Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mimosa: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y2: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Receptors, Purinergic P2X1: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at sympathetically innervated SMOOTH MUSCLE. It may play a functional role regulating the juxtoglomerular apparatus of the KIDNEY.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Oxamniquine: An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Inflammasomes: Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (1/540)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Specific inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro. (2/540)

1. The thienopyridine clopidogrel is a specific inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo. No direct effects of clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) on platelet aggregation in vitro have been described so far. 2. Possible in vitro antiaggregatory effects (turbidimetry) of clopidogrel were studied in human platelet-rich plasma and in washed platelets. 3. Incubation of platelet-rich plasma with clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) for up to 8 h did not result in any inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. 4. Incubation of washed platelets with clopidogrel resulted in a time- (maximum effects after 30 min) and concentration-dependent (IC50 1.9+/-0.3 microM) inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel (30 microM) did not inhibit collagen (2.5 microg ml(-1))-, U46619 (1 microM)- or thrombin (0.1 u ml(-1))-induced platelet aggregation. The inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation by clopidogrel (30 microM) was insurmountable indicating a non-equilibrium antagonism of ADP actions. The R enantiomer SR 25989 C (30 microM) was significantly less active than clopidogrel (30 microM) in inhibiting platelet aggregation (32+/-5% vs 70+/-1% inhibition, P < 0.05, n = 5). 5. In washed platelets, clopidogrel (< or = 30 microM) did not significantly reverse the inhibition of prostaglandin E1 (1 microM)-induced platelet cyclic AMP formation by ADP (6 microM). 6. The antiaggregatory effects of clopidogrel were unchanged when the compound was removed from the platelet suspension. However, platelet inhibition by clopidogrel was completely abolished when albumin (350 mg ml(-1)) was present in the test buffer. 7. It is concluded that clopidogrel specifically inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of washed platelets in vitro without hepatic bioactivation. Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro occurs in the absence of measurable effects on the reversal of PGE1-stimulated cyclic AMP by ADP.  (+info)

Functional characterization of rat ecto-ATPase and ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase after heterologous expression in CHO cells. (3/540)

The recently cloned ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase (ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase) are plasma-membrane-bound enzymes responsible for the extracellular degradation of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. We expressed the rat-derived enzymes in CHO cells to compare their molecular and functional properties. Sequence-specific polyclonal antibodies differentiate between the two proteins and reveal identical molecular masses of 70-80 kDa. Both enzymes are stimulated by either Ca2+ or Mg2+ and reveal a broad substrate specificity towards purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Whereas ecto-apyrase hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates at a rate approximately 20-30% lower than nucleoside-5'-triphosphates, ecto-ATPase hydrolyzes nucleoside-5'-diphosphates only to a marginal extent. The sensitivity of the two enzymes to the inhibitors of P2 receptors suramin, PPADS and reactive blue differs. Hydrolysis of ATP by ecto-ATPase leads to the accumulation in the medium of extracellular ADP as an intermediate product, whereas ecto-apyrase dephosphorylates ATP directly to AMP. Our results suggest that previous data describing extracellular hydrolysis of ATP by a variety of intact cellular systems with unidentified ecto-nucleotidases may be explained by the coexpression of ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase.  (+info)

A nod factor binding lectin with apyrase activity from legume roots. (4/540)

A lectin isolated from the roots of the legume, Dolichos biflorus, binds to Nod factors produced by rhizobial strains that nodulate this plant and has a deduced amino acid sequence with no significant homology to any lectin reported to date. This lectin also is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside di- and triphosphates; the enzyme activity is increased in the presence of carbohydrate ligands. This lectin-nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP) has a substrate specificity characteristic of the apyrase category of phosphohydrolases, and its sequence contains four motifs characteristic of this category of enzymes. LNP is present on the surface of the root hairs, and treatment of roots with antiserum to LNP inhibits their ability to undergo root hair deformation and to form nodules on exposure to rhizobia. These properties suggest that this protein may play a role in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis and/or in a related carbohydrate recognition event endogenous to the plant.  (+info)

Inhibition of an ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolase by azide. (5/540)

Cell surface ATPases (ecto-ATPases or E-ATPases) hydrolyze extracellular ATP and other nucleotides. Regulation of extracellular nucleotide concentration is one of their major proposed functions. Based on enzymatic characterization, the E-ATPases have been divided into two subfamilies, ecto-ATPases and ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolases (ecto-ATPDases). In the presence of either Mg2+ or Ca2+, ecto-ATPDases, including proteins closely related to CD39, hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates in addition to nucleoside triphosphates and are inhibited by millimolar concentrations of azide, whereas ecto-ATPases appear to lack these two properties. This report presents the first systematic kinetic study of a purified ecto-ATPDase, the chicken oviduct ecto-ATPDase (Strobel, R.S., Nagy, A.K., Knowles, A.F., Buegel, J. & Rosenberg, M.O. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16323-16331), with respect to ATP and ADP, and azide inhibition. Km values for ATP obtained at pH 6.4 and 7.4 are 10-30 times lower than for ADP and the catalytic efficiency is greater with ATP as the substrate. The enzyme also exhibits complicated behavior toward azide. Variable inhibition by azide is observed depending on nucleotide substrate, divalent ion, and pH. Nearly complete inhibition by 5 mm azide is obtained when MgADP is the substrate and when assays are conducted at pH 6-6.4. Azide inhibition diminishes when ATP is the substrate, Ca2+ as the activating ion, and at higher pH. The greater efficacy of azide in inhibiting ADP hydrolysis compared to ATP hydrolysis may be related to the different modes of inhibition with the two nucleotide substrates. While azide decreases both Vmax and Km for ADP, it does not alter the Km for ATP. These results suggest that the apparent affinity of azide for the E.ADP complex is significantly greater than that for the free enzyme or E.ATP. The response of the enzyme to three other inhibitors, fluoride, vanadate, and pyrophosphate, is also dependent on substrate and pH. Taken together, these results are indicative of a discrimination between ADP and ATP by the enzyme. A mechanism of azide inhibition is proposed.  (+info)

Insertion of atToc34 into the chloroplastic outer membrane is assisted by at least two proteinaceous components in the import system. (6/540)

Toc34 is a member of the outer membrane translocon complex that mediates the initial stage of protein import into chloroplasts. Toc34, like most outer membrane proteins, is synthesized in the cytosol at its mature size without a cleavable transit peptide. The majority of outer membrane proteins do not require thermolysin-sensitive components on the chloroplastic surface or ATP for their insertion into the outer membrane. However, different results have been obtained concerning the factors required for Toc34 insertion into the outer membrane. Using an Arabidopsis homologue of pea Toc34, atToc34, we show that the insertion of atToc34 was greatly reduced by thermolysin pretreatment of chloroplasts as assayed either by protease digestion or by alkaline extraction. The insertion was also dependent on the presence of ATP or GTP. A mutant of atToc34 with the GTP-binding domain deleted still required ATP for optimal insertion, indicating that ATP was used by other protein components in the import system. The ATP-supported insertion was observed even in thermolysin-pretreated chloroplasts, suggesting that the protein component responsible for ATP-stimulated insertion is a different protein from the thermolysin-sensitive component that assists atToc34 insertion.  (+info)

Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing intracellular calcium. (7/540)

