Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Eye ProteinsBody Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.AnguillaOsmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Mesembryanthemum: A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nobel PrizeRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.PhloretinMicroscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1: Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

Long-term regulation of aquaporins in the kidney. (1/515)

The discovery of the aquaporin family of water channels has greatly improved our understanding of how water crosses epithelial cells, particularly in the kidney. The study of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of collecting duct water permeability, in particular, has advanced very rapidly since the identification and characterization of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in 1993. One of the more surprising findings has been the dramatic long-term changes that are seen in the abundance of this protein, as well as the recognition that these changes represent a way of modulating the acute antidiuretic effects of vasopressin. Furthermore, such changes seem to be of etiological and pathological significance in a number of clinical disorders of water balance. This review focuses on the various conditions in which AQP2 expression is altered (either increased or decreased) and on what this can tell us about the signals and mechanisms controlling these changes. Ultimately, this may be of great value in the clinical management of water balance disorders. Evidence is also now beginning to emerge that there are similar changes in the expression of other renal aquaporins, which had previously been thought to provide an essentially constitutive water permeability pathway, suggesting that they too should be considered as regulatory factors in the control of body water balance.  (+info)

Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct. (2/515)

In the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), vasopressin regulates two key transporters, namely aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter (VRUT). Both are present in intracellular vesicles as well as the apical plasma membrane. Short-term regulation of AQP2 has been demonstrated to occur by vasopressin-induced trafficking of AQP2-containing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. Here, we have carried out studies to determine whether short-term regulation of VRUT occurs by a similar process. Cell surface labeling with NHS-LC-biotin in rat IMCD suspensions revealed that vasopressin causes a dose-dependent increase in the amount of AQP2 labeled at the cell surface, whereas VRUT labeled at the cell surface did not increase in response to vasopressin. Immunoperoxidase labeling of inner medullary thin sections from Brattleboro rats treated with 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) for 20 min revealed dramatic translocation of AQP2 to the apical region of the cell, with no change in the cellular distribution of VRUT. In addition, differential centrifugation of inner medullary homogenates from Brattleboro rats treated with DDAVP for 60 min revealed a marked depletion of AQP2 from the low-density membrane fraction (enriched in intracellular vesicles) but did not alter the quantity of VRUT in this fraction. Finally, AQP2-containing vesicles immunoisolated from a low-density membrane fraction from renal inner medulla did not contain immunoreactive VRUT. Thus vasopressin-mediated regulation of AQP2, but not of VRUT, depends on regulated vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

An impaired routing of wild-type aquaporin-2 after tetramerization with an aquaporin-2 mutant explains dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. (3/515)

Autosomal recessive and dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disease in which the kidney is unable to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin, are caused by mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. Missense AQP2 proteins in recessive NDI have been shown to be retarded in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas AQP2-E258K, an AQP2 mutant in dominant NDI, was retained in the Golgi complex. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanisms underlying recessive and dominant NDI. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of rat and human kidney proteins and subsequent immunoblotting revealed that AQP2 forms homotetramers. When expressed in oocytes, wild-type AQP2 and AQP2-E258K also formed homotetramers, whereas AQP2-R187C, a mutant in recessive NDI, was expressed as a monomer. Upon co-injection, AQP2-E258K, but not AQP2-R187C, was able to heterotetramerize with wild-type AQP2. Since an AQP monomer is the functional unit and AQP2-E258K is a functional but misrouted water channel, heterotetramerization of AQP2-E258K with wild-type AQP2 and inhibition of further routing of this complex to the plasma membrane is the cause of dominant NDI. This case of NDI is the first example of a dominant disease in which the 'loss-of-function' phenotype is caused by an impaired routing rather than impaired function of the wild-type protein.  (+info)

Aquaporin-6: An intracellular vesicle water channel protein in renal epithelia. (4/515)

All characterized mammalian aquaporins (AQPs) are localized to plasma membranes where they function chiefly to mediate water transport across cells. Here we show that AQP6 is localized exclusively in intracellular membranes in renal epithelia. By using a polyclonal antibody to the C terminus of AQP6, immunoblots revealed a major 30-kDa band in membranes from rat renal cortex and medulla. Endoglycosidase treatment demonstrated presence of an intracellular high mannose glycan on each subunit. Sequential ultracentrifugation of rat kidney homogenates confirmed that AQP6 resides predominantly in vesicular fractions, and immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies confirmed that >98% of AQP6 is located in intracellular membrane vesicles. In glomeruli, AQP6 is present in membrane vesicles within podocyte cell bodies and foot processes. In proximal tubules, AQP6 is also abundant in membrane vesicles within the subapical compartment of segment 2 and segment 3 cells, but was not detected in the brush border or basolateral membranes. In collecting duct, AQP6 resides in intracellular membrane vesicles in apical, mid, and basolateral cytoplasm of type A intercalated cells, but was not observed in the plasma membrane. Unlike other members of the AQP family, the unique distribution in intracellular membrane vesicles in multiple types of renal epithelia indicates that AQP6 is not simply involved in transcellular fluid absorption. Moreover, our studies predict that AQP6 participates in distinct physiological functions such as glomerular filtration, tubular endocytosis, and acid-base metabolism.  (+info)

The Cre/loxP system and gene targeting in the kidney. (5/515)

The Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT systems mediate site-specific DNA recombination and are being increasingly utilized to study gene function in vivo. These systems allow targeted gene disruption in a single cell type in vivo, thereby permitting study of the physiological and pathophysiological impact of a given gene product derived from a particular cell type. In the kidney, the Cre/loxP system has been employed to achieve gene deletion selectively within principal cells of the collecting duct. Disruption of target genes in the collecting duct, such as endothelin-1 or polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1), could lead to important insights into the biological roles of these gene products. With selection of the appropriate renal cell-specific promoters, these recombination systems could be used to target gene disruption to virtually any renal cell type. Although transgenic studies utilizing these recombination systems are promising, they are in their relative infancy and can be time consuming and expensive and yield unanticipated results. It is anticipated that continued experience with these systems will produce an important tool for analyzing gene function in renal health and disease.  (+info)

Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in rat is mediated by a vasopressin-dependent apical pathway. (6/515)

Clinical studies have shown that aquaporin-2 (AQP2), the vasopressin-regulated water channel, is excreted in the urine, and that the excretion increases in response to vasopressin. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in AQP2 excretion are unknown, and it is unknown whether the excretion correlates with AQP2 levels in kidney or levels in the apical plasma membrane. The present study was undertaken to clarify these issues. Immunoblotting of rat urine samples revealed significant excretion of AQP2, whereas AQP3, being a basolateral aquaporin in the same cells, was undetectable. Thus, there was a nonproportional excretion of AQP2 and AQP3 (compared with kidney levels), indicating that AQP2 is excreted predominantly via a selective apical pathway and not by whole cell shedding. Urinary AQP2 was associated with small vesicles, membrane fragments, and multivesicular bodies as determined by immunoelectron microscopy and negative staining techniques. In rats with normal water supply, daily urinary excretion of AQP2 was 3.9+/-0.9% (n = 6) of total kidney expression. Treatment with desmopressin acetate subcutaneously caused a fourfold increase in urinary excretion of AQP2 during 8 h. Forty-eight hours of thirsting, known to increase endogenous vasopressin secretion, resulted in a three-fold increase in kidney AQP2 levels but urinary excretion increased ninefold to 15+/-3% (n = 6) of AQP2 in kidney of thirsted rats. Moreover, rats that were thirsted for 48 h and subsequently allowed free access to water for 24 h produced a decrease in urinary AQP2 excretion to 38+/-15% (n = 6) of that during thirsting. In Brattleboro rats or lithium-treated normal rats completely lacking vasopressin action, and hence having extremely low levels of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane, AQP2 was undetectable in urine. Thus, conditions with known altered vasopressin levels and altered levels of AQP2 in the apical plasma membrane were associated with corresponding major changes in AQP2 urine excretion. In contrast, in such conditions, kidney AQP2 levels and urinary AQP2 excretion did not show a proportional relationship.  (+info)

Effects of missense mutations on rat aquaporin-2 in LLC-PK1 porcine kidney cells. (7/515)

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene have been found in families with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the pathophysiological mechanisms of how mutant AQP2 causes the disease are still not clear. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) AQP2 and four mutants-T126M, A147T, R187C, and S216P-were transiently expressed in LLC-PK1 cells. The osmotic water permeability of LLC-PK1 cells expressing AQP2 mutants was determined by stopped-flow light-scattering microphotometry. Cell surface expression, subcellular localization, and effects of vasopressin stimulation were examined by surface biotin labeling and confocal immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The osmotic water permeability (Pf) of cells expressing WT increased significantly after vasopressin treatment, whereas the Pf of cells expressing T126M A147T, R187C, and S216P was not significantly different from that of the control even after vasopressin stimulation. Confocal immunohistochemistry demonstrated distribution of WT and A147T in early/recycling endosomal compartments and vasopressin-responsive translocation and surface expression. In contrast, stainings of T126M, R187C, and S216P were similar to that of Grp78, indicating that these mutants were misassembled and retarded in the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the intracellular distribution and vasopressin-regulated trafficking of A147T is intact, in contrast to the other three mutants, of which both were impaired. Thus, it is conceivable that the disruption of the AQP2 channel function accounts for the pathogenesis of A147T NDI, whereas trafficking defects account for that of the other types, suggesting that the pathophysiology of AQP2-related NDI is heterogeneous.  (+info)

