Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The consumption of liquids.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
... aquaporin-1, which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is ... facilitated by astrocytic aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. The name "glymphatic system" was coined by the Danish ... in the absence of AQP4. Based upon this role of AQP4-dependent glial water transport in the process of paravascular ... Aquaporins are membrane-bound channels that play critical roles in regulating the flux of water into and out of cells. Relative ...
Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin ... AQP4 shows the largest presence in the cerebellum and spinal cord grey matter. In the CNS, AQP4 is the most prevalent aquaporin ... Aquaporin+4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human AQP4 genome location and AQP4 gene ... The assembly of AQP4 monomers into tetramers is similar to other aquaporin channels. In addition, AQP4 has two distinct ...
Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage ( ... Though this pattern could be considered similar to damage seen in NMO, some authors report no AQP4 damage in pattern II lesions ... which was associated with internalization of AQP4 and AQP1 and astrocyte apoptosis in the absence of complement activation. ... 246 (3): 880-6. doi:10.1148/radiol.2463070486. PMID 18195384. Calabrese M, Filippi M, Rovaris M, Mattisi I, Bernardi V, Atzori ...
AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, AQP7, AQP8, AQP9, AQP10, MIP MIPModDB MIP (gene) Aquaporins Integral membrane protein ... The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. The aquaporins (AQPs) are water ... Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) from the human red blood cell has been solved by electron crystallography to 3.8 Å resolution (PDB: 1FQY​). ... Aquaporins generally have the NPA motif in both halves, the glycerol facilitators generally have an NPA motif in the first ...
... s, are a group of diseases characterized by auto-antibodies against aquaporin 4. After the discovery of anti- ... "AQP4-astrocytopathy" that includes also problems in AQP4 with a non-autoimmune origin. After finding the anti-AQP4 autoantibody ... AQP4-Ab-negative NMO presents problems for diagnosis. The behavior of the oligoclonal bands respect MS[clarification needed] ... This variant can present brain lesions like MS, but it should not be confused with an AQP4-negative form of inflammatory ...
In more than 80% of cases, NMO is caused by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4), the most abundant water ... Diagnostic criteria are more relaxed for seropositive AQP4-IgG cases than they are for seronegative AQP4-IgG cases. If AQP4-IgG ... Since the discovery of AQP4 involvement, some research studies have focused on targeted treatment aimed at anti-aquaporin 4 ... AQP4 is found in astrocytes, which are the basis for the glymphatic system. Thus, NMOSD involving AQP4-IgG can be considered an ...
Musa-Aziz, Raif; Chen, Li-Ming; Pelletier, Marc F.; Boron, Walter F. (2009). "Relative CO2/NH3 selectivities of AQP1, AQP4, ... Boron's group has extended its interest to understanding mechanisms of gas movement through aquaporins and Rh proteins, and the ... 3rd Edition (2016) [3] Walter Boron Curriculum Vitae "Walter F. Boron". Presidents. American Physiological Society. Retrieved ...
In addition, AQP4, an astrocyte water channel, plays a crucial role in cytotoxic edema and aggravate outcome after stroke. Loss ... Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T. (2009). "Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke". ... In Beitz, Eric (ed.). Aquaporins. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 190. pp. 159-70. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79885-9_7. ISBN ... 28 (3): 138-45. doi:10.1016/j.it.2007.01.005. PMID 17276138. John, Gareth R.; Lee, Sunhee C.; Song, Xianyuan; Rivieccio, Mark; ...
After the discovery of anti-AQP4 autoantibodies it was found that some cases of OSMS were AQP4-negative, and therefore, they ... "Aquaporin-4 autoimmune syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-negative opticospinal multiple sclerosis in Japanese". Multiple ... See Anti-AQP4 diseases Originally found in neuromyelitis optica, this autoantibody has been associated with other conditions. ... As of 2019 three auto-antibodies have been found in atypical MS giving birth to separate diseases: Anti-AQP4 diseases, Anti-MOG ...
... and specific antibodies such as Aquaporin 4 may be tested for to assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions.[1] A lumbar ... regulated by AQP-4.[4] ... facilitated by aquaporins.[3] Chloride, with a negative charge ... 33 (3): 334-6. PMID 12956452.. *^ a b c Reece WO (2013). Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. John Wiley & ... 67 (3): 209-13. PMID 18828104.. *^ Sharifi M, Ciołkowski M, Krajewski P, Ciszek B (August 2005). "The choroid plexus of the ...
Aquaporin-4 in Müller cell in rat, transfer water to vitreous body. It was reported that Müller cells can be damaged by niacin ... Jo, A. O.; Ryskamp, D. A.; Phuong, T. T. T.; Verkman, A. S.; Yarishkin, O.; MacAulay, N.; Kri Aj, D. (2015). "TRPV4 and AQP4 ... 78 (3): 675-84. doi:10.1083/jcb.78.3.675. PMC 2110200. PMID 29902. Linser, P.; Moscona, A. A. (1979). "Induction of glutamine ... 4 (3): 247-52. doi:10.1038/85090. PMID 11224540. Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Grimes, William N.; Wohl, Stefanie G ...
Balo-like lesions have been reported in aquaporin-4 seropositive and seronegative NMOSD, and also in children, as part of an ... Later reports state that Baló's patients showed loss of AQP1 and AQP4 in demyelinating lesions without binding auto-antibodies ... Nov 2010). "Aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Baló's disease". Acta Neuropathologica. 120 (5): 651-660. doi:10.1007/S00401-010-0733 ... similar to the one found in aquaporin-seropositive neuromyelitis optica. Though no anti-NMO antibodies have been found, the ...
This creates osmotic pressure and draws water into CSF, facilitated by aquaporins. Chloride, with a negative charge, moves with ... regulated by AQP-4. There are circadian variations in CSF secretion, with the mechanisms not fully understood, but potentially ... and specific antibodies such as Aquaporin 4 may be tested for to assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions. A lumbar ... Infants have a CSF volume of 4 mL/kg, children have a CSF volume of 3 mL/kg, and adults have a CSF volume of 1.5-2 mL/kg. A ...
This pattern has been considered similar to damage seen in NMO, though AQP4 damage does not appear in pattern II MS lesions ... NMO-IgG is the immunoglobulin that attacks Aquaporin-4 in Devic's disease. Multiple sclerosis patients do not have it in blood ... Anti-AQP4 disease Anti-MOG disease Anti-Neurofascin disease Lesions in MS are heterogeneous and there are four different ... 35 (3): 283-95. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2008.00986.x. PMID 19473295. Saindane AM, Law M, Ge Y, Johnson G, Babb JS, Grossman RI ...
NMOSD can be associated with antibodies that bind to a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody ... In the trial, 213 of the 230 participants had antibodies against AQP4 (anti-AQP4 antibody positive). During the 197-day study, ... patients who are anti-aquaporin-4 or AQP4 antibody positive). NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disorder in which immune system cells ... There was no evidence of a benefit in participants who were anti-AQP4 antibody negative. The primary efficacy endpoint was the ...
NMOSD can be associated with antibodies that bind to a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody ... people who are anti-aquaporin-4 or AQP4 antibody-positive. NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system ... of 116 participants with NMOSD who were anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive. The trials were conducted at 62 sites in the ... including the formation of pathological autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and the permeability of the blood-brain ...
In neuromyelitis optica higher AQP4 autoantibody levels are associated with the occurrence of optic neuritis. Less common ... Clinical relevance of serum aquaporin-4 antibody levels in neuromyelitis optica. Neurochem Res. 2013;38(5):997-1001. doi: ... it has been found to be associated to anti-MOG and AQP4-negative neuromyelitis optica When an inflammatory recurrent optic ... visual function spontaneously improves over 2-3 months, and there is evidence that corticosteroid treatment does not affect the ...
Anti-MOG antibodies have been described in some patients with NMOSD who were negative for the aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) antibody. ... Rare cases have been described of patients with antibodies against both AQP4 and MOG. These patients typically have MS-like ... Part 1: Frequency, syndrome specificity, influence of disease activity, long-term course, association with AQP4-IgG, and origin ... 2 (3): 295-301. doi:10.1002/acn3.164. PMC 4369279. PMID 25815356. Deena A. Tajfirouz, M. Tariq Bhatti, John J. Chen, Clinical ...
