Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Eye ProteinsBody Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.AnguillaOsmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Mesembryanthemum: A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nobel PrizeRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.PhloretinMicroscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1: Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (1/452)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Expression and localization of aquaporins in rat gastrointestinal tract. (2/452)

A family of water-selective channels, aquaporins (AQP), has been demonstrated in various organs and tissues. However, the localization and expression of the AQP family members in the gastrointestinal tract have not been entirely elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression and distribution of several types of the AQP family and to speculate on their role in water transport in the rat gastrointestinal tract. By RNase protection assay, expression of AQP1-5 and AQP8 was examined in various portions through the gastrointestinal tract. AQP1 and AQP3 mRNAs were diffusely expressed from esophagus to colon, and their expression was relatively intense in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, AQP4 mRNA was selectively expressed in the stomach and small intestine and AQP8 mRNA in the jejunum and colon. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated cellular localization of these AQP in these portions. AQP1 was localized on endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in the submucosa and lamina propria throughout the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 was detected on the circumferential plasma membranes of stratified squamous epithelial cells in the esophagus and basolateral membranes of cardiac gland epithelia in the lower stomach and of surface columnar epithelia in the colon. However, AQP3 was not apparently detected in the small intestine. AQP4 was present on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cells in the lower stomach and selectively in the basolateral membranes of deep intestinal gland cells in the small intestine. AQP8 mRNA expression was demonstrated in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum and colon by in situ hybridization. These findings may indicate that water crosses the epithelial layer through these water channels, suggesting a possible role of the transcellular route for water intake or outlet in the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cells along the rat nephron revealed by antigen retrieval. (3/452)

The Na/K-ATPase plays a fundamental role in the physiology of various mammalian cells. In the kidney, previous immunocytochemical studies have localized this protein to the basolateral membrane in different tubule segments. However, intercalated cells (IC) of the collecting duct (CD) in rat and mouse were unlabeled with anti-Na/K-ATPase antibodies. An antigen retrieval technique has been recently described in which tissue sections are pretreated with sodium dodecyl sulfate before immunostaining. This procedure was used to reexamine the presence of Na/K-ATPase in IC along the rat nephron using monoclonal antibodies against the Na/K-ATPase alpha-subunit. Subtypes of IC along the nephron were identified by their distinctive staining with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the 31-kD vacuolar H+ -ATPase subunit, whereas principal cells (PC) were labeled with a polyclonal antibody to the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). In PC, the Na/K-ATPase and AQP-4 staining colocalized basolaterally. In contrast to previous reports, we found that IC of all types showed basolateral labeling with the anti-Na/K-ATPase antibody. The staining was quantified by fluorescence image analysis. It was weak to moderate in IC of cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts and most intense in IC of the initial inner medullary collecting duct. IC in the initial inner medulla showed a staining intensity that was equivalent or stronger to that in adjacent principal cells. Models of ion transport at the cellular and epithelial level in rat kidney, therefore, must take into account the potential role of a basolateral Na/K-ATPase in intercalated cell function.  (+info)

Renal expression of aquaporins in liver cirrhosis induced by chronic common bile duct ligation in rats. (4/452)

Semiquantitative immunoblotting was used to investigate the expression levels of the four major renal aquaporins, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb, the type 3 Na-H exchanger, and the Na-K-ATPase in kidneys from rats with cirrhosis secondary to common bile duct ligation (CBDL). These rats had significant water retention and hyponatremia. In contrast to models of cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride, aquaporin-2 expression in CBDL-induced cirrhosis was decreased. Thus, these results show that in the setting of extracellular fluid volume expansion, excessive water retention with hyponatremia can occur in the absence of increases in aquaporin-2 abundance. In addition, the expression levels of the two basolateral collecting duct aquaporins (aquaporin-3 and -4) were decreased in CBDL rats relative to sham-operated control rats. Similarly, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter of the thick ascending limb and the type 3 Na-H exchanger showed decreases in expression. In contrast, the expression levels of aquaporin-1 and the all subunit of the Na-K-ATPase were not decreased. Thus, dysregulation of multiple water channels and ion transporters may play a role in water balance abnormalities associated with CBDL-induced cirrhosis in rats.  (+info)

High-resolution immunogold cytochemistry indicates that AQP4 is concentrated along the basal membrane of parietal cell in rat stomach. (5/452)

Gastric parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid in stomach. Because the secreted HCl solution is isotonic with the plasma fluid, it should accompany the water transport across the membranes of parietal cells. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that play the central role in the cellular handling of water in various mammalian tissues. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that AQP4 was expressed only in parietal cells of rat gastric mucosa. Immunogold electron microscopy study further demonstrated that AQP4 was mostly localized at the basal membrane of parietal cells. In the basal membrane, AQP4 was prominently enriched on the portion contacting with the basement membrane surrounding gastric glands. These results suggest that the contact between basement membrane and basal membrane may generate the signal involved in the targeting of AQP4 in gastric parietal cells.  (+info)

Role of aquaporin-4 in airspace-to-capillary water permeability in intact mouse lung measured by a novel gravimetric method. (6/452)

The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4, or AQP1/AQP4 together. An apparatus was constructed to measure lung weight continuously during pulmonary artery perfusion of isolated mouse lungs. Osmotically induced water flux (J(v)) between the airspace and capillary compartments was measured from the kinetics of lung weight change in saline-filled lungs in response to changes in perfusate osmolality. J(v) in wild-type mice varied linearly with osmotic gradient size (4.4 x 10(-5) cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1)) and was symmetric, independent of perfusate osmolyte size, weakly temperature dependent, and decreased 11-fold by AQP1 deletion. Transcapillary osmotic water permeability was greatly reduced by AQP1 deletion, as measured by the same method except that the airspace saline was replaced by an inert perfluorocarbon. Hydrostatically induced lung edema was characterized by lung weight changes in response to changes in pulmonary arterial inflow or pulmonary venous outflow pressure. At 5 cm H(2)O outflow pressure, the filtration coefficient was 4.7 cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) and reduced 1.4-fold by AQP1 deletion. To study the role of AQP4 in lung water transport, AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice were generated by crossbreeding of AQP1 and AQP4 null mice. J(v) were (cm(3) s(-1) mOsm(-1) x 10(-5), SEM, n = 7-12 mice): 3.8 +/- 0. 4 (wild type), 0.35 +/- 0.02 (AQP1 null), 3.7 +/- 0.4 (AQP4 null), and 0.25 +/- 0.01 (AQP1/AQP4 null). The significant reduction in P(f) in AQP1 vs. AQP1/AQP4 null mice was confirmed by an independent pleural surface fluorescence method showing a 1.6 +/- 0.2-fold (SEM, five mice) reduced P(f) in the AQP1/AQP4 double knockout mice vs. AQP1 null mice. These results establish a simple gravimetric method to quantify osmosis and filtration in intact mouse lung and provide direct evidence for a contribution of the distal airways to airspace-to-capillary water transport.  (+info)

Aquaporin-4 is expressed in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments in mouse kidney. (7/452)

Because of the availability of knockout mouse models to examine renal transport mechanisms, it has become increasingly important to describe the cellular distribution of major renal transporters in mice. We have used immunocytochemistry and freeze-fracture electron microscopy to compare the renal distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with that previously described in rat. In rat kidney AQP4 is present exclusively in basolateral membranes of collecting duct principal cells. In mice, however, AQP4 was also detected by immunocytochemistry in basolateral membranes of proximal tubule S3 segments, and not detected in S1 and S2 segments of proximal tubule. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed orthogonal arrays of intramembrane particles (OAPs) on the basolateral membranes of the S3 segment. In AQP4-knockout mice, immunostaining was absent and OAPs were found neither in collecting ducts nor in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. The urinary concentrating capacity after deletion of both AQP1 and AQP4 was further reduced compared with that of AQP1 or AQP4 null mice, suggesting an additive effect of AQP1 and AQP4 in the concentrating mechanism. The functional significance of the apparent species-dependent expression of AQP4 in proximal tubules is unknown, but may relate to physiological differences between rats and mice.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of two bovine aquaporin-4 cDNA isoforms and their expression in brain endothelial cells. (8/452)

Two cDNA isoforms of bovine aquaporin-4 (bAQP4-A and bAQP4-B) were newly isolated. Sequence analysis of both cDNAs revealed open reading frames of 972 (bAQP4-A) and 906 nucleotides (bAQP4-B) with deduced proteins of 323 (bAQP4-A) and 301 amino acid residues (bAQP4-B). Partial 5'-genomic sequence analysis showed that the 5'-noncoding sequences specific to bAQP4-A and -B transcripts were contained in distinct exons, exon 0 for bAQP4-A and new exon X for bAQP4-B. RNase protection assay demonstrated the definite expression of both isoforms in bovine brain. The deduced amino acid sequence of bAQP4-A was highly homologous to the human (97%), rat (95%), and mouse (93%) AQP4. Reverse transcription-PCR detected the expression of AQP4 mRNAs in bovine brain endothelial cells as well as in a variety of bovine organs such as brain, lung, spleen, and kidney. Northern blot analysis indicated that a 6.0 kb message is predominantly expressed in bovine brain and lung.  (+info)

Homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment is essential for its normal function and is maintained by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB proper is made up of endothelial cells (ECs) interconnected by tight junctions (TJs) that reveal a unique morphology and biochemical composition of the bodys vasculature. In this article, we focus on developmental aspects of the BBB and describe morphological as well as molecular special features of the neuro-vascular unit (NVU) involved in barrier induction. Recently, we and others identified the Wnt/b-catenin pathway as crucial for brain angiogenesis, TJ and BBB formation. Based on these findings we discuss other pathways and molecular interactions for BBB establishment and maintenance. At the morphological level, our concept favors a major role for polarized astrocytes (ACs) therein. Orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) that are the morphological correlate of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are specifically formed in the
Recovery from neuronal activation requires rapid clearance of potassium ions (K+) and restoration of osmotic equilibrium. The predominant water channel protein in brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is concentrated in the astrocyte end-feet membranes adjacent to blood vessels in neocortex and cerebellum by association with alpha-syntrophin protein. Although AQP4 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain edema, its functions in normal brain physiology are uncertain. In this study, we used immunogold electron microscopy to compare hippocampus of WT and alpha-syntrophin-null mice (alpha-Syn-/-). We found that ,10% of AQP4 immunogold labeling is retained in the perivascular astrocyte end-feet membranes of the alpha-Syn-/- mice, whereas labeling of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel, Kir4.1, is largely unchanged. Activity-dependent changes in K+ clearance were studied in hippocampal slices to test whether AQP4 and K+ channels work in concert to achieve isosmotic clearance of K+ after neuronal ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in the brains water balance, including edema formation and clearance. There are 6 splice variants; the shorter ones assemble into functional, tetrameric square arrays; the longer is palmitoylated on N-terminal cysteyl residues) (Suzuki et al., 2008). The longest, Aqp4e, has a novel N-terminal domain and forms a water channel in the plasma membrane although various shorter variants dont (Moe et al., 2008). AQP4, like AQP0 (1.A.8.8.2), forms water channels but also forms adhesive junctions (Engel et al., 2008) (causes cytotoxic brain swelling in mice (Yang et al., 2008)) Mice lacking Aqp4 have impaired olfactions (Lu et al., 2008). Aqp4 is down regulated in skeletal muscle in muscular dystrophy (Au et al. 2008). The crystal structure is known to 2.8 Å resolution (Tani et al., 2009). The structure reveals 8 water molecules in each of the four channels, supporting a hydrogen-bond isolation ...