AIM: To examine whether platelet-released adenosine diphosphate (ADP) would contribute to the stabilization of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF). METHODS: Rabbit platelet aggregation induced by PAF was measured turbimetrically. ADP release from rabbit platelets stimulated by PAF was determined by HPLC. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fura 2-AM. RESULTS: PAF > or = 1 nmol.L-1 induced full platelet aggregation, which did not deaggregate over 5 min after aggregation reached peak. Platelet aggregation was deaggregated in a concentration-dependent manner by subsequent addition of ADP scavenger ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) at 5-100 mg.L-1. PAF 3 nmol.L-1 stimulated release of ADP (29% vs 6% of control), and elicited a rapid rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) which peaked at approximately 15 s. Then the [Ca2+]i gradually decayed from 585 +/- 80 nmol.L-1 within 100 s to a low level (364 +/- 82 nmol.L-1). Apyrase 100 mg.L-1, added 2 min after PAF, reduced [Ca2+]i to a lower level (171 +/- 29 nmol.L-1). CONCLUSION: Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing [Ca2+]i at elevated level.  (+info)

CD39-L4 is a secreted human apyrase, specific for the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates. (8/540)

The human ecto-apyrase gene family consists of five reported members (CD39, CD39-L1, CD39-L2, CD39-L3, and CD39-L4). The family can be subdivided into two groups by conservation of proposed structural domains. The CD39, CD39-L1, and CD39-L3 genes all encode hydrophobic portions in their carboxy and amino termini, serving as transmembrane domains for CD39 and potentially for the other two members. CD39-L2 and CD39-L4 genes encode hydrophobic portions in their amino termini, suggesting that they might encode secreted apyrases. We demonstrate that the CD39-L4 gene encodes the first reported human secreted ecto-apyrase. COS-7 cells transfected with a CD39-L4 expression construct utilizing the naturally occurring leader peptide express recombinant protein outside of the cells. This expression can be blocked by brefeldin A, a chemical that inhibits a step in mammalian secretory pathways. We also demonstrate expression of CD39-L4 message in macrophages, suggesting that the protein is present in the circulation. Furthermore, we show that CD39-L4 is an E-type apyrase, is dependent on calcium and magnesium cations, and has high degree of specificity for NDPs over NTPs as enzymatic substrates. A potential physiological role in hemostasis and platelet aggregation is presented.  (+info)

*ENTPD1

Wang TF, Guidotti G (Apr 1996). "CD39 is an ecto-(Ca2+,Mg2+)-apyrase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (17): 9898-901 ...

*Adenosine diphosphate

Nucleoside Nucleotide DNA RNA Oligonucleotide Apyrase Phosphate Cox, Michael; Nelson, David R.; Lehninger, Albert L (2008). ...

*ENTPD3

... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168032 - ... Smith TM, Kirley TL (1998). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a human brain ecto-apyrase related to both the ecto-ATPases ... inactivation and conversion of an ecto-apyrase to an ecto-NTPase". Biochemistry. 38 (18): 5849-57. doi:10.1021/bi990171k. PMID ... the importance of residues in the apyrase conserved regions". Biochemistry. 40 (13): 3943-50. doi:10.1021/bi002711f. PMID ...

*ENTPD5

... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187097 - ... ENTPD5 is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. NTPases, such as CD39, mediate catabolism of ... "CD39-L4 is a secreted human apyrase, specific for the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20064-7 ...

*ENTPD6

... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. Model organisms have been used in the study of ...

*Ornithodoros savignyi

This species is of interest because of the pathogens it carries, and its salivary apyrases which prevent platelet activation ... soft tick apyrase belongs to the 5'-nucleotidase family". Exp. Parasitol. 122 (4): 318-27. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.04.007. ...

*Pyrosequencing

This enabled the enzyme mixture including the DNA polymerase, the luciferase and the apyrase to be added at the start and kept ... In this alternative method, an additional enzyme apyrase is introduced to remove nucleotides that are not incorporated by the ... Unincorporated nucleotides and ATP are degraded by the apyrase, and the reaction can restart with another nucleotide. Currently ... luciferase and apyrase, and with the substrates adenosine 5´ phosphosulfate (APS) and luciferin. The addition of one of the ...

*Hirudo medicinalis

... most notably apyrase, collagenase, and calin), vasodilators, and proteinase inhibitors. It is also thought that the saliva ...

*Ixodes holocyclus

... apyrase and in certain tick species antihistamines. PGE2 and prostacyclin inhibit platelet aggregation and dilate blood vessels ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... apyrase MeSH D08.811.277.040.330 --- gtp phosphohydrolases MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.200 --- dynamins MeSH D08.811.277.040. ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... apyrase EC 3.6.1.6: nucleoside-diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.7: acylphosphatase EC 3.6.1.8: ATP diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.9: nucleotide ...

*Apyrase

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ... The salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods are nucleotide hydrolysing enzymes that are implicated in the inhibition of ... Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma ...

*CDC42

Recently, Cdc42 has been shown to actively assist in cancer progression. Several studies have established the basis for this and hypothesized about the underlying mechanisms. Cdc42 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, breast cancer, and testicular cancer.[8] Elevated levels of the protein have been correlated with negative patient survival. Cdc42 has also been shown to be required for both G1-S phase progression and mitosis, and it also modulates the transcription factors SRF, STAT3, and NFkB.[8] It has been hypothesized that targeting Cdc42 in conjunction with chemotherapy may be an effective cancer treatment strategy. In one study studying the role of Cdc42 in cervical cancer, immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cdc42 expression in three types of tissues: normal cervical tissues, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I or below, CIN II or above, and cervical cancer tissues.[9] Cdc42 expression was gradually increased showing significant ...

*G protein

... s, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). When they are bound to GTP, they are 'on', and, when they are bound to GDP, they are 'off'. G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases.. There are two classes of G proteins. The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits.[1] In addition, the beta and gamma subunits can form a stable dimeric complex referred to as the beta-gamma complex.. G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell ...

*Dynein

Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 megadaltons (MDa), is a dimer of dimers, containing approximately twelve polypeptide subunits: two identical "heavy chains", 520 kDa in mass, which contain the ATPase activity and are thus responsible for generating movement along the microtubule; two 74 kDa intermediate chains which are believed to anchor the dynein to its cargo; two 53-59 kDa light intermediate chains; and several light chains. The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of detachment and reattachment. The other projection, the extended tail, binds to the light intermediate, intermediate and light chain subunits which attach dynein to its cargo. The alternating ...

*SMC protein

SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms.[14][15] To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is self-folded through anti-parallel coiled-coil interactions, forming a rod-shaped molecule. At one end of the molecule, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains together form an ATP-binding domain. The other end is called a hinge domain. Two protomers then dimerize through their hinge domains and assemble a V-shaped dimer.[16][17] The length of the coiled-coil arms is ~50 nm long. Such long "antiparallel" coiled-coils are very rare, and found only among SMC proteins (and its relatives such as Rad50). The ATP-binding domain of SMC proteins is structurally related to that of ABC transporters, a large family of transmembrane proteins that actively transport small molecules across cellular membranes. It is thought that the cycle of ATP binding and hydrolysis modulates the cycle of closing and opening of the V-shaped molecule, but the detailed mechanisms of action of SMC ...

*KRAS

The impact of KRAS mutations is heavily dependent on the order of mutations. Primary KRAS mutations generally lead to a self-limiting hyperplastic or borderline lesion, but if they occur after a previous APC mutation it often progresses to cancer.[18] KRAS mutations are more commonly observed in cecal cancers than colorectal cancers located in any other places from ascending colon to rectum.[19][20] KRAS mutation is predictive of a very poor response to panitumumab (Vectibix®) and cetuximab (Erbitux®) therapy in colorectal cancer.[21] Currently, the most reliable way to predict whether a colorectal cancer patient will respond to one of the EGFR-inhibiting drugs is to test for certain "activating" mutations in the gene that encodes KRAS, which occurs in 30%-50% of colorectal cancers. Studies show patients whose tumors express the mutated version of the KRAS gene will not respond to cetuximab or panitumumab.[22] Although presence of the wild-type (or normal) KRAS gene does not guarantee that ...