Lack of vasopressin-independent upregulation of AQP-2 gene expression in homozygous Brattleboro rats. (8/515)

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in the expression of aquaporin (AQP-2) in the collecting duct. The present study was undertaken to determine whether there is an AVP-independent regulation of AQP-2 gene expression in homozygous Brattleboro rats in which endogenous AVP is absent. Exogenous administration of 1-deamino-8-D-AVP produced an antidiuresis and expressed AQP-2 mRNA and AQP-2 protein in the renal medulla of the homozygous Brattleboro rats. Twelve hours of water deprivation produced severe dehydration in the homozygous Brattleboro rats, such that urinary osmolality increased from 200 to 649 mosmol/kgH(2)O. However, no increase in AQP-2 mRNA expression was observed after this dehydration, and the medullary tissue content and urinary excretion of AQP-2 also remained unchanged. Increases in AQP-2 mRNA expression and AQP-2 protein were evident in Long-Evans rats after 64 h of water deprivation, with a severity of dehydration almost equal to the 12-h dehydrated, homozygous Brattleboro rats. These results indicate the lack of an AVP-independent mechanism for upregulating AQP-2 mRNA expression in renal collecting duct cells.  (+info)

*Aquaporin 2

It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its ... This aquaporin is also regulated by food intake. Fasting reduces expression of this aquaporin independently of vasopressin. ... Aquaporin 2 is in kidney epithelial cells and usually lies dormant in intracellular vesicle membranes. When it is needed, ... This aquaporin is regulated in two ways by the peptide hormone vasopressin: short-term regulation (minutes) through trafficking ...

*Aquaporin

The gating of an aquaporin is carried out by an interaction between a gating mechanism and the aquaporin, which causes a 3D ... It was not until 1992 that the first aquaporin, 'aquaporin-1' (originally known as CHIP 28), was reported by Peter Agre, of ... There have been two clear examples of diseases identified as resulting from mutations in aquaporins: Mutations in the aquaporin ... aquaporins. In addition to the maintenance of normal cytosolic osmolarity, aquaporins can play a major role in extension growth ...

*Neurohypophysial hormone

"Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2". Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 19 ( ... 19 (2): 225-32. doi:10.1681/ASN.2007010029. PMC 2396735 . PMID 18057218. Joo KW, Jeon US, Kim GH, Park J, Oh YK, Kim YS, Ahn C ... 74 (2): 151-7. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(87)90141-8. PMID 3574755. Antoni FA, Kovács KJ, Dohanits J, Makara GB, Holmes MC, Mazurek ... 227 (2): 553-64. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1972.sp010047. PMC 1331210 . PMID 4678722. Hatton GI (September 1988). "Pituicytes, glia ...

*SNAP23

... colocalization with aquaporin-2 in collecting duct vesicles". The American Journal of Physiology. 275 (5 Pt 2): F752-60. PMID ... 26 (2): 457-64. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81177-0. PMID 10839363. Martín-Martín B, Nabokina SM, Blasi J, Lazo PA, Mollinedo F ( ... 285 (2): 320-7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5144. PMID 11444845. Logan MR, Lacy P, Bablitz B, Moqbel R (Feb 2002). "Expression of ... 375 (Pt 2): 433-40. doi:10.1042/BJ20030427. PMC 1223698 . PMID 12877659. Valdez AC, Cabaniols JP, Brown MJ, Roche PA (Mar 1999 ...

*STX4

... colocalization with aquaporin-2 in collecting duct vesicles". The American Journal of Physiology. 275 (5 Pt 2): F752-60. PMID ... possible role in aquaporin-2 trafficking". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (4): 906-13. doi:10.1172/JCI118873. PMC ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Paumet F, Le Mao J, Martin S, Galli T, David B, Blank U, Roa M (Jun 2000). "Soluble NSF attachment ... 143 (2): 303-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90117-1. PMID 8206394. Low SH, Vasanji A, Nanduri J, He M, Sharma N, Koo M, Drazba J, ...

*Vasopressin

Aquaporins allow water to move down their osmotic gradient and out of the nephron, increasing the amount of water re-absorbed ... Vasopressin, acting through cAMP, also increases transcription of the aquaporin-2 gene, thus increasing the total number of ... This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) into the apical membrane of ... "Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2". Nephrology, Dialysis, ...

*Vasopressin receptor antagonist

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) may result from V2R or aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mutations. Exogenously administered ... doi:10.1007/s00018-006-6054-2. PMID 16794787. Decaux, G; Soupart, A; Vassart, G (2008). "Non-peptide arginine-vasopressin ... V1R and/or V2R antagonists may serve as molecular chaperones to mitigate misfolding defects in selected patients with type 2 ...

*Primary polydipsia

June 1999). "Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 water channel differentiates psychogenic polydipsia from central diabetes ... 66 (2): 283-286. ISSN 1534-7796. PMID 15039516. (subscription required) Lee, H. S.; Kwon, K. Y.; Alphs, L. D.; Meltzer, H. Y. ( ... 157 (2): 569-593. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1969.tb12908.x. ISSN 1749-6632. Siegler EL, Tamres D, Berlin JA, Allen-Taylor L, ... 20 (2): 375-385. doi:10.1093/schbul/20.2.375. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Dundas, Brian; Harris, Melissa; ...

*Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

"Hypokalemia-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 water channel expression in rat kidney medulla and cortex". J. Clin. Invest. ...

*Phosphoproteomics

... regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103 (18): 7159-64. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... including three novel phosphorylation sites in the vasopressin-sensitive water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Since the inception ... 6 (2): 1-11. doi:10.1093/gigascience/giw015. ISSN 2047-217X. PMID 28327990. Lim, Y. (2005). "Mining the tumor phosphoproteome ...

*Diabetes insipidus

... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. When released, ADH binds to ... Nephrogenic DI results from lack of aquaporin channels in the distal collecting duct (decreased surface expression and ... stimulating translocation of the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ...

*SKIP

"The inositol Inpp5k 5-phosphatase affects osmoregulation through the vasopressin-aquaporin 2 pathway in the collecting system ...

*VAMP2

... possible role in aquaporin-2 trafficking". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (4): 906-13. doi:10.1172/JCI118873. PMC ... 14 (2): 217-23. PMC 398073 . PMID 7835332. Chapman ER, An S, Barton N, Jahn R (Nov 1994). "SNAP-25, a t-SNARE which binds to ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Jagadish MN, Fernandez CS, Hewish DR, Macaulay SL, Gough KH, ... 320 (2): 429-36. doi:10.1042/bj3200429. PMC 1217948 . PMID 8973549. Betz A, Okamoto M, Benseler F, Brose N (Jan 1997). "Direct ...

*Secretin

Evidence for a secretin-induced vesicular translocation of aquaporin-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (20): 12984-8 ... translocation of aquaporin 2, or both are found. It has been suggested that "Secretin as a neurosecretory hormone from the ... "Secretin promotes osmotic water transport in rat cholangiocytes by increasing aquaporin-1 water channels in plasma membrane. ... 21 (2): 309-24. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(99)00193-X. PMID 10764961. Lossi L, Bottarelli L, Candusso ME, Leiter AB, Rindi G, ...

*Na-K-Cl cotransporter

Increased NKCC2 activity aids in water reabsorption in the collecting duct through aquaporin 2 channels by creating a hypo- ... 22 (2): 192-5. doi:10.1038/9713. PMID 10369265. Dzhala VI, Talos DM, Sdrulla DA, Brumback AC, Mathews GC, Benke TA, Delpire E, ... 13 (2): 183-8. doi:10.1038/ng0696-183. PMID 8640224. Plata C, Meade P, Vazquez N, Hebert SC, Gamba G (Mar 2002). "Functional ... isoform 2) exon 21 in the final gene product. NKCC1 is widely distributed throughout the human body; it has important functions ...

*Vasopressin receptor 2

Ishikawa SE (Feb 2002). "[Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with mutations of vasopressin V2 receptors and aquaporin-2 ... 55 (2): 278-86. PMC 1918376 . PMID 8037205. Yuasa H, Ito M, Oiso Y, Kurokawa M, Watanabe T, Oda Y, Ishizuka T, Tani N, Ito S, ... 2 (2): 103-6. doi:10.1038/ng1092-103. PMID 1303257. van den Ouweland AM, Dreesen JC, Verdijk M, Knoers NV, Monnens LA, Rocchi M ... 2 (2): 99-102. doi:10.1038/ng1092-99. PMID 1303271. van den Ouweland AM, Knoop MT, Knoers VV, Markslag PW, Rocchi M, Warren ST ...