... is also used to treat neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in adults who are anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody ... "EU/3/09/653". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 19 July 2017. "In The Matter Of The Patent Act, R.S.C., 1985, C. P-4, As ... 68 (3): 325-333. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002198. ISSN 0277-2116. PMID 30418410. S2CID 53281594. "HAN Archive - 00404,Health ... "Plea to Pharmac for pricey life-saver". 3 News NZ. 24 January 2013. Hadjivasiliou, Andreas (October 2014), "Orphan Drug Report ...
This pattern has been considered similar to damage seen in NMO, though AQP4 damage does not appear in pattern II MS lesions ... the situation would be similar to what happened for Devic Disease and Aquaporin-4[citation needed]. MS could be considered a ... 2 (3): 295-301. doi:10.1002/acn3.164. PMC 4369279. PMID 25815356. Jarius S, Metz I, König FB, Ruprecht K, Reindl M, Paul F, ... 72 (3): 385-94. doi:10.1002/ana.23621. PMID 23034911. S2CID 1662420. Arnold P, Mojumder D, Detoledo J, Lucius R, Wilms H (Feb ...
AQP4, aquaporin-4; CASPR2, contactin-associated protein 2; DNER, δ-Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor; DPPX, ... AQP4, aquaporin 4; CASPR, contactin-associated protein; CRMP-5, collapsin response mediator protein 5; DPPX, dipeptidyl- ... NMO (AQP4). Rarea thymoma and breast adenocarcinoma. PCA-2 (MAP1B). Small-cell carcinoma. P/Q- and N-type VGCC. Small-cell ... AQP4, and ANNA-2 antibodies.[47] Abnormalities can include sleep-disordered breathing, REM sleep behavior disorder, and ...
AQP4, aquaporin-4; CASPR2, contactin-associated protein 2; DNER, δ-Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor; DPPX, ... AQP4, aquaporin 4; CASPR, contactin-associated protein; CRMP-5, collapsin response mediator protein 5; DPPX, dipeptidyl- ... NMO (AQP4). Rarea thymoma and breast adenocarcinoma. PCA-2 (MAP1B). Small-cell carcinoma. P/Q- and N-type VGCC. Small-cell ... ANNA-3. Aerodigestive carcinomas. GABAAR. Hodgkinslymphoma, ovarian. CRMP-5 (anti-CV2). Small-cell carcinoma, thymoma. GABABR ...
This includes the production of a harmful antibody that targets a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4).3 ... IL-6 and aquaporin-4 antibodies. IL-6 plays a key role in regulating the immune response to molecules that promote inflammation ... This allows AQP4 antibodies and other cells that cause inflammation to have direct access to the brain and spinal cord.4 In ... These AQP4 antibodies target and damage an important group of cells called astrocytes, which are star-shaped cells found in the ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is found on perivascular and ependymal cells, but it has also been discovered in sera of patients with NMO ... First, aquaporin-"aquaporin-1" was described in 1992 by Peter Agre, until today we know 13 aquaporins, of which four are best ... Autoantibodies to aquaporins. Aquaporins (AQP; water channels) are integral membrane proteins that form pores in the membrane ... Tzartos and his colleagues detected aquaporin antibodies (AQP-1, -3, -8, and -9) in pSS patients sera [61]. What is interesting ...
Aquaporins/metabolism (1)Aquaporins/physiology (1)Body Water/metabolism (1)Escherichia coli Proteins (1)... View MoreDate ... Aquaporins and the respiratory system: advice for a lung investigator Agre, Peter; Nielsen, Søren; King, Landon S. (American ... here we define aquaporin protein ontogeny in rat. Expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), AQP4, and ... ... Aquaporins in complex tissues. I. Developmental patterns in respiratory and glandular tissues of rat Agre, Peter; Nielsen, ...
The cDNA encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein was recently isolated from rat brain. We used ... ... Aquaporin-1 Water Channel Expression in Human Kidney Nielsen, Søren; Agre, Peter; Bondy, Carolyn; Ning, Gang; Chin, Edward; ... here we define aquaporin protein ontogeny in rat. Expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), AQP4, and ... ... Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in lung: ontogeny, steroid-induced expression, and distribution in rat Agre, Peter; Nielsen, ...
In contrast, most cultivated glioma cell lines dont express AQP4, and primary cell cultures of human glioblastoma lose it d ... AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ... 0/Aqp4 protein, mouse; 0/Aqp4 protein, rat; 0/Aquaporin 4; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins ... Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. ...
There was however a significant decrease in protein abundance of AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in HT rats as compared with CTL and HT+T ... Aquaporin Water Channels. Hypothyroidism was associated with significant decreases in inner medulla protein abundance of AQP2 ( ... Antibodies to AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, Na-K-2Cl, NHE3, and UTA were utilized in this study. Specificity of these antibodies has been ... The AQP1 protein was also studied since a decrease in this aquaporin has been shown to cause a urinary concentrating defect in ...
doi: 10.1007/s00424-013-1421-y. Epub 2014 Jan 3. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... In half-turns I-VI, AQP4 labelling was detected in the basal membranes of CCs (white arrows). No immunoreactivity for AQP4 and ... In half-turn VII, AQP4 labelling was observed in the basal membranes of CCs (white arrow), and OSCs showed AQP4 labelling in ... AQP4 labelling in CCs was observed throughout the entire length of the whole-mount preparations. In OSCs, AQP4 labelling was ...
... exceptionally high Pf was determined for an epithelial subdomain of outer sulcus cells in the cochlear apex co-expressing AQP4 ... Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph- ... aquaporins, AQPs). The PD of the entire CDE (PD = 8.18 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) and its individual partitions including Reissners ... and AQP5 (OSCs; Pf = 156.90 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)). The Pf/PD ratios of the CDE (Pf/PD = 7.52) and OSCs (Pf/PD = 242.02) indicate ...
... aquaporin-1, which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is ... facilitated by astrocytic aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. The name "glymphatic system" was coined by the Danish ... in the absence of AQP4. Based upon this role of AQP4-dependent glial water transport in the process of paravascular ... Aquaporins are membrane-bound channels that play critical roles in regulating the flux of water into and out of cells. Relative ...
Aquaporin 4 in Plasma, Serum. It is a Sandwich assay which can detect AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 down to 0.156 Nanograms per millilter. ... Aquaporin 4 ELISA Kit LS-F13079 is a 96-Well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the Quantitative detection of Human AQP4 / ... It is based upon a Sandwich assay principle and can be used to detect levels of AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 as low as 0.156 nanograms ... LS-F13079 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Human AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 in ...
New Insight into Aquaporin Function as Drug Targets Friday, July 6, 2018 10:20-12:00. Chairs:Masato Yasui Keio University ... Role of AQP4 in skeletal muscle. Antonio Frigeri Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, ... Role of Aquaporin 3 in hydrogen peroxide transport and cellular signaling. Mariko Hara-Chikuma School of Medicine, Keio ... Speakers: Aquaporin-mediated water permeation drives tumor cell migration. Konstantinos Konstantopoulos Department of Chemical ...
Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin ... AQP4 shows the largest presence in the cerebellum and spinal cord grey matter. In the CNS, AQP4 is the most prevalent aquaporin ... Aquaporin+4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human AQP4 genome location and AQP4 gene ... The assembly of AQP4 monomers into tetramers is similar to other aquaporin channels. In addition, AQP4 has two distinct ...
Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage ( ... Though this pattern could be considered similar to damage seen in NMO, some authors report no AQP4 damage in pattern II lesions ... which was associated with internalization of AQP4 and AQP1 and astrocyte apoptosis in the absence of complement activation. ... 246 (3): 880-6. doi:10.1148/radiol.2463070486. PMID 18195384. Calabrese M, Filippi M, Rovaris M, Mattisi I, Bernardi V, Atzori ...
AQP4. Aquaporin 4. NM_001650. NM_004028. Gene Info. AQP5. Aquaporin 5. NM_001651. Gene Info. ... Aquaporin 9. NM_020980. Gene Info. ARAP1. ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1. NM_001040118. NM_015242. ... Aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group). NM_198098. NM_001185061. NM_001185060. NM_001185062. Gene Info. ... ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast). NM_005721. Gene Info. ACTR3B. ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast). NM_ ...
