Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
'Eye proteins' are structural or functional proteins, such as crystallins, opsins, and collagens, located in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and aqueous humor, that contribute to maintaining transparency, refractive power, phototransduction, and overall integrity of the visual system.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
Anguilla is not a term with a widely accepted medical definition; however, it is the scientific name for the freshwater eel species, and if used in a medical context, it may refer to a rare condition called Anguillula nephria, which is an intestinal infection caused by a roundworm.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The Nobel Prize is not a medical term, but a prestigious international award given annually in several categories, including Physiology or Medicine, for significant contributions to humanity that have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid, primarily found in apple tree leaves and roots, which exhibits antioxidant properties and has been studied for its potential role in skin care, cancer prevention, and diabetes management, although more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and clinical applications.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (1/452)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Expression and localization of aquaporins in rat gastrointestinal tract. (2/452)

A family of water-selective channels, aquaporins (AQP), has been demonstrated in various organs and tissues. However, the localization and expression of the AQP family members in the gastrointestinal tract have not been entirely elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression and distribution of several types of the AQP family and to speculate on their role in water transport in the rat gastrointestinal tract. By RNase protection assay, expression of AQP1-5 and AQP8 was examined in various portions through the gastrointestinal tract. AQP1 and AQP3 mRNAs were diffusely expressed from esophagus to colon, and their expression was relatively intense in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, AQP4 mRNA was selectively expressed in the stomach and small intestine and AQP8 mRNA in the jejunum and colon. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated cellular localization of these AQP in these portions. AQP1 was localized on endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in the submucosa and lamina propria throughout the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 was detected on the circumferential plasma membranes of stratified squamous epithelial cells in the esophagus and basolateral membranes of cardiac gland epithelia in the lower stomach and of surface columnar epithelia in the colon. However, AQP3 was not apparently detected in the small intestine. AQP4 was present on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cells in the lower stomach and selectively in the basolateral membranes of deep intestinal gland cells in the small intestine. AQP8 mRNA expression was demonstrated in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum and colon by in situ hybridization. These findings may indicate that water crosses the epithelial layer through these water channels, suggesting a possible role of the transcellular route for water intake or outlet in the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cells along the rat nephron revealed by antigen retrieval. (3/452)

The Na/K-ATPase plays a fundamental role in the physiology of various mammalian cells. In the kidney, previous immunocytochemical studies have localized this protein to the basolateral membrane in different tubule segments. However, intercalated cells (IC) of the collecting duct (CD) in rat and mouse were unlabeled with anti-Na/K-ATPase antibodies. An antigen retrieval technique has been recently described in which tissue sections are pretreated with sodium dodecyl sulfate before immunostaining. This procedure was used to reexamine the presence of Na/K-ATPase in IC along the rat nephron using monoclonal antibodies against the Na/K-ATPase alpha-subunit. Subtypes of IC along the nephron were identified by their distinctive staining with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the 31-kD vacuolar H+ -ATPase subunit, whereas principal cells (PC) were labeled with a polyclonal antibody to the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). In PC, the Na/K-ATPase and AQP-4 staining colocalized basolaterally. In contrast to previous reports, we found that IC of all types showed basolateral labeling with the anti-Na/K-ATPase antibody. The staining was quantified by fluorescence image analysis. It was weak to moderate in IC of cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts and most intense in IC of the initial inner medullary collecting duct. IC in the initial inner medulla showed a staining intensity that was equivalent or stronger to that in adjacent principal cells. Models of ion transport at the cellular and epithelial level in rat kidney, therefore, must take into account the potential role of a basolateral Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cell function.  (+info)

Renal expression of aquaporins in liver cirrhosis induced by chronic common bile duct ligation in rats. (4/452)

Semiquantitative immunoblotting was used to investigate the expression levels of the four major renal aquaporins, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb, the type 3 Na-H exchanger, and the Na-K-ATPase in kidneys from rats with cirrhosis secondary to common bile duct ligation (CBDL). These rats had significant water retention and hyponatremia. In contrast to models of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride, aquaporin-2 expression in CBDL-induced cirrhosis was decreased. Thus, these results show that in the setting of extracellular fluid volume expansion, excessive water retention with hyponatremia can occur in the absence of increases in aquaporin-2 abundance. In addition, the expression levels of the two basolateral collecting duct aquaporins (aquaporin-3 and -4) were decreased in CBDL rats relative to sham-operated control rats. Similarly, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb and the type 3 Na-H exchanger showed decreases in expression. In contrast, the expression levels of aquaporin-1 and the all subunit of the Na-K-ATPase were not decreased. Thus, dysregulation of multiple water channels and ion transporters may play a role in water balance abnormalities associated with CBDL-induced cirrhosis in rats.  (+info)

High-resolution immunogold cytochemistry indicates that AQP4 is concentrated along the basal membrane of parietal cell in rat stomach. (5/452)

Gastric parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid in stomach. Because the secreted HCl solution is isotonic with the plasma fluid, it should accompany the water transport across the membranes of parietal cells. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that play the central role in the cellular handling of water in various mammalian tissues. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that AQP4 was expressed only in parietal cells of rat gastric mucosa. Immunogold electron microscopy study further demonstrated that AQP4 was mostly localized at the basal membrane of parietal cells. In the basal membrane, AQP4 was prominently enriched on the portion contacting with the basement membrane surrounding gastric glands. These results suggest that the contact between basement membrane and basal membrane may generate the signal involved in the targeting of AQP4 in gastric parietal cells.  (+info)

Role of aquaporin-4 in airspace-to-capillary water permeability in intact mouse lung measured by a novel gravimetric method. (6/452)

The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4, or AQP1/AQP4 together. An apparatus was constructed to measure lung weight continuously during pulmonary artery perfusion of isolated mouse lungs. Osmotically induced water flux (J(v)) between the airspace and capillary compartments was measured from the kinetics of lung weight change in saline-filled lungs in response to changes in perfusate osmolality. J(v) in wild-type mice varied linearly with osmotic gradient size (4.4 x 10(-5) cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1)) and was symmetric, independent of perfusate osmolyte size, weakly temperature dependent, and decreased 11-fold by AQP1 deletion. Transcapillary osmotic water permeability was greatly reduced by AQP1 deletion, as measured by the same method except that the airspace saline was replaced by an inert perfluorocarbon. Hydrostatically induced lung edema was characterized by lung weight changes in response to changes in pulmonary arterial inflow or pulmonary venous outflow pressure. At 5 cm H(2)O outflow pressure, the filtration coefficient was 4.7 cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) and reduced 1.4-fold by AQP1 deletion. To study the role of AQP4 in lung water transport, AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice were generated by crossbreeding of AQP1 and AQP4 null mice. J(v) were (cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) x 10(-5), SEM, n = 7-12 mice): 3.8 +/- 0. 4 (wild type), 0.35 +/- 0.02 (AQP1 null), 3.7 +/- 0.4 (AQP4 null), and 0.25 +/- 0.01 (AQP1/AQP4 null). The significant reduction in P(f) in AQP1 vs. AQP1/AQP4 null mice was confirmed by an independent pleural surface fluorescence method showing a 1.6 +/- 0.2-fold (SEM, five mice) reduced P(f) in the AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice vs. AQP1 null mice. These results establish a simple gravimetric method to quantify osmosis and filtration in intact mouse lung and provide direct evidence for a contribution of the distal airways to airspace-to-capillary water transport.  (+info)