Aquaporin 10 antibody, C-term (aquaporin 10) for WB. Anti-Aquaporin 10 pAb (GTX45889) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Anti-Aquaporin 3 Antibody (#AQP-003) from Alomone Labs is a highly specific rabbit polyclonal Ab directed against an epitope of rat AQP3. Applications: IFC, IHC, IP, WB. Free samples available. Control antigen included. Lyophilized. Global shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for aquaporin research!
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Polyclonal antibody for AQUAPORIN 3/AQP3 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. AQUAPORIN 3/AQP3 information: Molecular Weight: 31544 MW; Subcellular Localization: Basolateral cell membrane; Multi-pa
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 3 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Rat. Cited in 1 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 2 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 4 antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
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Polyclonal antibody for AQP5 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. AQP5 information: Molecular Weight: 28292 MW; Subcellular Localization: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.
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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is uncommon in children, and often seronegative for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG). We conducted a retrospective study of 67 children presenting to a single Australian center with acquired demyelinating syndromes over a 7-year period. All patients were tested for AQP4-IgG. Five children (7.5%) had neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. One child was seropositive for AQP4-IgG (1.5%) and had a relapsing disease course with mild residual deficits. She also had a concomitant motor axonal neuropathy that improved with immunosuppressive therapy. Of the remaining 4 children, 3 had a monophasic course and 1 a relapsing course. Two were tested for anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) antibody and both were seropositive. This study confirms that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is uncommon in children, and that AQP4-IgG seropositivity is rare. Anti-MOG antibodies should be tested in children with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. NMO spectrum disorders are rarely reported in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A previously healthy 42-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment, he presented with acute generalized weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active tuberculosis. It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while
AstraZeneca and its global biologics research and development arm, MedImmune, today announced that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has granted orphan designation to inebilizumab (formerly MEDI-551) for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Developed by MedImmune, inebilizumab is currently in Phase IIb clinical development for NMOSD.. NMOSD is a rare, life-threatening autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which the bodys immune system attacks healthy cells, most commonly in the optic nerves and spinal cord, resulting in severe damage. NMOSD may cause severe muscle weakness and paralysis, loss of vision, respiratory failure, problems with bowel and bladder function and neuropathic pain.1 There is currently no cure or approved medicine for NMOSD, which affects about five in 100,000 people.. Bing Yao, Senior Vice President, R&D and Head of the Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Innovative Medicines unit, MedImmune, said: "The EMAs orphan ...
The redefining of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in 2006 has revealed cases with unique and previously unrecognised presentations. We describe a case of an NMOSD relapse in which seizures were the main clinical feature.. A twenty three year old female first presented in 2006, then thirteen with hyponatraemia and bilateral, severe optic neuritis, in the context of hypothalamic and optic chiasm lesions on MRI brain. Central pontine myelinosis was initially diagnosed but this was revised to an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in 2013. She remained well for nine years albeit with residual neurological disabilities, including mild spastic paraparesis, global hyperreflexia and bilateral extensor plantar responses. She had almost complete loss of vision in both eyes with peripheral sparing evidenced by bilateral optic atrophy. In September 2015 she presented with generalised seizures. MRI brain showed contrast enhancement in the right cingulate gyrus (DWI negative). ...
Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with considerable relapse-related disability. Immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment but many patients do not tolerate first-line immunosuppressive agents, or experience ongoing relapses. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of methotrexate in aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive NMO spectrum disorders. Methods: Retrospective observational case series of 14 aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO and NMO spectrum disorder patients treated with methotrexate at two specialist centres within the UK. Annualised relapse rates, Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and tolerability were evaluated. Results: Median duration of treatment with methotrexate was 21.5 months (range 6-28 months) and only three patients were prescribed it first line. Median annualised relapse rate signi ficantly decreased following treatment (0.18 during methotrexate therapy vs 1.39 premethotrexate; p | 0.005). On
An increasing interest in the role of monocytes in the immune response has yielded findings that monocyte dysregulation is deeply involved in autoimmune diseases such as MS, SLE, and RA. For example, MS monocytes have been reported to be easily activated [30] and to have increased levels of inflammatory cytokine transcription and translation [31] and cell-surface molecule expression [32]. In this study, we hypothesized that NMOSD monocytes are dysregulated in much the same way that MS monocytes are. The data presented here demonstrate that NMOSD monocytes are readily activated and show increased production of inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of IL-10, increased expression of inflammatory surface molecules, and increased frequencies of a non-classical monocyte subset compared to HC monocytes. Interestingly, NMOSD monocytes have an even more inflammatory characteristic in some measures than MS monocytes, which are well-known to be highly inflammatory.. To examine monocyte cytokine ...
Conclusions: Effectiveness of subcutaneous TCZ in NMOSD appears to be similar to that reported for the IV formulation and has an advantage of at-home administration. Prospective, comparative studies of subcutaneous TCZ for NMOSD are warranted....
Results Median annualized relapse rate (ARR) was not significantly different between these groups. Pooled analysis of all fixed dosing (n=31, median duration 25 months) versus all variable dosing (n=36, median duration 38 months) showed median and mean ARRs of 0.00 and 0.10 in both groups. Patients on fixed dosing received a median 3.9 infusions/year; those on variable doing received only 1.5 infusions/year. ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optic neuritis or longitudinally extensive myelitis in Sjogren syndrome (SS) suggests a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, brain abnormalities of SS remain to be elucidated for the association with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: Twelve primary SS patients (all women, 42 +/- 13.2 years) who had recurrent central nervous system (CNS) manifestations with brain involvement were retrospectively identified. Brain MRI, and neurologic and serologic findings were analyzed with the measurement of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). RESULTS: All patients showed brain lesions characteristic of NMO as follows: 1) the involved sites adjacent to the third and fourth ventricles and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, 2) unique configurations, such as the longitudinal course from the internal capsule to the midbrain, large cerebral or cerebellar lesions over 3 cm, and cavity-like formations. AQP4-Ab was positive in six of eight patients tested, and all
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p | 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p | 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of |= 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p | 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse,
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p , 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p , 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p , 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse, ...
Background: The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective: To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods: Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%). Results: Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p , 0.0003), to more often have signs of co-existing autoimmunity (p , 0.00001), and to experience more severe clinical attacks. A visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 during acute optic neuritis (ON) attacks was more frequent among seropositives (p , 0.002). Similarly, motor symptoms were more common in seropositive patients, the median Medical Research Council scale (MRC) grade worse, ...
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sj grens syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. In addition, whereas NMOSD was initially thought to spare the brain, it is now recognized that brain lesions occur in a majority of NMOSD patients. Therefore, it is important for the multi-disciplinary team of physicians who care for SS patients to understand this widening spectrum of NMOSD as encompassing brain lesions. In this case-report we describe clinical features, radiographic findings, and ...
Brain. 2019 Jun 1;142(6):1598-1615. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz106.. Cotzomi E1,2, Stathopoulos P1,2, Lee CS1,2, Ritchie AM3, Soltys JN3, Delmotte FR2, Oe T2, Sng J2, Jiang R2, Ma AK4, Vander Heiden JA1, Kleinstein SH2,4,5, Levy M6, Bennett JL3, Meffre E2, OConnor KC1,2.. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) constitute rare autoimmune disorders of the CNS that are primarily characterized by severe inflammation of the spinal cord and optic nerve. Approximately 75% of NMOSD patients harbour circulating pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the aquaporin-4 water channel (AQP4). The source of these autoantibodies remains unclear, but parallels between NMOSD and other autoantibody-mediated diseases posit compromised B cell tolerance checkpoints as common underlying and contributing factors. Using a well established assay, we assessed tolerance fidelity by creating recombinant antibodies from B cell populations directly downstream of each checkpoint and testing them for polyreactivity and ...
In this study, we analyzed defined epitopes in the extracellular loops of AQP4 recognized by AQP4-IgG positive serum and CSF samples of 47 NMOSD patients. Overall, we found reduced binding to all mutations and AQP4-M1 compared to the AQP4-M23 isoform and distinguished two broad patterns of AQP4-IgG recognition, a loop A-dependent pattern A and a loop A-independent pattern B. Further, we observed reduced binding to multiple AQP4 mutants in the majority of all NMOSD patients indicating that the human AQP4 antibody response is defined by multiple epitopes. These findings are consistent with previous studies showing that serum autoantibodies bind to multiple targets including AQP4 peptides, monomers, and higher order arrays [15, 34]. A comparable study on conformational epitopes of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) could show that the immune response can be directed against one single or multiple epitopes [33].. Introduction of a myc-tag in the extracellular loops A, C, and E reduced the ...
Once again, this issue of Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation (N2) highlights the diversity of the field with studies on a range of clinical disorders and a variety of research approaches. Optic neuritis in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders associated with aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies is considered steroid responsive, although patients can accumulate disability with recurrent attacks. For these patients, Stiebel-Kalish et al.1 investigated whether the time from symptom onset to steroid treatment affected outcome. This was a retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of patients after their first AQP4 or MOG antibody-related attack of optic neuritis. The results showed that patients from both cohorts who received treatment within 4 days of symptom onset had improved outcomes compared with patients treated later and that even a 7-day delay negatively affected outcome. The authors suggest that ...