2010). Nitric oxide conduction by the brain aquaporin AQP4. Proteins 78, 661-670. ... 2009). Role of aquaporin-7 and aquaporin-9 in glycerol metabolism; involvement in obesity. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 190, 233-249 ... 2000). Carbon dioxide permeability of aquaporin-1 measured in erythrocytes and lung of aquaporin-1 null mice and in ... in Aqp4-null mice. In the brain, the seizure threshold is reduced and seizure duration prolonged by an AQP4 deficiency (Binder ...
... or aquaporins, which include metazoan AQP0, AQP1, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5, and AQP6; (3) PIPs, or plasma membrane intrinsic proteins ... The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. (1) The aquaporins (AQPs) are ... 2017). Expression of aquaporin-7 and aquaporin-9 in tanycyte cells and choroid plexus during mouse estrus cycle. Morphologie ... 2003). Architecture and selectivity in aquaporins: 2.5 a X-ray structure of aquaporin Z. PLoS Biol 1: E72. 14691544 ...
The aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins that transport water and in some cases small solutes such as ... Yang B, Brown D, Verkman AS (1996) The mercurial insensitive water channel (AQP-4) forms orthogonal arrays in stably ... Bai C, Fukuda N, Song Y, Ma T, Matthay MA, Verkman AS (1999) Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice ... Erythrocyte water permeability and renal function in double knockout mice lacking aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3. J Biol Chem 276: ...
Using real-time PCR analysis, we observed a strong up-regulation of ion and water transport genes such as aquaporin 4 (aqp4) ... In addition, the strong up-regulation of aqp4 and slc26 genes prior to ovulation suggests their participation in the oocyte ... After clustering analysis, 90 clones belonging to 3 gene clusters exhibiting the most remarkable expression patterns were kept ... AQP4_RAT (P47863) Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) (WCH4) (Mercurial-insensitive water channel) ...
Recently, endogenous water channel proteins (aquaporins; AQPs), have been identified in colonic tissue. The expression of AQP4 ... The expression of AQP4 and AQP8 mRNA was significantly decreased after 12-24 h of DSS exposure and remained depressed ... Aquaporin expression is downregulated in a murine model of colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease and ... Colonic water transport was measured after 1 and 3 days of DSS and following 7 days of recovery. ...
... and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression, and TUNEL. Tissues were evaluated for relative levels of positive signals compared to ... There was also increased AQP4 expression and retinal thickness on the left eye at 48 h post blast. In the optic nerve, the ... Results : Caspase-3 activation was observed in the retina and optic nerve of both the right and left eyes at 48 hour post blast ... Activated caspase-3 was detected preferentially in the inner nuclear layer and ganglion layer. GFAP was also expressed ...
... å indusere lammelse og opticospinal betennelse av overføring av aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-spesifikke... ... Figur 2 : AQP4-spesifikke T celler fra AQP4- / - mus utnytte unike TCR repertoar. AQP4- /- og WT mus ble vaksinert med de ... Nylig det ble observert at immunisering for C57BL/6 AQP4 dårlig (AQP4- / -) mus AQP4 peptid (p) 135-153 eller p201-220, to ... Første, adopsjon overføring av ATCA krever AQP4-spesifikke T celler fra AQP4- / - giver mus. Spesielt forårsake giver WT AQP4 ...
Such mice lacking AQP1 (20), AQP2 (34), AQP3 (19), or AQP4 (4) suffered mild (AQP4) to severe (AQP2) polyuria and dehydration ... An impaired routing of wild-type aquaporin-2 after tetramerization with an aquaporin-2 mutant explains dominant nephrogenic ... AQP4), skeletal muscle (AQP4), secretory glands (AQP5), and eye (AQP0, AQP1, and AQP3-5). Consistent with the complex tissue ... Optical dysfunction of the crystalline lens in aquaporin-0-deficient mice. ALAN SHIELS, STEVEN BASSNETT, KULANDAIAPPA VARADARAJ ...
... en protokol for at fremkalde lammelser og opticospinal betændelse af overførsel af aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specifikke... ... Figur 2 : AQP4-specifikke T-celler fra AQP4- / - mus udnytte unikke TCR repertoirer. AQP4- /- og WT mus blev immuniseret med de ... For nylig, det blev observeret at immunisering af C57BL/6 AQP4-mangel (AQP4- / -) mus med AQP4 peptid (p) 135-153 eller p201- ... Første, adoptiv overførsel af ATCA kræver brug af AQP4-specifikke T-celler fra AQP4- / - donor mus. Specifikt, donor WT AQP4 ...
Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans.[1] AQP4 belongs to the ... Similar to other aquaporin channels, the monomers of AQP4 assemble into tetramers.[6] In addition, AQP4 has two distinct ... Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes.[5] Additionally, AQP4 can also be ... Human AQP4 genome location and AQP4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
Gentaur Molecular products offer more than 3 million research antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins and polyclonal, monoclonal ... AE55912HU) Human Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) ELISA Kit. (AE62413HU) Human Aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) ELISA Kit. ... AE57964DO) Canine 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase 1 (PTPLA) ELISA Kit. (AE59846DO) Canine 40S ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) ELISA ... AE91066HU) Human Coxsackievirus 3(COX-III) antibody (IgM) ELISA kit. (AE91067HU) Human Coxsackievirus 4(COX-IV) antibody (IgG) ...
Seven AQPs are expressed in the kidney (6). In addition to AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 are involved in the described AVP pathway, and ... 2008) Aquaporin 1 is important for maintaining secretory granule biogenesis in endocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol 22:1924-1934. ... 1994) Requirement of human renal water channel aquaporin-2 for vasopressin-dependent concentration of urine. Science 264:92-95. ... 2007) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice caused by deleting COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ...
2) Notably, among demyelinating disorders, multiple sclerosis and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum ... 2) Notably, among demyelinating disorders, multiple sclerosis and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum ... 2,3). We agree with Komatsu et al. that their case is the first report of the perivascular enhancement in anti-MOG antibody ... 2,3). We agree with Komatsu et al. that their case is the first report of the perivascular enhancement in anti-MOG antibody ...
The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested ... EIU differently alters the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina. The differential expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 during ... Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat.. [Xiao-Qiang Liu, Hideyuki ... In this study, we investigated the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. ...