*Aquaporin 3

... is found in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provide a pathway for water to ... 2005). "Roles of aquaporin-3 water channels in volume-regulatory water flow in a human epithelial cell line". J. Membr. Biol. ... 2007). "Expression of aquaporin 3 in the human prostate". Int. J. Urol. 14 (12): 1088-92; discussion 1092. doi:10.1111/j.1442- ... 2007). "Expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in normal and neoplastic lung tissues". Hum. Pathol. 38 (1): 171-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Vasopressin receptor

The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma ...

*Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

... via activation of aquaporins, the site of the ADH receptors - back into the circulation. This has two consequences. First, in ... aquaporin 2), and their insertion into the cells' luminal membranes. Excessive ADH causes an inappropriate increase in the ... "Physiology and pathophysiology of renal aquaporins". Seminars in nephrology. 21 (3): 231-8. doi:10.1053/snep.2001.21647. PMID ... inherited mutations that cause aquaporins always to be "turned on"; and 6) miscellaneous largely transient conditions. ...

*Index of biophysics articles

Mershin Andrew Huxley Animal locomotion Animal locomotion on the water surface Anita Goel Antiporter Aquaporin 2 Aquaporin 3 ... Aquaporin 4 Archibald Hill Ariel Fernandez Arthropod exoskeleton Arthropod leg Avery Gilbert BEST2 BK channel Bacterial outer ... Countercurrent multiplication Crenation Crista Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 ... Lloyd Hodgkin Alexander Rich Alexander van Oudenaarden Allan McLeod Cormack Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor Alpha-4 beta-2 ...

*Ralf Kaldenhoff

Aquaporin tetramer composition modifies the function of tobacco aquaporins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010. 285(41): p. ... He is known for his work on the aquaporin protein class, where he detected facilitated diffusion of CO2 in plant tissue and ... Kaldenhoff was one of the first scientists to describe plant aquaporins. He initially accomplished to analyse the function and ... For the first time, Kaldenhoff could provide evidence that an aquaporin molecule could conduct CO₂. Kaldenhoff also worked on ...

*Aquaporin 4

The expression of aquaporin 4 is reliant on the disease stage of TBI. In an acute stage of TBI, the lack of aquaporin 4 causes ... Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin ... Aquaporin-4 is essential in the formation of memory as well as synaptic plasticity. Other performances that aquaporin-4 is ... "Aquaporin-4 autoimmune syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-negative opticospinal multiple sclerosis in Japanese". Multiple ...

*Aquaporin 1

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Gallery of Aquaporin Simulations Human AQP1 ... The gene encoding this aquaporin is a possible candidate for disorders involving imbalance in ocular fluid movement. Aquaporin ... AQP1 aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group)". Knepper MA (1994). "The aquaporin family of molecular water channels". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Aquaporin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP1 gene. AQP1 is a widely expressed water channel, whose ...

*Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

... aquaporin 7, sodium iodide symporter and hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase) showed reduced expression or ... 3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9021008. Fabre A, Martinez-Vinson C, Roquelaure B, Missirian C, André N, Breton A, Lachaux A, Odul E, Colomb V ... It has 43 exons of which exons 1, 2 and 3 are non coding. The predicted molecular weight of the protein is 175.486 kiloDaltons ... This syndrome was first reported in 1982 with a report on 2 siblings, and as of 2008 there were around 25 published cases in ...

*Daf-2

... elegans by downregulating daf-16/foxo activity and aquaporin gene expression". Cell Metabolism. 10 (5): 379-391. doi:10.1016/j. ... The protein predicted from DAF-2's sequence is 35% identical to the human insulin receptor, which regulates metabolism; 34% ... Mutations in DAF-2 have been shown by Cynthia Kenyon to double the lifespan of the worms. In a 2007 episode of WNYC's Radiolab ... DAF-2 is the only member of the insulin receptor family in C. elegans but it corresponds, in form and function, to multiple ...