Aquaporin-4 is expressed in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments in mouse kidney. (7/452)

Because of the availability of knockout mouse models to examine renal transport mechanisms, it has become increasingly important to describe the cellular distribution of major renal transporters in mice. We have used immunocytochemistry and freeze-fracture electron microscopy to compare the renal distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with that previously described in rat. In rat kidney AQP4 is present exclusively in basolateral membranes of collecting duct principal cells. In mice, however, AQP4 was also detected by immunocytochemistry in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments, and not detected in S1 and S2 segments of proximal tubule. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed orthogonal arrays of intramembrane particles (OAPs) on the basolateral membranes of the S3 segment. In AQP4-knockout mice, immunostaining was absent and OAPs were found neither in collecting ducts nor in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. The urinary concentrating capacity after deletion of both AQP1 and AQP4 was further reduced compared with that of AQP1 or AQP4 null mice, suggesting an additive effect of AQP1 and AQP4 in the concentrating mechanism. The functional significance of the apparent species-dependent expression of AQP4 in proximal tubules is unknown, but may relate to physiological differences between rats and mice.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of two bovine aquaporin-4 cDNA isoforms and their expression in brain endothelial cells. (8/452)

Two cDNA isoforms of bovine aquaporin-4 (bAQP4-A and bAQP4-B) were newly isolated. Sequence analysis of both cDNAs revealed open reading frames of 972 (bAQP4-A) and 906 nucleotides (bAQP4-B) with deduced proteins of 323 (bAQP4-A) and 301 amino acid residues (bAQP4-B). Partial 5'-genomic sequence analysis showed that the 5'-noncoding sequences specific to bAQP4-A and -B transcripts were contained in distinct exons, exon 0 for bAQP4-A and new exon X for bAQP4-B. RNase protection assay demonstrated the definite expression of both isoforms in bovine brain. The deduced amino acid sequence of bAQP4-A was highly homologous to the human (97%), rat (95%), and mouse (93%) AQP4. Reverse transcription-PCR detected the expression of AQP4 mRNAs in bovine brain endothelial cells as well as in a variety of bovine organs such as brain, lung, spleen, and kidney. Northern blot analysis indicated that a 6.0 kb message is predominantly expressed in bovine brain and lung.  (+info)

Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across biological membranes. Aquaporin 1 is primarily responsible for facilitating water movement in various tissues, including the kidneys, red blood cells, and the brain.

In the kidneys, AQP1 is located in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb of the loop of Henle, where it helps to reabsorb water from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. In the red blood cells, AQP1 aids in the regulation of cell volume by allowing water to move in and out of the cells in response to osmotic changes. In the brain, AQP1 is found in the choroid plexus and cerebral endothelial cells, where it plays a role in the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Defects or mutations in the AQP1 gene can lead to various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, neurological disorders, and blood disorders.

Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across cell membranes. Specifically, AQP5 is found in various tissues, including the lungs, salivary and lacrimal glands, sweat glands, and cornea. It plays a crucial role in maintaining water homeostasis and lubrication in these tissues.

In the lungs, AQP5 helps regulate airway surface liquid volume and composition, contributing to proper lung function. In the salivary and lacrimal glands, it aids in fluid secretion, ensuring adequate moisture in the mouth and eyes. In sweat glands, AQP5 facilitates water transport during sweating, helping to regulate body temperature. Lastly, in the cornea, AQP5 helps maintain transparency and hydration, contributing to clear vision.

Defects or dysfunctions in AQP5 can lead to various conditions, such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), and potentially impaired lung function.

Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is a type of aquaglyceroporin, which is a subclass of aquaporins - water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across biological membranes. AQP3 is primarily expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues, including the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

In the skin, AQP3 plays a crucial role in maintaining skin hydration by facilitating water transport across the cell membrane. It also transports small neutral solutes like glycerol and urea, which contribute to skin moisturization and elasticity. In addition, AQP3 has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as wound healing, epidermal proliferation, and cutaneous sensory perception.

In the kidneys, AQP3 is involved in water reabsorption in the collecting ducts, helping to regulate body fluid homeostasis. In the gastrointestinal tract, it facilitates water absorption and secretion, contributing to maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte balance. Dysregulation of AQP3 has been associated with various pathological conditions, such as skin disorders, kidney diseases, and cancer.

Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein that is primarily found in the membranes of astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system. AQP4 plays a crucial role in the regulation of water homeostasis and the clearance of excess fluid from the brain and spinal cord. It also facilitates the rapid movement of water across the blood-brain barrier and between astrocytes, which is important for maintaining proper neuronal function and protecting the brain from edema or swelling.

Mutations in the AQP4 gene can lead to various neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a severe autoimmune condition that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In NMOSD, the immune system mistakenly attacks AQP4 proteins, causing inflammation, demyelination, and damage to the nervous tissue.

Aquaporins are a type of membrane protein that function as water channels, allowing the selective and efficient transport of water molecules across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis, regulating cell volume, and supporting various physiological processes in the body. In humans, there are 13 different aquaporin subtypes (AQP0 to AQP12) that have been identified, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions. Some aquaporins also facilitate the transport of small solutes such as glycerol and urea. Dysfunction or misregulation of aquaporins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, cancer, and water balance-related diseases.

Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a type of aquaporin, which is a water channel protein found in the membranes of cells. Specifically, AQP2 is located in the principal cells of the collecting ducts in the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in regulating water reabsorption and urine concentration by facilitating the movement of water across the cell membrane in response to the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). When vasopressin binds to receptors on the cell surface, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that lead to the translocation of AQP2 water channels from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane. This increases the permeability of the apical membrane to water, allowing for efficient reabsorption of water and concentration of urine. Dysfunction in AQP2 has been implicated in various kidney disorders, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Aquaporin 6 (AQP6) is a protein that functions as a water channel in the membranes of certain cells. It is a member of the aquaporin family, which are proteins that allow the selective transport of water and small solutes across biological membranes. Aquaporin 6 is primarily expressed in the kidney, where it is localized to the intracellular vesicles of intercalated cells in the collecting ducts. It is thought to play a role in acid-base balance and urine concentration by regulating the movement of water and hydrogen ions (protons) across cell membranes. Aquaporin 6 has also been found to be permeable to anions, making it unique among aquaporins. Additionally, AQP6 has been identified in other tissues such as the brain, lung, and testis, but its function in these tissues is not well understood.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Mercuric chloride, also known as corrosive sublimate, is defined medically as a white or colorless crystalline compound used historically as a topical antiseptic and caustic. It has been used in the treatment of various skin conditions such as warts, thrush, and some parasitic infestations. However, its use is limited nowadays due to its high toxicity and potential for serious side effects, including kidney damage, digestive problems, and nervous system disorders. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

Aquaglyceroporins are a subfamily of aquaporin water channels that also transport glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. They play important roles in various physiological processes, including osmoregulation, skin hydration, and fat metabolism. In humans, there are three known aquaglyceroporins: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

Cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of various substances, such as molecules and ions, to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells, controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Its primary function is to protect the cell's internal environment and maintain homeostasis.