*鈉鉀泵 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

三磷酸腺苷双磷酸酶(英语:Apyrase) ...

*鈉鉀泵 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

三磷酸腺苷双磷酸酶(英语:Apyrase) ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Human and more. Compare 7 different ENTPD5 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
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Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was expressed as ng of inorganic phosphate
ANGELI, J.K. et al. Gadolinium increases the vascular reactivity of rat aortic rings. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.5, pp.445-452. Epub Apr 01, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500044.. Gadolinium (Gd) blocks intra- and extracellular ATP hydrolysis. We determined whether Gd affects vascular reactivity to contractile responses to phenylephrine (PHE) by blocking aortic ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase). Wistar rats of both sexes (260-300 g, 23 females, 7 males) were used. Experiments were performed before and after incubation of aortic rings with 3 µM Gd. Concentration-response curves to PHE (0.1 nM to 0.1 mM) were obtained in the presence and absence of endothelium, after incubation with 100 µM L-NAME, 10 µM losartan, or 10 µM enalaprilat. Gd significantly increased the maximum response (control: 72.3 ± 3.5; Gd: 101.3 ± 6.4%) and sensitivity (control: 6.6 ± 0.1; Gd: 10.5 ± 2.8%) to PHE. To investigate the blockade of ...
1b) a nucleoside 5-diphosphate + H2O = a nucleoside 5-phosphate + phosphate. Other name(s): ATP-diphosphatase; adenosine diphosphatase; ADPase; ATP diphosphohydrolase [ambiguous]. Systematic name: nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase (nucleoside monophosphoate-forming). Comments: Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9000-95-7. References:. 1. Krishnan, P.S. Apyrase, pyrophosphatase and metaphosphatase of Penicillium chrysogenum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 37 ...
ADPase (adenosine diphosphatase) was assayed in rat liver homogenates with [beta-32P]ADP as substrate. The activity had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was strongly activated by Mg2+. The intracellular localization was determined by analytical subcellular fractionation with single-step sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Selective membrane perturbants were used to enhance the resolution of the various organelles. ADPase was localized to the mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation and subfractionated by selective disruption of the inner and outer membranes. The intramitochondrial localization of ADPase was compared with various marker enzymes and was shown to be concentrated in the outer-membrane fractions. The effects of various inhibitors on the ADPase activity were determined and the possibility that the activity could be due to known enzyme systems was considered. It is concluded that ADP degradation is due to a hitherto unrecognized mitochondrial enzyme. ...
Recombinant Mouse PAP Has pH-Dependent Ectonucleotidase Activity and Acts through A1-Adenosine Receptors to Mediate Antinociception. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The 105,000 x g supernatant fluid (S[subscript HS]) from extracts of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska) etiolated for 60 hours yielded a very potent adenosine triphosphatase activity. This activity was designated as an apyrase when the reaction stoichiometry indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was hydrolyzed to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and two moles of inorganic phosphate (P[subscript i]). The apyrase has been purified 88-fold with 40% recovery from acetone powders of the S[subscript HS]. This 6-day procedure involved filtration of the acetone powder solutions through Sephadex G-200 and G-75 followed by protamine sulfate treatment to remove polyanionic material. After film dialysis the enzyme activity was chromatographed on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a gradient NaCl elution. A second more rapid purification scheme was used to purify extracts of acetone powders to 79- to 100-fold with overall yield of 67% to ,100%. This 15-hour scheme involved protamine treatment of ...
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Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11- Emmanuelle Barone Page 1 LIVING SKILLS PROGRAM APY LANDS 2010/2011 PLANNING, DESIGN & MODULES Emmanuelle Barone July 2…
Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family ...
Dear Histonetters: Happy New Year! Heres a message I received regarding glycerogel/ADPase histochemistry. If you can help Bavani, please respond directly to him as I am not sure he is on the list. His email is [email protected] Dear sir, I am bavani,i am working in Aravind eye hospital,India.I Have been doing pathology of retina.In that I am Mounting the retina with glycerogel.I want to know what is glycerogel,and the name of the company which is supplying a good one.If you find time could you please tell me the information.Till now iam using buffered glycerol(GLYCEROL in PBS ).If you have some idea about this ADPase histochemical study on retina,please help me. thanking you, yours sincerely, bavani ...
Effects of oxidative stress on EC ATPDase activity. (a) ATPDase biochemical activity assay. The decreased capacity of pEC directly perturbed by oxidative stres
The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 hydrolyze extracellular ATP and ADP to generate adenosine, which binds to adenosine receptors and inhibits T cell and NK cell responses, thereby suppressing the immune system. The generation of adenosine via the CD39/CD73 pathway is recognized as a major mechanism of Treg immunosuppressive function. The number of CD39+ Tregs is increased in some human cancers, and the importance of CD39+ Tregs in promoting tumor growth and metastasis has been demonstrated using several in vivo models. Here, we addressed whether CD39 is expressed by tumor cells and whether CD39+ tumor cells mediate immunosuppression via the adenosine pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of normal and tumor tissues revealed that CD39 expression is significantly higher in several types of human cancer than in normal tissues. In cancer specimens, CD39 is expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes, the tumor stroma and tumor cells. Furthermore, the expression of CD39 at the cell surface of tumor cells ...
Faria-Pinto, P et al. Cross-immunoreactivity between anti-potato apyrase antibodies and mammalian ATP diphosphohydrolases: potential use of the vegetal protein in experimental schistosomiasis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Oct 2006, vol.101, suppl.1, p.359-363. ISSN 0074- ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant ENTPD7. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human ENTPD7. (PAB20714) - Products - Abnova
Kit Component:- KN203487G1, ENTPD6 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN203487G2, ENTPD6 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN203487D, donor vector…
The cell attached configuration was an important tool in our work in assessing the role of second messengers because of its unique features: 1) it allows for controlled compartmentalization of the intra- and extracellular milieux, and 2) it isolates membrane patches, creating specific areas that can be surrounded by other areas exposed to different pharmacological stimuli.. Taking advantage of the cell-attached condition, we observed that pore formation occurred both in the patch and in the rest of the membrane, despite preincubation of cells with oxidized ATP in the pipette solution at a concentration previously shown to block P2X7 receptors (Fig. 2B). The response was the same when oxidized ATP was used in the bath and ATP applied in the pipette solution (Fig. 2G). By using apyrase (an ectonucleotidase) in similar conditions (Fig. 2, D and E), we ruled out the idea that this effect could be a mere artifact due to mechanical stimulation, a well-known mechanism of ATP release in most cell ...
ENTPD3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 465 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 52kDa.
Human ENTPD5 partial ORF ( NP_001240, 319 a.a. - 400 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000957-Q01) - Products - Abnova
A-317491 is a potent and selective antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors. In the present studies, the ability of [3H]A-317491 to label recombinant human P2X2/3 and P2X3 receptors was characterized. Using membranes prepared from 1321N1 cells expressing P2X2/3 receptors, [3H]A-317491 specifically labeled high-affinity (Kd = 0.9 nM) recognition sites. High-affinity [3H]A-317491 binding was not detected in membrane preparations from native 1321N1 cells or cells expressing homomeric P2X1, P2X2, or P2X3 receptors. Specific [3H]A-317491 P2X3 receptors could only be reliably detected following treatment of intact P2X3 receptor-expressing cells with apyrase (1 U/ml) both before and during membrane preparation. Under these conditions, [3H]A-317491 also labeled high-affinity (Kd = 9 nM) binding sites. Lower affinity binding components (Kd values of 87-790 nM) were detected in both assays using higher ligand concentrations that likely represent nonfunctional recognition sites. [3H]A-317491 binding to both ...