*Nephron

Aquaporins are membrane proteins that selectively conduct water molecules while preventing the passage of ions and other ... ADH affects the function of aquaporins, resulting in the reabsorption of water molecules as it passes through the collecting ... Archived October 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Hook, Jerry B. & Goldstein, Robin S. (1993). Toxicology of the Kidney. Raven ... It produces and secretes into the circulation the enzyme renin, which cleaves angiotensin-1 and creates angiotensin-2, a potent ...
Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus happens when the small tubes or tubules in the kidneys are defective causing a person to eliminate too much water during urination. This occurs because the kidneys do not respond to antidiuretic hormone (ADH)or vasopressin. ADH tells the kidneys to make the urine more concentrated.. Symptoms of acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are extreme thirst especially for ice water and production of large amounts of urine. This commonly occurs because of a problem caused by something else such as blockage in the urinary tract, use of certain medications, high levels of calcium, or low levels of potassium. This acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare form of diabetes. When the cause of this form of diabetes inspidus is identified and corrected, the disease usually clears up. Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is treated with fluid intake that matches urine output and medication to lower urine output. Medications used to treat ...
Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradox antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the NaCl-co-transporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of the Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or ...
A water deprivation test is also performed to see if the person suffers from nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The patient has to stay without water for around five hours or more and then the plasma concentration, as well as the volume of urine, is measured. In case the test is positive for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the patient will be resistant to the anti diuretic hormone. Hence, after the test, although the patient is dehydrated, dilute urine and blood plasma will still be present in the patient ...
Complications of Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus including hidden complications, secondary medical conditions, symptoms, or other types of Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus complication.
In the kidney, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is a critical regulator of water homeostasis by controlling the water movement from lumen to the interstitium for water reabsorption and adjusting the urinary water excretion. In normal physiology, AVP is secreted into the circulation by the posterior pituitary gland, in response to an increase in serum osmolality or a decrease in effective circulating volume. When reaching the kidney, AVP binds to V2 receptors on the basolateral surface of the collecting duct epithelium, triggering a G-protein-linked signaling cascade, which leads to water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) vesicle insertion into the apical plasma membrane. This results in higher water permeability in the collecting duct and, driven by an osmotic gradient, pro-urinary water then passes the membrane through AQP2 and leaves the cell on the basolateral side via AQP3 and AQP4 water channels, which are constitutively expressed on the basolateral side of these cells. When isotonicity ...
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in [[Aquaporin 2,aquaporin 2]]. Usually [[Aquaporin 2,AQP2]] is trafficked to the [[Cell membrane,cell membrane]] where it facilitates the reabsorption of water into the cell. In the diseased state the channels are retained inside the cell resulting in the inability to control the concentration of urine being produced ,ref,The Journal of Cell Biology. (2003). Reversed polarized delivery of an aquaporin-2 mutant causes dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 163(5):1099-109,/ref,.,br ...
For a proper functioning of epithelial cells, a polarized sorting and localization of channels and transporters that mediate transcellular ion and water movement is essential. Our work focuses on elucidating the routing regulation of wild-type AQP2/V2R, dissolving the underlying mechanisms for missorting of AQP2 mutants, and the identification of pharmacological chaperones, rescuing the cell surface expression of AQP2/V2R mutants in NDI.
Your doctor can use a urine osmolality test to check your bodys water balance and its ability to produce and concentrate urine. Learn more about it.
Comparison of urine concentrations of CXCL1 between a the cancer and non-cancer groups, b low-grade and high-grade BCa and c low stage (NMIBC) and high stage BC
Diabetes insipidus: Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in older people. Health and Medicine Reference Covering Thousands of Diseases and Prescription Drugs.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (also known as renal diabetes insipidus) is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney. This is in contrast to central/neurogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, that is, arginine vasopressin or AVP). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. The clinical manifestation is similar to neurogenic diabetes insipidus, presenting with excessive thirst and excretion of a large amount of dilute urine. Dehydration is common, and incontinence can occur secondary to chronic bladder distension. On investigation, there will be an increased plasma osmolarity and decreased urine osmolarity. As pituitary function is normal, ADH levels are likely to be abnormal or raised. Polyuria will continue as long as the patient is able to drink. If the patient is ...
Background: Lithium remains the gold-standard treatment for bipolar disorder, with 30-40% of patients with responding preferentially to this medication 1-3. Additionally, lithium is commonly used in treatment-resistant depression, and other psychiatric disorders (e.g. schizoaffective disorder). Lithium is especially valuable considering the great difficulty in achieving and maintaining symptomatic remission 4,5, the high rates of disability,…
Two brothers, patient 1 with fever and vomiting, and patient 2 with failure to gain weight were studied. After 4 hr of water deprivation test, the urinary osmolality of the patient 1 was only 105 mOsm/liter and his body weight showed a 4.6% reduction. In response to desamino-8-D arginine vasopressin intranasal administration, no significant elevation of urinary osmolality of patient 1 occurred. After low dose vasopressin tests, the maximal urinary osmolality of their father was in the normal range, but that of their mother was below the normal range. Moreover, the patients showed no significant increase of urinary osmolality after the same tests. The brothers were diagnosed as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and their mother was diagnosed as a carrier. An early diagnosis of NDI is important, since adequate managements such as low-solute diet with restricted protein and salt intake or such as water intake at frequent intervals can prevent the hyperosmolality which would develop the delayed mental
Aldose reductase (ALR2) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with diabetes mellitus, such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. However, its physiological functions are not well understood. We developed mice deficient in this enzyme and found that they had no apparent developmental or reproductive abnormality except that they drank and urinated significantly more than their wild-type littermates. These ALR2-deficient mice exhibited a partially defective urine-concentrating ability, having a phenotype resembling that of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
diabetes insipidus is caused by problems related to a hormone called antidiuretic hormone or adh. adh is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. Synonyms: vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus
If you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus thats caused by taking a particular medication, such as lithium or tetracycline, your GP or endocrinologist may stop your treatment and suggest an alternative medication. However, dont stop taking it unless youve been advised to by a healthcare professional.. As nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by your kidneys not responding to AVP, rather than a shortage of AVP, it usually cant be treated with desmopressin. However, its still important to drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.. If your condition is mild, your GP or endocrinologist may suggest reducing the amount of salt and protein in your diet, which will help your kidneys produce less urine. This may mean eating less salt and protein-rich food, such as processed foods, meat, eggs and nuts. Dont alter your diet without first seeking medical advice. Your GP or endocrinologist will be able to advise you about which foods to cut down on.. Read more about eating a healthy, balanced ...
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to pass a large amount of urine and lose too much water.
Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).. AVP plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body. Its produced by specialist nerve cells in a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. AVP passes from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland where its stored until needed.. The pituitary gland releases AVP when the amount of water in the body becomes too low. It helps retain water in the body by reducing the amount of water lost through the kidneys, making the kidney produce more concentrated urine.. In diabetes insipidus, the lack of production of AVP means the kidney cant make enough concentrated urine and too much water is passed from the body. In rare cases, the kidney doesnt respond to AVP. This causes a specific form of diabetes insipidus, called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.. People feel thirsty as the body tries to compensate for the increased loss of water by increasing the amount of water ...
Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).. AVP plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body. Its produced by specialist nerve cells in a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. AVP passes from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland where its stored until needed.. The pituitary gland releases AVP when the amount of water in the body becomes too low. It helps retain water in the body by reducing the amount of water lost through the kidneys, making the kidney produce more concentrated urine.. In diabetes insipidus, the lack of production of AVP means the kidney cant make enough concentrated urine and too much water is passed from the body. In rare cases, the kidney doesnt respond to AVP. This causes a specific form of diabetes insipidus, called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.. People feel thirsty as the body tries to compensate for the increased loss of water by increasing the amount of water ...
Renal concentrating defects were found in 8 out of 24 patients treated with demeclocycline for acne. By evaluation of maximum and minimum urine osmolalities, free-water clearance (CH2O), and solute-free water reabsorption (TCH2O), in three of five symptomatic patients the defect was determined to be nephrogenic, dose-dependent, and reversible. A dose-dependent, reversible defect in antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-induced water flow was also produced by demeclocycline in gravimetric studies with paired toad urinary hemibladders. This defect in ADH responsiveness was probably located at the serosal surface and was probably caused by impairment of both cyclic-AMP generation and action. ...
PDB 2B6O, EMDB 2973 - 1.9Å resolutuion electron crystallography structure of the water channel Aquaporin-0 in its closed state. ...
When I got home, it should hold urine before testing. Two or three hours of restraint will suffice: rent a movie or preparing food, do whatever you occupy your time to concentrate urine in your body and thus make more effective reading. It is best to perform the test in the morning , but you can do it anytime of the day (the first urine of the day you from having to wait concentration). Try to drink water normally, instead of consuming it in abundance only to produce urine, as this "lightens" the fluid and prevents a correct reading. ...
Lithium therapy frequently induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; amiloride appears to prevent its occurrence in some clinical cases. Amiloride blocks the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) located in the apical membrane of principal cells; hence one possibility is that ENaC is the main entry site for lithium and the beneficial effect of amiloride may be through inhibiting lithium entry. Using a mouse collecting duct cell line, we found that vasopressin caused an increase in Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression which was reduced by clinically relevant lithium concentrations similar to what is seen with in vivo models of this disease. Further amiloride or benzamil administration prevented this lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2. Amiloride reduced transcellular lithium transport, intracellular lithium concentration, and lithium-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Treatment of rats with lithium downregulated AQP2 expression, reduced the principal-to-intercalated cell ratio, and ...
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of (108)Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62 ...
Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients. ...
Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients. ...
What can cause diabetes insipidus depends on that number of this particular condition youve.. Diabetes insipidus can be an unheard of health condition which usually develops whenever a individuals filtering system just cant preserve drinking water every time they execute their particular purpose of selection someones blood vessels. The amount of h2o generally is actually governed simply by ADH, that is really a good antidiuretic hormonal known as vasopressin.. The aim of vasopressin would be to constantly handle the amount of h2o which is within the body through governing the level of pee your own renal system help make. In case the degree of h2o with your method is lower, the anterior pituitary gland generates vasopressin in order to make use of much less h2o and lower the creation of pee.. Nonetheless, should you have DI, generally vasopressin is not able to correctly handle your bodys drinking water amounts, that allows a significant amount of pee to obtain created and also given out from ...
Water deprivation test: Patients with NDI tend to produce urine that has a low concentration despite being deprived of water. On administration of AVP, patients with NDI will show little or no increase in urine concentration. During the water deprivation test, the patient is carefully monitored to make sure his or her body weight and blood plasma concentration stay within a safe range. The patient goes without water for less than six hours while the blood plasma concentrations and urine volume are measured. If the patient has NDI, he or she will be resistant to the antidiuretic action of AVP. Immediately following the water deprivation period, a patient with NDI will still have concentrated blood plasma and dilute urine despite the fact that he or she will be fairly dehydrated at that point. At the end of the water fast, the patients response to an infusion of DDAVP is measured. If the patient does not respond to DDAVP, he or she may have NDI. If the patient shows highly concentrated urine in ...
Vasopressin-sensitive aquaporin-2 (Aqp2) in the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct (Fenton et al., 2008). Controls cell volume and thereby influences cell proliferation (Di Giusto et al. 2012). It plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin, and defective trafficking results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). The crystal structure of Aqp2 has been solved to 2.75Å (Frick et al. 2014). In terrestrial vertebrates, AQP2 function is generally regulated by arginine-vasopressin to accomplish key functions in osmoregulation such as the maintenance of body water homeostasis by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism (Olesen and Fenton 2017; Martos-Sitcha et al. 2015 ...
Water is the predominant chemical component of living organisms. Its unique physical properties, which include the ability to solvate a wide range of organic and inorganic molecules, derive from waters dipolar structure and exceptional capacity for forming hydrogen bonds. The manner in which water interacts with a solvated biomolecule influences the structure both of the biomolecule and of water itself. An excellent nucleophile, water is a reactant or product in many metabolic reactions. Regulation of water balance depends upon hypothalamic mechanisms that control thirst, on antidiuretic hormone (ADH), on retention or excretion of water by the kidneys, and on evaporative loss. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which involves the inability to concentrate urine or adjust to subtle changes in extracellular fluid osmolarity, results from the unresponsiveness of renal tubular osmoreceptors to ADH. ...
Catalyzes the formation of the signaling molecule cAMP downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (PubMed:17916776, PubMed:17110384). Functions in signaling cascades downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and in vascular smooth muscle cells (PubMed:17916776). Functions in signaling cascades downstream of the vasopressin receptor in the kidney and has a role in renal water reabsorption. Functions in signaling cascades downstream of PTH1R and plays a role in regulating renal phosphate excretion. Functions in signaling cascades downstream of the VIP and SCT receptors in pancreas and contributes to the regulation of pancreatic amylase and fluid secretion (By similarity). Signaling mediates cAMP-dependent activation of protein kinase PKA. This promotes increased phosphorylation of various proteins, including AKT. Plays a role in regulating cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake and storage, and is required for normal heart ventricular contractibility. May contribute to normal heart ...
Definition of kidney medulla in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of kidney medulla. What does kidney medulla mean? Information and translations of kidney medulla in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Peptides , Phosphopeptides , Aquaporin-2 (254-267), pSER261, human; This peptide is a fragment of the human aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylated at Ser261. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in vasopressin signaling in renal-collecting duct. Phosphorylation at several AQP2 residues including Ser256 and Ser261, is altered in response to vasopressin. It is possible that both sites are involved in vasopressin-dependent AQP2 trafficking.; RQSVELH-pS-PQSLPR; H-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Glu-Leu-His-pSer-Pro-Gln- Ser-Leu-Pro-Arg-OH
Director of the Clinical Research Unit at lHôpital Sacré-Coeur in Montreal and Professor of Medicine at lUniversité de Montréal, Dr. Bichet identified the gene that causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in newborns and developed a blood test to detect it. Some of the knowledge gained was then applied to a new study on polycystic kidney disease, a more common hereditary condition... ...
P. H. Baylis, D. A. Heath; Analysis of the Causes of Lithium-Induced Polyuria. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 September 1977; 53 (3): 11P-12P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs053011Pa. Download citation file:. ...
EGFR-mediated expression of aquaporin-3 is involved in human skin fibroblast migration: AQP3 (aquaporin-3), known as an integral membrane channel in epidermal k
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Care guide for Polyuria (Aftercare Instructions). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Diabetes insipidus, symptoms of insipidus, signs and causes of insipidus, canine diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus emedicine, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, diabetes insipidus in dogs, diabetes insipidus diagnosis and more.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 15;276(24):21331-6. Epub 2001 Apr 10. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine. Central DI, the most common form of diabetes insipidus, is caused …
Mild to moderate toxicity causes lethargy, confusion, tremor, ataxia, and slurred speech. This may progress to myoclonic jerking, delirium, coma, and convulsions. Recovery may be slow and incomplete following severe intoxication. Laboratory studies in patients with chronic intoxication often reveal an elevated serum creatinine and an elevated BUN/creatinine ratio due to underlying volume contraction. The white blood cell count is often elevated. ECG findings include T-wave flattening or inversion, and sometimes bradycardia or sinus node arrest. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can occur with overdose or with therapeutic doses. Dysfunction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands has also been described as a result of prolonged lithium exposure. ...
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. It denotes inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. DI is caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone, or by an insensitivity of the kidneys to that hormone.
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which kidney passes an abnormal amount of odourless and dilute urine that causes patients to drink plenty of liquids.
... Case Study Libby was in her third week in the hospital after her car accident and was getting anxious to go home. Shed fractured her skull and broken both of her legs. She felt lucky to be alive, but not so.
Read "Constitutively wilted 1, a member of the rice YUCCA gene family, is required for maintaining water homeostasis and an appropriate root to shoot ratio, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Aquaporin 4 is found in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provide a pathway for water to exit these cells. AQP4 is constitutively expressed. AQP4 is expressed in astrocytes and are upregulated by direct insult to the central nervous system. ...
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Two previous articles in this series on aquaporins have discussed their history, mechanism and stimulation. The current article describes the role of AQP3 in regulating skin cell growth.
Question 5: ________ (alcohol) acts as an antagonist for AVP in the collecting ducts of the kidneys, which prevents aquaporins from binding to the collecting ducts, and prevents water reabsorption. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and subcellular localization of aquaporin water channels in the polarized hepatocyte cell line, WIF-B. AU - Gradilone, Sergio A.. AU - Tietz, Pamela S.. AU - Splinter, Patrick L.. AU - Marinelli, Raúl A.. AU - LaRusso, Nicholas F.. PY - 2005/8/18. Y1 - 2005/8/18. N2 - Background: Recent data suggest that canalicular bile secretion involves selective expression and coordinated regulation of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels proteins. In order to further characterize the role of AQPs in this process, an in vitro cell system with retained polarity and expression of AQPs and relevant solute transporters involved in bile formation is highly desirable. The WIF-B cell line is a highly differentiated and polarized rat hepatoma/human fibroblast hybrid, which forms abundant bile canalicular structures. This cell line has been reported to be a good in vitro model for studying hepatocyte polarity. Results: Using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence, ...
AQP2 is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidneys collecting duct principal cells and in intracellular vesicles located throughout the cell. It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its being removed from the blood by the kidney. Aquaporin 2 is in kidney epithelial cells and usually lies dormant in intracellular vesicle membranes. When it is needed, vasopressin binds to the cell surface vasopressin receptor thereby activating a signaling pathway that causes the aquaporin 2 containing vesicles to fuse with the plasma membrane, so the aquaporin 2 can be used by the cell. This aquaporin is regulated in two ways by the peptide hormone vasopressin: short-term regulation (minutes) through trafficking of AQP2 vesicles to the apical region where they fuse with the apical plasma membrane long-term regulation (days) through an increase in AQP2 gene expression. This aquaporin is also regulated by food intake. Fasting ...
The polyuria suggested an insensitivity to ADH (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) which can be caused by---- hypokalaemia !!! Patients who are well and who have polyuria and polydipsia can usually undergo a water deprivation test once diabetes mellitus has been excluded. However, in view that this patient was bed-bound and reliant on intravenous fluid to maintain blood pressure in addition to catecholamine support, it was considered unsafe to perform such a test. Therefore, an ADH level was attained which showed a mildly elevated level. In view that most causes of nephrogenic DI result in a partial insensitivity to ADH rather than a complete insensitivity, the use of supraphysiological doses of ADH (e.g. nasal desmopressin) can sometimes reverse such problems. ...
In the 1970s-1980s, a number of clearance, micropuncture, and microperfusion studies as well as anatomic-functional correlations have brought a good understanding of the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism (16, 87) (see reviews in Refs. 6 and 50). It has been understood that urea is accumulated and somehow "sequestrated" (104) in the renal medulla at a concentration increasing from the outer medulla to the tip of the papilla. This accumulation results from three associated processes (Fig. 2). 1) Urea becomes progressively concentrated along the CD because of vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption in a segment poorly permeable to urea, thus bringing a highly concentrated urea solution to the terminal CD. 2) A vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of the terminal IMCD (due to UT-A1/3) enables this concentrated urea to be transported into the interstitial tissue of the deep inner medulla. 3) Medullary urea, which continuously tends to escape the inner medulla via the ...
Read about diabetes insipidus, a hormonal condition where an individual urinates frequently. Central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational are the types of diabetes insipidus.
This test is based on the exploration of the tubular response to an acute fluid load. After overnight fast, all participants received twenty cc/Kg of mineralized water per os and two liters of intravenous hypotonic solution (0.66%) infused in two hours. Three blood samples are drawn (at 0, 60 and 120 minutes) and also urine samples are collected from each person at baseline and at 30 (±5) minutes intervals during the whole test. From the obtained blood and urine samples creatinine and osmolarity are measured, and then from the data corresponding to the most hypotonic urine sample (maximum dilution) and its corresponding blood sample three renal physiological parameters (proximal sodium clearance, free water clearance, sodium TALH reabsorption) are analyzed. Since patient inclusion follow up period is one ...
Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). Aquaporin 8 mRNA is found in pancreas and colon but not other tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Aquaporin A/S is a global cleantech company located in Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. Aquaporin is dedicated to revolutionizing water purification through the use of industrial biotechn
As part of diabetes insipidus treatment, doctors recommend drinking lots of fluids, and also prescribe a medicine called desmopressin acetate to counter ADH deficiency.
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which the kidney is insensitive to the hormone ADH or there is not enough of the hormone available. This results in excessive drinking and urination.
Fibromyalgia is probably best known for the myriad conditions that can be associated with the syndrome. Such is the case with diabetes insipidus.
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Plasma Membrane Abundance of Human Aquaporin 5 Is Dynamically Regulated by Multiple Pathways. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [C A Ecelbarger, J Terris, G Frindt, M Echevarria, D Marples, S Nielsen, M A Knepper].
Sherwood Moore (1935, 1936)30, 31, 32 was responsible for reviving interest in a syndrome (or group of syndromes) which had received only scant attention during the previous century and a half. It is the purpose of this paper to review the literature to date on this protean syndrome and to give a detailed report of a case with an unusual variant-diabetes insipidus. ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) concentrations in sufferers with very clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) this analysis determined the partnership between your urine concentration of the biomarkers and tumor size, stage and grade. mainly on tumor size (levels T1 and T2), however, not with stage … Read more OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2. Read More ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) concentrations in sufferers with very clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) this analysis determined the partnership between your urine concentration of the biomarkers and tumor size, stage and grade. mainly on tumor size (levels T1 and T2), however, not with stage … Read more OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2. Read More ...
Mountain beavers make extensive, shallow burrow and tunnel systems in the ground.they are generally solitary ( except during breeding and when the female is raising her young.) Most of their time is spent on or below ground; however, they will also climb trees and swim. Mountain beavers are active throughout the year. Most activity occurs at night but they will be active throughout the day. Periods of activity tend to alternate with periods of rest. Mountain beavers have archaic kidneys and are not able to concentrate urine. They also are unable to sweat or pant so they require a cool regime and water available at all times.. ...
Mild polyuria - What is the medical diagnosis if you have ventricular hypertrophy, retinal hemorrhages and mild polyuria? Hypertension? Hypertension leads to damage to heart, eyes and the kidneys! Sounds like serious medical issues.
Could Singulair cause Polyuria? We studied 66,613 Singulair users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 37 have Polyuria. See what we found.
Water channel, Aqp1; inhibited by HgCl2 and tetraethylammonium. Plays a role in water homeostasis during blood feeding and humidity adaptation of A. gambiae, a major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa (Liu et al., 2011 ...
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Marinelli RA, Pham L, Agre P, La Russo NF. Secretin promotes osmotic water transport in rat cholangiocytes by incresing aquaporin-1 water channels in plasma membrane. Evidence for a secretin-induced vesicular translocation of aquaporin-1. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 12984-12988 ...
Diabetes Insipidus What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. Normally, the antidiuretic hormone controls the kidneys output of urine. It is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain) and stored in the pituitary gland and then released into the bloodstream. ADH is secreted to decrease the amount...
Electron microscopic study was made on the water reabsorption of the epithelial cells of the rat cauda epididymidis. It was shown that when the epididymal duct was reabsorbing water at a maximal rate, widely dilated intercellular spaces were seen. It is suggested that the standing gradient model of water reabsorption first proposed for the gall bladder may also operate in the cauda epididymidis ...
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical characteristics, pathological changes, and outcome of patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS). METHODS: All patients with pSS and renal involvement who were admitted to Ruijin Hospital from April 1993 to December 2006 were included. All the data of clinical features and pathological changes were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one patients underwent renal biopsies. RESULTS Our study included 130 patients with pSS: 122 women and 8 men. Ages ranged from 16 to 68 years (mean 44.1 +/- 11.52). Ninety-five patients (73.1%) developed renal tubular acidosis (RTA); 91 were found to have distal RTA. Nine patients presented with hypokalemic paralysis. Four patients developed Fanconi syndrome and 3 were proved to have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Twenty-seven of 130 patients (20.8%) developed tubular proteinuria and 18/130 (13.8%) presented glomerular involvement. Thirty-five patients (27.7%) developed renal failure (serum creatinine , 115 micromol/l). Most ...
I am very pleased and respect this website and the advice given by you. My wife suffers from diabetes insipidus for the past 10 years and she was taking DDVAP twice (morning and night 0.1mg). Now she is pregnant since 6 months, after 13 years. The problem started after she got pregnant, she became thirsty after taking DDVAP and her body feels burning and so on. The doctors here advised her to not to take DDVAP more than two times a day. For the thirst they advised her to drink water. My question is: 1. Can a diabetes insipidus patient deliver a healthy baby? 2. Is there any side effect for the baby if she takes more DDVAP? 3. Any effect on the baby if she continues to drink more water? 4. Any harm to the mother during delivery? 5. Any possibility that the baby may have this disease? 6. Can the mother breastfeed the baby? 7. What is the best way for delivery? 8. Will there be any complication during the delivery? 9. Is the mothers life at stake? Please help me to clear all my doubts.
Neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) drinking water channels within the central nervous program resulting in immune-mediated damage. rAbs by quantitative immunofluorescence. Whereas all NMO rAbs needed conserved loop C (137TP138 and Val150) and loop E (230HW231) proteins for binding two SR9243 wide patterns of NMO-IgG reputation could be recognized predicated on differential level of sensitivity to loop A amino acidity changes. Design 1 NMO rAbs had been insensitive to loop A mutations and may be additional discriminated by differential level of sensitivity to amino acidity adjustments in loop C (148TM149 and His151) and loop E (Asn226 and Glu228). On the other hand pattern 2 NMO rAbs demonstrated significantly decreased binding pursuing amino acid adjustments in loop A (63EKP65 and Asp69) and loop C (Val141 His151 and Leu154). Amino acidity substitutions at 137TP138 modified loop C conformation and abolished the binding of most NMO rAbs and NMO-IgG ...
... (central/pituitary);nephrogenic (vassopressin-resistant); dispogenic; and gestagenic/gestational DI.To promote discussion between the lay and professional communities.
ability (and therefore absence of chronic renal failure or diabetes insipidus - both of whick lack concentrating ability). GLYCOSURIA - if persistent then
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. In contrast, most cultivated glioma cell lines dont express AQP4, and primary cell cultures of human glioblastoma lose it d
There is disturbance in renal concentrating mechanism, resulting in polyuria nad inability to produce hypertonic urine. DI is due to absence of an ADH effect, either because of impaired or failed secretion (cranial or central DI) or lack of end organ response to ADH (nephrogenic DI). Most of the inherited nephrogenic DI have mutation in ADH V2 receptor, there is also down regulation of AQP2 in acquired forms of DI ...
became increasingly worse. The patient reported polyuria, constant burning and urinary symptoms that made it difficult for him ... of weight , difficulty walking, sore throat, polyuria, perineal disestesic symptoms, feeling of constriction, latent pain .... ...
Aqp4 - Aqp4 (untagged) - Mouse aquaporin 4 (cDNA clone MGC:37514 IMAGE:4985265), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
The drug is mainly used for the treatment hypertension but is also sometimes prescribed for edema diabetes insipidus and heart failure.
އެވްރެޖް ގޮތެއްގައި ދުވާލެއްގެ މައްޗަށް 2-1 ލިޓަރުގެ ކުޑަކަމުދާ ތަކެތި އުފައްދައެވެ. މާމަދުން ނުވަތަ މާގިނައިން ކުޑަކަމުދެވުމަކީ ޞިއްޙީ މައްސަލައެއް ކަމަށް އޮންނަނީ ވެފައެވެ. ދުވާލަކު 2.5 ލިޓަރަށްވުރެ ގިނައިން ކުޑަކަމުދާ ތަކެތި ބޭރުވެއްޖެނަމަ މާގިނައިން ކުޑަކަމުދެވުން(Polyuria) ކުރިމަތިވެފައިވާ ކަމަށް ބަލައެވެ. ދުވާލެއްގެ މައްޗަށް 400މިލިލީޓަރަށްވުރެ މަދުން ކުޑަކަމުދާ ތަކެތި ބޭރުވެއްޖެނަމަ މާމަދުން ކުޑަކަމުދެވުން(Oliguria) ކުރިމަތިވެފައިވާ ކަމަށް ބަލައެވެ.. ...
YUDEXYS PENALVER 12/20/2012 ABSTRACT #2-Polyuria PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify polyuria in recipients that have under gone renal tra
Weve known for a long time that hypnotic drugs are not good to take for more than one to three weeks because they are habit-forming and increase the risk of accidents. And theres now a growing body of evidence that shows they could be increasing the risk of premature death. ...
... is a medical condition, where antidiuretic hormone insufficient levels result in polydipsia-excessive thirst, and excessive production of polyuria-very dilute urine. Diabetes Insipidus is caused by antidiuretic hormone-vasopressin decreased production, the hormone, that naturally restrains the persons body from producing excessive urine amount.. Vasopressine-antidiuretic hormone, is unique in that, it is created in the hypothalamus, then stored and released into the persons bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland. Diabetes Insipidus may also happen when levels of antidiuretic hormone are normal, but the kidney do not respond well to the hormone-condition, known as Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.. Diabetes Insipidus can have few causes. One cause might be that the hypothalamus can malfunction and create small antidiuretic hormone amount. Another possibility is that the pituitary gland can fail to release the hormone into the persons bloodstream. Other causes include ...
Purpose: The expression of aquaporin water channel genes are shown to be affected in several pathological conditions of retina, such as in diabetic retinopathy, retinal ischemia and in autoimmune uveitis. Human native retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and immortalized human RPEs are formerly shown to express aquaporins, still the expression of aquaporins in stem cell derived RPE have not been previously elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of several aquaporin genes (aquaporin1,- 3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -11 and -12) and assess the localization of aquaporin 1 water channel protein in human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived RPE cells.. Methods: hESC- and hiPSC derived RPE cells were grown as monolayer in serum-free media. The expression of aquaporin genes was determined with qRT-PCR. The localization of AQP1-protein was studied with confocal microscopy. Finally, the functionality of aquaporins was assessed with dye ...
Hyponatraemia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of ,135 mmol/L. Normal serum sodium concentration is in the range of 135-145 mmol/L. It is a disorder of water balance reflected by an excess of total body water relative to electrolytes (total body sodium and potassium) leading to low plasma osmolality (i.e., ,275 mmol/kg). [1] Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, et al; Hyponatraemia Guideline Development Group. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170:G1-G47. http://www.eje-online.org/content/170/3/G1.long http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24569125?tool=bestpractice.com Hyponatraemia is generally caused by an increase in renal water reabsorption due to release of vasopressin (arginine vasopressin [AVP] also known as antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) along with water intake, and can occur in situations of volume depletion, volume overload, or normal volume. (It should be noted that loss of sodium is minor compared with gains in water ...
Looking for online definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in the Medical Dictionary? 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin explanation free. What is 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin? Meaning of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin medical term. What does 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin mean?

