many anatomical landmarks, including ... Nagelhus, EA; Veruki, ML; Torp, R; Haug, FM; Laake, JH; Nielsen, S; Agre, P; Ottersen, OP (1 April 1998). "Aquaporin-4 water ... The vitreous fluid is not present at birth (the eye being filled with only the gel-like vitreous body), but found after age 4-5 ...
... arene is found to mimic some properties of the aquaporin proteins. This calixarene adopts a 1,3-alternate conformation (methoxy ... A calix[4]arene has 4 units in the ring and a calix[6]arene has 6. A substituent in the meso position Rb is added to the name ... In calix[4]arenes the internal volume is around 10 cubic angstroms. Calixarenes are characterised by a wide upper rim and a ... In calix[4]arene 4 up-down conformations exist: cone (point group C2v,C4v), partial cone Cs, 1,2 alternate C2h and 1,3 ...
NMOSD can be associated with antibodies that bind to a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody ... patients who are anti-aquaporin-4 or AQP4 antibody positive). NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disorder in which immune system cells ...
NMOSD can be associated with antibodies that bind to a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody ... people who are anti-aquaporin-4 or AQP4 antibody-positive. NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system ... of 116 participants with NMOSD who were anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive. The trials were conducted at 62 sites in the ... including the formation of pathological autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and the permeability of the blood-brain ...
... characterisation and comparison with aquaporin-4-IgG myelitis". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 90 (4): 488-490. doi:10.1136/ ... 42 (4): 155-9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2006.00840.x. PMID 16630313. S2CID 25968577. Thomas M, Thomas J (February 1997). "Acute ... Studies have shown respiratory tract infections within 4-39 days prior to the onset of transverse myelitis. Or, tuberculosis, ...
This creates osmotic pressure and draws water into CSF, facilitated by aquaporins. Chloride, with a negative charge, moves with ... and specific antibodies such as Aquaporin 4 may be tested for to assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions. A lumbar ... Infants have a CSF volume of 4 mL/kg, children have a CSF volume of 3 mL/kg, and adults have a CSF volume of 1.5-2 mL/kg. A ... 15 (4): 1 p following ECP4. doi:10.3171/foc.2003.15.6.8. PMID 15376362. Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA (September 2003). " ...
Other changes include those to the GABA transporter subtype GAT-3, GFAP, glutamine synthetase, and the Aquaporin 4 channel. ... 17 (4): e221-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.11.019. PMID 23274124. Rosen A, van Kuilenburg A, Assmann B, Kuhlen M, Borkhardt A (May ... 20 (4): 289-294. doi:10.1016/s0887-8994(98)00153-2. PMID 10328278. Fattal-Valevski A, Kesler A, Sela BA, et al. (February 2005 ... 17 (4): 199-203. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7133.2011.00239.x. PMID 21790970. Hirsch JA, Parrott J (2012). "New considerations on the ...
Lee's research also showed that the astrocytic volume change through aquaporin-4 water channel is critical for synaptic ... Retrieved 4 October 2019. 김, 혜민 (27 November 2014). "제 13회 한국과학기술한림원상 시상식 개최". 파이낸셜뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 4 October 2019. 이 ... 4 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1756-6606-4-42. PMC 3253681. PMID 22107761. Jo, Seonmi; Yarishkin, Oleg; Hwang, Yu Jin; Chun, Ye Eun; ... Retrieved 4 October 2019. "Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Develops a New Drug for Alzheimer's Disease". PR ...
... is also used to treat neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in adults who are anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody ... UK Gallant, Jacques (4 December 2014), Toronto woman with rare disease fights province for life-saving but costly drug, The ... "In The Matter Of The Patent Act, R.S.C., 1985, C. P-4, As Amended" (PDF). Patented Medicine Prices Review Board. 15 January ...
ANA, B12, folate, thyroid function tests, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (NMO-IgG), and GFAP can facilitate ruling out of other ... 2015 Aug; 2(4): e131. 2015 Jul 2. doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000131, PMC 4496630 Laura Navarro Canto et al., BRAIN ATROPHY IN ... Apr-May 2014;13(4-5):539-545 Konstantina Chalmoukou el al. Anti-MOG antibodies are frequently associated with steroid-sensitive ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2007.04.002 Uehlein, N., & Kaldenhoff, R. (2007). Aquaporins and Plant Leaf Movements. Annals ... PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 54(4), 427-436. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.54.4.427 1988 interview with Satter. ...
... s have aquaporin 4 proteins spanning through their plasma membranes in which water can diffuse, from an area of ...
Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage ( ... 42 (4): 1324-8. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.028. PMID 18652903. Schelling F. MS: The image and its message Schelling F ( ... 27 (4): 726-31. doi:10.1002/jmri.21294. PMID 18302199. Geurts JJ, Pouwels PJ, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH, Barkhof F, Castelijns JA ... 55 (4): 458-68. doi:10.1002/ana.20016. PMID 15048884. Michael H. Barnett, MBBS; John W. Prineas, MBBS (2004). "Relapsing and ...
4: 76. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00076. PMC 3646240. PMID 23675382.. *^ Pagon RA, Bird TC, Dolan CR, Stephens K, Splawski I, ... 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.05608. PMC 4360655. PMID 25714924.. *^ Imbrici P, Camerino DC, Tricarico D (2013-05-07). "Major channels ... 57 (4): 411-25. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.5. PMID 16382099.. *^ Shaw RM, Colecraft HM (May 2013). "L-type calcium channel targeting ... 166 (12): 1413-4. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09050680. PMID 19952088.. *. Soldatov NM (May 1992). "Molecular diversity of L-type ...
Competitive vasopressin antagonism leads to decreased number of aquaporin channels in the apical membrane of the renal ... 4. distal convoluted tubules Xanthines caffeine, theophylline, theobromine Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increase glomerular ...
Aquaporin 1 - water transporter, defines the Colton Blood Group;. *Glut1 - glucose and L-dehydroascorbic acid transporter; ... 252 (4 Pt 2): H857-66. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1000.348. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.1987.252.4.H857. PMID 3565597.. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... 6 (4): 156-9. doi:10.7150/ijms.6.156. PMC 2677714. PMID 19421340.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). ... ICAM-4 - interacts with integrins;. *BCAM - a glycoprotein that defines the Lutheran blood group and also known as Lu or ...