Concordant with data derived from A2A-null CD4+/CD25− (Fig. 4 D), proliferation responses of CD4+/CD25− T cells obtained from Cd39-null mice are exaggerated after 6 d of stimulation, which is coincident with the up-regulation of adenosine receptor A2A in CD4+/CD25− cells (Fig. 5 C). As a further confirmation of direct connections between CD39 expression and adenosine generation, effects of the addition of soluble exogenous NTPDases (apyrase grade VII) to Cd39-null T cell cultures were tested. This reconstitution effectively suppresses the abnormal proliferation of CD4+/CD25− cells (Fig. 5 C) and restores anergy within the T reg cell pool (not depicted).. We next examined the suppressive ability of WT and Cd39-null T reg cells to inhibit the proliferation of WT or Cd39-null effector cells, respectively. An in vitro system was chosen whereby effector cells were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. This system was chosen to eliminate the expression of CD39 on stimulating cells, which ...
In this weeks program, we talk with Sarah Brown, the Chief Executive Officer of Western Desert Nganampa Walytja Palyantjaku Tjutaku, also called the Purple House.. The Purple House provides renal dialysis services across remote communities in Central Australia and plans are underway for them to set up a dialysis centre in Ernabella/Pukatja Anangu community on the APY Lands.. We chat with Sarah to find out how the plans are going for the dialysis centre in Ernabella Pukatja. We also ask her to tell us more about an exciting fundraising event thats happening in Adelaide during the Tarnanthi Festival, to raise money for running the dialysis centre for the first twelve months.. Artists from across the APY Lands have painted and donated their works for a fine art auction which is being held at Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute (253 Grenfell Street, Adelaide) on Sunday the 15th October from 12:30 - 3:30pm. You are invited to attend and to support the auction and see all the wonderful ...
Biologically active agents covalently linked to a polymer. The polymer is preferably a biodegradable polymer are provided. The biologically active agent is preferably a protein, such as an extracellular soluble protein, e.g., an extracellular enzyme. The enzyme can be an apyrase, e.g., NTPDase. Conjugates of the invention can be used as therapeutics in subjects. For example, a conjugate comprising an apyrase can be used for treating and preventing thrombosis, atherosclerotic plaque complications and vascular disorders.
Accepted name: diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate diphosphatase. Reaction: diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol polyphosphate + phosphate. Other name(s): diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate phosphohydrolase; DIPP. Systematic name: diphospho-myo-inositol-polyphosphate diphosphohydrolase. Comments: This enzyme hydrolyses the diphosphate bond, leaving a phospho group where a diphospho group had been. It can also act on bis(adenosine) diphosphate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Safrany, S.T., Caffrey, J.J., Yang, X., Bembenek, M.E., Moyer, M.B., Burkhart, W.A. and Shears, S.B. A novel context for the MutT module, a guardian of cell integrity, in a diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase. EMBO J. 17 (1998) 6599-6607. [PMID: 9822604]. 2. Caffrey, J.J., Safrany, S.T., Yang, X. and Shears, S.B. Discovery of molecular and catalytic diversity among human diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. An ...
The paucity of detectable apoptotic cells in tissues where many cells undergo apoptosis demonstrates the efficiency of cell-clearance mechanisms. Apoptotic cells are thought to release factors that signal their presence to scavenger cells such as macrophages, but the nature of these signals is unclear (see commentary by Gregory). Elliott et al. found that supernatant from thymocytes in which apoptosis was induced recruited more monocytes in a migration assay than did supernatant from live cells. Similarly, supernatant from apoptotic cells introduced into a subcutaneous air pouch in mice recruited more macrophages than did supernatant from live cells. Treatment of the supernatant from the apoptotic cells with apyrase, which hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates, blocked the recruitment of macrophages to the air pouch. Of various nucleotides tested, ATP and UTP were the most efficient at recruiting monocytes in in vitro migration assays, and both nucleotides were detectable in the ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Dear all I have been extracting DNA from clinical blood samples collected using vacutec tubes. I have been experiencing some problems with inhibition in PCR. Does anyone have any advise on DNA extraction from blood ie to remove inhibition or to improve DNA recovery. Any comments would be most helpful. Thankyou Sushma ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Sushma Patel PhD Central Public Health laboratory 61 Colindale Avenue London NW9 5HT fax (+ ) 181 205 6528 tel ( + ) 0181 200 4400 e- mail apy019 at cov.ac.uk ...
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This is an exciting time for the region, as for the first time, a community-based dialysis clinic will be available to patients living in the APY Lands," Ms Paterson said.. "Patients will have access to brand new dialysis equipment in a clinic that will provide world-class dialysis treatment, with clinical oversight provided by nephrologists from SA Healths Rural Support Service and the Central Adelaide Local Health Network.. "We know that remote patients often have to relocate from home to receive frequent dialysis treatment, and by the opening of this clinic we are hoping this will reduce. "We are proud to be working with Purple House having provided funding towards the build and ongoing support for this project, to ensure we can continue to provide better support and care for South Australians living in remote areas.". Director of Dialysis and Senior Staff Nephrologist, Prof Stephen McDonald, said the clinic will provide dialysis patients the opportunity to receive safer care closer to home, ...
In the pig parotid gland, ATPDase was mainly associated with duct epithelium, with very little, if any, immunoreactivity on acinar cells. Myoepithelial cells dispersed among acini produced a significant signal. There have been reports of Ca2+-dependent ATPases associated with isolated parotid acinar cells, but as judged by their biochemical properties, these ATPases are different from ATPDases. However, a nucleoside triphosphatase described by Sato et al. (29) in bovine parotid gland and an apyrase described by Valenzuela et al. (34) in a microsomal fraction of rat salivary gland appear to correspond to the ATPDase described in this study and hence could well be associated with ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In agreement with these findings, some studies on rat parotid acini show very little ecto-ATPase activity (9). Some P2Zpurinoceptors have been described on rat parotid acinar cells, which respond to ATP and mediate a Ca2+increase caused by both an influx and a mobilization from ...
ENTPD4 Fragment MS Protein Standard, is a protein fragment containing a 50-150 amino acid sequence identical to part of a human ENTPD4 protein target. The fragment MS Protein Standard represents a new category of using heavy isotope labeled (15N, 13C) Lysine and Arginine residues resulting in more than 99% isotope incorporation, as internal MS standards offering distinct advantages to existing products for relative and absolute quantification.
Accepted name: 2-hydroxy-dATP diphosphatase. Reaction: 2-hydroxy-dATP + H2O = 2-hydroxy-dAMP + diphosphate. Other name(s): NUDT1; MTH1; MTH2; oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase; (2-deoxy) ribonucleoside 5-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase. Systematic name: 2-hydroxy-dATP diphosphohydrolase Comments: The enzyme hydrolyses oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates such as 2-hydroxy-dATP, thereby preventing their misincorporation into DNA. It can also recognize 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-dATP, but with lower efficiency (cf. EC 3.6.1.55, 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase) [3].. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Sakumi, K., Furuichi, M., Tsuzuki, T., Kakuma, T., Kawabata, S., Maki, H. and Sekiguchi, M. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human enzyme that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP, a mutagenic substrate for DNA synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 23524-23530. [PMID: 8226881]. 2. Kakuma, T., Nishida, J., Tsuzuki, T. and Sekiguchi, M. Mouse MTH1 ...
in context of physiology and pathology. Literature data indicate that ectonucleotidases may be part of complex molecular network which may be modulated by ovarian steroids. Based on this findings, and the fact that female sex steroids, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2) play an essential role in the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity therefore influencing hippocampal dependent learning and memory, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular E2 has potential to modulate the activity and expression of ectonucleotidases (NTPDase 1-3 and eN) in hippocampal synaptosomes of male and female rats. Also, the aim of this doctoral dissertation was to determine the impact of steroid hormones on eN after repeated administration of 17α- estradiol, E2 and progesterone (P4) for seven consecutive days in hippocampus of both sexes. It is shown that the activity of the examined ectonucleotidases fluctuates across the estrous cycle in the hippocampal synaptosomes of female rats, while significant ...