Kahlenberg JM, Thacker SG, Berthier CC, Cohen CD, Kretzler M, and Kaplan MJ. Inflammasome Activation of IL-18 Results in Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Journal of Immunology 2011; 187:6143-56.. Kahlenberg JM, Kaplan MJ. The Interplay of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2011; 13:203-212.. Kahlenberg JM, Fox DA. Advances in the Medical Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Hand Clinics of North America 2011; 27(1):11-20.. Kahlenberg JM. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder as an Initial Presentation of Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 2011; 40(4):343-8.. ...
All participants will receive open-label eculizumab by intravenous infusion during the Primary Treatment Period, starting on Day 1 and for a total of 52/53 weeks. The dosing regimen will be based on the participants body weight. As body weight changes during the study, the participants weight cohort and dose may change accordingly.. After completing the 52/53-week Primary Treatment Period, participants may continue receiving eculizumab in the Extension Treatment Period for 104 weeks. ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Neuromyelitis Optica Drug Revenue, means the sales value of Neuromyelitis Optica Drug This report studies sales (consumption) of Neuromyelitis Optica Drug in Europe market, especially in Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy, Spain and Benelux, focuses on top players in these countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these Countries, c
Clinical Message Neuromyelitis optica is certainly a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. myelitis. The syndrome was eponymously named Devics disease 2. The discovery of a specific NMO immunoglobulin (NMO‐IgG) opened a new era in the classification and understanding of the pathogenesis of NMO 3. NMO‐IgG binds to aquaporin‐4 which is the main channel that regulates water homeostasis in the CNS. Diagnostic criteria for NMO with aquaporin‐4 antibodies (AQP4‐Ab) requires at least one core clinical characteristic a positive test for AQP4‐Ab using best available detection method (cell‐based assay recommended) and exclusion of alternative diagnoses 1. The core clinical characteristics are for example optic neuritis severe myelitis severe brainstem symptoms symptomatic narcolepsy or symptomatic cerebral symptoms with regular NMO human brain lesions 1. Neuromyelitis optica should be MK-2206 2HCl ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, sometimes called Devic disease) is a severe, relapsing, autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating central nervous system disease that predominantly affects optic nerves and the spinal cord. The disorder is now recognized as a spectrum of autoimmunity targeting the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) may involve the brain and brainstem with symptoms of encephalopathy (particularly in children). The initial symptoms may be bouts of intractable nausea and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging typically reveals large inflammatory spinal cord lesions involving 3 or more vertebral segments. During acute attacks, the cerebrospinal fluid contains inflammatory cells, but usually lacks evidence of intrathecal IgG synthesis. The clinical course is characterized by relapses of optic neuritis or transverse myelitis, or both.. Prior to introducing a serological biomarker for NMO, the disorder was thought to be confined exclusively to the ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), sometimes called Devic disease, is a severe, relapsing, autoimmune inflammatory, and demyelinating central nervous system disease that predominantly affects optic nerves and the spinal cord. The disorder is now recognized as a spectrum of autoimmunity targeting the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) may involve the brain and brainstem with symptoms of encephalopathy (particularly in children). The initial symptoms may be bouts of intractable nausea and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging typically reveals large inflammatory spinal cord lesions involving 3 or more vertebral segments. During acute attacks, the cerebrospinal fluid contains inflammatory cells, but usually lacks evidence of intrathecal IgG synthesis. The clinical course is characterized by relapses of optic neuritis or transverse myelitis, or both.. Prior to introducing a serological biomarker for NMO, the disorder was thought to be confined exclusively to the ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis and myelitis and, unlike multiple sclerosis, was initially thought to spare the brain in the early stages. The term NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was recently used to qualify restricted forms of the disorder, which include recurrent optic neuritis, relapsing transverse myelitis and some encephalitic/brainstem presentations associated with positive aquaporin4 antibodies. It was also recently found that other immunological targets such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) may be associated with seronegative NMO patients. In the present study, we detail the moving concept of NMOSD from the recent years and propose some therapeutic strategies that are clearly different compared with multiple sclerosis treatment.
Free Online Library: Immunotherapy of neuromyelitis optica.(Report) by Autoimmune Diseases; Health, general Methods Patient outcomes Medical research Medicine, Experimental Neuromyelitis optica Care and treatment Precision medicine Research
A Japanese randomized controlled study showed that Interferon â (IFN-â1b) therapy is clinically effective in decreasing the frequency of attacks in multiple sclerosis (MS), even in optico-spinal MS (OSMS). However, recent studies have shown that IFN-â (IFN-â1a/IFN-â1b) treatment was not effective in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients and that the diminished benefit of IFN-â treatment in NMO may be due to different immune responses to IFN-â. We determined longitudinally the expression of CCR5, CXCR3 and CCR4 on CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the blood from patients with NMO and MS treated with IFN-â1b. During a 12-month period of IFN-â1b therapy, the annualized relapse rate decreased in MS patients but not in NMO patients. There was no significant difference in the expression of the chemokine receptors between NMO and MS at baseline. The percentages of CD4+CCR5+ and CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, representative of the Th1 response, were decreased in both NMO and MS after treatment. The percentage of CD4
Nonetheless, certain immunologic features of NMO are shared with this novel MOG Ig-associated opticospinal inflammatory disease. Whereas oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs) are identified in the CSF of most patients with MS, they are detected in only a minority of patients with NMO.33 As in NMO, OBs were rarely detected in patients with MOG Ig-associated opticospinal inflammatory disease.3 It is recognized that NMO IgG is mostly produced outside the CNS, as studies have demonstrated that its concentration in serum is many times higher than in CSF.34 Thus, both the identification of MOG-specific antibodies in the serum and the relative absence of CSF OBs suggest that, like in NMO, the MOG-specific humoral immune process occurs predominantly outside the CNS in these patients. Of interest, histologic analysis of NMO lesions in experimental animal studies suggests that the unique cellular composition of NMO lesions may reflect the complement-fixing properties of NMO IgG, an IgG1 subtype.35 While presumably ...
This webinar will provide an overview of novel biomarker discoveries and advances being made in the study of autoimmune gliopathies. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, considered under the umbrella term, "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy," represent an evolving spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases for which a specific antigen has been identified-the astrocytic water channel protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The discovery of AQP4-IgG represents a significant shift from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte, and it was the first proven autoimmune gliopathy biomarker.. Continued progress in our understanding of the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity necessitates continuing revision of the clinical diagnostic criteria for NMO spectrum disorders. As the clinical spectrum broadens, the importance of highly specific assays that detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG-targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 cannot be ...
To our knowledge, we here present the first Caucasian NMO patient who developed a tumefactive brain lesion on long-term IFN-β treatment. Our case confirms and extends similar findings in two Asian NMOSD patients recently reported by Shimizu and colleagues [6]. Obviously the development of a tumefactive brain lesion during IFN-β therapy of NMO is not linked to a specific ethnicity. Moreover, in line with results obtained previously in other cohorts, our patient experienced numerous relapses under IFN-β therapy. Why NMO patients fail to respond to IFN-β remains so far unclear. Possible explanations consider the complex immunomodulatory effects of IFN-β, including the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines observed in MS [8]. Since in NMOSD higher CNS levels of IL-17 are observed than in MS [9], it may be speculated that IL-17 biology may play a role in NMO unresponsiveness to IFN-β. Moreover, a recent study in NMO patients could link serum levels of IFN-α, a type I interferon closely ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO; Devic syndrome) is a clinically defined, severe CNS demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis (ON) and acute myelitis; the presence of CNS symptoms outside the optic nerves and spinal cord has until recently excluded the diagnosis.. Diagnosis requires all absolute criterion and one major supportive criteria or two minor supportive criteria. Absolute criteria:. ...
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a rare, devastating demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that has different causes and treatments from the more common demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Current NMO therapies are nonspecific and have varying and often suboptimal benefit. The investigators will evaluate whether use of alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT, an FDA-approved medication for patients with congenital deficiency of A1AT associated with emphysema) can benefit acute attacks of NMO, improving patient disability and quality of life ...
Mayo Clinic researchers have identified a new therapy for patients with neuromyelitis optica that appears to stop inflammation of the eye nerves and spinal cord. NMO is a debilitating central nervous system disorder that is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the study, patients with severe symptoms of the disease, also known as NMO, were given eculizumab, a drug typically used to treat blood disorders.
Mayo Clinic researchers have identified a new therapy for patients with neuromyelitis optica that appears to stop inflammation of the eye nerves and spinal cord. NMO is a debilitating central nervous system disorder that is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the study, patients with severe symptoms of the disease, also known as NMO, were given eculizumab, a drug typically used to treat blood disorders.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease that selectively involves the optic nerves and the spinal cord but usually spares the brain
Neuromyelitis optica (also referred as Devic disease) is an inflammatory and immunologic disease of the central nervous system that causes demyelination of the optic nerve and spinal cord.
ObjectiveTo characterize factors that contribute to symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.Setti
Learn more about Neuromyelitis Optica causes, sign and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis at FindaTopdoc. Read more information on homeopathic remedies, risks, and prevention.
Neuromyelitis Optica (Devics Syndrome) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-04-11 Available for US$ 2000 at Researchmoz.us
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) was convened to develop revised diagnostic criteria using systematic literature reviews and electronic surveys to facilitate consensus. The new nomenclature defines the unifying term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which is stratified further by serologic testing (NMOSD with or without AQP4-IgG). The core clinical characteristics required for patients with NMOSD with AQP4-IgG include clinical syndromes or MRI findings related to optic nerve, spinal cord, area postrema, other brainstem, diencephalic, or cerebral presentations. More stringent clinical criteria, with additional neuroimaging findings, are required for diagnosis of ...
Neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) drinking water channels within the central nervous program resulting in immune-mediated damage. rAbs by quantitative immunofluorescence. Whereas all NMO rAbs needed conserved loop C (137TP138 and Val150) and loop E (230HW231) proteins for binding two SR9243 wide patterns of NMO-IgG reputation could be recognized predicated on differential level of sensitivity to loop A amino acidity changes. Design 1 NMO rAbs had been insensitive to loop A mutations and may be additional discriminated by differential level of sensitivity to amino acidity adjustments in loop C (148TM149 and His151) and loop E (Asn226 and Glu228). On the other hand pattern 2 NMO rAbs demonstrated significantly decreased binding pursuing amino acid adjustments in loop A (63EKP65 and Asp69) and loop C (Val141 His151 and Leu154). Amino acidity substitutions at 137TP138 modified loop C conformation and abolished the binding of most NMO rAbs and NMO-IgG ...
The findings could lead to better care for the thousands of patients around the world with NMO. The paper was published in the journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA.. VIDEO ALERT: Additional audio and video resources, including excerpts from an interview with Dr. Vanda Lennon describing the research, are available on the Mayo Clinic News Blog.. NMO is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that damages the optic nerves and spinal cord, causing vision loss, weakness, numbness and, sometimes, arm and leg paralysis and loss of bowel and bladder control. NMO was historically misdiagnosed as a severe variant of MS until 2005 when a team led by Vanda A. Lennon, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic research immunologist, identified an antibody unique to NMO, and discovered that its unexpected target was the major water channel of the central nervous system (aquaporin-4). A blood test emerging from this discovery has revolutionized the diagnosis of NMO, allowing ...
Aquaporins facilitate osmotically driven water movement across cell membranes. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a major water channel in the central nervous system where it participates in cerebral water balance. AQP4 is also present in basolateral membranes of lower respiratory tract airway and renal collecting duct epithelial cells, gastric parietal cells and skeletal muscle cells. However, the distribution of AQP4 in many other tissues is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and relative abundance of AQP4 in human Tissue MicroArrays (TMAs) and human protein microarrays by immunohistochemistry and chemiluminescence. In the central nervous system AQP4 was abundantly expressed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex (purkinje/granular layer), ependymal cell layer, hippocampus and spinal cord. Lower levels were detected in choroid plexus, white matter and meninges. In the musculoskeletal system AQP4 was highly expressed in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle from the chest ...
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Understand more about this condition that affects the spinal cord and eye nerves, and is sometimes mistaken for multiple sclerosis.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) is an adhesive molecule responsible for myelin sheath structural integrity and maintenance. Patients with spectrum of inflammatory demyelinating disease particularly in central nervous system are reported to have antibodies against this protein. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis, clinically isolated syndrome, neuro-myelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, acute disseminated ...
Background/Aim Water main breaks can occur due to the stresses of an aging infrastructure and changing climate. Water main breaks are a public health concern because they can cause pressure transients (specifically, abrupt decreases in water pressure/flow in the pipeline), which can lead to the intrusion of contaminants. In May 2010, a major water main break affected approximately 2 million residents in 30 Greater Boston communities and a boil order was issued. This study examines the association between the main break and subsequent hospital visits for gastrointestinal illness. Methods A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and hospital outpatient visits for gastrointestinal (GI) illness following the main break in 2010. ER and hospital outpatient data were obtained from the State of Massachusetts. GI illness was defined using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Main break details were obtained from archived press releases. Controls were selected using a time-stratified ...
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Q: What is Devics disease? Is it a kind of multiple sclerosis?A: Doctors Devic and Gault first described Devics disease (now called neuromyelitis optica or NMO) in 1894 from their experience with 16 patients. NMO is a rare disease of the central nervous system, affecting about 4000 Americans every year. It can affect anyone, but is much more common in women than men, with a mean age of onset of about 40.NMO is an autoimmune disease (the bodys own antibodies attack normal
Q: What is Devics disease? Is it a kind of multiple sclerosis?A: Doctors Devic and Gault first described Devics disease (now called neuromyelitis optica or NMO) in 1894 from their experience with 16 patients. NMO is a rare disease of the central nervous system, affecting about 4000 Americans every year. It can affect anyone, but is much more common in women than men, with a mean age of onset of about 40.NMO is an autoimmune disease (the bodys own antibodies attack normal
Q: What is Devics disease? Is it a kind of multiple sclerosis?A: Doctors Devic and Gault first described Devics disease (now called neuromyelitis optica or NMO) in 1894 from their experience with 16 patients. NMO is a rare disease of the central nervous system, affecting about 4000 Americans every year. It can affect anyone, but is much more common in women than men, with a mean age of onset of about 40.NMO is an autoimmune disease (the bodys own antibodies attack normal
New NMO Diagnostic Criteria to Focus on Biomarker, Reflect Breadth of Presentations. New diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that place greater emphasis on whether a biomarker is detected are expected later this year. The new criteria permit a confident diagnosis of NMO after a single symptom in some patients and, hence, the initiation of optimal therapies for the autoimmune disorder, Brian G. Weinshenker, MD, FRCP (C) told attendees at a symposium yesterday at the 2014 Cooperative Meeting of CMSC and ACTRIMS in Dallas, TX... Read More ...
The Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel contributes to brain water homeostasis in perivascular astrocyte endfeet where it is concentrated. We postulated that AQP4 is tethered at this site by binding of the AQP4 C terminus to ...
Rounder head designs may predispose Asians and African-Americans to a more severe form of MS called Devics disease, which is also known as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or optic spinal MS.
Our International Clinical Consortium consists of thought leaders in over 65 institutions engaged in translational research and who practice medicine focused on Neuromyelitis Optica. These resources are coordinated by the GJCF to promote NMO research and facilitate industry-sponsored trial.. ...
I did a major water change. Several of the female platies were looking very unhappy, so I decided to try a major water change. I changed about 12.5 gallons, probably about 25% of the total water in the tank. I managed to bring the NO2- levels down to between 1 and 3 ppm, down from the "danger" zone to the "stress" zone. Obviously I lowered the NO3- level as well - nothing I could do about that. Hopefully the plants wont mind too much - after all, from what I have read, Fe is the major limiting nutrient ...
PDB 2B6O, EMDB 2973 - 1.9Å resolutuion electron crystallography structure of the water channel Aquaporin-0 in its closed state. ...
Simultaneous multiview capture and fusion improves spatial resolution in wide-field and light-sheet microscopy. Yicong Wu, Panagiotis Chandris, Peter W. Winter, Edward Y. Kim, Valentin Jaumouillé, Abhishek Kumar, Min Guo, Jacqueline M. Leung, Corey Smith, Ivan Rey-Suarez, Huafeng Liu, Clare M. Waterman, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi, Patrick J. La Riviere, and Hari Shroff. Optica 3(8), 897-910 (2016) View: HTML , PDF [Suppl. Mat. (10)] ...
1. Cambier S, Gline S, Mu D et-al. Integrin alpha(v)beta8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-beta by perivascular astrocytes: an angiogenic control switch. Am. J. Pathol. 2005;166 (6): 1883-94. Am. J. Pathol. (link) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation. ...
Underfilling will almost certainly improve the performance of an area array assembly in drop, vibration, etc. However, depending on the selection of materials, the thermal fatigue life may easily end up worse than without an underfill. This is even more true for lead free than for eutectic SnPb soldered assemblies. If reworkability is required, the bonding of the corners or a larger part of the component edges to the printed circuit board (PCB), without making contact with the solder joints, may offer a more attractive materials selection. A 30 mm flip chip ball grid array (FCBGA) component with SAC305 solder balls was attached to a PCB and tested in thermal cycling with underfills and corner/edge bonding reinforcements. Two corner bond materials and six reworkable and nonreworkable underfills with a variety of mechanical properties were considered. All of the present underfills reduced the thermal cycling performance, while edge bonding improved it by up to 50%. One set of the FCBGAs was ...
History & Discovery 54 2 History & Discovery 2.1 Who first described NMO? 2.2 What is the difference between NMO and Multiple Sclerosis? 2.3 How common is NMO? 2.4 Who is affected by NMO? 2.1 Who first
EGFR-mediated expression of aquaporin-3 is involved in human skin fibroblast migration: AQP3 (aquaporin-3), known as an integral membrane channel in epidermal k
In addition to supplying a range of standard specification Off-Axis Paraboloids (OAPs), Optical Surfaces Ltd. offers a consultative design and manufacture service to produce custom OAPs to fulfil the most demanding and specialist applications.
We headed back via the pub. It was another haunted pub called The Old Ship but I cant remember the town it was next to, lunch was fabulous, all of us chipping into a Treacle Pudding. An hour or so later and relaxed in the sun with cups of tea, yes we are all OAPs secretly! I had a soak and then it was time for a pub crawl. I can honestly say I have never seen such a bizarre mixture of people, one pub Howarth Hall is a bit of a hell hole, I wouldnt go back there. The next pub we witnessed a teary lesbian and her vile massive grey thong! Then we went to the Black Bull again and onto the good music pub. Oh saw the most amazingly chav-tastic thing at the first pub we refused to go in. A girl on the outside of a Vauxhall Frontera. She thought she was on Baywatch or something ...
12 "Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these will he do, because I am going to the Father. 13 Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If you ask me[a] anything in my name, I will do it.. ...
We present recent clinical and diagnostic advances in spinal cord imaging. Because of the overlap of different pathologic entities, good knowledge of clinical information is necessary. Degenerative diseases of the spine can sometimes be misleading when the question of a possible tumor rises. The essentials of spinal cord tumors are discussed.. In patients with suspicion of demyelinating disease, the following considerations are of importance: multiple sclerosis (MS) should be differentiated from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and AQP4 and MOG-antibodies should be searched for. There is a growing body of evidence that there is an overlap between NMOSD and acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM).. Acute transverse myelitis is often a diagnosis of exclusion after viral myelitis or autoimmune causes have been excluded. The involvement of specific areas can give an indication for the diagnosis, e.g., area postrema or conus medullaris. New MRI equipment enables more robust ...
The characteristic symptoms of neuromyelitis optica are either optic neuritis or myelitis; either may occur as the first symptom. Optic neuritis is inflammation, of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) leading to pain inside the eye which rapidly is followed by loss of clear vision (acuity). Usually, only one eye is affected (unilateral) although both eyes may be involved simultaneously (bilateral). Neuromyelitis optica may or may not be preceded by a prodromal upper respiratory infection.. The other cardinal syndrome is inflammation of the spinal cord, a condition known as transverse myelitis because the symptoms tend to affect all motor, sensory and autonomic functions (bladder and bowel) below a certain level on the body. Affected individuals may experience pain in the spine or limbs, and mild to severe paralysis (paraparesis to paraplegia) of the lower limbs, and loss of bowel and bladder control. Deep tendon reflexes may be diminished or absent initially and later become exaggerated. A variable ...
Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO) is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV) and grey matter volumes (GMV) and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON) attacks, myelitis attacks and/or
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although AQP4-IgG-driven complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is critical for the formation of NMO lesions, the molecular mechanisms governing optimal classical pathway activation are unknown. We investigated the molecular determinants driving CDC in NMO using recombinant AQP4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4 rAbs) derived from affected patients. We identified a group of AQP4 rAbs targeting a distinct extracellular loop C epitope that demonstrated enhanced CDC on target cells. Targeted mutations of AQP4 rAb Fc domains that enhance or diminish C1q binding or antibody Fc-Fc interactions showed that optimal CDC was driven by the assembly of multimeric rAb platforms that increase multivalent C1q binding and facilitate C1q activation. A peptide that blocks antibody Fc-Fc interaction inhibited CDC induced by AQP4 rAbs and polyclonal NMO patient sera. ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although AQP4-IgG-driven complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is critical for the formation of NMO lesions, the molecular mechanisms governing optimal classical pathway activation are unknown. We investigated the molecular determinants driving CDC in NMO using recombinant AQP4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4 rAbs) derived from affected patients. We identified a group of AQP4 rAbs targeting a distinct extracellular loop C epitope that demonstrated enhanced CDC on target cells. Targeted mutations of AQP4 rAb Fc domains that enhance or diminish C1q binding or antibody Fc-Fc interactions showed that optimal CDC was driven by the assembly of multimeric rAb platforms that increase multivalent C1q binding and facilitate C1q activation. A peptide that blocks antibody Fc-Fc interaction inhibited CDC induced by AQP4 rAbs and polyclonal NMO patient sera. ...
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Plasma Exchange (PLEX) if no improvement occurs with corticosteroids. The goal of PLEX is to lower the level of NMO-IgG in the blood.PLEX involves removing blood from the body through a needle and tubing. Through a series of steps, the plasma (the liquid part of the blood) is separated from blood cells and replaced with an artificial plasma substitute; the plasma substitute and blood cells are combined and returned to the body through an intravenous line. The procedure lasts several hours and may be repeated multiple times over a number of days ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, which is characterized by autoantibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). As one of the main water regulators in the central nervous system, APQ4 is supposed to be involved in the dynamics of brain edema. Cerebral edema seriously affects clinical outcome after ischemic stroke; we therefore aimed to investigate whether NMO-antibodies may exert the same functional effects as an AQP4-inhibitor in-vivo in acute ischemic stroke. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups twice receiving either purified NMO-IgG or immune globulin from healthy controls, 24 hours and 30 minutes before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. T2-weighted MRI was carried out 24 hours after MCAO. MRI-examination showed a significant increase of infarct size in relation to the cerebral hemisphere volume with NMO-IgG treated animals (27.1% ± 11.1% vs. 14.3% ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) when corrected for the
MRI red flags proposed over a decade ago by the European Magnetic Resonance Network in MS (MAGNIMS) have guided clinicians in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the past 10 years have seen increased recognition that vascular disease can coexist and possibly interact with MS, improvements in the reliability of ways to differentiate MS from novel antibody-mediated CNS disorders (such as anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated diseases) and advances in MRI techniques. In this Review, MAGNIMS updates the imaging features that differentiate the most common mimics of MS, particularly age-related cerebrovascular disease and neuromyelitis optica, from MS itself. We also provide a pragmatic summary of the clinically useful MRI features that distinguish MS from its mimics and discuss the future of nonconventional techniques that have identified promising disease-specific features. ...
I was diagnosed with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) also known as Devics disease (similar to MS) last month after my MRI scans showed optic neuritis and brain lesions - and its completely shattered me.. Seven years ago, I experienced the same heartbreak in a cold office when the doctor told me I had systemic lupus. No matter how long youve lived with chronic pain, youre never quite prepared for the next invasion of torment. The pain from NMO fused with the suffering of lupus are unbearable at times. I feel ambushed. Walking is a joke as my knees have turned to brick. The pain is unreal. All I want to do is curl up in a blanket, take pain medicine, and sleep all the time (if I could sleep). At least when Im sleeping, Im not crying from the unbearable waves of pain or feeling the sting of missing the things I could once do normally.. Living with chronic disease wrecks you emotionally and it devastates all parts of your life. Im a teacher, and Ive missed sixteen days of work and its barely ...
Over the last years it has become clear that many neurological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are induced by an adaptive immune response directed against molecules expressed on CNS-resident cells. Prototypic examples are anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which is induced by an immune response against the NMDAR expressed on neurons or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in which the disease is induced by antibodies directed against aquaporin-4 expressed on astrocytes. There are many more examples in which it has become clear that a specific adaptive immune response mediated by T or/and B cells is leading to CNS disease. Often the symptoms of the induced disease are not easily interpreted as caused by an immune mediated disease. Beside classical neurological symptoms like ataxia, vision disturbance and motor or sensory symptoms, these can include cognitive disturbances, behavioral abnormalities or/and epileptic seizures. Although much has been learned regarding the
Q: What is Devics disease? Is it a kind of multiple sclerosis?A: Doctors Devic and Gault first described Devics disease (now called neuromyelitis optica or NMO) in 1894 from their experience with 16 patients. NMO is a rare disease of the central nervous system, affecting about 4000 Americans every year. It can affect anyone, but is much more common in women than men, with a mean age of onset of about 40.NMO is an autoimmune disease (the bodys own antibodies attack normal
Lawrence Steinman is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Induction of Paralysis and Visual System Injury in Mice by T Cells Specific for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantigen Aquaporin-4
Cells, Disease, Encephalomyelitis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Granulocyte, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, Optic Nerve, Pathology, Sclerosis, Spinal Cord, Th17 Cells, Treatment
The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, and Excretory Systems.Circulatory system diseases. Lessons. Coronary artery disease.The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the human body. The result is excessive urination and a disease called diabetes insipidus.. Just Passing Through Kidney. or excretory, system in the human body. When the kidney fails due to disease or accident,.From asthma to ulcers, this section is loaded with articles about diseases and conditions that can affect teens.Answers from specialists on diseases that affect the excretory system.Human Excretory System. Protection from Disease - The intact skin prevents invasion of micro-organisms and dust into the body.Malfunctioning of kidneys can lead to accumulation of urea in blood, a condition called uremia, which is.. In this resource from CK-12 we look at some common kidney diseases and dialysis.The classics are clearly Multiple Sclerosis, and far less common, Neuromyelitis Optica, yet, some cases of immune ...
Evaluation of new immunological targets in neuromyelitis optica.(2013) Chanson JB, Paolini I, Collongues N, Alcaro MC, Blanc F, Barbetti F, Fleury M, Peroni E, Rovero P, Rudolf G, Lolli F, Trifilieff É, Papini AM, de Seze J. J Pept Sci. 19(1):25-32. ,doi: 10.1002/psc.2470 ...
The Priority Programme for Drinking Water Supply and Irrigation 2020-2027 has recently been launched in Morocco. It will make it possible to allocate 115 billion Moroccan dirhams (€10.7 billion) to water infrastructure.
Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). Aquaporin 8 mRNA is found in pancreas and colon but not other tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Peptides , Phosphopeptides , Aquaporin-2 (254-267), pSER261, human; This peptide is a fragment of the human aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylated at Ser261. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in vasopressin signaling in renal-collecting duct. Phosphorylation at several AQP2 residues including Ser256 and Ser261, is altered in response to vasopressin. It is possible that both sites are involved in vasopressin-dependent AQP2 trafficking.; RQSVELH-pS-PQSLPR; H-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Glu-Leu-His-pSer-Pro-Gln- Ser-Leu-Pro-Arg-OH
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CORTICOSTEROIDS. Corticosteroids have been the mainstay treatment for NMO in both acute and maintenance phase. Methylprednisolone has been used since 1970 as a potent anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant agent in the treatment of a variety of diseases including those of hematologic, allergic, inflammatory, neoplastic and autoimmune origin. In addition, it is also widely used in prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and acute spinal cord injury. Corticosteroids exert a wide array of physiologic effects including modulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, cardiovascular, immunologic, musculoskeletal, endocrine and neurologic physiologic functions are influenced by corticosteroids. Therefore, not only the positive effects can be observed, but also many adverse events can be originated from corticosteroids use. These adverse events can be seen acutely like ...
Purpose: The expression of aquaporin water channel genes are shown to be affected in several pathological conditions of retina, such as in diabetic retinopathy, retinal ischemia and in autoimmune uveitis. Human native retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and immortalized human RPEs are formerly shown to express aquaporins, still the expression of aquaporins in stem cell derived RPE have not been previously elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of several aquaporin genes (aquaporin1,- 3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -11 and -12) and assess the localization of aquaporin 1 water channel protein in human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived RPE cells.. Methods: hESC- and hiPSC derived RPE cells were grown as monolayer in serum-free media. The expression of aquaporin genes was determined with qRT-PCR. The localization of AQP1-protein was studied with confocal microscopy. Finally, the functionality of aquaporins was assessed with dye ...
Synonyms for Acute transverse myelitis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Acute transverse myelitis. 3 words related to myelitis: inflammation, redness, rubor. What are synonyms for Acute transverse myelitis?
The term malignant multiple sclerosis is used to describe MS patients who reach significant level of disability in a short period of time. The National MS Society Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents consensus defined it as: disease with a rapid progressive course, leading to significant disability in multiple neurologic systems or death in a relatively short time after disease onset. Reaching Expanded Disability Status Scale of 6.0 or higher, which is equivalent of needing unilateral support to ambulate (or worse) is generally considered this significant disability level. Patients with severe forms of more common relapsing remitting or progressive MS subtypes, as well as rare Marburg variant and Balo concentric sclerosis, could be considered to have malignant MS. Patients should be carefully worked up to rule out Neuromyelitis optica (Devics disease) due to the distinctive pathophysiology and management strategies of this disease. Feinstein, Anthony (2007). The clinical ...