June 1999). "Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 water channel differentiates psychogenic polydipsia from central diabetes ... 18 (4): 272-281. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(97)00159-0. ISSN 0893-133X. PMID 9509495. Shevitz, S. A.; Jameison, R. C.; Petrie, W. M ... 29 (4): 548-9. doi:10.1136/gut.29.4.548. PMC 1433532 . PMID 3371724. Falk, John L. (1969-05-01). "Conditions Producing ... 168 (4): 246-248. doi:10.1097/00005053-198004000-00011. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 7365485. Douglas, Ivor (2006-09-01). "Hyponatremia ...
... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. When released, ADH binds to ... Nephrogenic DI results from lack of aquaporin channels in the distal collecting duct (decreased surface expression and ... 23 (4): 546-50. doi:10.1592/phco.23.4.546.32121. PMID 12680486.. *^ a b Oxford English Dictionary. diabetes. Retrieved 2011-06- ... doi:10.1542/pir.21-4-122. PMID 10756175.. *^ Rubin, Alan L. (2011). Diabetes For Dummies (3 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 19. ...
inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding. • ion channel activity. • protein binding. • actin binding. • calcium channel activity. • ... 308 (5729): 1801-4. doi:10.1126/science.1106215. PMID 15879175.. *^ Hisatsune C, Kuroda Y, Nakamura K, Inoue T, Nakamura T, ... 57 (4): 427-50. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.6. PMID 16382100.. *. Schlöndorff JS, Pollak MR (December 2006). "TRPC6 in glomerular ...
263 (3): 1530-4. PMID 2826483.. *^ Furuichi T, Yoshikawa S, Mikoshiba K (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding P400 ... inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1[1]. Crystal structure of the ligand binding suppressor domain of type 1 inositol ... December 2002). "Structure of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding core in complex with its ligand". Nature. 420 ( ... structure of the ligand binding suppressor domain of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 6181 Crystal structure of the ...
... highest resolution protein structure solved by electron crystallography of 2D crystals is that of the water channel aquaporin-0 ... 4] However, already in 1975 Unwin and Henderson had determined the first membrane protein structure at intermediate resolution ...
2004). „Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2". Nephrology, Dialysis, ... Štitasta žlezda: tiroidni hormon (T3 i T4) · kalcitonin. Paraštitna žlezda: PTH ... 4. 2011.. *^ Acher R, Chauvet J (1995). „The neurohypophysial endocrine regulatory cascade: precursors, mediators, receptors, ... 4, 2010.".. *. Caldwell HK, Young WS III (2006). „Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Genetics and Behavioral Implications" (PDF). Ур.: ...
However, when plasma blood volume is low and ADH is released the aquaporins that are opened are also permeable to urea. This ... ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocate aquaporins to the membrane, allowing water to leave the ... ADH acts on the V2 receptor and inserts aquaporins on the luminal side ... but at the same time setting up an osmotic gradient for water to follow should the aquaporins of the collecting duct be opened ...
Such molecules can diffuse passively through protein channels such as aquaporins in facilitated diffusion or are pumped across ... 18 (4): 195-197. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.12.001. PMID 23298880. Archived from the original on 2017-09-12.. ... 8 (4): e61596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061596. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3628984. PMID 23613878.. ... 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a ...
All Kir channels require phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) for activation.[10] PIP2 binds to and directly activates ... 4] IRK channels possess a pore domain, homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels, and flanking transmembrane segments ( ... TMSs). They may exist in the membrane as homo- or heterooligomers and each monomer possesses between 2 and 4 TMSs. In terms of ...
aquaporin 5, calmodulin, pacsin 3 2 TRPV5 calcium-selective TRP channel intestine, kidney, placenta 100:1 TRPV6 annexin II / ... 57 (4): 427-50. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.6. PMID 16382100.. *^ Venkatachalam K, Montell C (2007). "TRP channels". Annual Review of ... 4] The name now refers only to a family of proteins with similar structure and function, not to the mechanism of their ... 1-4) can form heteromers with each other. This result is in line with the general observation that TRP coassembly tends to ...
Yeum CH, Kim SW, Kim NH, Choi KC, Lee J (July 2002). "Increased expression of aquaporin water channels in hypothyroid rat ... தைராய்டு சுரப்புக் குறையானது, பெரும்பாலும் தோற்ற உறுப்பைக் கொண்டு வகைப்படுத்தப்படுகிறது:[3][4]. வகை. தோற்றம். விளக்கம். -. ... T4 மற்றும் சேர்க்கையில் T3. இந்த சிகிச்சை நெறிமுறையில் செயற்கை முறையில் உருவாக்கப்பட்ட L-T4 மற்றும் அதனுடன் L-T3 ஆகியவை ... இதில் சேர்க்கை சிகிச்சையும் உள்ளது, அதில் L-T4 மற்றும் L-T3 ஆகியவற்றின் இயற்கையான வடிவங்கள் ...
exocytosis of aquaporin 2 to apical membrane.[12]. *synthesis of aquaporin 2[12] ... 4 (8): E203-6. doi:10.1038/ncb0802-e203. PMID 12149635.. *^ a b Smith, FD; Esseltine, JL; Nygren, PJ; Veesler, D; Byrne, DP; ... ISBN 0-443-07145-4.. Page 172 *^ Rodriguez P, Kranias EG (December 2005). "Phospholamban: a key determinant of cardiac function ... There are two major forms of regulatory subunit; RI and RII.[4] ...
doi:10.1007/s10048-010-0247-4. PMC 4222676 . PMID 20532933.. *^ a b c d e f g h i Bergoffen J, Scherer SS, Wang S, Scott MO, ... 4 (3-4): 221-30. doi:10.1006/nbdi.1997.0152. PMID 9361298.. *. Nelis E, Haites N, Van Broeckhoven C (1999). "Mutations in the ...
"Increased aquaporin 1 expression in the tunica albuginea of Peyronie's disease patients: an in vivo pilot study. ". Histol ... "Overexpression of Aquaporin 1 on cysts of patients with polycystic liver disease.". Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2016. PMID 26838488. ... "Overexpression of Aquaporin-1 is a Prognostic Factor for Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Adenocarcinoma. ". Pathol Oncol Res ... "Red blood cell aquaporin-1 expression is decreased in hereditary spherocytosis. ". Ann Hematol. 2016. PMID 27465156. ...