The permeability of the cell membrane depends on its structure, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the phospholipids face outward, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails face inward, creating a barrier that is generally impermeable to large, polar, or charged molecules.

However, specific proteins within the membrane, called channels and transporters, allow certain substances to cross the membrane. Channels are protein structures that span the membrane and provide a pore for ions or small uncharged molecules to pass through. Transporters, on the other hand, are proteins that bind to specific molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane, often using energy in the form of ATP.

The permeability of the cell membrane can be influenced by various factors, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain chemicals or drugs. Changes in permeability can have significant consequences for the cell's function and survival, as they can disrupt ion balances, nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

Collecting kidney tubules, also known as collecting ducts, are the final portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. They collect filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules and glomeruli and are responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes back into the bloodstream under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. The collecting ducts then deliver the remaining filtrate to the ureter, which transports it to the bladder for storage until urination.

Kidney concentrating ability refers to the capacity of the kidneys to increase the concentration of solutes, such as urea and minerals, and remove waste products while reabsorbing water to maintain fluid balance in the body. This is primarily regulated by the hormone vasopressin (ADH), which signals the collecting ducts in the nephrons of the kidneys to absorb more water, resulting in the production of concentrated urine. A decreased kidney concentrating ability may indicate a variety of renal disorders or diseases, such as diabetes insipidus or chronic kidney disease.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a type of diabetes insipidus that occurs due to the inability of the kidneys to respond to the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. This results in excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of dilute urine.

In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the problem lies in the kidney tubules, which fail to absorb water from the urine due to a defect in the receptors or channels that respond to ADH. This can be caused by genetic factors, certain medications, kidney diseases, and electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus typically involves addressing the underlying cause, if possible, as well as managing symptoms through a low-salt diet, increased fluid intake, and medications that increase water reabsorption in the kidneys.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease, is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS). It primarily causes inflammation and damage to the optic nerves (which transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain) and the spinal cord. This results in optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve, causing vision loss) and myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord, leading to motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction).

A key feature of NMO is the presence of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG), a water channel protein found in astrocytes (a type of glial cell) in the CNS. These antibodies play a crucial role in the development of the disease, as they target and damage the AQP4 proteins, leading to inflammation, demyelination (loss of the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers), and subsequent neurological dysfunction.

NMO is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS), another autoimmune disorder affecting the CNS, as it has different clinical features, radiological findings, and treatment responses. However, NMO can sometimes be misdiagnosed as MS due to overlapping symptoms in some cases. Accurate diagnosis of NMO is essential for appropriate management and treatment, which often includes immunosuppressive therapies to control the autoimmune response and prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Polyuria is a medical term that describes the production of large volumes of urine, typically defined as exceeding 2.5-3 liters per day in adults. This condition can lead to frequent urination, sometimes as often as every one to two hours, and often worsens during the night (nocturia). Polyuria is often a symptom of an underlying medical disorder such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus, rather than a disease itself. Other potential causes include kidney diseases, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and certain medications. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition are essential to manage polyuria effectively.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Antidiuretic agents are medications or substances that reduce the amount of urine produced by the body. They do this by increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidneys, which leads to a decrease in the excretion of water and solutes in the urine. This can help to prevent dehydration and maintain fluid balance in the body.

The most commonly used antidiuretic agent is desmopressin, which works by mimicking the action of a natural hormone called vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH). Vasopressin is produced by the pituitary gland and helps to regulate water balance in the body. When the body's fluid levels are low, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water and produce less urine.

Antidiuretic agents may be used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (a rare disorder that causes excessive thirst and urination), bedwetting in children, and certain types of headaches. They may also be used to manage fluid balance in patients with kidney disease or heart failure.

It is important to use antidiuretic agents only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications. Overuse or misuse of these drugs can lead to water retention, hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and other serious complications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Tulipa" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for Tulips, which are a type of spring-flowering bulb in the family Liliaceae. They are native to Southern Europe and Central Asia, but have been cultivated all over the world for their beautiful flowers.

If you meant to ask about a different term, please let me know and I will be happy to help you find a definition.

Vapor pressure, in the context of physical chemistry and thermodynamics, refers to the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its condensed phase (liquid or solid) at a given temperature. It is a measure of the escaping tendency of molecules from the liquid or solid state to the gas state. At higher temperatures, the vapor pressure generally increases because a greater number of molecules possess sufficient energy to overcome intermolecular forces and enter the vapor phase.

In medical terminology, vapor pressure is not frequently used explicitly. However, understanding this concept can be helpful in pharmaceutical sciences, particularly when dealing with the formulation and delivery of drugs in various dosage forms such as aerosols, nebulizers, or inhalers. These applications rely on the transformation between liquid and vapor states under specific conditions to achieve desired therapeutic effects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Cistaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the rock-rose family. It includes around 20 genera and 200 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and small trees that are native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. These plants are characterized by their showy, often pink or purple, flowers and their sticky, resinous leaves. Some well-known members of this family include the common rock-rose (Cistus salvifolius) and the blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bellum).

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Mercury compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element mercury (Hg) combined with other elements. These compounds can be inorganic or organic, and they have been used in various applications such as medicines, dental fillings, and industrial processes. However, exposure to mercury compounds can be toxic and harmful to human health, causing neurological and kidney problems, among other health issues. Therefore, their use is regulated and limited to specific applications where the benefits outweigh the risks.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

The crystalline lens is a biconvex transparent structure in the eye that helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina. It is located behind the iris and pupil and is suspended by small fibers called zonules that connect it to the ciliary body. The lens can change its shape to accommodate and focus on objects at different distances, a process known as accommodation. With age, the lens may become cloudy or opaque, leading to cataracts.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Eye proteins, also known as ocular proteins, are specific proteins that are found within the eye and play crucial roles in maintaining proper eye function and health. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, and other structures. They perform a wide range of functions, such as:

1. Structural support: Proteins like collagen and elastin provide strength and flexibility to the eye's tissues, enabling them to maintain their shape and withstand mechanical stress.
2. Light absorption and transmission: Proteins like opsins and crystallins are involved in capturing and transmitting light signals within the eye, which is essential for vision.
3. Protection against damage: Some eye proteins, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, help protect the eye from oxidative stress, UV radiation, and other environmental factors that can cause damage.
4. Regulation of eye growth and development: Various growth factors and signaling molecules, which are protein-based, contribute to the proper growth, differentiation, and maintenance of eye tissues during embryonic development and throughout adulthood.
5. Immune defense: Proteins involved in the immune response, such as complement components and immunoglobulins, help protect the eye from infection and inflammation.
6. Maintenance of transparency: Crystallin proteins in the lens maintain its transparency, allowing light to pass through unobstructed for clear vision.
7. Neuroprotection: Certain eye proteins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), support the survival and function of neurons within the retina, helping to preserve vision.