A 22-year-old woman presented with photopsia, sensory loss, and paresthesia over both lower extremities, visual scotomas, and painless binocular vision loss over 5 months. MRI showed T2 hyperintensities near the optic chiasm (figure 1, B and C), floor of the fourth ventricle and the colliculi (figure 2, A-F), and central gray matter of the spinal cord (figure 1A). CSF analysis was notable for elevated glucose and lactate; oligoclonal bands, immunoglobulin G index, and aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative. Her maternal uncle has Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and a genetic analysis confirmed an m.3460 G,A mitochondrial DNA point mutation. ...
In the kidney, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is a critical regulator of water homeostasis by controlling the water movement from lumen to the interstitium for water reabsorption and adjusting the urinary water excretion. In normal physiology, AVP is secreted into the circulation by the posterior pituitary gland, in response to an increase in serum osmolality or a decrease in effective circulating volume. When reaching the kidney, AVP binds to V2 receptors on the basolateral surface of the collecting duct epithelium, triggering a G-protein-linked signaling cascade, which leads to water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) vesicle insertion into the apical plasma membrane. This results in higher water permeability in the collecting duct and, driven by an osmotic gradient, pro-urinary water then passes the membrane through AQP2 and leaves the cell on the basolateral side via AQP3 and AQP4 water channels, which are constitutively expressed on the basolateral side of these cells. When isotonicity ...
Aquaporin 4 is found in the astrocytes that surround the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a system responsible for preventing ... In 2005 they identified the aquaporin 4 protein as the target of the disease, and developed a test to aid in the diagnosis of ... These antibodies target the protein aquaporin 4 in the cell membranes of astrocytes which acts as a channel for the transport ... Currently, the most promising non-aquaporin biomarker is the presence of the anti-MOG autoantibody, which together with the ...
Nov 2010). "Aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Baló's disease". Acta Neuropathol. 120 (5): 651-60. doi:10.1007/S00401-010-0733-7. ... Nevertheless, this model is questioned by recent reports that found astrocyte damage, similar to the one found in aquaporin- ... 36 (12): 1610-4. doi:10.1212/WNL.36.12.1610. PMID 3785678. (Article in Spanish) Archived 2007-04-30 at the Wayback Machine. ... 13 (4): 471-482. Darke, Bahador, Miller, Litofsky, Ahsan. Baló's concentric sclerosis: imaging findings and pathological ...
Examples include haemoglobin (pictured), the NMDA receptor, some aquaporins, some AMPA receptors, as well as some enzymes. Ion- ... "Heterotetrameric Composition of Aquaporin-4 Water Channels". Biochemistry. 38 (34): 11156-63. doi:10.1021/bi990941s. PMID ...
Aquaporin-4 in Müller cell in rats, transports water to the vitreous body. The vitreous has many anatomical landmarks, ... Nagelhus, EA; Veruki, ML; Torp, R; Haug, FM; Laake, JH; Nielsen, S; Agre, P; Ottersen, OP (1 April 1998). "Aquaporin-4 water ... The vitreous fluid is not present at birth, but found after age 4-5, and increases in size thereafter. Produced by cells in the ...
Aquaporins. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 190. pp. 159-70. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79885-9_7. ISBN 978-3-540-79884-2. ... Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T. (2009). "Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke". ... 50 (4): 427-34. doi:10.1002/glia.20207. PMID 15846805. Milligan, Erin D.; Watkins, Linda R. (2009). "Pathological and ...
"In vivo requirement of the alpha-syntrophin PDZ domain for the sarcolemmal localization of nNOS and aquaporin-4". J. Cell Biol ... "Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (24): ... 3 (4): 423-33. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80470-0. PMID 10230395. Lumeng C, Phelps S, Crawford GE, Walden PD, Barald K, ... 423 (2): 173-7. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00085-4. PMID 9512352. Hasegawa M, Cuenda A, Spillantini MG, Thomas GM, Buée-Scherrer ...
"IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 202 (4 ... "Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression". Archives of Neurology. 63 (7): 964-968. ... 41 (1): 4-14. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.003. PMID 14727254. Mueller-Eckhardt C, Kiefel V, Grubert A, Kroll H, Weisheit ... 115 (4): 815-21. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.12.1120. Goh, CL; Tan, KT (2009). "Chronic autoimmune urticaria : Where we stand ?". ...
Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein. vol. 98 no. 24. John D. Neely, 14108- ... Journal of Neuroscience 1 January 1998, 18 (1) 128-137 Delayed K+ clearance associated with aquaporin-4 mislocalization: ...
"Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression". Arch. Neurol. 63 (7): 964-968. doi: ... 46 (4): 907-11. doi:10.1212/WNL.46.4.907. PMID 8780061. Kurtzke JF (1983). "Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis ...
Aquaporin-4 in Müller cell in rat, transfer water to vitreous body. Radial glia Müller, Heinrich (1851). "Zur Histologie der ... 4 (3): 247-52. doi:10.1038/85090. PMID 11224540. Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Grimes, William N.; Wohl, Stefanie G ... 4 (6): 786-800. doi:10.1242/dmm.006429. PMC 3209648 . PMID 21757509. Sarthy, P.; Lam, D. M. (1978). "Biochemical studies of ...
NMO-IgG is the immunoglobulin that attacks Aquaporin-4 in Devic's disease. Multiple sclerosis patients do not have it in blood ... 3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 10553992. Tait AR, Straus SK (August 2008). "Phosphorylation of U24 from Human Herpes Virus type 6 (HHV-6) and ... 61 (4): 453-465. doi:10.1002/glia.22443. PMID 23322421. Franciotta D, Salvetti M, Lolli F, Serafini B, Aloisi F (Sep 2008). "B ... 262 (4): 1074-1080. doi:10.1007/s00415-015-7689-4. Y. Ge, Multiple Sclerosis: The Role of MR Imaging, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ...
Aquaporin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP5 gene. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins ... "Entrez Gene: AQP5 aquaporin 5". Verkman AS (2003). "Role of aquaporin water channels in eye function". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Distribution of aquaporin water channels AQP1 and AQP5 in the ductal system of the human pancreas". Gut. 52 (7): 1008- ... 2007). "Stimulation of aquaporin-5 and transepithelial water permeability in human airway epithelium by hyperosmotic stress". ...
Two types of aquaporins are expressed in the CNS: aquaporin-1, which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the ... Aquaporins are membrane-bound channels that play critical roles in regulating the flux of water into and out of cells. Relative ... Aquaporin-4 expression in astrocytes is highly polarized to the endfoot processes ensheathing the cerebral vasculature. Up to ... Yool AJ (2007). "Aquaporins: multiple roles in the central nervous system". Neuroscientist. 13 (5): 470-85. doi:10.1177/ ...
Patients with neuromyelitis optica have high levels of antibodies against a protein called aquaporin 4 (a component of the ... "IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel". J. Exp. Med. 202 (4): 473-7. doi:10.1084 ... 48 (4): 732-42. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.00988.x. PMID 17319915. Seiffert, E.; Dreier, JP; Ivens, S; Bechmann, I; Tomkins, ... 177 (4): 2630-7. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.177.4.2630. PMID 16888025. Lennon, V. A.; Kryzer, TJ; Pittock, SJ; Verkman, AS; Hinson, ...
... arene is found to mimic some properties of the aquaporin proteins. This calixarene adopts a 1,3-alternate conformation (methoxy ... A calix[4]arene has 4 units in the ring and a calix[6]arene has 6. A substituent in the meso position Rb is added to the name ... In calix[4]arenes the internal volume is around 10 cubic angstroms. Calixarenes are characterised by a wide upper rim and a ... In calix[4]arene 4 up-down conformations exist: cone (point group C2v,C4v), partial cone Cs, 1,2 alternate C2h and 1,3 ...
Matsushita T, Isobe N, Matsuoka T, Shi N, Kawano Y, Wu XM, Yoshiura T, Nakao Y, Ishizu T, Kira JI (2009). "Aquaporin-4 ... Vojdani A, Mukherjee PS, Berookhim J, Kharrazian D (2015). "Detection of antibodies against human and plant aquaporins in ... The presence of anti-MOG autoantibodies has been associated with the following conditions Some cases of aquaporin-4- ... 4 332-341, doi:10.1191/1352458503ms931oa Masaki K, Suzuki SO, Matsushita T, Matsuoka T, Imamura S, Yamasaki R, et al. (2013). " ...
This creates osmotic pressure and draws water into the CSF, facilitated by aquaporins. Chloride, with a negative charge, moves ... and specific antibodies such as Aquaporin 4 may be tested for to assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions. A lumbar ... 4 (147): 147ra111. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003748. PMC 3551275 . PMID 22896675. Allan H. Ropper, Robert H. Brown Adams and ... 93 (4): 568-578. doi:10.1093/bja/aeh204. "Intrathecal Chemotherapy for Cancer Treatment , CTCA". CancerCenter.com. Retrieved 22 ...
"Antibodies to aquaporin 4, myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and the glycine receptor α1 subunit in patients with isolated ... 4 times as frequently as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Among ... 13 (4): 214-227. doi:10.1097/CND.0b013e31822b1977. PMID 22622167. Ambrose, H. E.; Granerod, J.; Clewley, J. P.; Davies, N. W. S ... 58 (4): 594-604. doi:10.1002/ana.20614. PMC 2245881 . PMID 16178029. Dalmau, Josep; Tüzün, Erdem; Wu, Hai-yan; Masjuan, Jaime; ...
Other changes include those to the GABA transporter subtype GAT-3, GFAP, glutamine synthetase, and the Aquaporin 4 channel. ... 17 (4): e221-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.11.019. PMID 23274124. Rosen A, van Kuilenburg A, Assmann B, Kuhlen M, Borkhardt A (May ... 20 (4): 289-294. doi:10.1016/s0887-8994(98)00153-2. PMID 10328278. Fattal-Valevski A, Kesler A, Sela BA, et al. (February 2005 ... 17 (4): 199-203. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7133.2011.00239.x. PMID 21790970. Hirsch JA, Parrott J (2012). "New considerations on the ...
ANA, B12, folate, thyroid function tests, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (NMO-IgG), and GFAP can facilitate ruling out of other ... 2015 Aug; 2(4): e131. 2015 Jul 2. doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000131, PMC 4496630 Myers TD, Smith JR, Wertheim MS, Egan RA, ... Apr-May 2014;13(4-5):539-545 Konstantina Chalmoukou el al. Anti-MOG antibodies are frequently associated with steroid-sensitive ...