Аквапорин-1, AQP1 (англ. Aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group)) - білок, який кодується геном AQP1, розташованим у людей на ... de Groot B.L., Engel A., Grubmueller H. (2001). A refined structure of human aquaporin-1.. FEBS Lett. 504: 206 - 211. PubMed ... AQP1, AQP-CHIP, CHIP28, CO, aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group). Зовнішні ІД. OMIM: 107776 MGI: 103201 HomoloGene: 68051 GeneCards ... Сполуки, які фізично взаємодіють з Aquaporin 1 переглянути/редагувати посилання на ВікіДаних. ...
Evidence for a secretin-induced vesicular translocation of aquaporin-1" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 272 (20): 12984-12988. PMID ... É famosa por ser a primeira hormona que foi identificada.[2] Nos humanos a secretina está codificada polo xene SCT.[3][4] ... Tiroide: hormona tiroide (T3 e T4) · calcitonina. Paratiroide: hormona paratiroide (PTH) ... doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00596-4.. *. Love JW (2008). "Peptic ulceration may be a hormonal deficiency disease". Med. ...
Aquaporins are membrane proteins that selectively conduct water molecules while preventing the passage of ions and other ... ADH affects the function of aquaporins, resulting in the reabsorption of water molecules as it passes through the collecting ... The renal tubule is the portion of the nephron containing the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus.[4] After passing ... Fig.4) Diagram outlining movement of ions in nephron, with the collecting ducts on the right. ...
... water permeability of the kidney's collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water ... 1. Human urinary system: 2. Kidney, 3. Renal pelvis, 4. Ureter, 5. Urinary bladder, 6. Urethra. (Left side with frontal section ... "Vasopressin increases water permeability of kidney collecting duct by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water channels to ...
... occurs in one of two ways: either the osmoreceptor-aquaporin feedback loop is overwhelmed, or it is interrupted. ... 4. doi:10.3389/fmed.2017.00141. ISSN 2296-858X. PMC 5573438. PMID 28879182.. This article incorporates text available under the ... "Physiology and pathophysiology of renal aquaporins". Seminars in nephrology. 21 (3): 231-8. doi:10.1053/snep.2001.21647. PMID ... 6 (4): 185. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2010.21. PMID 20348927.. *^ Decaux, Guy (2006). "Is Asymptomatic Hyponatremia Really ...
"Stomatin interacts with GLUT1/SLC2A1, band 3/SLC4A1, and aquaporin-1 in human erythrocyte membrane domains". Biochimica et ... In some EIG12 patients seizures may remit with age.[4][5] Inheritance of this disease is autosomal dominant.[10] ... Varying degrees of cognitive impairment can occur, ranging from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation.[4][5] ... Other variable features may include seizures, migraine headaches, and ataxia.[4][5] ...
Aquaporin 1. *Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. *Atrophin 1. *BH3 interacting-domain death agonist ...
Nielsen, J.; Kwon, T.H.; Christensen, B.M.; Frokiaer, J.; Nielsen, S. (May 2008). "Dysregulation of renal aquaporins and ... 24 (4): 585-94. doi:10.1177/0269881109104845. PMID 19351802.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Malhi GS (2013). "Potential ... 4 (2): 117-128. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000494. PMID 10208444.. *^ a b c Marmol, F. (2008). "Lithium: Bipolar disorder and ... 4 (11): 939-942. doi:10.1093/ndt/4.11.939. PMID 2516883.. *^ Keshavan, Matcheri S.; John S. Kennedy (2001). Drug-induced ...
Aquaporins. *Chloride channels. *Outer membrane auxiliary proteins (polysaccharide transporter) - α-helical transmembrane ... 4] This is the major category of transmembrane proteins. In humans, 27% of all proteins have been estimated to be alpha-helical ...
Such molecules can diffuse passively through protein channels such as aquaporins in facilitated diffusion or are pumped across ... 8 (4): e61596. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...861596X. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061596. PMC 3628984. PMID 23613878.. ... 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a ... In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules.[4] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a ...
1,4-dihydropyridine sensitivity (DHP). ω-conotoxin sensitivity (ω-CTX). ω-agatoxin sensitivity (ω-AGA) ... 27 (1-4): 201-6. doi:10.1152/advan.00025.2003. PMID 14627618.. *^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P ( ... Voltage-gated calcium channels are formed as a complex of several different subunits: α1, α2δ, β1-4, and γ. The α1 subunit ... A total of ten α1 subunits that have been identified in humans:[1] α1 subunit contains 4 homologous domains (labeled I-IV), ...
... can sometimes come with abnormal aquaporin 5 in the sweat glands.[70] ... 978-1-4899-5341-4. . ISSN 0065-2598. PMID 2486156.. *^ Carlén, B.; Englund, E. (August 2001). "Diagnostic value of electron ... Its pH ranges from 4 to 6.8.[49] On the other hand, the apocrine sweat has a pH of 6 to 7.5; it contains water, proteins, ... 4] The proportion of eccrine glands decreases with age.[27] ...
doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00264-4. PMC 2878204. PMID 15109565.. *^ a b Lampe, Paul D.; Lau, Alan F. (2000). "Regulation of gap ... 178 (4): 477-82. doi:10.1007/BF00219569. PMID 870202. S2CID 21426059.. *^ Lorber, V; Rayns, DG (April 1977). "Fine structure of ... 187 (4): 343-52. doi:10.1007/BF00185892. PMID 8390141. S2CID 33191311.. *^ Sperelakis, Nicholas; Ramasamy, Lakshminarayanan ( ... The hemichannel pair connect across the intercellular space bridging the gap between two cells.[4][5][6] Gap junctions are ...
Aquaporin-4s overall function is to provide fast water transportation as well as maintain homeostatic balance within the ... The expression of aquaporin 4 is reliant on the disease stage of TBI. In an acute stage of TBI, the lack of aquaporin 4 causes ... Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin ... Aquaporin-4 is the most common aquaporin in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. It is highly expressed in the human body ...