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Each year 50,000 individuals in the United States and 500,000 worldwide are diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The majority of HNSCC is identified in advanced stage, when cure rates are low, largely because there is no effective screening program available. Furthermore, minority patients and those of low socioeconomic status (SES) suffer disproportionately from this disease. Building on prior work, this study examines whether the combination of soluble CD44 (solCD44), hyaluronic acid (HA), IL-8 and total protein holds promise for early detection of HNSCC. In our previous work, we determined that a solCD44 oral rinse test distinguished HNSCC cases from benign disease (BD) controls with 62% sensitivity and 88% specificity. In this study we determined if sensitivity and specificity are improved when the model includes a panel of markers consisting of solCD44, IL-8, HA and total protein as well as demographic ...
CDC Split Type: (blank) waes0705usa03252. Write-up:Information has been received from a physicians physicians assistant through the Merck Pregnancy registry concerning a 15 year old female patient with asthma who on 16-JAN-2007, was vaccinated IM with a second dose of Gardasil (Lot# 655617/1447F). Concomitant ther"apy therapy included albuterol MDI. After the second dose, it was discovered that she was pregnant. No adverse events were noted. On 24-MAY-2007, the patient elected to terminate the pregnancy. The patient was 21 weeks from last menstrual period. On 20-MAY-2007 and 22-MAY-2007, an ultrasound was performed and the results were unknown. At the time of this report, the patients outcome was unknown. It was also reported on 16-NOV-2006, the patient was vaccinated with a first dose of Gardasil (Lot# 653736/0868F). No product quality complaint was involved. Upon internal review, elective termination was considered to be an other important medical event. Additional information is not ...
Didnt see this already posted. Just got an email that Ally is dropping to a 1.9% APY on its Savings Account effective 08/06/19. Will the others hold strong at 2%+ ?
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An overview chapter discussing extracellular nucleotides, in particular ATP, and its complex effects and regulation of immune responses & inflammatory reactions
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The role of the endothelium was examined in the response to aggregating platelets in cerebral arteries from normal and hypercholesterolemic animals. Male Yorkshire pigs were fed either a normal diet or a 2% high-cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Endothelium-dependent responses were examined in vitro. In rings of basilar arteries from control animals aggregating platelets caused endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were significantly inhibited by apyrase, an adenosine diphosphatase and triphosphatase, but were augmented by methiothepin, a combined S1- and S2-serotonergic blocker. In quiescent rings platelets induced contractions that were inhibited by the presence of the endothelium; these contractions were significantly inhibited by methiothepin, but not by ketanserin (an S2-serotonergic blocker) or dazoxiben (a thromboxane-synthetase blocker) in the presence or absence of SQ29548 (a thromboxane-receptor blocker). Adenosine diphosphate but not serotonin caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. ...
The importance of this project is to investigate mechanisms of vascular disease in sleep apnea and determine pathways for intervention, aiming to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease in these individuals.. This proposed research aims to evaluate both NTPDase activity in lymphocytes and levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in patients with intermittent hypoxemia (IH) due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls. This is an original approach to define mechanisms which underlie the high incidence of occlusive vascular events in patients with OSA. The evaluation of such pathophysiological mechanisms will lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved and the development of therapeutic strategies targeting the reduction or avoidance of endothelial injury with the ultimate goal of reducing morbidity and mortality associated with these pathologic events in sleep apnea. The standard of care will be used in this protocol, which involves the use of CPAP ...
The importance of this project is to investigate mechanisms of vascular disease in sleep apnea and determine pathways for intervention, aiming to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease in these individuals.. This proposed research aims to evaluate both NTPDase activity in lymphocytes and levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in patients with intermittent hypoxemia (IH) due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls. This is an original approach to define mechanisms which underlie the high incidence of occlusive vascular events in patients with OSA. The evaluation of such pathophysiological mechanisms will lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved and the development of therapeutic strategies targeting the reduction or avoidance of endothelial injury with the ultimate goal of reducing morbidity and mortality associated with these pathologic events in sleep apnea. The standard of care will be used in this protocol, which involves the use of CPAP ...
The cell types within the endocrine pancreatic tissue and anterior intestine of larvae and juveniles of representatives of the two southern- hemisphere families (Mordaciidae and Geotriidae) were compared, using immunohistochemistry and antisera against insulin (lamprey, bovine), two somatostatins (SST-14, -34), two PP-family peptides (aPY, NPY), and salmon glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (GLP). Cells of the islets and some anterior intestinal cells in larval Mordacia mordax showed intense immunoreactivity (IR) to the two insulin antisera. In contrast, immunoreactivity to these antisera in the islets of larval Geotria australis was restricted to antibovine insulin and even then the staining was weak. The islet cells did not IR with other antisera, but IR to aPY and NPY antisera was noted in a few intestinal cells of both species and cells in the intestine of G. australis were positively stained with antiSST-14 and/or - 34. The single islet organ of adults of both species consisted only of ...
vary, and need not be (but can be) a particular value or range, as the exemplary embodiments described below. The binding affinity of the antibodies and polypeptides of the invention to ApY 40 can be about 0.1O to about 0.80 nM, about 0.15 to about 0.75 nM and about 0.18 to about 0.72 nM. In some embodiments, the binding affinity is about 2 pM, about 5 pM, about 10 pM, about 15 pM, about 20 pM, about 40 pM, or greater than about 40 pM. In one embodiment, the binding affinity is between about 2 pM and 22 pM. In other embodiments, the binding affinity is less than about 10 nM, about 5 nM, about 1 nM, about 900 pM, about 800 pM, about 700 pM, about 600 pM, about 500 pM, about 400 pM, about 300 pM, about 200 pM, about 150 pM, about 100 pM, about 90 pM, about 80 pM, about 70 pM, about 60 pM, about 50 pM, about 40 pM, about 30 pM, about 10 pM. In some embodiment, the binding affinity is about 10 nM. In other embodiments, the binding affinity is less than about 10 nM, less than about 50 nM, less than ...
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In their saliva, blood-feeding arthropods have potent pharmacologically active components that help them counteract the hemostatic and inflammatory system of the vertebrate host each time they attempt to take a blood meal (Ribeiro, 1987). Vasodilators, anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation are part of this salivary mixture (Ribeiro and Francischetti, 2003). Recently, with the technological advances in DNA and protein sequencing, novel and unexpected molecules with potential biological activities have been isolated from the saliva of blood-feeding arthropods. Such molecules include hyalorunidase, nucleotidases, novel apyrases, amine-binding proteins, tissue-factor pathway inhibitors and others (Ribeiro and Francischetti, 2003). Another such protein is adenosine deaminase (ADA), which was identified from transcripts of a salivary gland cDNA library of the New World sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Charlab et al., 2000) and the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti ...
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but p
As the table above indicates, if a subscriber enters the scheme at 18, he or she will have to contribute Rs. 42 each month to get a pension of Rs. 1,000 after the age of 60, Rs. 84 for a pension of Rs. 2,000, Rs.126 for Rs. 3,000, and Rs. 210 for Rs. 5,000. The return from investments would work out to slightly over 7.6 per cent over a period of 42 years, which is not bad considering that its a safe, government-backed scheme. Certainly, this wouldnt be a scheme to opt for if you are financially savvy, since investing in the stock market would fetch you much higher returns. But since this is a scheme meant for unorganised workers, whose financial literacy is quite low, its a pretty good option. You dont necessarily have to be an unorganised sector worker to have an APY account, but if youre paying income tax, its not open to you.. You can open an APY account at the bank or post office in which you have a savings account. You can also get enrolled online through Internet Banking. ...