  • A limited number of aquaporins are found within the central nervous system (CNS): AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11, but more exclusive representation of AQP1, 4, and 9 are found in the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage (lesion type 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another pattern is characterized by clasmatodendrosis of astrocytes, defined by cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolation, beading and dissolution of their processes and nuclear alterations resembling apoptosis, which was associated with internalization of AQP4 and AQP1 and astrocyte apoptosis in the absence of complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the nine other aquaporin genes identified in mammals, at least six (AQP1-4, AQP6, and AQP7) are expressed in the kidney ( 3 ), an organ largely devoted to high rates of active fluid transport. (physiology.org)
  • Such mice lacking AQP1 ( 20 ), AQP2 ( 34 ), AQP3 ( 19 ), or AQP4 ( 4 ) suffered mild (AQP4) to severe (AQP2) polyuria and dehydration following water deprivation, whereas AQP5 deletion resulted in impaired saliva secretion ( 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • In addition to AQP2, AQP3 and AQP4 are involved in the described AVP pathway, and AQP1 controls water reabsorption in the proximal tubule, in the descending thin limbs of Henle, and in the descending vasa recta. (pnas.org)
  • Cell-based assays were performed for aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP4 antibody detection. (springer.com)
  • Histologically, Baló's patients showed loss of AQP1 and AQP4 in demyelinating lesions, but no antibodies binding conformational AQP1 or AQP4 were detected. (springer.com)
  • AQP1 congruent with AQP4. (jove.com)
  • Alkaline pH increased the water permeability of AQP4 that contains His at position 129 in loop C. Acid and alkaline pH sensitivity was induced in AQP1 by adding histidines 48 (in loop A) and 130 (in loop C). We conclude that external histidines in loops A and C that span the outer vestibule contribute to pH sensitivity. (rupress.org)
  • In brain, three main AQPs AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9 are expressed and are implicated in numerous physiological functions. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • AQP1 has a role in cerebrospinal fluid formation, whereas AQP4 is involved in water homeostasis and extracellular osmotic pressure in brain parenchyma. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Aim 4 will utilize aquaporin inhibitors, identified by high-throughput screening, as well as AQP1/AQP4 knockout mice, to test whether aquaporin inhibition/knockout can substantially reduce IOP in rodent models of glaucoma, and protect against retinal ganglion cell loss. (grantome.com)
  • This review summarizes the papers which describe the expression of OAs, AQP4, and other AQPs at the sarcolemma of healthy and diseased muscle and discusses the possible role of AQPs, especially that of AQP4, in normal and pathological skeletal muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • Water channel proteins named aquaporins (AQPs) have been found in the cell membranes of these organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Among 13 AQPs, AQP4 has a characteristic ultrastructural feature, since AQP4 can be identified by freeze-fracture (F-F) electron microscopy and can be seen as orthogonal arrays (OAs) in this method [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). (nih.gov)
  • Tetramers of one of the AQPs, AQP4, further assemble into supramolecular square arrays - called orthogonal arrays of particles - which are maintained by inter-tetrameric N-terminal interactions involving specific residues ( Crane and Verkman, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • The aquaporins (AQPs) are small integral membrane proteins that transport water and in some cases small solutes such as glycerol. (springer.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) facilitate the rapid and selective movement of small neutral molecules, such as water and glycerol, across cell membranes. (rupress.org)
  • We report the immunolocalization of aquaporins (AQPs) 1, 4, and 6 in the human auditory and vestibular endorgans. (nih.gov)
  • Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) secrete most of the CSF through poorly understood mechanisms that involve aquaporins (AQPs) and various solute transport proteins like the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1). (wright.edu)
  • 3Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China Introduction: Aquaporins (AQPs), also called water channels, have been shown to have functions in the migration, invasion, and proliferation of human breast tumor cells. (doaj.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a family of channel proteins implicated in transmembrane water transport. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) belong to a transmembrane protein family of water channels that are permeable to water by the osmotic gradient. (chemweb.com)
  • Indeed, water channels, later called aquaporins (AQPs), are transmembrane proteins with a specific three-dimensional structure forming a channel to facilitate the flow of water through cellular membranes [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • AQPs facilitate the rapid flux of water out of the cell, thus less intracellular ice forms in the organism [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water channels expressed in many mammalian tissues that carry out fluid transport. (grantome.com)
  • These studies are helpful to assist in the clinical examination of the optic pathways (VEP) and to evaluate extent of damage and possibly response to immunotherapy (OCT), particularly for patients with AQP4 and MOG antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Polysomnography is useful in patients with antibodies that are associated with sleep disorders, including those with the following antibodies CASPR2, DPPX, IgLON5, anti-Ma2, AQP4, and ANNA-2 antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • [ 40 ] Narcolepsy-cataplexy can be seen in patients with anti-Ma2 antibodies and AQP4 autoimmunity when either disorder is accompanied by diencephalic and hypothalamic involvement. (medscape.com)
  • These AQP4 antibodies target and damage an important group of cells called astrocytes, which are star-shaped cells found in the optic nerves, brain and spinal cord. (roche.com)
  • This allows AQP4 antibodies and other cells that cause inflammation to have direct access to the brain and spinal cord. (roche.com)
  • 1 Approximately three quarters (73%) of all patients with NMOSD test positive for anti-AQP4 auto-antibodies. (businesswire.com)
  • 3-6 Complement activation due to anti-AQP4 antibodies is one of the primary underlying causes of the destruction in these patients. (businesswire.com)
  • Findings show that overexpression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5 ) activated epithelial-mesenchymal transition ( EMT (show ITK Antibodies )) in colorectal cancer ( CRC (show CALR Antibodies )) cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Osmotic water permeabilities of aquaporins AQP4 (show AQP4 Antibodies ), AQP5 , and GlpF from near-equilibrium simulations have been presented. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Approximately 75 percent of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) express antibodies to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) receptor. (aruplab.com)
  • While absence of antibodies to the AQP4 receptor does not rule out the diagnosis of NMO, presence of this antibody is diagnostic for NMO. (aruplab.com)
  • A 53-year-old female with a history of NMO with positive NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG)/aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab) presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of headache, left sided weakness, numbness, and tingling for 3 days. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is characterized by recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis, and presence of NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG)/aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab) [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Antibodies anti-glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), macrophage/phagocytic activation (CD68), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1), and neutrophils (CD15) were used. (myjournals.org)
  • Regularly, inflammatory lesions of NMO are encircled by remains of match up and antibodies that are linked with necrotic astrocytes, whereas AQP4 phrase in astrocytes is certainly downregulated in the early stage of NMO [6,7]. (technumber.com)
  • We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. (ajnr.org)
  • The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. (ajnr.org)
  • Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. (ajnr.org)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the central nervous system that is characterized by circulating anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while evaluating neurological deterioration in patients with tuberculosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A key diagnostic test for NMO spectrum disorders is the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (anti-Aqp-4) IgG antibodies in patient serum [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis surface antigens may trigger the formation of cross-reactive antibodies against aquaporin-4 channel proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibodies against aquaporin-4 autoantibody were recorded in 435 of 577 (75.39%) patients with NMO. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum antibodies targeting AQP4-Ab have become sensitive and specific biomarker for early diagnosis of NMO and are found in most patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Uncontrolled complement activation triggered by anti-AQP4 auto antibodies is a major underlying mechanism of the disease. (alexion.com)
  • This includes the production of a harmful antibody that targets a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (roche.com)
  • here we define aquaporin protein ontogeny in rat. (jhu.edu)
  • The cDNA encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein was recently isolated from rat brain. (jhu.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of renal sodium chloride and urea transporters and aquaporins in hypothyroid rats (HT) with diminished urinary concentration as compared with euthyroid controls (CTL) and hypothyroid rats replaced with L-thyroxine (HT+T). Hypothyroidism was induced by aminotriazole administration. (asnjournals.org)
  • There was however a significant decrease in protein abundance of AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in HT rats as compared with CTL and HT+T rats. (asnjournals.org)
  • Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retina and optic nerves tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western and ELISA analysis for caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression, and TUNEL. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aquaporin-0 (AQP0), a water transport channel protein, is the major intrinsic protein (MIP) of lens fiber cell plasma membranes. (physiology.org)
  • The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested to play essential roles in the potassium and water homeostasis of the retina. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The expression of AQP4 protein was only slightly reduced at one day (82%, p>0.05) after LPS injection and then increased gradually and had nearly recovered to the basal level at 14 days after LPS injection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Fibronectin Leucine Rich Transmembrane Protein 3 (FLRT3) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (aquaporins.org)