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 4 antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to ... All lanes : Anti-Aquaporin 4 antibody (ab125049) at 1/2000 dilution. Lane 1 : Rat kidney lysate. Lane 2 : Rat kidney lysate. ... Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the ... corresponding to C terminal amino acids 273-291 of Rat Aquaporin 4 (NP_036957.1). ...
Mouse monoclonal Aquaporin 4 antibody [4/18]. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Human, Zebrafish. ... Cited in 17 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 4 review(s)… ... Therefore, any Aquaporin 4 antibody tested in the species and application you are using should be suitable for your ... Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the ...
Aquaporin-4s overall function is to provide fast water transportation as well as maintain homeostatic balance within the ... Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans.[1] AQP4 belongs to the ... Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes.[5] Additionally, AQP4 can also be ... Aquaporin-4 was first identified in 1986. It was the first evidence of the existence of water transport channels.[4] The method ...
2007) Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO: A study on antibody titre. Brain 130:1235-1243. ... 2010) Enhanced IL-6 production in aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica patients. Int J Neurosci 120:71-75. ... 2007) Loss of aquaporin 4 in lesions of neuromyelitis optica: Distinction from multiple sclerosis. Brain 130:1224-1234. ... 2008) Mechanisms of disease: Aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 4:202-214. ...
"Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS. It is also ... The protein, called aquaporin-4, is a channel protein that allows water to move in and out of cells.. "Aquaporin-4 is the first ... Aquaporin-4, which is the most abundant water channel in the brain, is instead located in a different type of cell called ... Aquaporin-4 implicated in a form of multiple sclerosis. Sep 22, 2005 - 4:59:00 AM ...
Membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies regulates classical complement activation in neuromyelitis optica. ... Membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies regulates classical complement activation in neuromyelitis optica. ... Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies ...
Diese Seite benutzt Cookies, um seinen Besuchern das beste Webseiten-Erlebnis zu ermöglichen. Weiterführende Informationen erhalten Sie in der Datenschutzerklärung der Seiten des UKH ...
Aquaporins are specialized water transport proteins that play an essential role in brain edema. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is highly ... H. Chu, C. Huang, H. Ding et al., "Aquaporin-4 and cerebrovascular diseases," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol ... G. Tang and G.-Y. Yang, "Aquaporin-4: A potential therapeutic target for cerebral edema," International Journal of Molecular ... G. T. Manley, M. Fujimura, T. Ma et al., "Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ...
Redistribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 and the K+ channel protein Kir4.1 differs in low- and high-grade human ... Lee TS, Eid T, Mane S, Kim JH, Spencer DD, Ottersen OP, Lanerolle NC de (2004) Aquaporin-4 is increased in the sclerotic ... Nico B, Frigeri A, Nicchia GP, Quondamatteo F, Herken R, Errede M, Ribatti D, Svelto M, Roncali L (2001) Role of aquaporin-4 ... Aoki K, Uchihara T, Tsuchiya K, Nakamura A, Ikeda K, Wakayama Y (2003) Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain ...
Ultrastructural changes in brain of control and injured aquaporin-4 wild type (AQP4+/+) and knockout (AQP4−/−) mice in the ... Comparable blood-brain barrier permeability in injured aquaporin-4 wild type (AQP4+/+) and knockout (AQP4−/−) mice as assayed ... Prior indirect evidence has suggested the involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of TBI ... Mildly reduced injury volume and improved clinical outcome in aquaporin-4 knockout (AQP4−/−) mice following controlled cortical ...
Thus, age at disease onset and genetic factors are both likely to be important in determining clinical outcomes in aquaporin-4 ... We investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic characteristics of 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive patients from the UK ... Prognostic factors and disease course in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ... and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, ...
M. C. Papadopoulos and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 and brain edema," Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 778-784, 2007. ... O. Bloch, M. C. Papadopoulos, G. T. Manley, and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 gene deletion in mice increases focal edema ... Effect of Alcohol on Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rat Brainstem: Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Aquaporin-4 Expression Study. Lingmei ... M. C. Papadopoulos, G. T. Manley, S. Krishna, and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 facilitates reabsorption of excess fluid in ...
Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat.. [Xiao-Qiang Liu, Hideyuki ... The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested ...
The role of aquaporin water channels in Elasmobanchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is completely unknown. This ... The role of aquaporin water channels in Elasmobanchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is completely unknown. This ... The role of aquaporin water channels such as aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) in elasmobranchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is ... This sub-group in mammals also includes other aquaporins such as AQP0, AQP1, AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 (Ishibashi et al., 2009; ...
Role of aquaporin-4 water channel in the development and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. J. Cell Sci. 114:1297-1307. ... Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxification and ischemic stroke. Nat. Med. 6:159-163. ... IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. Vanda A. Lennon, Thomas J. Kryzer, Sean J ... Aquaporin-4 deficiency in skeletal muscle and brain of dystrophic mdx mice. FASEB J. 15:90-98. ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ... Year: 2008New isoforms of rat Aquaporin-4.Genomics9136737718255256. 2. Silberstein C,Bouley R,Huang Y,Fang P,Pastor-Soler N,et ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and it is mainly expressed by astrocytes and ependymal cells. ...
... Mestre, Humberto; Hablitz, Lauren M.; Xavier, Anna Lr; ... aquaporin-4, cerebrospinal fluid, glymphatic, meta-analysis, mouse, neuroscience, replication study, solute transport. in eLife ... aquaporin-4,cerebrospinal fluid,glymphatic,meta-analysis,mouse,neuroscience,replication study,solute transport}, language = { ... depends upon the expression and perivascular localization of the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Prompted by a ...
Instead, fluid dynamics inside the BBB is realized by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), the water channel that connects astrocyte cytoplasm ... Brain interstitial fluid dynamics, and therefore AQP-4, are now recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, ... Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic ... "Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic ...
Presence of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica has wide implications ...
Evolutionary adaptation of aquaporin-4 in yak () brain to high-altitude hypoxia of Qi... ... Aquaporin 2. Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of ... Aquaporin 1. Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES ... Evolutionary Adaptation of Aquaporin-4 in Yak () Brain to High-Altitude Hypoxia of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.. 08:00 EDT 9th ...
AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays ... A new M23-based ELISA assay for anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibodies: diagnostic accuracy and clinical correlation. *. ... AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays ...