Other changes include those to the GABA transporter subtype GAT-3, GFAP, glutamine synthetase, and the Aquaporin 4 channel.[47] ... 4 (2): 371-6. doi:10.1159/000328803. PMC 3177792. PMID 21941485.. *^ Martin PR, Singleton CK, Hiller-Sturmhöfel S (2003). "The ... 26 (4): 234-6. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jjco.a023220. PMID 8765181.. *^ Becker JT, Furman JM, Panisset M, Smith C (1990). " ... 41 (4): 1205-9. PMID 2181837.. *^ Mann MW, Degos JD (1987). "L'hypothermie dans l'encéphalopathie de Wernicke" [Hypothermia in ...
Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage ( ... 42 (4): 1324-8. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.028. PMID 18652903. Schelling F. MS: The image and its message Schelling F ( ... 27 (4): 726-31. doi:10.1002/jmri.21294. PMID 18302199. Geurts JJ, Pouwels PJ, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH, Barkhof F, Castelijns JA ... 55 (4): 458-68. doi:10.1002/ana.20016. PMID 15048884. Michael H. Barnett, MBBS; John W. Prineas, MBBS (2004). "Relapsing and ...
... s have aquaporin 4 proteins spanning through their plasma membranes in which water can diffuse, from an area of ...
The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. The aquaporins (AQPs) are water ... Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) from the human red blood cell has been solved by electron crystallography to 3.8 Å resolution (PDB: 1FQY​). ... Aquaporins generally have the NPA motif in both halves, the glycerol facilitators generally have an NPA motif in the first ... Roles of aquaporins in human cancer have been reviewed as have their folding pathways. AQPs may act as transmembrane ...
The presence of anti-MOG autoantibodies has been associated with the following conditions Some cases of aquaporin-4- ... 2 (4): e131. doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000131. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Konstantina Chalmoukou et al. Recurrent ... Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 15, Issue 4, April 2016, Pages 307-324, doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2015.12.004 Ketelslegers, I. A.; Van ... 2016 Apr 28;56(4):265-9. doi: 10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-000756. Epub 2016 Mar 24. PMID 27010093 Kakalacheva, Kristina; et al. ( ...
Nagelhus, EA; Veruki, ML; Torp, R; Haug, FM; Laake, JH; Nielsen, S; Agre, P; Ottersen, OP (1 April 1998). "Aquaporin-4 water ...
4: 76. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00076. PMC 3646240. PMID 23675382.. *^ Pagon RA, Bird TC, Dolan CR, Stephens K, Splawski I, ... 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.05608. PMC 4360655. PMID 25714924.. *^ Imbrici P, Camerino DC, Tricarico D (2013-05-07). "Major channels ... 57 (4): 411-25. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.5. PMID 16382099.. *^ Shaw RM, Colecraft HM (May 2013). "L-type calcium channel targeting ... 166 (12): 1413-4. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09050680. PMID 19952088.. *. Soldatov NM (May 1992). "Molecular diversity of L-type ...
... been shown that more immature brains have an enlarged extracellular space volume and a decreased expression of glial aquaporin ... Whereby the areas for primary senses and motor skills are mostly developed by age 4, other areas, like the frontal cortices ... 4 leading to an increased incidence of brain swelling after TBI. Along with a delayed decrease in cerebral blood flow, these ...
This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active ... It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while evaluating neurological deterioration in patients with ... Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. ... We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for ...
aquaporin-4. myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. neuromyelitis optica. neuropathy. pediatric. Appears in Collections:. Journal ... Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is uncommon in children, and often seronegative for aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4- ... Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Anti-Aquaporin 4 Channel Immunoglobulin in an Australian Pediatric Demyelination ... Of the remaining 4 children, 3 had a monophasic course and 1 a relapsing course. Two were tested for anti-myelin ...
Aquaporin-4s overall function is to provide fast water transportation as well as maintain homeostatic balance within the ... The expression of aquaporin 4 is reliant on the disease stage of TBI. In an acute stage of TBI, the lack of aquaporin 4 causes ... Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin ... Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes. Additionally, AQP4 can also be ...
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 4 antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to ... All lanes : Anti-Aquaporin 4 antibody (ab125049) at 1/2000 dilution. Lane 1 : Rat kidney lysate. Lane 2 : Rat kidney lysate. ... Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the ... corresponding to C terminal amino acids 273-291 of Rat Aquaporin 4 (NP_036957.1). ...
Mouse monoclonal Aquaporin 4 antibody [4/18]. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Human, Zebrafish. ... Cited in 17 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 4 review(s)… ... Therefore, any Aquaporin 4 antibody tested in the species and application you are using should be suitable for your ... Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the ...
2007) Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO: A study on antibody titre. Brain 130:1235-1243. ... 2010) Enhanced IL-6 production in aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica patients. Int J Neurosci 120:71-75. ... 2007) Loss of aquaporin 4 in lesions of neuromyelitis optica: Distinction from multiple sclerosis. Brain 130:1224-1234. ... 2008) Mechanisms of disease: Aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 4:202-214. ...
"Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS. It is also ... The protein, called aquaporin-4, is a channel protein that allows water to move in and out of cells.. "Aquaporin-4 is the first ... Aquaporin-4, which is the most abundant water channel in the brain, is instead located in a different type of cell called ... Aquaporin-4 implicated in a form of multiple sclerosis. Sep 22, 2005 - 4:59:00 AM ...
Membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies regulates classical complement activation in neuromyelitis optica. ... Membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies regulates classical complement activation in neuromyelitis optica. ... Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies ...
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Aquaporins are specialized water transport proteins that play an essential role in brain edema. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is highly ... H. Chu, C. Huang, H. Ding et al., "Aquaporin-4 and cerebrovascular diseases," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol ... G. Tang and G.-Y. Yang, "Aquaporin-4: A potential therapeutic target for cerebral edema," International Journal of Molecular ... G. T. Manley, M. Fujimura, T. Ma et al., "Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ...
Redistribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 and the K+ channel protein Kir4.1 differs in low- and high-grade human ... Lee TS, Eid T, Mane S, Kim JH, Spencer DD, Ottersen OP, Lanerolle NC de (2004) Aquaporin-4 is increased in the sclerotic ... Nico B, Frigeri A, Nicchia GP, Quondamatteo F, Herken R, Errede M, Ribatti D, Svelto M, Roncali L (2001) Role of aquaporin-4 ... Aoki K, Uchihara T, Tsuchiya K, Nakamura A, Ikeda K, Wakayama Y (2003) Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain ...
Ultrastructural changes in brain of control and injured aquaporin-4 wild type (AQP4+/+) and knockout (AQP4−/−) mice in the ... Comparable blood-brain barrier permeability in injured aquaporin-4 wild type (AQP4+/+) and knockout (AQP4−/−) mice as assayed ... Prior indirect evidence has suggested the involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of TBI ... Mildly reduced injury volume and improved clinical outcome in aquaporin-4 knockout (AQP4−/−) mice following controlled cortical ...
Thus, age at disease onset and genetic factors are both likely to be important in determining clinical outcomes in aquaporin-4 ... We investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic characteristics of 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive patients from the UK ... Prognostic factors and disease course in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ... and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, ...
M. C. Papadopoulos and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 and brain edema," Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 778-784, 2007. ... O. Bloch, M. C. Papadopoulos, G. T. Manley, and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 gene deletion in mice increases focal edema ... Effect of Alcohol on Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rat Brainstem: Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Aquaporin-4 Expression Study. Lingmei ... M. C. Papadopoulos, G. T. Manley, S. Krishna, and A. S. Verkman, "Aquaporin-4 facilitates reabsorption of excess fluid in ...
Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat.. [Xiao-Qiang Liu, Hideyuki ... The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested ...
The role of aquaporin water channels in Elasmobanchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is completely unknown. This ... The role of aquaporin water channels in Elasmobanchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is completely unknown. This ... The role of aquaporin water channels such as aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) in elasmobranchs such as the dogfish Squalus acanthias is ... This sub-group in mammals also includes other aquaporins such as AQP0, AQP1, AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 (Ishibashi et al., 2009; ...
Role of aquaporin-4 water channel in the development and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. J. Cell Sci. 114:1297-1307. ... Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxification and ischemic stroke. Nat. Med. 6:159-163. ... IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. Vanda A. Lennon, Thomas J. Kryzer, Sean J ... Aquaporin-4 deficiency in skeletal muscle and brain of dystrophic mdx mice. FASEB J. 15:90-98. ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ... Year: 2008New isoforms of rat Aquaporin-4.Genomics9136737718255256. 2. Silberstein C,Bouley R,Huang Y,Fang P,Pastor-Soler N,et ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and it is mainly expressed by astrocytes and ependymal cells. ...
... Mestre, Humberto; Hablitz, Lauren M.; Xavier, Anna Lr; ... aquaporin-4, cerebrospinal fluid, glymphatic, meta-analysis, mouse, neuroscience, replication study, solute transport. in eLife ... aquaporin-4,cerebrospinal fluid,glymphatic,meta-analysis,mouse,neuroscience,replication study,solute transport}, language = { ... depends upon the expression and perivascular localization of the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Prompted by a ...
Instead, fluid dynamics inside the BBB is realized by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), the water channel that connects astrocyte cytoplasm ... Brain interstitial fluid dynamics, and therefore AQP-4, are now recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, ... Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic ... "Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic ...
Presence of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica has wide implications ...
Evolutionary adaptation of aquaporin-4 in yak () brain to high-altitude hypoxia of Qi... ... Aquaporin 2. Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of ... Aquaporin 1. Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES ... Evolutionary Adaptation of Aquaporin-4 in Yak () Brain to High-Altitude Hypoxia of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.. 08:00 EDT 9th ...
AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays ... A new M23-based ELISA assay for anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibodies: diagnostic accuracy and clinical correlation. *. ... AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays ...
... Xiaoming Yao,1,2 Sabina Hrabětová,3,4 ... Aquaporin 4 facilitates the reabsorption of excess fluid in vasogenic brain edema. FASEB J. 2004;18:1291-1293. [PubMed] ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed at fluid-tissue barriers throughout the brain and plays a crucial role ... Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ischemic stroke. Nature Medicine. 2000;6: ...