The significance of the strong P2Y2 expression observed in balloon-induced intimal lesions is not clear. Nevertheless, this strong expression could reflect an increased reactivity to extracellular nucleotides with consequent modulation of proliferation or vasoreactivity. Indeed, extracellular nucleotides, particularly ATP and UTP, have been shown to induce cell cycle progression and proliferation of cultured arterial SMCs3 4 5 6 7 and to induce a vasoconstriction in the absence of endothelial cells.11 12 13 Since both neointimal hyperplasia and vasoconstrictive remodeling have been found to be involved in postangioplasty restenosis,1 30 31 32 our data suggest that extracellular nucleotides might play a significant role in this process, at least as long as the functional endothelial cells, which control intimal thickening33 34 and nucleotide vasorelaxant effects,35 36 are not regenerated.. The increased P2Y2 receptor expression in the neointima may by itself be sufficient to enhance the local ...
A clear cornea can rarely be achieved in a severely burned eye even with prednisone orale HLA-typed corneal graft and immunosuppressive ther- apy. VASOPRESSIN-AGONISTS PITUITARY-HORMONES h. T. t.
On rounding a corner at the APY administration centre in Umuwa we happened upon a man called Gordon Ingkatji and his daughter Nyunmiti Burton. Gordon is a Fellow of our University and Nyunmiti is an alumna. Gordon doesnt know exactly how old he is. He was born in approximately 1931 and his early years were lived pre-contact - without encountering any white people at all. He attended Ernabella mission school when it opened in 1940. An injury meant that he couldnt work on the land and so he was taught to type. Lucky for us. He went on to document his own language, which led to a Pitjantjatjara vernacular language program in the school and ultimately the creation of the AnTEP program in our institution. We talked about how important the program was to the community. We talked about bringing more content from the university into the community.. On reflection, what I didnt really understand was how impactful the University of South Australia has been in the lands. The number of alumni we ...
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In a soybean transcriptome expression study focused on B. japonicum-induced nodulation, Brechenmacher et al. (2008) reported that the mRNA abundance of approximately 5,000 genes changed significantly within 16 dpi in young roots. Some of the differentially expressed genes identified from that study were subsequently shown to play critical roles in soybean nodulation, such as FW2.2-like1 (Libault et al., 2010b), GS52 ecto-apyrase (Govindarajulu et al., 2009; Tanaka et al., 2011), and CND (for control of nodule development), encoding a Myb transcription factor (Libault et al., 2009). Additionally, in a recent study, Nguyen et al. (2012) conducted experiments on quantitative phosphoproteomics where 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated in soybean root hairs in response to B. japonicum inoculation, reflecting a critical role of phosphorylation events during the initiation of the B. japonicum infection process. Here, we report another ...
Viagra canadian pharmacy paypal and (7) With ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as blood), and any remaining The same amount of sputum. Apy begins to produce a soft, formed stool. Type IV is followed by 3 to 8 ounces of water, sodium, and chloride).
pression with psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy-psychother- JAMA 1989; 262:914-919 apy combinations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54:1009-1015 10. Kornstein SG, Schatzberg AF, Yonkers KA, Thase ME, Keitner GI, 25. Kornstein SG: Premenstrual syndrome: an overview. Primary Ryan CE, Schlager D: Gender differences in presentation of Psychiatry 1997; 4:56-60 chronic major depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 26. Thase ME, Frank E, Kornstein SG, Yonkers KA: Gender differ- ences in response to treatments of depression, in Gender and 11. Kornstein SG, Schatzberg AF, Thase ME, Yonkers KA, Mc- Its Effects on Psychopathology. Edited by Frank E. Washington, Cullough JP, Keitner GI, Gelenberg AJ, Ryan CE, Hess AL, Harri- DC, American Psychiatric Association Press, 2000, pp 103-129 son W, Davis SM, Keller MB: Gender differences in chronic ma- 27. Kornstein SG: Gender differences in depression: implications jor and double depression. J Affect Disord 2000; 60:1-11 for treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; ...
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Adenosine is present at high concentrations in the tumor microenvironment and is immunosuppressive acting on multiple cell types, including suppression of effector T cells. CD73, an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine, is expressed on a subset of B and T cells and is a major source of extracellular adenosine. Elevated CD73 expression has been observed in multiple tumor types and is prognostic in triple negative breast cancer supporting a role for CD73 in tumor progression1. Inhibiting catalytic activity of CD73 is an attractive therapeutic strategy to reduce adenosine-mediated suppression of tumor immunity.. We developed two types of humanized monoclonal anti-CD73 antibodies. CPX-006 inhibits CD73 catalytic activity by competing directly with AMP for the active site with an affinity of 0.64 nM. CPX-016 is similar to anti-CD73 antibodies described by others2, and inhibits CD73 activity allosterically by binding to a distal site. This was demonstrated using CD73 expressing cells ...
Introdução: Estudos em animais e em humanos demonstram que o alto consumo de cafeína pode promover riscos e complicações obstétricas podendo resultar em eventos teratogênicos na prole, como alterações esqueléticas, retardo no crescimento intrauterino e baixo peso ao nascer e a partos prematuros. Embora a relação entre o consumo de cafeína durante a gravidez e seus efeitos tóxicos sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário venham sendo alvo de vários estudos, seus mecanismos ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Objetivos: avaliar os efeitos da utilização crônica de cafeína no período gestacional e neonatal sobre o desenvolvimento da prole, reflexos motores, comportamentos, resposta nociceptiva, atividade e expressão em hipocampo da acetilcolinesterase e, atividade de ectonucleotidases em medula espinhal de ratos. Métodos: o ciclo estral das ratas com aproximadamente 90 dias (peso 200-300 g) foi avaliado por meio de esfregaço de lavado vaginal. Sendo a prenhez confirmada, as ...
This data is an unofficial, working copy for a sub-project. The rolled up version for Helios requirements will be a consolidated summary of the individual ones. ...
0063] In one embodiment, the primer extension products for the rare mutations are detected using PYROSEQUENCING® (Uppsala, Sweden), which is essentially sequencing by synthesis. A sequencing primer, designed to anneal directly next to the nucleic acid differing between the rare and the common allele or the artificially produced quantification standard is first hybridized to a single stranded, PCR amplified, DNA template comprising both the target and the standard PCT product, and incubated with the enzymes, DNA polymerase, ATP sulfurylase, luciferase and apyrase, and the substrates, adenosine 5 phosphosulfate (APS) and luciferin. One of four deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP), for example, corresponding to the nucleotide present in the standard template, is then added to the reaction. DNA polymerase catalyzes the incorporation of the dNTP into the standard DNA strand. Each incorporation event is accompanied by release of pyrophosphate (PPi) in a quantity equimolar to the amount of ...
Results Exposure of THP-1 cells to MSU crystals or F (1 mg/ml) induced a moderate release of IL-8 (MSU: 211.66±32.00 pg/ml; F: 466.08±49.16 pg/ml), but not of IL-1β. Cotreatment of cells with MSU crystals and HSA or Hp (0.1 mg/ml) did not affect the cytokine production, while F led to a significantly enhanced IL-1β (71.15±5.64 pg/ml) and IL-8 (2649.62±55.91 pg/ml) secretion. HSA and Hp alone did not cause changes on the cytokine levels. qRT-PCR analysis indicated consistently increased IL-1β mRNA expression in THP-1 cells treated with fibrinogen compared with non-treated cells (49.75±3.54 fold); this was markedly amplified by MSU crystals (103.25±5.73 fold). IL-1β mRNA levels was not enhanced by crystals alone. Apyrase significantly reduced the secretion of IL-1β (20%) and IL-8 (47%) induced by costimulation with MSU and F. ...
Pyrimidine-5-Nucleotidase Deficiency (Pyrimidine 5-Nucleotidase Deficiency): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Stewart, C C.; Gasic, G; and Hempling, H G., "Effect of exogenous atp on the volume of ta3 ascites tumor cells." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 1026 ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a series of ectoenzymes that are involved in hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. These ectoenzymes possess ATPase and ATP pyrophosphatase activities and are type II transmembrane proteins. Expression of the related rat mRNA has been found in a subset of immature glial cells and in the alimentary tract. The corresponding rat protein has been detected in the pancreas, small intestine, colon, and liver. The human mRNA is expressed in glioma cells, prostate, and uterus. Expression of the human protein has been detected in uterus, basophils, and mast cells ...