... Xiaoming Yao,1,2 Sabina Hrabětová,3,4 ... Aquaporin 4 facilitates the reabsorption of excess fluid in vasogenic brain edema. FASEB J. 2004;18:1291-1293. [PubMed] ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed at fluid-tissue barriers throughout the brain and plays a crucial role ... Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ischemic stroke. Nature Medicine. 2000;6: ...
References to Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody. *Isobe N, Yonekawa T, Matsushita T, Kawano Y, Masaki K, Yoshimura S, Fichna J, Chen S, ... Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody. By Technical Data. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - Immunoassays. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - Sandwich ELISA ... Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - for Serum - Immunoassays. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - RUO - Immunoassays. Sandwich ELISA, Biotin- ... IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med. 2005 Aug 15;202 (4):473-7 ...
The detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP-4 Ab) is crucial to detect patients who will develop neuromyelitis optica ( ... NMO); however, there are few studies on the AQP-4 Ab serostatus of... ... Optic neuritis Neuromyelitis optica spectrum Aquaporin 4 Connective tissue disorders Hongyang Li and Yanling Wang were the co- ... Yang Y, Huang DH, Wu WP, Wu L, Chen LF, Wu Q (2013) The role of aquaporin-4 antibodies in Chinese patients with neuromyelitis ...
The aquaporin-4-rich area postrema, which is the vomiting center of the medulla oblongata, lacks a blood-brain barrier. ... Aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G was detected in serum. This case supports the concept that fenestrated capillaries in the area ... Evolution of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in an aquaporin-4 IgG-positive patient. Nasrin Asgari, Hanne Pernille ... Mayo Clinic holds a patent relating to aquaporin-4 as a target of pathogenic autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica and related ...
... å indusere lammelse og opticospinal betennelse av overføring av aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-spesifikke... ... Zeka, B., et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells and NMO-IgG cause primary retinal damage in experimental NMO/SD. Acta Neuropathol ... Bennett, J. L., et al. Intrathecal pathogenic anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in early neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 66, (5), ... Varrin-Doyer, M., et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bias and recognize Clostridium ABC ...
Chronic neuropathic pain severity is determined by lesion level in aquaporin 4-antibody-positive myelitis ... Chronic neuropathic pain severity is determined by lesion level in aquaporin 4-antibody-positive myelitis ...
... en protokol for at fremkalde lammelser og opticospinal betændelse af overførsel af aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specifikke... ... Zeka, B., et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells and NMO-IgG cause primary retinal damage in experimental NMO/SD. Acta Neuropathol ... Bennett, J. L., et al. Intrathecal pathogenic anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in early neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 66, (5), ... Varrin-Doyer, M., et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bias and recognize Clostridium ABC ...
Are aquaporin 4 antibodies appear in any other context than Devics syndrom? Hi,. Bit more than a month ago my mom developed ... and something that freaked me out, in her blood test there were aquaporin 4 antibodies.. I searched and searched but from what ... Are those aquaporin 4 antibodies synonymous with Neuromyelitis Optica or there are other cases when they can appear in tests?. ... Are those aquaporin 4 antibodies synonymous with Neuromyelitis Optica or there are other cases when they can appear in tests? ...
  • AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays require sophisticated techniques and are thus only available at specialized laboratories. (medworm.com)
  • Are aquaporin 4 antibodies appear in any other context than Devic's syndrom? (msworld.org)
  • There were some oligoclonal bands in her cerebro spinal fluid , Antinuclear antibodies ANA , oligoclonal protein IgG Type2* and something that freaked me out, in her blood test there were aquaporin 4 antibodies . (msworld.org)
  • I googled and googled and yet I cant seem to find those aquaporin 4 antibodies in any other disease or context but this horrible NMO thing. (msworld.org)
  • Are those aquaporin 4 antibodies synonymous with Neuromyelitis Optica or there are other cases when they can appear in tests? (msworld.org)
  • Worth mentioning that [aquaporin-4] is the most well known target in Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorders, since about 80% of patients with this syndrome will have circulating anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. (blogspot.com)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while evaluating neurological deterioration in patients with tuberculosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A key diagnostic test for NMO spectrum disorders is the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (anti-Aqp-4) IgG antibodies in patient serum [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • None of the patients with TB associated NMO-like disorder described previously have been shown to have anti-Aqp-4 antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis surface antigens may trigger the formation of cross-reactive antibodies against aquaporin-4 channel proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Radiological differentiation of optic neuritis with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, aquaporin-4 antibodies, and multiple sclerosis. (edu.au)
  • Approximately 75 percent of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) express antibodies to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) receptor. (aruplab.com)
  • Antibodies anti-glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), macrophage/phagocytic activation (CD68), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1), and neutrophils (CD15) were used. (myjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series reported so far to our knowledge, we quantified AQP4 antibodies in patients with NMO versus various other diseases, and showed that the aquaporin 4 water channel is a target antigen in a majority of patients with NMO. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Blood London have been providing Aquaporin 4 Antibodies (Neuromyelitis Optica) on a self-referral basis to patients in Central and Greater London for over 20 years. (blood.london)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease affecting the optic nerve and spinal cord, in which autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel protein probably play a pathogenic role. (pnas.org)
  • It is now known that serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) autoantibodies can be used as a disease marker of NMO ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). (jci.org)
  • Mayo Clinic holds a patent relating to aquaporin-4 as a target of pathogenic autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders. (neurology.org)
  • Autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are pathogenic in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by binding of pathogenic IgG autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) to astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are specific and pathogenic for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). (cdc.gov)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by autoantibodies against water channel aquaporin-4. (grantome.com)
  • Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • AQP4 is the most abundantly expressed water channel protein in the CNS and is highly expressed in the perimicrovessel astrocyte foot processes, glia limitans, and ependyma ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The protein, called aquaporin-4, is a channel protein that allows water to move in and out of cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These domains are characterized by the aggregation of, among other molecules, the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex, and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1. (springer.com)
  • The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested to play essential roles in the potassium and water homeostasis of the retina. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we show that NMO-IgG binds selectively to the aquaporin-4 water channel, a component of the dystroglycan protein complex located in astrocytic foot processes at the blood-brain barrier. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant human Aquaporin-4 protein (aa253-323). (lsbio.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is an integral membrane protein belonging to a large family of water channel proteins, the aquaporins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The predominant water channel protein in brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is concentrated in the astrocyte end-feet membranes adjacent to blood vessels in neocortex and cerebellum by association with alpha-syntrophin protein. (jhu.edu)