  • Known also as Fibronectin Leucine Rich Transmembrane Protein 3 elisa. (aquaporins.org)
  • Caspase-3 and aquaporin-4 protein expression and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. (asahq.org)
  • Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Aquaporin 5 Kits (45) and Aquaporin 5 Proteins (4) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These domains are characterized by the aggregation of, among other molecules, the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex, and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1. (springer.com)
  • This protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain and has an important role in brain water homeostasis. (origene.com)
  • Most patients with NMO have circulating Abs, termed NMO-IgG, against the astrocytic water channel protein aquaporin-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • AQP4, the main water channel protein in the CNS, is expressed in the plasma membrane of astrocytes, primarily the perivascular foot processes and the glia-limiting membrane ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Astrocytes become damaged, which leads to loss of AQP4 and loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the CNS water channel organized into well-ordered protein aggregates called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs). (elsevier.com)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) are transfected transiently with a plasmid (pIRES2- Aequorea coerulescens green fluorescent protein [AcGFP]) encoding both green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) and AQP4-M1. (testcatalog.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + astrocytes with increased survivin and reduced aquaporin 4, and glutamine synthetase protein levels, indicating disturbed blood brain barrier function, glutamate homeostasis and astrocyte maladaptation, respectively. (nature.com)
  • Brain water content, IL-1β, TNFα, immunoglobulin G (IgG), AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured in brain tissues. (emory.edu)
  • IL-1β, 3% NaCl and calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) were used to treat the primary astrocytes in vitro. (emory.edu)
  • AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured in astrocytes. (emory.edu)
  • Results: Three percent NaCl attenuated the increase of brain water content, IL-1β, TNFα, IgG, AQP4 mRNA and protein in brain tissues induced by LPS. (emory.edu)
  • Three percent NaCl inhibited the increase of AQP4 mRNA and protein in astrocytes induced by IL-1β in vitro. (emory.edu)
  • Calphostin C blocked the decrease of AQP4 mRNA and protein in astrocytes induced by 3% NaCl in vitro. (emory.edu)
  • Three percent NaCl attenuated the expression of AQP4 through activation of protein kinase C in astrocytes. (emory.edu)
  • Four days after reperfusion, both motor and proprioception functions were assessed and then all rats were sacrificed for determination of brain infarct volume (2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining), apoptosis (TUNEL staining), edema (both cerebral water content and amounts of aquaporin-4 positive cells), gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]-positive cells), and neurotoxicity (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] expression). (oalib.com)
  • GeNorm identified transferrin receptor ( Tfrc ) and microglobulin beta-2 ( B2m ) the most stable genes followed by ribosomal protein L19 ( Rpl19 ) whereas β-actin ( ActB ) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase ( Gapdh ) the most fluctuated ones in these neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hypothesize that integrative analyses of protein sequences and body site expression of human, mouse, rat and chicken aquaporins has the potential to yield novel biological hypotheses about the unexpected cellular roles of aquaporins beyond transmembrane water transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, primary rat or mouse astrocytes in culture did not lose their ability to express AQP4, and they were able to form few OAPs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Researchers have long known that astrocytes express water channels called aquaporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of aquaporins are expressed in the CNS: aquaporin-1, which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed by astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 expression in astrocytes is highly polarized to the endfoot processes ensheathing the cerebral vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • AQP4 is also expressed in astrocytes and is upregulated by direct insult to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes . (wikidoc.org)
  • NMO symptoms act like MS (e.g., eyesight loss, muscle tissue weakness, paralysis and numbness in the legs and arms, etc), and before consequently, NMO was regarded as a severe type of MS. Nevertheless, research shows that condition outcomes from the creation of pathogenic autoantibodies against water route aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on astrocytes [3]. (woofahs.com)
  • Our findings identify a new morphological outcome for Arp2/3 activation in restricting rather than promoting outwards movement of the plasma membrane in astrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • The Arp2/3 regulators PICK1, and N-WASP and WAVE2 function antagonistically to control the complexity of astrocyte branched morphology, and this mechanism underlies the morphological changes seen in astrocytes during their response to pathological insult. (biologists.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 is a water chanel expressed in astrocytes and in retinal glial Müller cells (RMG) that facilitates water transport across plasma membranes in response to osmotic gradients, contributing to intra- and extracellular hydro-ionic regulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • RMG cells follow the nerve fibers towards the optic nerve head, were AQP4 is expressed not only in astrocytes but also in RMG cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Another member, AQP4, functions as a water-selective channel in epithelial cells in the kidney-collecting duct as well as in brain astrocytes ( Shi and Verkman, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • Guadagno E, Moukhles H (2004) Laminin-induced aggregation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir4.1, and the water-permeable channel, AQP4, via a dystroglycan-containing complex in astrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Latest research have got indicated that major autoimmune goals in NMO can end up being astrocytes, which sole AQP4 in the end foot processes [6C8] abundantly. (technumber.com)
  • 2 , 3 This property is accomplished by a series of cellular and electrical gradient components that include endothelial and mural cells, basal lamina, pericytes, and astrocytes. (jaoa.org)
  • Three days after the stab wound, AQP4 expression was observed in activated microglia around the lesion site as well as in astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Clearance of soluble proteins, waste products, and excess extracellular fluid is accomplished through convective bulk flow of ISF, facilitated by astrocytic aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • AQP4 belongs to the aquaporin family of integral membrane proteins that conduct water through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another specific role AQP4 plays is to help odorant molecules bind to target receptors and binding proteins within olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • These channel proteins function in water, small carbohydrate (e.g., glycerol), urea, NH 3 , CO 2 , H 2 O 2 and ion transport by energy-independent mechanisms. (tcdb.org)
  • and (6) AQP8s, or metazoan aquaporin 8 proteins. (tcdb.org)
  • Remarkably, MIP is the charter member of a sequence-related gene family encoding over 150 channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water (aquaporins) and glycerol (aquaglyceroporins) across the plasma membranes of microbial, plant, and animal cells ( 12 ). (physiology.org)
  • The molecular components of the MJ have been recently deciphered [2], [3], showing that proteins unique to the Apicomplexa and generally conserved within the phylum are secreted from secretory organelles of the parasites called PF-03814735 the rhoptries. (woofahs.com)
  • Aquaporins (AQP) are integral membrane proteins that serve as channels in the transfer of water, and in some cases, small solutes across the membrane. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Aquaporins: water channel proteins of the cell membrane. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Thus, like in the brain, AQP4 function creates an hydraulic pathway along vessels, were fluid and proteins can migrate. (arvojournals.org)
  • Water channel proteins, known as aquaporins, are transmembrane proteins that mediate osmotic water permeability. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the aquaporin family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels in the plasma membranes of many cells. (origene.com)
  • Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mammals, thirteen aquaporins (AQP0-12) have been characterized, but in lower vertebrates, such as fish, the diversity, structure and substrate specificity of these membrane channel proteins are largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The clearance of soluble proteins, waste products and extracellular fluid excess is achieved through the convective flow of the interstitial fluid, facilitated by the presence of channels called aquaporins (AQP), located in the astrocyte membrane [11], which play acrucial role in water flow regulation in and out of cells. (scirp.org)
  • These homologous proteins are collectively referred to as aquaporins and include a subset called aquaglyceroporins that are able to transport glycerol, urea and other small solutes in addition to water [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We assessed the distribution of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in lacrimal gland biopsy samples. (jhu.edu)
  • Results: Our study revealed that the mRNA expression levels of AQP8, AQP9, and AQP10 were upregulated, while those of AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, and AQP7 were downregulated in breast cancer. (doaj.org)
  • 2) Notably, among demyelinating disorders, multiple sclerosis and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) manifest this specific neuroimaging pattern in rare cases. (bmj.com)
  • The objectives of this time-to-event study were to assess the efficacy and safety of eculizumab as compared with placebo in participants with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) who were anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • BOSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ALXN) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SOLIRIS ® (eculizumab) for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adult patients who are anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive. (businesswire.com)
  • 3 Race is also a significant risk factor for disability and mortality in NMOSD. (businesswire.com)
  • In the study, patients with NMOSD who were anti-AQP4 antibody positive were treated with SOLIRIS (n=96) or placebo (n=47). (businesswire.com)