Dysfunction or damage to these eye proteins can contribute to various eye disorders and diseases, such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and others.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

"Renal agents" is not a standardized medical term with a single, widely accepted definition. However, in a general sense, renal agents could refer to medications or substances that have an effect on the kidneys or renal function. This can include drugs that are primarily used to treat kidney diseases or disorders (such as certain types of diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or ARBs), as well as chemicals or toxins that can negatively impact renal function if they are not properly eliminated from the body.

It's worth noting that the term "renal agent" is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical practice, and its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used. If you have any specific questions about a particular medication or substance and its effect on renal function, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for more accurate information.

"Anguilla" is a term that refers to a type of fish, rather than something related to medicine or human health. It is a species of eel that belongs to the Anguillidae family. Therefore, there is no medical definition for "Anguilla."

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Glomeromycota is a phylum of fungi that form arbuscular mycorrhizae, which are symbiotic associations with the roots of most land plants. These fungi exist exclusively as tiny, threadlike structures called hyphae, which penetrate the cells of plant roots and form unique structures called arbuscules where nutrient exchange occurs. The fungi receive carbon from the plant in the form of sugars, while they provide essential mineral nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen to the plant.

Glomeromycota fungi have a mutualistic relationship with plants, helping them to grow and survive in nutrient-poor soils. They also play a crucial role in soil ecology by promoting aggregate formation, improving soil structure, and increasing its water-holding capacity. These fungi are found worldwide and can be detected in almost all terrestrial ecosystems.

It is worth noting that Glomeromycota fungi lack a sexual reproductive stage, and their identification and classification rely on the morphology of their vegetative structures and molecular data.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to transmit through a specimen and create an image based on the interactions between the electrons and the sample. In STEM, the electron beam is scanned across the sample in a raster pattern, similar to how a television or computer monitor displays an image. As the electrons pass through the sample, they interact with the atoms in the material, causing scattering and energy loss. By detecting these scattered and energy-loss electrons, a high-resolution image of the sample can be created.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy is particularly useful for imaging thin specimens with high resolution, making it an important tool in materials science, biology, and other fields where detailed information about the structure and composition of materials is needed. The technique can provide information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and electronic properties of materials at the atomic level.

Overall, scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing materials and understanding their properties at the nanoscale and atomic level.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Mycelium is not a specifically medical term, but it is a biological term used in fungi and other organisms. Medically, it might be relevant in certain contexts such as discussing fungal infections. Here's the general definition:

Mycelium (my-SEE-lee-um) is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. It is the underground portion of the fungus that supports the growth of the organism and is often responsible for the decomposition of organic material. Mycelium can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and dead or living organisms.

Desmopressin, also known as 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone arginine vasopressin. It is commonly used in medical practice for the treatment of diabetes insipidus, a condition characterized by excessive thirst and urination due to lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Desmopressin works by binding to V2 receptors in the kidney, which leads to increased water reabsorption and reduced urine production. It also has some effect on V1 receptors, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. However, its primary use is for its antidiuretic effects.

In addition to its use in diabetes insipidus, desmopressin may also be used to treat bleeding disorders such as hemophilia and von Willebrand disease, as it can help to promote platelet aggregation and reduce bleeding times. It is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, injectable solutions, and oral tablets or dissolvable films.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. However, it does have various applications in the medical field. Medically, propylene glycol can be used as a:

1. Vehicle for intravenous (IV) medications: Propylene glycol helps dissolve drugs that are not water-soluble and allows them to be administered intravenously. It is used in the preparation of some IV medications, including certain antibiotics, antivirals, and chemotherapeutic agents.
2. Preservative: Propylene glycol acts as a preservative in various medical products, such as topical ointments, eye drops, and injectable solutions, to prevent bacterial growth and increase shelf life.
3. Humectant: In some medical devices and pharmaceutical formulations, propylene glycol is used as a humectant, which means it helps maintain moisture and prevent dryness in the skin or mucous membranes.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol (C3H8O2) is:

A colorless, nearly odorless, viscous liquid belonging to the alcohol family. It is a diol, meaning it contains two hydroxyl groups (-OH), and its molecular formula is C3H8O2. Propylene glycol is miscible with water and most organic solvents and has applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, food processing, cosmetics, and industrial manufacturing.

Mesophyll cells are photosynthetic cells located in the interior tissue of a leaf, specifically within the chloroplast-containing portion called the mesophyll. These cells are responsible for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. They can be further divided into two types: palisade mesophyll cells and spongy mesophyll cells.

Palisade mesophyll cells are columnar-shaped cells that contain many chloroplasts and are located closer to the upper epidermis of the leaf. They are arranged in one or more layers and are primarily responsible for capturing light during photosynthesis.

Spongy mesophyll cells, on the other hand, are loosely arranged and have a sponge-like structure. They contain fewer chloroplasts than palisade mesophyll cells and are located closer to the lower epidermis of the leaf. These cells facilitate gas exchange between the plant and the environment by allowing for the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf and oxygen out of the leaf.

Overall, mesophyll cells play a critical role in photosynthesis and help to maintain the health and growth of the plant.

"Mesembryanthemum" is not a medical term, but a botanical name for a genus of plants commonly known as "fig-maryns" or "ice plants." These are succulent plants native to southern Africa. They have fleshy leaves and brightly colored flowers. Some species of Mesembryanthemum have been used in traditional medicine, but it's important to note that the use of these plants should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

The kidney medulla is the inner portion of the renal pyramids in the kidney, consisting of multiple conical structures found within the kidney. It is composed of loops of Henle and collecting ducts responsible for concentrating urine by reabsorbing water and producing a hyperosmotic environment. The kidney medulla has a unique blood supply and is divided into an inner and outer zone, with the inner zone having a higher osmolarity than the outer zone. This region of the kidney helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The submandibular glands are one of the major salivary glands in the human body. They are located beneath the mandible (jawbone) and produce saliva that helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the oral cavity. The saliva produced by the submandibular glands contains enzymes like amylase and mucin, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates and provide moisture to the mouth and throat. Any medical condition or disease that affects the submandibular gland may impact its function and could lead to problems such as dry mouth (xerostomia), swelling, pain, or infection.