References to Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody. *Isobe N, Yonekawa T, Matsushita T, Kawano Y, Masaki K, Yoshimura S, Fichna J, Chen S, ... Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody. By Technical Data. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - Immunoassays. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - Sandwich ELISA ... Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - for Serum - Immunoassays. Aquaporin-4 Autoantibody - RUO - Immunoassays. Sandwich ELISA, Biotin- ... IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med. 2005 Aug 15;202 (4):473-7 ...
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-transporting channels that are expressed widely in mammalian fluid-transporting epithelia and endothelia. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 Because of this expression pattern, it has been proposed that AQPs play a role in intraocular pressure regulation, corneal and lens transparency, and vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) play fundamental roles in water and osmolyte homeostasis by facilitating water and small solute movement across plasma membranes of epithelial, endothelial, and other tissues. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins engaged in the modulation of water homeostasis, but the roles they play in chronic otitis media (COM) have not been well investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are water transporting proteins expressed widely in mammalian tissues including the eye. (grantome.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus occurs because of an imbalance of bulk fluid flow in the brain, and aquaporins (AQPs) play pivotal roles in cerebral water movement as essential mediators during edema and fluid accumulation. (ucf.edu)
  • METHODS: We evaluated differential expression of AQPs 1 and 4 in the congenital hydrocephalus Texas rat at postnatal days 5, 10, and 26 in isolated CP and cortex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. (ucf.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Biphasic AQP1 expression in the CP with increased AQPs 1 and 4 at the brain-fluid interfaces may indicate compensatory mechanisms to regulate choroidal cerebrospinal fluid secretion and increase parenchymal fluid absorption in the high-pressure hydrocephalic condition. (ucf.edu)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) play a physiological role in several organs and tissues, and their alteration is associated with disorders of water regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) belong to a transmembrane protein family of water channels that are permeable to water by the osmotic gradient. (chemweb.com)
  • LS-F13079 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Human AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 in samples of Plasma and Serum. (lsbio.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is implicated in a number of physiopathological processes, particularly in the development of brain edema, and other functions such as the regulation of extracellular space volume, potassium buffering, waste clearance, and calcium signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 and traumatic brain edema. (ac.ir)
  • Brain water mobility decreases after astrocytic aquaporin-4 inhibition using RNA interference," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 819-831, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The discovery of an antibody against the astrocytic water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), in the majority of patients, has led to the presumption that the antibody was necessary for disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin 4 immunostaining intensity at the astrocytic endfeet increased in water injected animals from 2.6 ± 0.04 intensity unites (IU) to 3.2 ± 0.21 IU, while total brain AQP4 expression remained unaltered. (wright.edu)
  • Similar to water injected animals, aquaporin 4 immunostaining intensity in chronic desipramine animals increased at the astrocytic endfeet (2.5 ± 0.04 IU to 3.0 ± 0.13) but total cortical AQP4 expression was again unaltered. (wright.edu)
  • To our knowledge, no compounds that effectively block water permeability through aquaporin-4 have been discovered.My hypothesis is that an aquaporin-4 blocker would significantly decrease the cerebral edema formation after ischemic stroke in mice. (arizona.edu)
  • I also proposed that dystrophin deficient mice, a mouse strain that has a decreased expression of aquaporin-4 channels would have a decrease formation of cerebral edema after transient ischemic stroke when compared with a strain matched controls.I found that bumetanide, a well-described Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter inhibitor, reversibly and dose dependently inhibited water permeability through aquaporin-4 channels. (arizona.edu)
  • These results indicated that the protective effect of bumetanide seen in rats after ischemic stroke (4) might be through a combined effect on aquaporin-4 channels and the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter.In order to identify the relative amount of protection conferred from the aquaporin-4 channels compared to the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter, I characterized the dystrophin deficient mouse after ischemic stroke. (arizona.edu)
  • Because of these additional effects, I concluded that the mdx mouse is not an ideal model for the study of a protective effect of an aquaporin-4 blocker after ischemic stroke. (arizona.edu)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS. It is also the first example of a water channel being the target of any autoimmune disorder. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the first specific molecule to be defined as a target for the autoimmune response in any form of MS," said author Vanda A. Lennon, MD, PhD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Moreoverfor an appropriate representation of the disease, the description autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy should be used. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Recently, scholars have recommended that the AQP4 antibody positive diseases should be designated as autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy, with NMOSD regarded as part [ 1 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Here, we describe a case of autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy with psychiatric symptoms as the chief features, which have not been reported. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Curiously the cerebellum has the highest concentration of the target antigen, but remains the only part of the nervous system yet to demonstrate "characteristic lesions" with aquaporin-4 IgG. (edu.au)
  • Because of its importance for normal water homeostasis and its involvement in many water balance disorders , aquaporin-2 , the predominant vasopressin - regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct , is discussed in detail. (ndif.org)
  • We investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic characteristics of 106 aquaporin-4 antibody-seropositive patients from the UK and Japan. (nih.gov)
  • Amiry-Moghaddam M, Williamson A, Palomba M, Eid T, De Lanerolle NC, Nagelhus EA, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Agre P, Ottersen OP (2003) Delayed K + clearance associated with aquaporin-4 mislocalization: phenotypic defects in brains of α-syntrophin-null mice. (springer.com)
  • We previously reported that aquaporin-4 deletion (AQP4 -/- ) in mice increased edema and altered blood-brain barrier integrity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 null mice, backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 background at least 14 times, were obtained from Erlend Nagelhus (University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway) and bred in-house. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 125 patients with recurrent and bilateral ON with simultaneous attacks were divided into AQP-4 Ab-seropositive and -seronegative groups. (springer.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed at fluid-tissue barriers throughout the brain and plays a crucial role in cerebral water balance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We investigated the in vivo ramifications of a book aquaporin 4 (AQP4) inhibitor 2-(nicotinamide)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, TGN-020, inside a mouse style of focal cerebral ischemia using 7. (researchhunt.com)
  • Despite the importance of cerebral edema, no effective pharmacological treatments have been developed.Previous research indicates that the aquaporin-4 channel facilitates water movement during cerebral edema formation. (arizona.edu)
  • Autoregulation of brain blood flow serves to maintain a constant inner capillary fluid pressure, allowing fluid pressure of the Virchow Robin space to regulate regional cerebral blood flow rCBF based on AQP-4 gating. (duhnnae.com)
  • The discovery of aquaporin-4, a subtype of water channel abundantly expressed in glial systems, further highlighted the concept that the dynamics of water molecules in the cerebral cortex play an important role in important physiological brain functions including consciousness and information processing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. (ajnr.org)
  • A limited number of aquaporins are found within the central nervous system (CNS): AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11, but more exclusive representation of AQP1, 4, and 9 are found in the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 is concentrated in membranes in the precise site where spinal cord inflammation is found in NMO patients," said Lennon. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS, Hinson SR. IgG marker ofoptic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. (biovendor.com)
  • Although malfunction of spinal cord water channels (aquaporins, AQP) likely contributes to severe disturbances in ion/water homeostasis after spinal cord injury (SCI), their roles are still poorly understood. (utmb.edu)
  • 1. Waters P, McKeon A, Leite MI, et al: Multicenter comparison of aquaporin-4 IgG assays in NMO spectrum disorders. (testcatalog.org)
  • Genetic knock-out of the gene encoding the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4, which is importantly involved in paravascular interstitial solute clearance, exacerbated glymphatic pathway dysfunction after TBI and promoted the development of neurofibrillary pathology and neurodegeneration in the post-traumatic brain. (blogspot.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 gene variation and sudden infant death syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and controls and to elucidate the hypothesis that a genetically determined disturbed water homeostasis in the brain is involved as a predisposing factor in SIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, a mutational screening of human aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene was performed on subjects with variable degrees of hearing loss. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, age at disease onset and genetic factors are both likely to be important in determining clinical outcomes in aquaporin-4 disease. (nih.gov)
  • Crucially, the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of aquaporin-4 IgG can only be ascertained with evidence from rigorous prospective clinical study in different immunogenetic populations, and further pathological investigations are necessary. (edu.au)
  • Specifically, it shows reductions in AQP 4 and 6 mRNA levels, as observed in the otorrhea group, have an effect on the clinical manifestations of COM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brain interstitial fluid dynamics, and therefore AQP-4, are now recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, neurovascular coupling and glymphatic flow, the brain equivalent of systemic lymphatics. (mdpi.com)
  • Nakada T, Kwee IL, Igarashi H, Suzuki Y. Aquaporin-4 Functionality and Virchow-Robin Space Water Dynamics: Physiological Model for Neurovascular Coupling and Glymphatic Flow. (mdpi.com)
  • a recently proposed 'glymphatic' clearance mechanism additionally suggests that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels facilitate convective transport through brain parenchyma. (elifesciences.org)
  • Other performances that aquaporin-4 is involved in are synaptic plasticity, astrocyte migration, regulation of extracellular space volume, and the homeostasis of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Peter Agre for the discovery of aquaporins, and Roderick MacKinnon for his work on the structure and mechanism of potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporins selectively conduct water molecules in and out of the cell, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection and analysis of Aquaporin-4 - specific effector/memory T cells in PBMCs by MACS ® Cytokine Secretion Assays, intracellular cytokine staining, or other technologies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • However, AQP 4 (P=0.035) and 6 (P=0.085) mRNA levels were significantly lower in the otorrhea group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Identification of new M23A mRNA of mouse aquaporin-4 expressed in brain, liver, and kidney by T. Yu. (chemweb.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 exists as two isoforms, a long (M1) isoform with translation initiation at Met-1, and a shorter (M23) isoform with translation initiation at Met-23, with molecular weights around 35-37 kDa and 32-34 kDa, respectively. (ptglab.com)
  • Aquaporin 4 isoforms effectively convey the water on the brain. (iau-tmuj.ir)
  • Recently, it has been reported that one of the water channels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is seemed to have a role in astroglial migration and glial scar formation caused by brain injury, although its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Initially associated with the Devic's phenotype, aquaporin-4 IgG has also been consistently found albeit less frequently in tumefactive disease, encephalopathies, classical MS and by one group in GBS. (edu.au)
  • Kermode, A 2008, ' Aquaporin-4 IgG: Overview and future perspectives ', Neurology Asia , vol. 13, pp. 179-183. (edu.au)