  • The discovery of a highly specific antibody against the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel (AQP4-IgG) unified the spectrum of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which are considered to be antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we have characterized the epitope specificity of AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fourty-seven baseline and 49 follow-up serum samples and six paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) baseline samples of 47 AQP4-IgG-positive Austrian NMOSD patients were then tested for their binding capability to AQP4-M1 and AQP4-M23 isoforms and these six extracellular loop mutants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, we found a change of AQP4-IgG epitope recognition pattern in seven of 20 NMOSD patients with available follow-up samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study demonstrates that AQP4-IgG in sera of NMOSD patients show distinct patterns of antibody recognition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 80% of NMOSD patients have aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Thereafter, a broad spectrum of disorders in which AQP4 antibody could be found were grouped together and termed as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).Recently, scholars have proposed that the condition of AQP4 antibody-positivity in patients should be considered as autoimmune AQP4 channelopathy, of which NMOSD should be regarded as a part. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Moreover, a broad spectrum of disorders with AQP4 antibody positivity were grouped together and termed as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), including longitudinally extensive myelitis, recurrent optic neuritis etc. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • The evolving criteria of NMOSD indicate the increasing importance of AQP4 antibody and clinical manifestations criteria are getting further relaxation. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Recently, scholars have recommended that the AQP4 antibody positive diseases should be designated as autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy, with NMOSD regarded as part [ 1 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of GS and GFAP were measured by ELISA in patients with NMOSD (n=39, 28 aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-Ab-seropositive, 3 double-Ab-seronegative, 4 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab-seropositive and 4 AQP4-Ab-seronegative with unknown MOG-Ab-serostatus), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=69), optic neuritis (n=5) and non-neurological controls (n=37). (vumc.nl)
  • 0.001), showing a similar pattern of elevation in patients with AQP4-Ab-seropositive NMOSD. (vumc.nl)
  • 1,2,3 There is currently no approved therapy for patients with NMOSD. (alexion.com)
  • The results from the PREVENT study, the first placebo-controlled Phase 3 study in NMOSD, are groundbreaking and demonstrate that the vast majority of patients receiving eculizumab did not experience a relapse. (alexion.com)
  • Circulating AQP4-specific autoantibodies alone can induce neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in the rat. (roche.com)
  • Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease caused by anti-OAP autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). (elsevier.com)
  • Table 3 Clinical and neuroradiological characteristics of 23 patients with neuromyelitis optica or relapsing myelitis who are seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, divided into those who are seropositive and seronegative for NMO-IgG by tissue-based IIFA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, NMO is certainly today regarded to possess a exclusive pathogenesis characterized LY2157299 by the level of autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4) [2,3]. (technumber.com)
  • Experimentally, systemic shot of huge amounts of anti-AQP4 autoantibodies (AQP4Ab) from sufferers sera amplified inflammatory pathology as well as scientific symptoms of fresh autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice [9,10]. (technumber.com)
  • Via this pathway water is passively reabsorbed from the urinary collecting ducts to cells from whence it is retrieved into the blood through AQP3 and AQP4 located on the basolateral membrane of ductal cells ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • AQP3 and AQP7-10), a water and urea transporter (AQP8), and two unorthodox aquaporins (AQP11 and -12). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These components during fluid deprivation include release of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and upregulation of the abundance of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in the principal cells of the collecting duct. (asnjournals.org)
  • At 3 wk of age (postnatal day 21 ), lenses from null mice ( Aqp0 −/− ) contained polymorphic opacities, whereas lenses from heterozygous mice ( Aqp0 +/− ) were transparent and did not develop frank opacities until ∼24 wk of age. (physiology.org)
  • Significant water (but not glycerol) transport has been attributed to MIP in lens fiber cell membranes ( 32 ), and this pH- and calcium-sensitive water channel ( 23 ) is commonly referred to as aquaporin-0 (AQP0). (physiology.org)
  • There are 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQP0 to AQP12), some of which have been shown to have unexpected cellular roles beyond transmembrane water transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQP0 to AQP12). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier. (nih.gov)
  • Relative to simple diffusion, the presence of aquaporins in biological membranes facilitates a 3- to 10-fold increase in water permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chou CL, Ma T, Yang B, Knepper MA, Verkman AS (1998) Fourfold reduction of water permeability in inner medullary collecting duct of aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (springer.com)
  • Chou CL, Knepper MA, Hoek AN, Brown D, Yang B, Ma T, Verkman AS (1999) Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (springer.com)
  • Rat AQP4 (rAQP4) has 37% identity with bAQP0 and 41% identity with hAQP1 and also exhibits water permeability close to that of hAQP1 in the oocyte expression system. (rupress.org)
  • Thus multiple AQP4 mRNAs may allow long-term regulation of the balance between M1 and M23 AQP4 isoforms in the cell and thus water permeability of the plasma membrane. (chemweb.com)
  • In the avascular zone, AQP4 is expressed in GFAP positive cells at the roof of the fovea and all along RMG cone cells and along Z-shaped RMG cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • AQP9 (aquaporin 9) was first discovered in adipose tissue, and the AQP9 gene was successfully cloned. (creative-biogene.com)
  • 3) AQP9 was expressed neither in CPECs nor in EPCs. (wright.edu)
  • Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is one of the recently identified water channels that is also permeable to neutral solutes including urea. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active tuberculosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of aminotriazole (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 4 wk (0.5 g/kg powdered rat chow) ( 3 ) and was confirmed by tail vein serum free thyroxine measurement. (asnjournals.org)
  • LS-F13079 is a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Quantitative detection of Human AQP4 / Aquaporin 4 in samples of Plasma and Serum. (lsbio.com)
  • Aetna considers serum neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG autoantibody (aquaporin-4 (AQP4) receptor antibody) medically necessary for evaluating persons with optic neuritis and for distinguishing neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis. (aetna.com)
  • We established a cell-based flow cytometry assay for the quantitative detection of AQP4-IgG-positive serum samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Main Outcome Measures Lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels, and serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody titer. (jamanetwork.com)
  • When the results of this assay require further evaluation, NMOTS / Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO)/Aquaporin-4-IgG Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) Titer Assay, Serum will be performed at an additional charge. (testcatalog.org)
  • Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that lesions were located in the bilateral hypothalamus,thalamus, corpus callosum, and periependymal surfaces of the third and lateral ventricles.Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were tested for AQP4-antibody using a commercial fixed cell-based assay. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Formal diagnosis requires the presence of transverse myelitis (TM), ON, and 2 of 3 supporting criteria (Figure 1 ), one of which is the serum NMO-IgG antibody. (wiley.com)
  • The AQP4 channels are highly concentrated in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as well as in other cerebrospinal fluid barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARF is unknown in MS. Cerebrospinal fluid and MRI findings can distinguish NMO from MS [3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The expression of AQP4, AQP7 and AQP8 was examined, via reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, in a murine model of colitis and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or infectious colitis. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of AQP4 and AQP8 mRNA was significantly decreased after 12-24 h of DSS exposure and remained depressed throughout the treatment period. (nih.gov)
  • Aoki K, Uchihara T, Tsuchiya K, Nakamura A, Ikeda K, Wakayama Y (2003) Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain infarction. (springer.com)
  • Expression of Aquaporin 9 in rat liver. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Expression of Aquaporin 9 in rat epididymus. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, AQP4 has two distinct structural isoforms located in the CNS: M1 and M23. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now there are at least 12 isoforms of Aquaporins are cloned. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The zebrafish genome encodes the largest repertoire of functional vertebrate aquaporins with dual paralogy to human isoforms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are two isoforms of mouse AQP4 - M1 and M23. (chemweb.com)
  • These findings demonstrate a decrease in the medullary osmotic gradient secondary to impaired countercurrent multiplication and downregulation of aquaporins 2, 3, and 4 as contributors to the urinary concentrating defect in the hypothyroid rat. (asnjournals.org)
  • Here, AQP4 channels respond passively to osmotic gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • After axonal transport to the posterior pituitary, AVP is stored in vesicles and released in response to an increase in plasma osmotic pressure and sodium concentration ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aquaporins are selective water/glycerol channels involved in the maintenance of volume homeostasis and ionic/osmotic balance. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In addition to its osmotic force, 3% NaCl exerted anti-edema effects possibly through down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and inhibiting the expression of AQP4 induced by proinflammatory cytokines. (emory.edu)