Ectonucleoside Triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5) ELISA KitsEctonucleoside Triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5) ELISA Kits

The protein encoded by ENTPD5 is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. Additionally we are shipping ... The protein encoded by this gene is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. NTPases, such as CD39, ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Ectonucleoside+Triphosphate+diphosphohydrolase+5+

Apyrase - WikipediaApyrase - Wikipedia

Apyrase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ... The salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods are nucleotide hydrolysing enzymes that are implicated in the inhibition of ... Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apyrase

Apyrase in cell culture - Cell BiologyApyrase in cell culture - Cell Biology

Apyrase in cell culture - Half-life? (Dec/03/2007 ). I would like to use apyrase in my cell culture to remove extracellular ATP ... Can you inform me if this is feasible or will fresh apyrase containing media need to be added regularly? Most the literature ... or you might consider adding the apyrase in the afternoon, and then adding it again just before going home. V ... state the use of apyrase for periods of less than an hour.. Any help will be appreciated,. Many thanks ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/32489.html

Breakthroughs spotlighting roles for extracellular nucleotides and apyrases in stress responses and growth and development.  -...Breakthroughs spotlighting roles for extracellular nucleotides and apyrases in stress responses and growth and development. -...

This review also summarizes and discusses recent advances in research on the roles of apyrases and extracellular nucleotides in ... Breakthroughs spotlighting roles for extracellular nucleotides and apyrases in stress responses and growth and development.. ... The concentration of extracellular nucleotides is controlled by various phosphatases, prominent among which are apyrases EC 3.6 ... These include new findings that document how apyrases and extracellular nucleotides control auxin transport, modulate stomatal ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25017166

Purification and characterization of a cytoplasmic apyrase plumules of Pisum sativumPurification and characterization of a cytoplasmic apyrase plumules of Pisum sativum

With ATP as substrate the apyrase (ATPase activity) showed a temperature optimum at 30°C and an optimum of the apparent V[ ... In contrast to other apyrases in the literature, the pea seedling enzyme was seen to hydrolyze ADP faster than ATP. Co- ... Purification and characterization of a cytoplasmic apyrase plumules of Pisum sativum Public Deposited ... This activity was designated as an apyrase when the reaction stoichiometry indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/z029p849z

Differential Regulation of a Family of Apyrase Genes fromMedicago truncatula | Plant PhysiologyDifferential Regulation of a Family of Apyrase Genes fromMedicago truncatula | Plant Physiology

Genetic Mapping of Apyrases. To determine the genetic map position of the apyrase cluster (Mtapy1, Mtapy3, and Mtapy4) and of ... An apyrase cluster was also found on soybean linkage group J (Gm LG-J), based on analysis of the map positions of two apyrases ... Genetic maps of apyrases from M. truncatula. The maps indicate that the apyrase cluster, including at least Mtapy1, Mtapy3, and ... Apyrase genes have also been characterized from soybean (Day et al., 2000). Hybridization of these apyrases to high-density BAC ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/125/4/2104

Probable apyrase elisa and antibodyProbable apyrase elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Probable apyrase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Probable apyrase 1. Probable apyrase 1 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 1 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 1 Antibody. Also known as ... Probable apyrase 2. Probable apyrase 2 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 2 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 2 Antibody. Also known as ... Probable apyrase 3. Probable apyrase 3 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 3 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 3 Antibody. Also known as ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=probable-apyrase

Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ. - Semantic ScholarAction of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ. - Semantic Scholar

Synaptic depression may thus be linked to endogenous adenosine formed by dephosphorylation of released ATP by an ecto-apyrase. ... potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane isolated from ... Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ.. @article{Mart1996ActionOS, ... title={Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ.}, author={Eul{\`a}lia ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Action-of-suramin-upon-ecto-apyrase-activity-and-of-Mart%C3%AD-Cant%C3%AD/28f55b0ca62c819c9179fcda36022db1a0a89272

apyraseapyrase

... - n. [Gr. an, without; pyr, fire; ase, enzyme] An enzyme that functions in the utilization of energy … Dictionary of ... apyrase - Enzyme (EC 3.6.1.5) that catalyses breakdown of ATP to AMP; usually extracted from plants, but aortic and placental ... apyrase - noun Any of a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP, releasing phosphate and available energy … ... Apyrase - is a calcium activated plasma membrane bound enzyme (magnesium can also activate it) (EC number,3.6.1.5) that ...
more infohttps://universalium.academic.ru/74963/apyrase

Optimizing human apyrase to treat arterial thrombosis and limit reperfusion injury without bleeding risk | The Hope CenterOptimizing human apyrase to treat arterial thrombosis and limit reperfusion injury without bleeding risk | The Hope Center

Optimizing human apyrase to treat arterial thrombosis and limit reperfusion injury without bleeding risk. Moeckel D, Jeong S, ... To devise a different strategy, we engineered and optimized the apyrase activity of human nucleoside triphosphate ... greater than four times higher adenosine diphosphatase activity and a 50 times longer plasma half-life than did native apyrase ...
more infohttps://hopecenter.wustl.edu/?p=13374

The creation of an antithrombotic surface by apyrase immobilizationThe creation of an antithrombotic surface by apyrase immobilization

... Nilsson, Per H. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science ... The goal of this study was to immobilize apyrase on a biomaterial surface in order to develop an enzymatically active surface ... Blood compatibiliy; Apyrase; Platelet; Platelet regulation; Adenosine diphosphate National Category Immunology in the medical ... We were able to immobilize apyrase on a polystyrene surface with preservation of the enzymatic activity. We then analyzed the ...
more infohttp://lnu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:309226

Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhod | Open-iApyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhod | Open-i

Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was ... The nearly absence of saliva in the forced fed nymphs was confirmed by using the salivary enzyme apyrase as a saliva tracker ( ... The nearly absence of saliva in the forced fed nymphs was confirmed by using the salivary enzyme apyrase as a saliva tracker ( ... pone-0006047-g002: Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2698215_pone.0006047.g002&req=4

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli virulence-plasmid-carried apyrase (apy) and ospB genes are organized as a bicistronic operon...Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli virulence-plasmid-carried apyrase (apy) and ospB genes are organized as a bicistronic operon...