Fatal anti-aquaporin-4 seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in tuberculosis | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full TextFatal anti-aquaporin-4 seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in tuberculosis | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text

This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active ... It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while evaluating neurological deterioration in patients with ... Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. ... We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-14-470

Aquaporin 2 - WikipediaAquaporin 2 - Wikipedia

It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its ... This aquaporin is also regulated by food intake. Fasting reduces expression of this aquaporin independently of vasopressin. ... Aquaporin 2 is in kidney epithelial cells and usually lies dormant in intracellular vesicle membranes. When it is needed, ... This aquaporin is regulated in two ways by the peptide hormone vasopressin: short-term regulation (minutes) through trafficking ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaporin_2

Aquaporin-2 (254-267), pSER261, humanAquaporin-2 (254-267), pSER261, human

This peptide is a fragment of the human aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylated at Ser261. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role ... This peptide is a fragment of the human aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylated at Ser261. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role ...
more infohttps://www.anaspec.com/products/product.asp?id=49016&productid=25286

Aquaporin 2 Antibody (PA5-78808)
                
                
		        
	Aquaporin 2 Antibody (PA5-78808)

Invitrogen Anti-Aquaporin 2 Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-78808. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F ... Aquaporin-CD; Collecting duct water channel protein; Water channel protein for renal collecting duct; water-channel aquaporin 2 ... Cite Aquaporin 2 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Aquaporin 2 Polyclonal Antibody from ... Sample was incubated with Aquaporin 2 polyclonal antibody (Product# PA5-78808).. Western blot analysis of Aquaporin 2 in Lane 1 ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Aquaporin-2-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-78808

Aquaporin 2 Antibody (PA5-22865)
                
                
		        
	Aquaporin 2 Antibody (PA5-22865)

Invitrogen Anti-Aquaporin 2 Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-22865. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), ... Host server : magellan-srch-2-prod-blue:8080/10.253.226.81:8080. git-commit: 01b04f9b241f51a560e30d6fc4026e5d4b4f8977 git-url: ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Aquaporin-2-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-22865

Identification of phosphorylation-dependent binding partners of aquaporin-2 using protein mass spectrometry.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification of phosphorylation-dependent binding partners of aquaporin-2 using protein mass spectrometry. - PubMed - NCBI

Identification of phosphorylation-dependent binding partners of aquaporin-2 using protein mass spectrometry.. Zwang NA1, ... Identification of Phosphorylation-Dependent Binding Partners of Aquaporin-2 Using Protein Mass Spectrometry ... Identification of Phosphorylation-Dependent Binding Partners of Aquaporin-2 Using Protein Mass Spectrometry ... Identification of Phosphorylation-Dependent Binding Partners of Aquaporin-2 Using Protein Mass Spectrometry ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19209902

Quantitative phosphoproteomics of vasopressin-sensitive renal cells: Regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites |...Quantitative phosphoproteomics of vasopressin-sensitive renal cells: Regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites |...

aquaporin;. dDAVP,. (deamino-Cys1, d-Arg8)vasopressin;. FT,. Fourier transform;. ICR,. ion cyclotron resonance;. IMAC,. ... Quantitative phosphoproteomics of vasopressin-sensitive renal cells: Regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites. ... Quantitative phosphoproteomics of vasopressin-sensitive renal cells: Regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites ... Quantitative phosphoproteomics of vasopressin-sensitive renal cells: Regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at two sites ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/18/7159?ijkey=510a25f555dac0731ee161a7c3e559a606c7b5de&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Aquaporin-2 Water Channel - NDI FoundationPhysiology and Pathophysiology of the Aquaporin-2 Water Channel - NDI Foundation

In mammals six different aquaporins have been identified up to now, four of which (aquaporin-1 to aquaporin-4) are expressed in ... Because of its importance for normal water homeostasis and its involvement in many water balance disorders, aquaporin-2, the ... Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins, which function as specialized water channels to facilitate the passage of water ... In mammals six different aquaporins have been identified up to now, four of which (aquaporin-1 to aquaporin-4) are expressed in ...
more infohttp://www.ndif.org/articles/436-Physiology_and_Pathophysiology_of_the_Aquaporin2_Water_Channel/translation

Diffusion in the endoplasmic reticulum of an aquaporin-2 mutant causing human nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.  - PubMed - NCBIDiffusion in the endoplasmic reticulum of an aquaporin-2 mutant causing human nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. - PubMed - NCBI

Mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel cause the hereditary renal disease nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). The ... Diffusion in the endoplasmic reticulum of an aquaporin-2 mutant causing human nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.. Levin MH1, ... ATP depletion by 2-deoxyglucose and azide resulted in comparable slowing/immobilization of wild-type and T126M AQP2. These ... AQP2 translational diffusion in the ER was not slowed by the T126M mutation; diffusion coefficients were (in cm(2)/s x 10(-)10 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297561

Anti-AQP2 / Aquaporin 2 Antibody | Rabbit anti-Rat Polyclonal  | LSBioAnti-AQP2 / Aquaporin 2 Antibody | Rabbit anti-Rat Polyclonal | LSBio

Aquaporin 2 antibody LS-C3796 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Validated for ELISA, IF ... Aquaporin 2 antibody LS-C3796 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Validated for ELISA, IF ... Aquaporin 2 antibody LS-C3796 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Validated for ELISA, IF ... Recognizes rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP-CD/WCH-CD). Species sequence homology: mouse: 100%; human and ovine: 93% (14/15aa; residues 257 ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/aqp2-antibody-aquaporin-2-antibody-c-terminus-elisa-if-immunofluorescence-ihc-wb-western-ls-c3796/4537

Fluconazole increases osmotic water transport in renal collecting duct through effects on aquaporin-2 trafficking | MDC BerlinFluconazole increases osmotic water transport in renal collecting duct through effects on aquaporin-2 trafficking | MDC Berlin

Fluconazole increases osmotic water transport in renal collecting duct through effects on aquaporin-2 trafficking View in MDC ... binding to vasopressin V2 receptors promotes redistribution of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) from intracellular vesicles ...
more infohttps://www.mdc-berlin.de/research/publications/fluconazole-increases-osmotic-water-transport-renal-collecting-duct-through

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Urine Aquaporin-2: A Promising Marker of Response to the Arginine Vasopressin Type-2 Antagonist,...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Urine Aquaporin-2: A Promising Marker of Response to the Arginine Vasopressin Type-2 Antagonist,...

Urine aquaporin-2 has recently been demonstrated as a promising predictor of response to tolvaptan. We here validated aquaporin ... Long-term efficacy of tolvaptan treatment in the responders defined by aquaporin-2 needs to be validated in the future ... a member of the aquaporin family, is an arginine vasopressin-regulated water channel expressed in the renal collecting duct, ... The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, tolvaptan, is a new-generation diuretic; it is especially indicated in patients ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/17/1/105

Anti-AQP2 / Aquaporin 2 | General | Primary Antibodies | Antibodies | Products | Biomol GmbH - Life Science ShopAnti-AQP2 / Aquaporin 2 | General | Primary Antibodies | Antibodies | Products | Biomol GmbH - Life Science Shop

... also called AQUAPORIN-CD, is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidneys collecting duct principal cells and in ... AQP2 (Aquaporin 2), also called AQUAPORIN-CD, is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidneys collecting duct principal ... Product information "Anti-AQP2 / Aquaporin 2" 0.5mg/ml if reconstituted with 0.2ml sterile DI water. ... Amino acids EPDTDWEEREVRRRQSVELHSPQSLPRGTKA of human Aquaporin 2 were used as the immunogen for the Aquaporin 2 antibody.. ...
more infohttps://www.biomol.com/products/antibodies/primary-antibodies/general/anti-aqp2/aquaporin-2-nsj-r32091

Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis | American Society of...Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis | American Society of...

Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis. Suchun Li, Miaojuan Qiu, ... Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis ... Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis ... Bile Acid G Protein-Coupled Membrane Receptor TGR5 Modulates Aquaporin 2-Mediated Water Homeostasis ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/29/11/2658

Aquaporin-2 expression in primary cultured rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. - Semantic ScholarAquaporin-2 expression in primary cultured rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. - Semantic Scholar

We show here that primary cultures of rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells retain AQP-2 expression for at least 6 ... We also found that coating the culture dishes with type IV collagen, rather than rat-tail collagen, retards AQP-2 ... Our data show that cAMP supplementation is sufficient for the maintenance of AQP-2 expression in primary cultured cells. The ... Immunofluorescence and biochemical studies indicate a shuttling of AQP-2-bearing vesicles after stimulation with vasopressin or ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Aquaporin-2-expression-in-primary-cultured-rat-duct-Maric-Oksche/8e9808180dcbc58e250e6602e9bdded7250f7667

A Heterotrimeric G Protein of the Gi Family is Required for cAMP-triggered Trafficking of Aquaporin 2 in Kidney Epithelial...A Heterotrimeric G Protein of the Gi Family is Required for cAMP-triggered Trafficking of Aquaporin 2 in Kidney Epithelial...