  • Aquaporins are membrane-bound channels that play critical roles in regulating the flux of water into and out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through x-ray crystallography, it was found that "each AQP4 monomer consists of six helical, membrane-spanning domains and two short helical segments surrounding a narrow aqueous pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aquaporin-4 tetramers accumulate to transform into orthogonal arrays of particle (OAPs) in the cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these specific cases of epithelial cell expression, AQP4 is concentrated within the basolateral membrane layer of these locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the retina, AQP4 is highly concentrated where the processes of Muller cells have a basal lamina around blood vessels and inner limiting membrane and to a lesser degree in the inner and outer plexiform layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Within the retina, AQP4 is highly concentrated where the processes of Muller cells have a basal lamina around blood vessels and inner limiting membrane. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the kidneys, AQP4 is constitutively expressed in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provide a pathway for water to exit these cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Current models on cell motility propose a role for Arp2/3 in pushing the lamellipodial plasma membrane forwards by forming branched actin arrays ( Pollard and Cooper, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • If the mechanisms of redistribution of AQP4 and Kir4.1 are different in low- and high-grade gliomas, this may suggest that the mechanisms of clustering of AQP4 and Kir4.1 at the glial endfeet membrane domains are also different. (springer.com)
  • After binding to AQP4, NMO-IgG activates the classical complement pathway, causing deposition of membrane attack complexes (C5b-9) in astrocyte plasma membranes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acetazolamide can bind to Aquaporin 1 and inhibit the water movement across the plasma membrane. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • AQP-2 and -3 circumferentially lined the epithelial cell membranes except for the apical membrane of the epithelial cells adjacent to the lumens of both ureter and bladder. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 is a membrane water channel that is most abundant at astrocytic end-feet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interleukin 6 signalling promotes anti‐aquaporin 4 autoantibody production from plasmablasts in neuromyelitis optica. (roche.com)
  • [11] Aquaporin-4 is the predominant autoimmune target in neuromyelitis optica, or NMO, since a specific AQP4 IgG autoantibody, or NMO-IgG, binds to the extracellular surface of AQP4. (wikidoc.org)
  • The clinical syndrome was first described by Devic and Gault in 1894, and was considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). A resurgence of interest has followed the recent identification of a disease-specific autoantibody, NMO-IgG, and its target antigen, the aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) receptor ( 1 ). (wiley.com)
  • These guidelines require two definite criteria: (i) optic neuritis and (ii) acute myelitis plus at least two of three supportive criteria: (i) contiguous spinal cord MRI lesion extending over 3 vertebral segments, (ii) brain MRI not meeting criteria for multiple sclerosis, and (iii) NMO-IgG seropositive status. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Three patients, including 2 patients with narcolepsy, were seropositive for anti-AQP4 antibody and diagnosed as having neuromyelitis optica-related disorder. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The human Aquaporin-5 gene. (jhu.edu)
  • Da T, Verkman AS (2004) Aquaporin-4 gene disruption in mice protects against impaired retinal function and cell death after ischemia. (springer.com)
  • After clustering analysis, 90 clones belonging to 3 gene clusters exhibiting the most remarkable expression patterns were kept for further analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with the complex tissue distribution of water channels, the first reports of aquaporin gene mutations have displayed diverse phenotypes. (physiology.org)
  • In addition, a number of aquaporin deletion mice have been generated by targeted gene disruption through homologous recombination. (physiology.org)
  • Despite the increase in gene copy number, zebrafish aquaporins mostly retain the substrate specificity characteristic of the tetrapod counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of M23A mRNA is encoded by four new exons (A, B, C, and D), which are located in the 5′ region from exon-0 of the AQP4 gene. (chemweb.com)
  • Furthermore, the publication of the chicken genome and availability of large-scale gene expression data presents new opportunities to compare the expression of avian and mammalian aquaporin genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the mid nineties of the last century, the OAs turned out to be a water channel named aquaporin 4 (AQP4). (hindawi.com)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Specifically within the central nervous system (CNS), AQP4 can be found along the spinal cord and serves as the main water channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AQP4 water channel is located on astrocytic end-feet processes and consists of six transmembrane helical domains forming three extracellular loops A, C, and E in which defined amino acids were already proven to be critical for AQP4-IgG binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutation of a single amino acid converts the human water channel aquaporin 5 into an anion channel. (jove.com)
  • The disorder is now recognized as a spectrum of autoimmunity targeting the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). (testcatalog.org)
  • It has been shown that aquaporin-3, a water channel, is expressed in mouse embryos. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Diagnosis of NMO requires the presence of longitudinally extensive acute myelitis (lesions extending over 3 or more vertebral segments) and optic neuritis. (aruplab.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging typically reveals large inflammatory spinal cord lesions involving 3 or more vertebral segments. (testcatalog.org)
  • Thus, low titers of AQP4-Ab in the CSF would not exclude the possibility of intrathecal AQP4-Ab production, but could reflect its deposition in inflammatory lesions. (technumber.com)
  • Conclusion Since AQP4 is highly expressed in the hypothalamic periventricular regions, an immune attack on AQP4 may be partially responsible for the bilateral and hypothalamic lesions and hypocretin deficiency in narcolepsy/excessive daytime sleepiness associated with autoimmune demyelinating diseases. (jamanetwork.com)
  • For patients with acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, with lesions in theareas where AQP4 were enriched, AQP4 antibody assay should be a routine test. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • speculated that the radiological characterization of spinal cord edema was based on reversible white matter lesions, which were most likely caused by disturbed local venous circulation [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the CNS, AQP4 is the most prevalent aquaporin channel, specifically located at the perimicrovessel astrocyte foot processes, glia limitans, and ependyma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other performances that aquaporin-4 is involved in are synaptic plasticity, astrocyte migration, regulation of extracellular space volume, and the homeostasis of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigate the regulation of the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex in controlling dynamic changes in astrocyte morphology. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast to other cell types, Arp2/3 inhibition drives the rapid expansion of astrocyte cell bodies and major processes. (biologists.org)
  • Knockdown of the Arp2/3 subunit Arp3 or the Arp2/3 activator N-WASP by siRNA also results in cell body expansion and reduced morphological complexity, whereas depleting WAVE2 specifically reduces the branching complexity of astrocyte processes. (biologists.org)
  • By contrast, knockdown of the Arp2/3 inhibitor PICK1 increases astrocyte branching complexity. (biologists.org)
  • Water crosses the BBB primarily via Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expressed in astrocyte end-feet.3 When the BBB is functioning optimally it provides an ideal environment for neuronal function. (openanesthesia.org)
  • AQP4 distribution at the glial cell membranes forms channel-like structures. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recently, it has been reported that one of the water channels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is seemed to have a role in astroglial migration and glial scar formation caused by brain injury, although its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • AQP4 staining in vivo normally is polarized in the astrocytic endfoot membranes at the glia limitans superficialis and perivascularis, but in C6 and RG2 tumors the AQP4 staining is redistributed over the whole glioma cell as in human glioblastoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of water across cell membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, whereas dystrophin remained regularly restricted at the endfeet membranes in all cases investigated, AQP4 was found to be redistributed only in high-grade astrocytomas, not in low-grade astrocytomas. (springer.com)
  • Western blot analysis of rat brain (lanes 1and 4), testis (lanes 2 and 5) and liver (lanes 3 and 6) membranes: 1,2,3. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Interaction between complement cleavage component, C3a and C3a receptor and tau phosphorylation were also attenuated in rhDAF treated animals at 3 and 24 hours after BOP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have identified an H-bond between L53 and T56 as the key for AQP4 epitope and therefore of potential interest for drug design in NMO field. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, given the complex nature of the AQP4 epitope, MD might not be the suitable for molecular medicine advances in NMO. (elsevier.com)
  • Unexplained hiccups, acute diencephalic clinical syndrome, symptomatic cerebral syndrome etc. were all regarded as core clinical characteristics [ 3 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the expression profiles in wild-type (WT) and AQP4-deficient (AQP4/KO) mice after a stab wound to the cerebral cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Osmotherapy with 3% NaCl ameliorated LPS-induced cerebral edema in vivo. (emory.edu)
  • Methods Following surgical induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, agmatine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 5 min after beginning of reperfusion and again once daily for the next 3 post-operative days. (oalib.com)
  • We investigated the in vivo ramifications of a book aquaporin 4 (AQP4) inhibitor 2-(nicotinamide)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, TGN-020, inside a mouse style of focal cerebral ischemia using 7. (researchhunt.com)
  • Even so, AQP4 inhibition is certainly a book strategy in reducing cerebral edema, and shows up promising for the introduction of a unique course of pharmacologic providers effective in the medical treatment of mind ischemia. (researchhunt.com)
  • Then its water transporting capacity was demonstrated by cDNA expression studies in Xenopus oocytes [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aquaporins in complex tissues. (jhu.edu)
  • All aquaporin transcripts were expressed in adult tissues and found to have divergent expression patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It really is plausible the fact that difference in infarction quantity between control and AQP4 treated pets denoted the result of buy 154992-24-2 edema on infarction, and, as a result, represented possibly salvageable tissues by AQP4 inhibition. (researchhunt.com)