  • This protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain and has an important role in brain water homeostasis. (mybiosource.com)
  • AQP4 (aquaporin-4), a water channel protein that is predominantly expressed in astrocyte end-feet, plays an important role in the brain oedema formation, and is thereby considered to be a potential therapeutic target. (elsevier.com)
  • At present, there is speculation that a vesicle targeting protein , VAMP-2, that has been found in the AQP2-bearing vesicles may guide the vesicles to the membrane and then bind with a protein called syntaxin-4 that is expressed in the apical membrane of CD cells . (ndif.org)
  • This includes the production of a harmful antibody that targets a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (roche.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the CNS water channel organized into well-ordered protein aggregates called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs). (elsevier.com)
  • Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein .Forms a water-specific channel. (servicebio.com)
  • abstract = "The discovery of aquaporin-4 IgG in patients with demyelination is an exciting development. (edu.au)
  • abstract = "The potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to inhibit the water transport properties of Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was investigated using a combination of in silico and in vitro screening methods. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed in brain perivascular astrocyte processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes . (wikidoc.org)
  • Aquaporin-4, which is the most abundant water channel in the brain, is instead located in a different type of cell called astrocytes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • However, the rapid swelling of astrocytes in ischemic brain injury contributes to astrocyte dysfunction during stroke, and this rapid swelling is induced by aquaporins [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry showed strong aquaporin (AQP)-4 water channel expression in Müller cells in mouse retina and fibrous astrocytes in optic nerve. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 is a water chanel expressed in astrocytes and in retinal glial Müller cells (RMG) that facilitates water transport across plasma membranes in response to osmotic gradients, contributing to intra- and extracellular hydro-ionic regulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system, particularly at the blood-brain and brain-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. (elsevier.com)
  • In healthy brain the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is heavily enriched at the endfeet of astrocytes in the form of supramolecular aggregates that appear as orthogonal arrays in freeze-fracture electron micrographs of the endfoot membrane [ 38 , 48 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4 In response, astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord produce even more IL-6, causing further damage and ultimately leading to the debilitating symptoms that occur in people with NMOSD. (roche.com)
  • One hypothetical mechanism might be that increased plasma potassium is associated with a presumably decreased ability to buffer potassium after neuronal stimulation, due to its lack of aquaporin-4 and potassium channels (Kir4.1) at the end feet of astrocytes. (arizona.edu)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system, including optic nerve and retina. (grantome.com)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is considered to be caused by the binding of NMO-IgG to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes, which initiates complement-dependent cytotoxicity. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • AQP-4 localized in the endfeet of astrocytes, connecting the intracellular cytosolic fluid space of astrocytes and the Virchow Robin space. (duhnnae.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G was detected in serum. (neurology.org)
  • LS-F13079 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Human AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 in samples of Plasma and Serum. (lsbio.com)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. (neurology.org)
  • Aetna considers serum neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG autoantibody (aquaporin-4 (AQP4) receptor antibody) medically necessary for evaluating persons with optic neuritis and for distinguishing neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis. (aetna.com)
  • When the results of this assay require further evaluation, NMOTS / Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO)/Aquaporin-4-IgG Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) Titer Assay, Serum will be performed at an additional charge. (testcatalog.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (aquaporins.org)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (aquaporins.org)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (aquaporins.org)
  • The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-transporting channels that are expressed widely in mammalian fluid-transporting epithelia and endothelia. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 Because of this expression pattern, it has been proposed that AQPs play a role in intraocular pressure regulation, corneal and lens transparency, and vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) play fundamental roles in water and osmolyte homeostasis by facilitating water and small solute movement across plasma membranes of epithelial, endothelial, and other tissues. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). (nih.gov)
  • We report the immunolocalization of aquaporins (AQPs) 1, 4, and 6 in the human auditory and vestibular endorgans. (nih.gov)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins engaged in the modulation of water homeostasis, but the roles they play in chronic otitis media (COM) have not been well investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are water transporting proteins expressed widely in mammalian tissues including the eye. (grantome.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus occurs because of an imbalance of bulk fluid flow in the brain, and aquaporins (AQPs) play pivotal roles in cerebral water movement as essential mediators during edema and fluid accumulation. (ucf.edu)
  • METHODS: We evaluated differential expression of AQPs 1 and 4 in the congenital hydrocephalus Texas rat at postnatal days 5, 10, and 26 in isolated CP and cortex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. (ucf.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Biphasic AQP1 expression in the CP with increased AQPs 1 and 4 at the brain-fluid interfaces may indicate compensatory mechanisms to regulate choroidal cerebrospinal fluid secretion and increase parenchymal fluid absorption in the high-pressure hydrocephalic condition. (ucf.edu)
  • Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, thought to be pathogenic. (nih.gov)
  • 17 Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) Kits ELISA de 4 fabricants sont disponibles sur www.anticorps-enligne.fr. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Should the Human Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (GPX4) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (aquaporins.org)
  • Known also as Glutathione Peroxidase 4 elisa. (aquaporins.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Protease Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (aquaporins.org)
  • Known also as Protease Activated Receptor 4 elisa. (aquaporins.org)
  • Prior indirect evidence has suggested the involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of TBI. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms proffered to explain astrocyte swelling emphasize the importance of either aquaporin-4 (Aqp4), an astrocyte water channel, or of Na+ channels and pumps, which mediate cellular osmolyte influx. (umaryland.edu)
  • AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin family of integral membrane proteins that conduct water through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Another specific role AQP4 plays is to help odorant molecules bind to target receptors and binding proteins within olfactory epithelium. (wikidoc.org)
  • Because there are many other variants of aquaporins throughout the body, Lennon suggests that these proteins might play a role in poorly understood autoimmune disorders in other organ systems. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Aquaporins are specialized water transport proteins that play an essential role in brain edema. (hindawi.com)