Vasopressin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH). There are two main types of vasopressin receptors, V1 and V2.

V1 receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including vascular smooth muscle, heart, liver, and kidney. Activation of V1 receptors leads to vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and release of glycogen from the liver.

V2 receptors are primarily found in the kidney's collecting ducts. When activated, they increase water permeability in the collecting ducts, allowing for the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream and reducing urine production. This helps to regulate fluid balance and maintain normal blood pressure.

Abnormalities in vasopressin receptor function can contribute to various medical conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

Astrocytes are a type of star-shaped glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They play crucial roles in supporting and maintaining the health and function of neurons, which are the primary cells responsible for transmitting information in the CNS.

Some of the essential functions of astrocytes include:

1. Supporting neuronal structure and function: Astrocytes provide structural support to neurons by ensheathing them and maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which helps regulate the entry and exit of substances into the CNS.
2. Regulating neurotransmitter levels: Astrocytes help control the levels of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (the space between two neurons) by taking up excess neurotransmitters and breaking them down, thus preventing excessive or prolonged activation of neuronal receptors.
3. Providing nutrients to neurons: Astrocytes help supply energy metabolites, such as lactate, to neurons, which are essential for their survival and function.
4. Modulating synaptic activity: Through the release of various signaling molecules, astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength and plasticity, contributing to learning and memory processes.
5. Participating in immune responses: Astrocytes can respond to CNS injuries or infections by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which help recruit immune cells to the site of injury or infection.
6. Promoting neuronal survival and repair: In response to injury or disease, astrocytes can become reactive and undergo morphological changes that aid in forming a glial scar, which helps contain damage and promote tissue repair. Additionally, they release growth factors and other molecules that support the survival and regeneration of injured neurons.

Dysfunction or damage to astrocytes has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

"Xenopus" is not a medical term, but it is a genus of highly invasive aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. They are often used in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology and genetics. The most commonly studied species is Xenopus laevis, also known as the African clawed frog.

In a medical context, Xenopus might be mentioned when discussing their use in research or as a model organism to study various biological processes or diseases.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Nobel Prize" is not a medical definition. The Nobel Prize is an international award given annually in several categories, and one of those categories is physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to individuals who have made significant discoveries of outstanding importance in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of the most prestigious awards in these fields.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

"Spinacia oleracea" is the scientific name for a plant species, not a medical term. It is commonly known as spinach, a leafy green vegetable. While spinach has many health benefits and is often recommended as part of a balanced diet, it does not have a specific medical definition.

Spinach is rich in various nutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid. It can contribute to overall health, support immune function, and provide antioxidant benefits. However, it is important to note that 'Spinacia oleracea' itself does not have a medical definition.

Glycerol kinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glycerol, which is a simple carbohydrate. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glycerol to glycerol-3-phosphate by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to glycerol. This reaction is an essential step in the metabolic pathway that leads to the formation of glucose or other energy-rich compounds in the body.

There are two main forms of glycerol kinase found in humans, designated as GK1 and GK2. GK1 is primarily expressed in the liver, while GK2 is found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, and muscles. Deficiencies in glycerol kinase can lead to metabolic disorders such as hyperglycerolemia, which is characterized by high levels of glycerol in the blood.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

"Pichia" is a genus of single-celled yeast organisms that are commonly found in various environments, including on plant and animal surfaces, in soil, and in food. Some species of Pichia are capable of causing human infection, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can include fungemia (bloodstream infections), pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Pichia species are important in a variety of industrial processes, including the production of alcoholic beverages, biofuels, and enzymes. They are also used as model organisms for research in genetics and cell biology.

It's worth noting that Pichia was previously classified under the genus "Candida," but it has since been reclassified due to genetic differences between the two groups.

"Fragaria" is the genus name for plants in the family Rosaceae, which includes various species of strawberries. These plants are native to temperate regions of the world and are widely cultivated for their edible fruits. The term "Fragaria" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but certain compounds found in strawberries, such as flavonoids and vitamin C, have been studied for potential health benefits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Brattleboro" is not a recognized medical term or condition. It seems like it could be a nonsensical phrase or a reference to something specific, such as a place (Brattleboro, a town in Vermont) and an exclamation of frustration or surprise ("rats"). If you're referring to a specific medical condition or concept, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate and helpful response.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

Proteolipids are a type of complex lipid-containing proteins that are insoluble in water and have a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. They are primarily found in the plasma membrane of cells, where they play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the membrane. Proteolipids are also found in various organelles, including mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.

Proteolipids are composed of a hydrophobic protein core that is tightly associated with a lipid bilayer through non-covalent interactions. The protein component of proteolipids typically contains several transmembrane domains that span the lipid bilayer, as well as hydrophilic regions that face the cytoplasm or the lumen of organelles.

Proteolipids have been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and ion transport. They are also associated with several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The study of proteolipids is an active area of research in biochemistry and cell biology, with potential implications for the development of new therapies for neurological disorders.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A hypertonic saline solution is a type of medical fluid that contains a higher concentration of salt (sodium chloride) than is found in the average person's blood. This solution is used to treat various medical conditions, such as dehydration, brain swelling, and increased intracranial pressure.

The osmolarity of a hypertonic saline solution typically ranges from 1500 to 23,400 mOsm/L, with the most commonly used solutions having an osmolarity of around 3000 mOsm/L. The high sodium concentration in these solutions creates an osmotic gradient that draws water out of cells and into the bloodstream, helping to reduce swelling and increase fluid volume in the body.

It is important to note that hypertonic saline solutions should be administered with caution, as they can cause serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, heart rhythm abnormalities, and kidney damage if not used properly. Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients receiving these solutions to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Antimony potassium tartrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KSbC4H4O7. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and has been used historically in medical treatments, most notably in the treatment of leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease. However, due to its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, it is no longer commonly used in modern medicine.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Malpighian tubules are specialized excretory structures found in the circulatory system of many arthropods, including insects. They are named after Marcello Malpighi, an Italian physician and biologist who was one of the first to describe them. These tubules play a crucial role in eliminating waste products and maintaining water and ion balance within the insect's body.

Functionally, Malpighian tubules are analogous to the vertebrate kidneys as they filter the hemolymph (insect blood) and reabsorb necessary substances while excreting waste materials. The main waste product excreted by these tubules is uric acid, which is a less toxic form of nitrogenous waste compared to urea or ammonia, making it more suitable for terrestrial arthropods.

Malpighian tubules originate from the midgut epithelium and extend into the hemocoel (insect body cavity). They are lined with a single layer of epithelial cells that contain microvilli, increasing their surface area for efficient filtration. The tubules receive nutrient-rich hemolymph from the hemocoel through open-ended or blind-ended structures called ostia.

The filtrate formed by Malpighian tubules passes through a series of cellular transport processes involving both active and passive transport mechanisms. These processes help in reabsorbing water, ions, and nutrients back into the hemolymph while concentrating waste products for excretion. The final waste-laden fluid is then released into the hindgut, where it gets mixed with fecal material before being eliminated from the body through the anus.