  • The identification of aquaporins that share functional motifs or are expressed in the same tissues in human and chicken could allow the further functional analyses of homologous aquaporins in both species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using real-time PCR analysis, we observed a strong up-regulation of ion and water transport genes such as aquaporin 4 (aqp4) and pendrin (slc26). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the strong up-regulation of aqp4 and slc26 genes prior to ovulation suggests their participation in the oocyte hydration process occurring at that time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A microarray analysis revealed that 444 genes around the lesion site were upregulated 3. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, in S. cerevisiae , two aquaporin-encoding genes, Aqy1 and Aqy2, have been identified and characterized. (ijbs.com)
  • Deletion of these two genes in a laboratory strain increased the cells' sensitivity to freezing, while over-expression of the genes improved freeze tolerance [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • A total of 76 aquaporin transcript models derived from 47 aquaporin genes were obtained for human, mouse, rat and chicken. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since this discovery, several groups of investigators have been studying AQP4 expression in diseased muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Myosin Heavy Chain 3, Skeletal Muscle, Embryonic (MYH3) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (aquaporins.org)
  • There are also roles for other water channels, including aquaporins 1, 3, and 4, and for urea transporters in urinary concentration. (asnjournals.org)
  • Together, our studies will establish new roles of aquaporins in the eye with direct implications for new therapies. (grantome.com)
  • These aquaporins vary in tissue and developmental expression across mammalian species and unexpected cellular roles for the aquaporins beyond transmembrane water transport have been identified [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of new M23A mRNA of mouse aquaporin-4 expressed in brain, liver, and kidney by T. Yu. (chemweb.com)
  • Here we found a new fourth mRNA of mouse AQP4 - M23A mRNA. (chemweb.com)
  • The start of transcription is different for M23A mRNA from all the known AQP4 mRNAs. (chemweb.com)
  • pH regulation was also found in two other members of the aquaporin family. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly attenuated in AQP4/KO mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The structure of AQP4 consists of six-transmembrane domains and five connecting loops to form the channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporins typically have six transmembrane regions and five loops (A to E) with two characteristic Asparagine-Proline-Alanine (NPA) motifs in loops B and E (Figure 1 ) [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AQP4 is significantly upregulated in several forms of brain tumor contributing to water influx and disruption of delicate neural homeostasis.10 Edema caused by disruption of the BBB leads to brain swelling and potentially life threatening increases in intracranial pressure (ICP). (openanesthesia.org)
  • Sivelestat, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, and aquaporumab, a nonpathogenic IgG that competes with NMO-IgG for aquaporin-4 binding, significantly reduced NMO-IgG and human complement induced placentitis and fetal death. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surprisingly, most of these up-regulations were significantly attenuated in AQP4/KO mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The known aquaporins cluster loosely together as do the known glycerol facilitators. (tcdb.org)
  • Aquaporins selectively transport water (but not glycerol) while glycerol facilitators selectively transport glycerol but not water. (tcdb.org)
  • Ectopic expression of the cloned transcripts in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that zebrafish aquaporins and Glps transport water or water, glycerol and urea, respectively, whereas DrAqp11b and -12 were not functional in oocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some aquaporins can also permeate non-ionic compounds, such as glycerol and urea, and are termed glycerol facilitators (Glps) or aquaglyceroporins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In previous studies, we observed that the typical morphological conformation of AQP4 as orthogonal arrays of particles (OAP) depended on the extracellular matrix component agrin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were transiently transfected with an EmGFP-tagged AQP4-M23, AQP4-M1, or six AQP4-M23 extracellular loop mutants including two mutations in loop A (serial AA substitution, insertion of a myc-tag), two in loop C (N153Q, insertion of a myc-tag), and two in loop E (H230G, insertion of a myc-tag). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-Aquaporin 11 (extracellular) antibody , (1:1000). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Anti-Aquaporin 11 (extracellular) antibody, preincubated with the control peptide antigen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • 68-91% of patients with NMO have circulating IgG 1 Abs against extracellular conformational epitopes of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), termed NMO-IgG ( 3 - 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • immunofluorescence and cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated its unaltered AQP4-IgG binding, therefore invalidating the MD-prediction. (elsevier.com)
  • The results demonstrated that AQP4-IgG recognizes AQP4 expressed in Sf9 and HEK-293F cells by immunofluorescence even though BN-PAGE analysis showed that AQP4 forms smaller aggregates when expressed in insect cells compared to mammalian cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence showed that osteopontin (OPN) expression around the lesion site was much lower in AQP4/KO mice than in WT mice. (elsevier.com)
  • AQP4 shows the largest presence in the cerebellum and spinal cord grey matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin-4 is the most common aquaporin in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water flowing into and out of the brain or spinal cord is assisted by AQP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • For all other locations, see NMOFC / Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO)/Aquaporin-4-IgG Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) Assay, Spinal Fluid. (testcatalog.org)
  • There was no damage to maternal organs that express aquaporin-4, including the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, and skeletal muscle. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cervical spine MRI (Figure 3) showed increased T2 signal within the spinal cord with heterogeneous enhancement in the cord extending between the mid-C2 and T1 vertebrae. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • NMO is classically defined by the presence of both optic neuritis (ON) and longitudinal myelitis (LM), with contiguous spinal cord involvement spanning 3 or more vertebrae. (wiley.com)
  • Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (3) a larger sagittal diameter of the spinal cord segment with ISI just above or below the cord compression area compared with areas of the cervical spine without ISI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain (3). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • 3 Interestingly, however, a recent meta-analysis indicated that 10 of 116 symptomatic cases of narcolepsy are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), 3 a disease of autoimmune demyelination. (jamanetwork.com)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), infection causes demyelinating leukoencephalitis (CDV-DL), which is considered to be a spontaneous animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS) 3 . (nature.com)
  • The discovery of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody in 2004 was a major advance since it indicated that NMO is an antibody-mediated disease, distinct from multiple sclerosis. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • 1. Waters P, McKeon A, Leite MI, et al: Multicenter comparison of aquaporin-4 IgG assays in NMO spectrum disorders. (testcatalog.org)
  • Relative CO(2)/NH(3) selectivities of mammalian aquaporins 0-9. (jove.com)
  • however, only a limited number of studies have compared chicken and mammalian aquaporins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, in C6 cells and RG2 cells, two glioma cell lines of the rat, and in SMA mouse glioma cell lines, we found no AQP4 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RG-2 glioma cells if grafted into the brain developed AQP4 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we showed for the first time implanted AQP4 negative glioma cells in animal brain or flank to express AQP4 specifically in the intracerebral gliomas but neither in the extracranial nor in the flank gliomas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Additionally, AQP4 can also be located in epithelial cells of many organs throughout the human body, such as the kidney, intestine, salivary glands, sensory organs, and skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, AQP4 also plays a role in the supportive cells of sensory organs, such as the retina, inner ear, and olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • AQP4 allows water extrusion from RMG cells but does not permit water entry through the water-impermeable retinal blood vessels. (arvojournals.org)
  • The intense expression of AQP4 along RMG cells in the central avascular region of the macula suggests that a "gymphatic drainage" could also exist in the retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • The redistribution of AQP4 in glioblastoma cells is discussed as a reaction to the vasogenic edema, as induced by the breakdown of the BBB, to facilitate reabsorption of excess fluid. (springer.com)
  • We later investigated whether AQP4, expressed in Sf9 insect and HEK-293F cells, is able to correctly aggregate before and after the purification steps usually applied to obtain AQP4 crystal. (elsevier.com)
  • Notably, after AQP4 purification, from both insect and HEK-293F cells, no aggregates are detectable by BN-PAGE and AQP4-IgG binding is impaired in sandwich ELISA assays. (elsevier.com)
  • In this respect, the presence of AQP4-AbCproducing B-cells in the CSF was demonstrated in a patient with NMO [10], LY2157299 although the origin and identity of the cells were not fully. (technumber.com)
  • After 36 hours, a mixed population of cells (transfected expressing AQP4 on the surface and AcGFP in the cytoplasm and nontransfected lacking AQP4 and AcGFP) are lifted and resuspended in live cell-binding buffer. (testcatalog.org)
  • HEK293 cells were used as antigenic substrate after transfected with full-length human AQP4 and mocktransfected cells were used as control substrate [ 4 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • AQP4 positive cells decreased from 140 to 84 per section), apoptosis (neuronal apoptotic cells decreased from 100 to 20 per section), and neurotoxicity (iNOS expression cells decreased from 64 to 7 per section) during MCAO ischemic injury in rats. (oalib.com)
  • Science Daily, 7/18/17 - 'Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key essential Omega-3 fatty acid, produces signaling molecules called docosanoids in response to disruptions in the state of equilibrium within cells caused by injury or disease. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Up to 50% of the vessel-facing endfoot surface that faces the vasculature is occupied by orthogonal arrays of AQP4. (wikipedia.org)