  • Aquaporin 4 ( AQP4 ) is a member of the water-selective sub-group of aquaporin water channel cell-membrane proteins found in all organisms so far investigated. (frontiersin.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the aquaporin family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels in the plasma membranes of many cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins , which function as specialized water channels to facilitate the passage of water through the cell membrane . (ndif.org)
  • What follows in this process is not entirely clear, but it leads to water-transporting proteins called aquaporin-2 ( AQP2 proteins ) traveling from their holding place inside the CD cell to the apical membrane of the cell . (ndif.org)
  • Aquaporins, also called water channels, are channel proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as water channels, aquaporins are integral membrane pore proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We aim to assess the peripapillary and parafoveal vessel density in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD patients by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. (octnews.org)
  • Methods A total of 55 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD patients with or without a history of optic neuritis (ON) and 33 healthy controls underwent spectral domain OCT and OCT angiography. (octnews.org)
  • METHODS: An international cohort of women with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and ≥1 pregnancy was studied retrospectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The discovery of a highly specific antibody against the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel (AQP4-IgG) unified the spectrum of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which are considered to be antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, scholars have recommended that the AQP4 antibody positive diseases should be designated as autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy, with NMOSD regarded as part [ 1 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • The aquaporin-4 tetramers accumulate to transform into orthogonal arrays of particle (OAPs) in the cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the signature motif Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA). (abcam.com)
  • [4] In these specific cases of epithelial cell expression, AQP4 is concentrated within the basolateral membrane layer of these locations. (wikidoc.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major membrane water channel in the central nervous system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aquaporin-4 is a membrane water channel that is most abundant at astrocytic end-feet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin 4 is found in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provide a pathway for water to exit these cells. (chemeurope.com)
  • Aquaporins have six membrane-spanning alpha helical domains with both carboxylic and amino terminals on the cytoplasmic side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because aquaporins are usually always open and are prevalent in just about every cell type, this leads to a misconception that water readily passes through the cell membrane down its concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Aquaporin-4 is the predominant autoimmune target in neuromyelitis optica, or NMO, since a specific AQP4 IgG autoantibody, or NMO-IgG, binds to the extracellular surface of AQP4. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin 6 signalling promotes anti‐aquaporin 4 autoantibody production from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica. (roche.com)
  • We investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic characteristics of 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive patients from the UK and Japan. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, age at disease onset and genetic factors are both likely to be important in determining clinical outcomes in aquaporin-4 disease. (nih.gov)
  • Objective To evaluate the clinical features and prognosis of atypical optic neuritis (ON) with seronegative aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody in Chinese patients. (bmj.com)
  • Objective: To determine the sex and age distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity using data derived from clinical service laboratory testing of 56 464 patient samples. (elsevier.com)
  • Crucially, the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of aquaporin-4 IgG can only be ascertained with evidence from rigorous prospective clinical study in different immunogenetic populations, and further pathological investigations are necessary. (edu.au)
  • Clinical characteristics, prognosis, and seropositivity to the anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in Korean patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, it shows reductions in AQP 4 and 6 mRNA levels, as observed in the otorrhea group, have an effect on the clinical manifestations of COM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions: Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity is a distinctive recurrent and widespread inflammatory CNS disease in children. (elsevier.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity masquerading as a brainstem tumor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This case report is the first description of central nervous system aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity confined mainly to the brainstem. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The disorder is now recognized as a spectrum of autoimmunity targeting the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (testcatalog.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is implicated in a number of physiopathological processes, particularly in the development of brain edema, and other functions such as the regulation of extracellular space volume, potassium buffering, waste clearance, and calcium signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Introduction: Three percent sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment has been shown to reduce brain edema and inhibited brain aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in bacterial meningitis induced by Escherichia coli. (emory.edu)
  • Influx of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) depends upon the expression and perivascular localization of the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (lu.se)
  • Genetic knock-out of the gene encoding the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4, which is importantly involved in paravascular interstitial solute clearance, exacerbated glymphatic pathway dysfunction after TBI and promoted the development of neurofibrillary pathology and neurodegeneration in the post-traumatic brain. (blogspot.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the most common aquaporin in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Comparative studies of characteristics of optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG (MOG-ON) and aquaporin-4-IgG (AQP4-ON) seropositivity are limited. (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune astrocytopathic disease associated with anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, is characterized by extensive necrotic lesions preferentially involving the optic nerves and spinal cord. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, V.A. Lennon is a named inventor on 2 patent applications filed by Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research relating to functional assays for detecting aquaporin-4 IgG and applications to cancer. (neurology.org)
  • Detection and analysis of Aquaporin-4 - specific effector/memory T cells in PBMCs by MACS ® Cytokine Secretion Assays, intracellular cytokine staining, or other technologies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1. Waters P, McKeon A, Leite MI, et al: Multicenter comparison of aquaporin-4 IgG assays in NMO spectrum disorders. (testcatalog.org)
  • Brain water mobility decreases after astrocytic aquaporin-4 inhibition using RNA interference," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 819-831, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The discovery of an antibody against the astrocytic water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), in the majority of patients, has led to the presumption that the antibody was necessary for disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (Aqp4), a passive astrocytic transmembrane water channel, has a central role in cerebral edema formation. (umaryland.edu)
  • Aquaporin 4 immunostaining intensity at the astrocytic endfeet increased in water injected animals from 2.6 ± 0.04 intensity unites (IU) to 3.2 ± 0.21 IU, while total brain AQP4 expression remained unaltered. (wright.edu)
  • Similar to water injected animals, aquaporin 4 immunostaining intensity in chronic desipramine animals increased at the astrocytic endfeet (2.5 ± 0.04 IU to 3.0 ± 0.13) but total cortical AQP4 expression was again unaltered. (wright.edu)
  • Mildly Reduced Brain Swelling and Improved Neurological Outcome in Aquaporin-4 Knockout Mice following Controlled Cortical Impact Brain Injury. (nih.gov)
  • Papadopoulos, Marios C. / Three distinct roles of aquaporin-4 in brain function revealed by knockout mice . (elsevier.com)