In summary, Malpighian tubules are vital excretory organs in arthropods that filter hemolymph, reabsorb essential substances, and excrete waste products to maintain homeostasis within their bodies.

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is a type of intermediate filament protein that is primarily found in astrocytes, which are a type of star-shaped glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). These proteins play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity and stability of astrocytes. They also participate in various cellular processes such as responding to injury, providing support to neurons, and regulating the extracellular environment.

GFAP is often used as a marker for astrocytic activation or reactivity, which can occur in response to CNS injuries, neuroinflammation, or neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated GFAP levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood can indicate astrocyte damage or dysfunction and are associated with several neurological conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Alexander's disease.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Complementary RNA refers to a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to another RNA or DNA sequence in terms of base pairing. In other words, it is the nucleic acid strand that can form a double-stranded structure with another strand through hydrogen bonding between complementary bases (A-U and G-C). Complementary RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as transcription, translation, and gene regulation. For example, during transcription, the DNA template strand serves as the template for the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand, known as the primary transcript or pre-mRNA. This pre-mRNA then undergoes processing to remove non-coding sequences and generate a mature mRNA that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Complementary RNAs are also involved in RNA interference (RNAi), where small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) bind to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Phloretin is a type of chemical compound known as a dihydrochalcone, which is found in certain plants. It is a polyphenolic compound that possesses antioxidant properties and is present in apple skin and other fruits and vegetables. In the medical field, phloretin has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its possible role in preventing or treating conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile before it can be recommended for therapeutic use.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1 (SLC12A1) is a protein that functions as a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC1). It is responsible for the transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions across the membrane of cells. This transporter plays a crucial role in regulating the volume and composition of fluids in various tissues, including the inner ear and brain. Dysfunction of this protein has been implicated in several medical conditions, such as hearing loss, balance disorders, and neurological disorders.

4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate is a chemical compound with the formula C6H5ClHgSO3. It is an organomercury compound, where mercury is bonded to a phenyl ring and a sulfonate group. This compound is an white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and denser than water.

It has been used historically as a diuretic and antiseptic, but its use in medicine has been discontinued due to the toxicity of mercury. Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences, including damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and digestive system. Therefore, handling and disposal of 4-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate should be done with caution and in accordance with local regulations for hazardous materials.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

A hypertonic solution is a type of bodily fluid or medical solution that has a higher solute concentration than another solution with which it is being compared. In the context of medicine and physiology, this comparison often refers to the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid (ICF) inside cells versus the extracellular fluid (ECF) outside cells.

In a hypertonic solution, there are more particles or solute molecules per unit of volume compared to another solution. When a cell is exposed to a hypertonic environment, water molecules tend to move out of the cell and into the surrounding fluid in an attempt to balance out the concentration gradient. This can lead to cell shrinkage or dehydration, as the intracellular fluid level decreases.

An example of a hypertonic solution is seawater, which has a higher solute concentration than human blood plasma. If someone with normal blood composition were to drink seawater, water would move out of their cells and into the surrounding fluids due to osmosis, potentially causing severe dehydration and other harmful effects.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Cell size refers to the volume or spatial dimensions of a cell, which can vary widely depending on the type and function of the cell. In general, eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus) tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells (cells without a true nucleus). The size of a cell is determined by various factors such as genetic makeup, the cell's role in the organism, and its environment.

The study of cell size and its relationship to cell function is an active area of research in biology, with implications for our understanding of cellular processes, evolution, and disease. For example, changes in cell size have been linked to various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, measuring and analyzing cell size can provide valuable insights into the health and function of cells and tissues.

A morula is a term used in embryology, which refers to the early stage of development in mammalian embryos. It is formed after fertilization when the zygote (a single cell resulting from the fusion of sperm and egg) undergoes several rounds of mitotic divisions to form a solid mass of 16 or more cells called blastomeres. At this stage, the cells are tightly packed together and have a compact, mulberry-like appearance, hence the name "morula" which is derived from the Latin word for "mulberry."

The morula stage typically occurs about 4-5 days after fertilization in humans and is marked by the beginning of blastulation, where the cells start to differentiate and become organized into an outer layer (trophoblast) and an inner cell mass. The trophoblast will eventually form the placenta, while the inner cell mass will give rise to the embryo proper.

It's important to note that the morula stage is a transient phase in embryonic development, and it represents a critical period of growth and differentiation as the embryo prepares for implantation into the uterine wall.

Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions across the cell membrane. These symporters use the energy derived from the concentration gradient of sodium ions to co-transport potassium and chloride ions into or out of the cell. This process helps maintain electrolyte balance, regulate cell volume, and facilitate various physiological functions such as nerve impulse transmission and kidney function. An example of a Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporter is the NKCC1 (Na-K-2Cl cotransporter).

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

"Quercus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for oak trees in the plant kingdom, specifically within the family Fagaceae. Some people may confuse it with "Quercetin," which is a type of flavonoid antioxidant commonly found in many plants, including oak trees. Quercetin has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but it is not specific to oak trees.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is a computational method used in the field of molecular modeling and molecular physics. It involves simulating the motions and interactions of atoms and molecules over time, based on classical mechanics or quantum mechanics. In MD simulations, the equations of motion for each atom are repeatedly solved, allowing researchers to study the dynamic behavior of molecular systems, such as protein folding, ligand-protein binding, and chemical reactions. These simulations provide valuable insights into the structural and functional properties of biological macromolecules at the atomic level, and have become an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Hydroxyethyl starch derivatives are modified starches that are used as plasma expanders in medicine. They are created by chemically treating corn, potato, or wheat starch with hydroxylethyl groups, which makes the starch more soluble and less likely to be broken down by enzymes in the body. This results in a large molecule that can remain in the bloodstream for an extended period, increasing intravascular volume and improving circulation.

These derivatives are available in different molecular weights and substitution patterns, which affect their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. They are used to treat or prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) due to various causes such as bleeding, burns, or dehydration. Common brand names include Hetastarch, Pentastarch, and Voluven.