Central to its antidiuretic action in mammals is the redistribution of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) from intracellular ... a peptide corresponding to the alpha subunits of Gi1/2 was much less potent. Thus a member of the Gi family, most likely Gi3, ... Aquaporin-2 is a water-transporting protein located in the principal cells of the kidney collecting duct. Its function is to ... aquaporin 2 DEFINITION: Also called WCH-CD, this water channel makes the principal cells of the inner medullary collecting duct ...
more infohttp://www.ndif.org/articles/22-A_Heterotrimeric_G_Protein_of_the_Gi_Family_is_Required_for_cAMPtriggered_Trafficking_of_Aquaporin_2_in_Kidney_Epithelial_Cells/body

Proteomic analysis of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: Mechanisms for aquaporin 2 down-regulation and cellular...Proteomic analysis of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: Mechanisms for aquaporin 2 down-regulation and cellular...

However, chronic treatment with lithium induces numerous kidney-related side effects, such as dramatically reduced aquaporin 2 ... Proteomic analysis of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: Mechanisms for aquaporin 2 down-regulation and cellular ... After 1 or 2 weeks of lithium treatment, we identified 6 and 74 proteins with altered abundance compared with controls, ... As a model system, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) isolated from rats treated with lithium for either 1 or 2 weeks were ...
more infohttps://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/33885

Aquaporin 2 (Ser269) Antibody | PhosphoSolutionsAquaporin 2 (Ser269) Antibody | PhosphoSolutions

Aquaporin 2 (Ser269) Antibody. Catalog #: p112-269 Category: Signal Transduction Datasheet: Be the first to review this product ... Aquaporin 2 (Ser261) Antibody. Catalog #:. p112-261. Applications: WB IHC IP ICC Formulation: Affinity Purified from Pooled ... Aquaporin 2 (Ser264) Antibody. Catalog #:. p112-264. Applications: WB IHC Formulation: Affinity Purified from Pooled Serum. ... 2017 Aquaporin-2 Ser-261 phosphorylation is regulated in combination with Ser-256 and Ser-269 phosphorylation. Biochemical and ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosolutions.com/shop/aquaporin-2-ser269-antibody/

Plants | Free Full-Text | Accumulation of TIP2;2 Aquaporin during Dark Adaptation Is Partially PhyA Dependent in Roots of...Plants | Free Full-Text | Accumulation of TIP2;2 Aquaporin during Dark Adaptation Is Partially PhyA Dependent in Roots of...

In Arabidopsis thaliana, mRNA levels of one of the aquaporin genes, TIP2;2, increase during dark adaptation and decrease under ... Numerous studies have described the light regulation of aquaporin genes, but none have identified the regulatory mechanisms ... Fluorescence of TIP2;2-GFP protein in the endodermis of roots in the wild-type seedlings increased during dark adaptation, but ... In this paper, we focus on the role of phytochrome A (phyA) signaling in the regulation of the TIP2;2 protein. We generated ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2223-7747/3/1/177/xml

Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct. - Semantic...Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct. - Semantic...

... namely aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter (VRUT). Both are present in intracellular vesicles as ... Acute and chronic metabolic acidosis interferes with aquaporin-2 translocation in the rat kidney collecting ducts. Tomohiko ... Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct.. @article{ ... In the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), vasopressin regulates two key transporters, namely aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Vasopressin-regulates-apical-targeting-of-but-not-Inoue-Terris/b090283a4680976db196a9679d876ee9edc4ee11

Aquaporin-2 levels in vitro and in vivo are regulated by VACM-1, a cul 5 gene. | DocphinAquaporin-2 levels in vitro and in vivo are regulated by VACM-1, a cul 5 gene. | Docphin

Aquaporin-2 levels in vitro and in vivo are regulated by VACM-1, a cul 5 gene. , Cellular physiology and biochemistry : ... Aquaporin-2 levels in vitro and in vivo are regulated by VACM-1, a cul 5 gene. Isabelle P Le Sarah Schultz Bradley T Andresen ... Aquaporin-2 levels in vitro and in vivo are regulated by VACM-1, a cul 5 gene. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30(5):1148-58. ... cAMP production and subsequent translocation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) into the apical plasma membrane. We have ...
more infohttps://www.docphin.com/research/article-detail/1477221/PubMedID-23171819/Aquaporin-2-levels-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-are-regulated-by-VACM-1-a-cul-5-gene

Two novel aquaporin-2 mutations responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in Chinese families<...Two novel aquaporin-2 mutations responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in Chinese families<...

Lin, S. H., Bichet, D. G., Sasaki, S., Kuwahara, M., Arthus, M. F., Lonergan, M., & Lin, Y. F. (2002). Two novel aquaporin-2 ... Two novel aquaporin-2 mutations responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in Chinese families. In: Journal of ... Mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2), encoding the vasopressin-regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct, are ... Two novel aquaporin-2 mutations responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in Chinese families. / Lin, Shih Hua ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/two-novel-aquaporin-2-mutations-responsible-for-congenital-nephro

Lack of arginine vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 mutant AQP2-R254L explains dominant nephrogenic diabetes...Lack of arginine vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 mutant AQP2-R254L explains dominant nephrogenic diabetes...

Water homeostasis in humans is regulated by vasopressin, which induces the translocation of homotetrameric aquaporin-2 (AQP2) ... Lack of arginine vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 mutant AQP2-R254L explains dominant nephrogenic diabetes ... DCN 2: Functional Neurogenomics. IGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders. IGMD 9: Renal disorder. NCMLS ...
more infohttps://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/48640

The role of putative phosphorylation sites in the targeting and shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel. - PhysiomicsThe role of putative phosphorylation sites in the targeting and shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel. - Physiomics

For a proper functioning of epithelial cells, a polarized sorting and localization of channels and transporters that mediate transcellular ion and water movement is essential. Our work focuses on elucidating the routing regulation of wild-type AQP2/V2R, dissolving the underlying mechanisms for missorting of AQP2 mutants, and the identification of pharmacological chaperones, rescuing the cell surface expression of AQP2/V2R mutants in NDI.
more infohttp://physiomics.eu/osmoregulation/publications/j-biol-chem-27741473-41479,-2002/
  • We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aquaporin-2 is a water-transporting protein located in the principal cells of the kidney collecting duct . (ndif.org)
  • We demonstrate that members of several signaling pathways are activated by lithium treatment, including the PKB/Akt-kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. (jhu.edu)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , mRNA levels of one of the aquaporin genes, TIP2;2 , increase during dark adaptation and decrease under far-red light illumination, but the effects of light at the protein level and on the mechanism of light regulation remain unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we focus on the role of phytochrome A (phyA) signaling in the regulation of the TIP2;2 protein. (mdpi.com)
  • We generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing a TIP2;2-GFP fusion protein driven by its own promoter, and showed several differences in TIP2;2 behavior between wild type and the phyA mutant. (mdpi.com)
  • Fluorescence of TIP2;2-GFP protein in the endodermis of roots in the wild-type seedlings increased during dark adaptation, but not in the phyA mutant. (mdpi.com)
  • The amount of the TIP2;2-GFP protein in wild-type seedlings decreased rapidly under far-red light illumination, and a delay in reduction of TIP2;2-GFP was observed in the phyA mutant. (mdpi.com)
  • When it is needed, vasopressin binds to the cell surface vasopressin receptor thereby activating a signaling pathway that causes the aquaporin 2 containing vesicles to fuse with the plasma membrane, so the aquaporin 2 can be used by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells contain aquaporins through which water can flow more rapidly into and out of the cell than by diffusing through the phospholipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the kidney to be able to reabsorb body water flowing through its collecting ducts (CDs), the following molecular sequence must take place: The antidiuretic hormone , arginine vasopressin ( AVP ) must bind with the vasopressin-2 receptor ( V2R ) located in the basolateral membranes of the principal cells of the kidney CDs. (ndif.org)
  • We describe two new families with normal hypotensive and coagulation responses following the administration of desamino-8-D-arginine AVP, a clinical suggestion of normal vasopressin-2 receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its being removed from the blood by the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urine aquaporin-2 has recently been demonstrated as a promising predictor of response to tolvaptan. (mdpi.com)
  • Maintain the lyophilised/reconstituted antibodies frozen at -20°C for long term storage and refrigerated at 2-8°C for a shorter term. (osenses.com)
  • Our aim was to define conditions that favor maintenance of AQP-2 expression in vitro without genetic manipulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We show here that primary cultures of rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells retain AQP-2 expression for at least 6 days when grown with dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) supplementation. (semanticscholar.org)