  • The role of aquaporin water channels such as aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) in elasmobranchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is completely unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 antibody LS-C370726 is an HRP-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) (aa253-323). (lsbio.com)
  • The aim of this comparative study was to determine the expression and nephron segment localization of AQP1-4 in Equus caballus by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry with custom-designed rabbit polyclonal antisera. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • HEK293 cells were used as antigenic substrate after transfected with full-length human AQP4 and mocktransfected cells were used as control substrate [ 4 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS. It is also the first example of a water channel being the target of any autoimmune disorder. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS," said author Vanda A. Lennon, MD, PhD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (rxpgnews.com)
  • However, because water is a polar molecule this process of simple diffusion is relatively slow, and the majority of water passes through aquaporin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because of its importance for normal water homeostasis and its involvement in many water balance disorders , aquaporin-2 , the predominant vasopressin - regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct , is discussed in detail. (ndif.org)
  • Moreoverfor an appropriate representation of the disease, the description autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy should be used. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Here, we describe a case of autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy with psychiatric symptoms as the chief features, which have not been reported. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Kermode, A 2008, ' Aquaporin-4 IgG: Overview and future perspectives ', Neurology Asia , vol. 13, pp. 179-183. (edu.au)
  • AQP4 is the most prevalent aquaporin channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and it is particular concentrated at the blood-brain barrier and other cerebrospinal fluid interfaces. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Amiry-Moghaddam M, Williamson A, Palomba M, Eid T, De Lanerolle NC, Nagelhus EA, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Agre P, Ottersen OP (2003) Delayed K + clearance associated with aquaporin-4 mislocalization: phenotypic defects in brains of α-syntrophin-null mice. (springer.com)
  • We previously reported that aquaporin-4 deletion (AQP4 -/- ) in mice increased edema and altered blood-brain barrier integrity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 null mice, backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 background at least 14 times, were obtained from Erlend Nagelhus (University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway) and bred in-house. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice lacking the normal expression of aquaporin-4 have decreased cerebral edema, reduced infarct formation and improved neurological outcome induced for classic models of cerebral edema (1, 2, 3). (arizona.edu)
  • To our knowledge, no compounds that effectively block water permeability through aquaporin-4 have been discovered.My hypothesis is that an aquaporin-4 blocker would significantly decrease the cerebral edema formation after ischemic stroke in mice. (arizona.edu)
  • I also proposed that dystrophin deficient mice, a mouse strain that has a decreased expression of aquaporin-4 channels would have a decrease formation of cerebral edema after transient ischemic stroke when compared with a strain matched controls.I found that bumetanide, a well-described Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter inhibitor, reversibly and dose dependently inhibited water permeability through aquaporin-4 channels. (arizona.edu)
  • Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody to aquaporin 4 in the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Prognostic factors and disease course in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from the United Kingdom. (nih.gov)
  • however, there are few studies on the AQP-4 Ab serostatus of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum ON. (springer.com)
  • Aoki K, Uchihara T, Tsuchiya K, Nakamura A, Ikeda K, Wakayama Y (2003) Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain infarction. (springer.com)
  • Aquaporins in fish - expression, localization and functional dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • An allograft glioma model reveals the dependence of aquaporin-4 expression on the brain microenvironment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although AQP-4 Ab expression predicted poor visual outcome, positive patients were usually associated with mild symptoms at first onset. (springer.com)
  • Expression and nephron segment-specific distribution of major renal aquaporins (AQP1-4) in Equus caballus, the domestic horse. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Western blots revealed high expression of AQP1-4 in the equine kidney. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we retrospectively examined brain samples in 145 cases of death after different survival times following TBI, to investigate aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression and correlation with hypoxia, and neuroinflammation in human TBI. (myjournals.org)
  • In this study we investigated aquaporin 4 expression and distribution in these two conditions. (wright.edu)
  • Aquaporin-4 exists as two isoforms, a long (M1) isoform with translation initiation at Met-1, and a shorter (M23) isoform with translation initiation at Met-23, with molecular weights around 35-37 kDa and 32-34 kDa, respectively. (ptglab.com)
  • Brain interstitial fluid dynamics, and therefore AQP-4, are now recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, neurovascular coupling and glymphatic flow, the brain equivalent of systemic lymphatics. (mdpi.com)
  • Nakada T, Kwee IL, Igarashi H, Suzuki Y. Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic Flow. (mdpi.com)
  • a recently proposed 'glymphatic' clearance mechanism additionally suggests that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels facilitate convective transport through brain parenchyma. (elifesciences.org)
  • Aquaporins selectively conduct water molecules in and out of the cell, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS, Hinson SR. IgG marker ofoptic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. (biovendor.com)
  • The discovery of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody in 2004 was a major advance since it indicated that NMO is an antibody-mediated disease, distinct from multiple sclerosis. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • The discovery of NMO-IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in NMO patients suggested that NMO is a distinct entity, with a fundamentally different etiology from that of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although NMO usually leads to grave disability because of the more severe tissue destruction compared with classical MS, there have been several reports describing a benign form of NMO over a long disease term. (elsevier.com)
  • Other performances that aquaporin-4 is involved in are synaptic plasticity, astrocyte migration, regulation of extracellular space volume, and the homeostasis of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Peter Agre for the discovery of aquaporins and Roderick MacKinnon for his work on the structure and mechanism of potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially associated with the Devic's phenotype, aquaporin-4 IgG has also been consistently found albeit less frequently in tumefactive disease, encephalopathies, classical MS and by one group in GBS. (edu.au)
  • These results indicated that the protective effect of bumetanide seen in rats after ischemic stroke (4) might be through a combined effect on aquaporin-4 channels and the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter.In order to identify the relative amount of protection conferred from the aquaporin-4 channels compared to the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter, I characterized the dystrophin deficient mouse after ischemic stroke. (arizona.edu)
  • Because of these additional effects, I concluded that the mdx mouse is not an ideal model for the study of a protective effect of an aquaporin-4 blocker after ischemic stroke. (arizona.edu)
  • Aquaporin-4 is concentrated in membranes in the precise site where spinal cord inflammation is found in NMO patients," said Lennon. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Aquaporins are specialized water transport channels in plasma membranes of water-permeable tissues. (ptglab.com)
  • The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells contain aquaporins through which water can flow more rapidly into and out of the cell than by diffusing through the phospholipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)