It's important to note that the use of hydroxyethyl starch derivatives has been associated with adverse effects, including kidney injury, coagulopathy, and pruritus (severe itching). Therefore, their use should be carefully monitored and restricted to specific clinical situations.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

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The target antigen of NMO-IgG was recently identified as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein, which is mainly expressed in ... Keywords: Neuromyelitis optica, NMO-IgG, anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, early diagnosis, antibody titration ...
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Eculizumab in Aquaporin-4-Positive Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15. 381 (7):614-625. [QxMD ... 15] In 2004, detectable serum antibodies targeting the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) were discovered. [16, 17] In 2015, ... IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med. 2005 Aug 15. 202 (4):473-7. [ ... Abbreviations: AQP4-IgG = aquaporin 4-IgG ; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NMOSD = neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. ...
Re: The selfish brain is regulated by aquaporins and autophagy under nutrient deprivation * Quote ... Re: The selfish brain is regulated by aquaporins and autophagy under nutrient deprivation * Quote ... Re: The selfish brain is regulated by aquaporins and autophagy under nutrient deprivation * Quote ... Re: The selfish brain is regulated by aquaporins and autophagy under nutrient deprivation * Quote ...
PIPs proteins are aquaporins which facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across the cell membrane. ... plasma membrane aquaporin-1, transmembrane protein A, TMP-A, AthH2, transmembrane protein B, TMP-B. ... aquaporins, DyLight 650 conjugated (40 g) Product no: AS09 487-DL650 ... pip-pip11-pip12-pip13-pip14-pip15-aquaporins-dylight-650-conjugated-40-g-2, media => , images => { large => /bilder/ ...
The organization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) into large plasma membrane assemblies provides an opportunity to image membrane-bound ... Determining the Spatial Relationship of Membrane-Bound Aquaporin-4 Autoantibodies by STED Nanoscopy.. Soltys, John N; Meyer, ... Aquaporina 4/imunologia Autoanticorpos/metabolismo Membrana Celular/metabolismo Algoritmos Animais Aquaporina 4/química ... Aquaporina 4/ultraestrutura Autoanticorpos/química Autoanticorpos/ultraestrutura Células CHO Simulação por Computador ...
Dive into the research topics of Correction: Astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 modulates brain plasticity in both mice and ... T2 - Astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 modulates brain plasticity in both mice and humans: a potential gliogenetic mechanism ... Correction: Astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 modulates brain plasticity in both mice and humans: a potential gliogenetic ... Correction: Astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 modulates brain plasticity in both mice and humans: a potential gliogenetic ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and is important for the movement ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and is important for the movement ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and is important for the movement ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and is important for the movement ...
  • Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP-4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the CNS, AQP4 is the most prevalent aquaporin channel, specifically located at the perimicrovessel astrocyte foot processes, glia limitans, and ependyma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assembly of AQP4 monomers into tetramers is similar to other aquaporin channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target antigen of NMO-IgG was recently identified as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein, which is mainly expressed in brain and spinal cord. (go.jp)
  • The water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes and mediates water flux across the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers. (aston.ac.uk)
  • IHC staining of FFPE human small intestine with Aquaporin 4 antibody (clone AQP4/3324). (nsjbio.com)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of purified, BSA-free Aquaporin 4 antibody (clone AQP4/3324) as confirmation of integrity and purity. (nsjbio.com)
  • Analysis of HuProt(TM) microarray containing more than 19,000 full-length human proteins using Aquaporin 4 antibody (clone AQP4/3324). (nsjbio.com)
  • In skeletal muscle, AQP4 (Aquaporin 4, also known as mercurial insensitive water channel), localizes to the sarcolemma of fast-twitch muscle fibers. (nsjbio.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (fslregister.nl)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (fslregister.nl)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (fslregister.nl)
  • Serum anti-neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody was positive and was confirmed by repeat serology (cell-based assay, Mayo Clinic). (neurology.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a chicken aquaporin 4 (AQP4) cDNA that encodes a protein of 335 amino acids showed high homology to mammalian AQP4. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The term 'neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders' (NMOSD) is used as an umbrella term that refers to aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its formes frustes and to a number of closely related clinical syndromes without AQP4-IgG. (nih.gov)
  • The organization of aquaporin -4 (AQP4) into large plasma membrane assemblies provides an opportunity to image membrane -bound AQP4 antibodies (AQP4- IgG ) and evaluate changes in their spatial distribution due to alterations in AQP4 isoform expression and AQP4- IgG epitope specificity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and is important for the movement of water molecules in the brain. (elsevierpure.com)
  • On June 27, 2019, eculizumab, or Soliris, became the first FDA approved treatment for anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adults. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), den viktigste vannkanalen i hjernen, er involvert i hjernens vann- og ionebalanse. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
  • En tidligere studie har vist en assosiasjon mellom rs2075575 CT/TT i AQP4 genet og krybbedød (SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome), og ogs. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
  • Mass photometry measurement of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) sample solubilized using SMALPs. (the-scientist.com)
  • Uplizna (inebilizumab-cdon) is a CD19-directed cytolytic antibody used to treat neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adult patients who are anti- aquaporin -4 (AQP4) antibody positive. (rxlist.com)
  • UPLIZNA is indicated for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adult patients who are anti- aquaporin -4 (AQP4) antibody positive. (rxlist.com)
  • Preliminary study on the association of AQP4 promoter polymorphism with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity in southern Han Chinese patients with idiopathic demyelinating disorders of central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Aquaporin 4-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with meningoencephalitis-like onset: A case report. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, thought to be pathogenic. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Because of these results, a subsequent randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III time-to-event trial over 4 years, Prevention of Relapses in Neuromyelitis Optica (PREVENT), was performed. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • 2 3 4 5 6 ] However, a more recent population-based survey conducted in urban Mangalore has shown a prevalence of 8.3/100,000 for MS and 2.6/100,000 for neuromyelitis optic spectrum diseases (NMOSD). (lww.com)
  • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is a demyelinating disorder that predominantly affects the eyes and spinal cord but can affect other structures in the central nervous system (CNS) that contain aquaporin 4. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, the immune system targets aquaporin 4, a protein that is present on astrocytes in the brain and particularly the spinal cord and optic nerves, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), which is present on the myelin of oligodendrocytes in the same areas of the CNS and possibly other targets. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The encoded protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A portion of amino acids 254-323 from the human protein was used as the immunogen for the Aquaporin 4 antibody. (nsjbio.com)
  • Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in lung: ontogeny, steroid-induced expression, and distribution in rat. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Expression of Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in mouse erythro-leukemia cells: genetic regulation of corticosteroid and chemical induction. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Astrocytes may be recognized as such by their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), aquaporin-4, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1, and other proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Association Between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Level of Aquaporin-4 Protein Expression in Han and Minority Chinese with Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System. (cdc.gov)
  • Aquaporin-9 Protein Is the Primary Route of Hepatocyte Glycerol Uptake for Glycerol Gluconeogenesis in Mice. (lu.se)
  • Purification and characterization of two protein kinases acting on the aquaporin SoPIP2;1. (lu.se)
  • Interestingly, it seems that about 20% of patients who are seronegative for the aquaporin-4 protein and who have NMOSD features also have antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoproteins (MOGs). (medscape.com)
  • Using cryo-electron microscopy, a technology with extremely high resolution, researchers have now, for the first time, managed to produce an image of an aquaporin with a drug candidate bound to the protein. (lu.se)
  • AQP-4 belongs to the aquaporin family of integral membrane proteins that conduct water through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the aquaporin family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels in the plasma membranes of many cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Takata K, Matsuzaki T, Tajika Y. Aquaporins: water channel proteins of the cell membrane. (benthamscience.com)
  • This review focuses on emerging topics encompassing the functional involvement of aquaporin channel proteins (AQPs) and membrane transport systems, also allowing permeation of NO and hydrogen peroxide, a major ROS, in oxidative stress physiology and pathophysiology. (hindawi.com)
  • This notion has been challenged by the discovery of new membrane transport functions, especially those exerted by aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane channel proteins widespread in nature [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are a large family of integral membrane water transport channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water through the cell membrane. (nsjbio.com)
  • Aquaporin (AQP) 4 is a member of the AQP gene family of water-selective transport proteins. (elsevierpure.com)
  • PIPs proteins are aquaporins which facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across the cell membrane. (agrisera.com)
  • Dr. King's research focus early in his tenure was the biology of aquaporin water channel proteins in the respiratory tract as well as other tissues. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The aquaporins (AQPs) form a family of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of water across biological membrane by osmosis, as well as facilitating the diffusion of small polar solutes. (lu.se)
  • Aquaporins are proteins that regulate the flow of water in and out of cells. (lu.se)
  • Conclusion: : Although rare, cortical involvement may exist in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Determining the Spatial Relationship of Membrane-Bound Aquaporin-4 Autoantibodies by STED Nanoscopy. (bvsalud.org)
  • We aimed to validate the prevalence of anti-aquaporin 5 (AQP5) IgG in a non-Korean cohort and to optimize the method to screen the anti-AQP5 IgG. (mdpi.com)
  • Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a water-specific channel located on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. (plos.org)
  • Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a water-specific channel located on the apical membrane of epithelial cells in several sites in mammals, including corneal and pancreatic epithelium, secretory cells in salivary and lacrimal glands, and airway submucosal glands, bronchial epithelium and type I pneumocytes of the respiratory tract. (plos.org)
  • Keratinocyte growth factor modulates alveolar epithelial cell phenotype in vitro: expression of aquaporin-5 (AQP5). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Many isoforms of aquaporin have been identified in mammals, designated AQP0through AQP10. (nsjbio.com)
  • The picture shows how a drug (orange) attaches to the aquaporin (purple), resulting in the aquaporin no longer being able to transport molecules across the cell membrane. (lu.se)
  • Here, we use graph theory-based multimodal network analysis to investigate hypothesis-free mixed networks and associations between clinical disease with neuroimaging markers in 40 aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G antibody seropositive patients (age = 48.16 ± 14.3 years, female:male = 36:4) and 31 healthy controls (age = 45.92 ± 13.3 years, female:male = 24:7). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Aquaporin-4's overall function is to provide fast water transportation as well as maintain homeostatic balance within the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporins are multifunctional water and solute transporters highly divergent in living organisms. (benthamscience.com)
  • Although most aquaporins are only permeable to water, AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and one of the two AQP10 transcripts are also permeable to urea and glycerol. (nsjbio.com)
  • Aquaporins are involved in renal water absorption, generation of pulmonary secretions, lacrimation and the secretion and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor. (nsjbio.com)
  • He was elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 2006 for work on aquaporin water channels. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Reconstitution of water channel function and 2D-crystallization of human aquaporin 8. (lu.se)
  • Aquaporins are water channels found in the cell membranes. (lu.se)
  • It seems that cancer cells may increase the number of aquaporins to enhance their own survival and increase their spreading ability, says Karin Lindkvist, professor of cell biology at Lund University and structural biology researcher. (lu.se)
  • Aquaporin-4-dependent glymphatic solute transport in the rodent brain. (rochester.edu)
  • We investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic characteristics of 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive patients from the UK and Japan. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Other performances that aquaporin-4 is involved in are synaptic plasticity, astrocyte migration, regulation of extracellular space volume, and the homeostasis of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural mechanism of plant aquaporin gating. (lu.se)
  • Current Opinion in Structural Biology 2006, 16 (4):447-456. (lu.se)
  • Aquaporins are central to many mechanisms in our cells , and also play a crucial role in several health conditions such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. (lu.se)
  • 4 Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. (nih.gov)
  • C) Representative fluorescent images of the brain sections stained with the CD4 (green) and aquaporin 4 (red), which are markers of CD4-positive T cells and astrocytic end foot, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • In this chart you will find markers for tendencies based on aquaporin error. (joyfullivingservices.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is essential in the formation of memory as well as synaptic plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • At physiological levels, ROS can improve cellular activities as they are involved in the control of the chemical balance and synaptic plasticity [ 4 ], whereas an excess amount of ROS can damage the endothelium, leading to alteration of the intracellular reduction-oxidation homeostasis [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 4 ⇓ - 6 Although involvement of the peripheral nervous system is a well-documented feature of the disease, the prevalence, the type, and the underlying mechanism of CNS involvement remain unclear. (ajnr.org)
  • Unexpected complexity of the Aquaporin gene family in the moss Physcomitrella patens. (lu.se)
  • Methods: : We describe two patients with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and cortical lesions. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Most patients could survive the initial injury of smaller hemorrhage, but the secondary injury may result in severe neurological deficits and even death [ 4 ]. (karger.com)
  • 4 , 5 , 7 The estimated frequency of CNS involvement ranges from 10-60% in different reports, depending on the parameters studied (eg, patient selection, diagnostic criteria, etc). 4 ⇓ - 6 Patients with pSS can present with a wide range of focal or diffuse neurologic or psychiatric manifestations, including motor/sensory deficits, transverse myelitis, and cognitive impairment. (ajnr.org)
  • 4 ⇓ - 6 The current data from MRI studies support an increased frequency of high signal intensity lesions in the periventricular and/or subcortical WM on FLAIR and T2-weighted imaging, observed mainly in patients with pSS and evidence of CNS disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Association of the HLA-DPB1*0501 allele with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity in Japanese patients with idiopathic central nervous system demyelinating disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Aquaporin-4-autoimmunity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A predominantly population-based study. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, age at disease onset and genetic factors are both likely to be important in determining clinical outcomes in aquaporin-4 disease. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The aquaporin-4 tetramers accumulate to transform into orthogonal arrays of particle (OAPs) in the cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic organization and developmental expression of aquaporin-5 in lung. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Structure and Stability of the Spinach Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 in Detergent Micelles and Lipid Membranes. (lu.se)
  • They have also shown that the drug affects the growth capability of leukemia cells by inactivating aquaporins. (lu.se)
  • Genetics 2018 2 4 (1): e213. (cdc.gov)
  • Cerebrovasc Dis (2016) 42 (3-4): 155-169. (karger.com)
  • A limited number of aquaporins are found within the central nervous system (CNS): AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11, but more exclusive representation of AQP1, 4, and 9 are found in the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporins in complex tissues: I. Developmental patterns in respiratory tract and glandular tissue of rat. (hopkinsmedicine.org)