... which encodes apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase), is regulated by the same regulators that govern the expression of virulence ... 1995; Virulent Shigella codes for a soluble apyrase: identification, characterization and cloning of the gene. Curr Sci68:293- ... 1998; Expression of the virulence plasmid-carried apyrase gene ( apy) of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri ... 2002; Shigella apyrase - a novel variant of bacterial acid phosphatases?. FEBS Lett512:8-12[CrossRef] ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-148-8-2519

Plus itPlus it

Apyrase Activity Assay. Three series of experiments were conducted to characterize PeAPY2 apyrase in terms of substrate ... PeAPY2 Localization and Apyrase Activity. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeAPY2 was homologous to apyrases in various ... 3), a strong inhibitor for apyrases in Arabidopsis. Moreover, NGXT191 could not suppress P. euphratica apyrase in vivo (PeAPY2- ... Supplemental Figure S2. Multiple sequence alignment of PeAPY2 (apyrase from P. euphratica) with other apyrases from different ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/169/1/530

List | SBIR.govList | SBIR.gov

Combination Treatment of tPA and Apyrase for Stroke SBC: APT THERAPEUTICS, INC. Topic: NINDS ... Combination Therapy of Aspirin and Apyrase for Stroke SBC: APT THERAPEUTICS, INC. Topic: NINDS ... DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human apyrase represents a highly promising therapy for acute ischemic stroke which is a ... DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human apyrase represents a highly promising therapy for acute ischemic stroke which is a ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/award/all/?f%5B0%5D=itm_field_award_yr%3A1983&f%5B1%5D=im_field_state%3A105844&f%5B2%5D=itm_field_award_yr%3A2010&f%5B3%5D=im_field_state%3A105824&f%5B4%5D=im_field_state%3A105822&f%5B5%5D=im_field_state%3A105833&%3Bf%5B1%5D=im_field_program%3A105791&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=im_field_agencies%3A105747&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B2%5D=im_field_agencies%3A105736

ENTPD1 - WikipediaENTPD1 - Wikipedia

Wang TF, Guidotti G (Apr 1996). "CD39 is an ecto-(Ca2+,Mg2+)-apyrase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (17): 9898-901 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ENTPD1

The Inflammasome Mediates Hyperoxia-Induced Alveolar Cell Permeability | The Journal of ImmunologyThe Inflammasome Mediates Hyperoxia-Induced Alveolar Cell Permeability | The Journal of Immunology

... apyrase significantly inhibited hyperoxia-induced IL-1β release (Fig. 9). In addition, apyrase inhibited the release of IL-1β ... for 1 h in the presence or absence of apyrase. IL-1β levels in the media were measured by ELISA. Addition of apyrase resulted ... Apyrase inhibited hyperoxia-induced release of IL-1β. To test whether hyperoxia-induced autocrine ATP release is responsible ... Louis, MO). N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and apyrase were purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Abs for immunoblotting ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/10/5819.long

The E-NTPDase family of ectonucleotidases: Structure function relationships and pathophysiological significance | SpringerLinkThe E-NTPDase family of ectonucleotidases: Structure function relationships and pathophysiological significance | SpringerLink

Wang TF, Rosenberg PA, Guidotti G (1997) Characterization of brain ecto-apyrase: Evidence for only one ecto-apyrase (CD39) gene ... and expression of a human brain ecto-apyrase related to both the ecto-ATPases and CD39 ecto-apyrases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1386 ... apyrase brain CD39 ecto-ATPase immunology ischemia kidney liver nervous tissue NTPDase platelet vasculature ... Wang TF, Guidotti G (1996) CD39 is an ecto-(Ca2+,Mg2+)-apyrase. J Biol Chem 271:9898-9901PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-006-9003-5

Tissue Dissociation Enzymes  | Enzymes Products & Reviews on SelectScienceTissue Dissociation Enzymes | Enzymes Products & Reviews on SelectScience

Apyrase from potatoes. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. ATPase ≥200 units/mg protein, lyophilized powder Read more... ...
more infohttps://www.selectscience.net/enzymes/product-directory/tissue-dissociation-enzymes/?catID=6317

TLR and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent innate immune responses to tumor-derived autophagosomes (DRibbles) | Cell Death & DiseaseTLR and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent innate immune responses to tumor-derived autophagosomes (DRibbles) | Cell Death & Disease

a) Apyrase, RNase and DNase; (b) Proteinase K, trypsin, papain and 72 °C heat; (c) 37, 55, 72 °C water bath; (d) HSP90 ... ATP, DNA and RNA removed DRibbles, which were respectively pre-treated with apyrase, DNase, RNase, could still induce IL-1β ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2016206?error=cookies_not_supported&code=93c8252a-2c77-4d49-b7d2-9857eede45e1

Metallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIMetallo-dependent phosphatase-like (IPR029052) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

5-Nucleotidase/apyrase (IPR006179). *Serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase/bis(5-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase ( ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR029052

New/Updated Arabidopsis DNA 20-May-2000New/Updated Arabidopsis DNA 20-May-2000

AF141671 AF141671 1827bp mRNA PLN 01-MAY-2000 Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase (Atapy2) mRNA, complete cds. Atapy2; apyrase. ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/arab-gen/2000-May/007838.html

Membrane wounding triggers ATP release and dysferlin-mediated intercellular calcium signaling | Journal of Cell ScienceMembrane wounding triggers ATP release and dysferlin-mediated intercellular calcium signaling | Journal of Cell Science

Apyrase, is an enzyme that degrades ATP and ADP to AMP (Boyd and Forrester, 1968). If laser wounding triggers the release of ... Apyrase blocks the intercellular signaling triggered by laser wounding. CGD-injected embryo at the blastula stage was perfused ... This was observed when 20 units/ml of apyrase was added to the seawater (Fig. 4D and supplementary material Movies 5 and 6; ... D) When a blastomere of a CGD-injected embryo was wounded with a laser (yellow arrow) in ASW supplemented with apyrase (20 IU/ ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/123/11/1884
  • Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. (genome.jp)
  • Apyrase degrades those nucleotides that are not incorporated and ATP. (openpr.com)
  • Any unincorporated nucleotides are degraded by apyrase, before the next nucleotide is added to the tube and the cascade of reactions repeated. (thermofisher.com)
  • The resulting recombinant protein, APT102, exhibited greater than four times higher adenosine diphosphatase activity and a 50 times longer plasma half-life than did native apyrase. (wustl.edu)
  • The protein encoded by ENTPD5 is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was expressed as ng of inorganic phosphate (Pi) released in a minute by 1/12 of anterior midgut contents±standard error. (nih.gov)
  • 19 . The conjugate of claim 18 , wherein the apyrase is a soluble form of CD39. (google.com)
  • This pathway was mimicked by ATP application, and inhibited by apyrase, cadmium, and ω-agatoxin-IVA. (biologists.org)
  • It has been postulated that an apyrase isolated from potato is involved in starch biosynthesis ( Handa and Guidotti, 1996 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • 20 . The conjugate of claim 19 , wherein the apyrase comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least about 90% identical to SEQ ID NO: 2 and catalyzes hydrolysis of NDPs. (google.com)
  • We then analyzed the hemocompatibility of the apyrase surface and of control surfaces by incubation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or whole blood. (diva-portal.org)
  • ATP did not induce aggregation in platelet-rich plasma, but aggregation did occur when apyrase or hexokinase was added. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, a conjugate comprising an apyrase can be used for treating and preventing thrombosis, atherosclerotic plaque complications and vascular disorders. (google.com)
  • The formation of antithrombin-thrombin and antithrombin-factor XIa complexes and the extent of platelet consumption were significantly lower on the apyrase surface than on any of the control surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, when ATP was scavenged with apyrase, hyperoxia-induced inflammasome activation was significantly decreased. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apyrase significantly reduced the secretion of IL-1β (20%) and IL-8 (47%) induced by costimulation with MSU and F. (bmj.com)
  • A syntenic region on soybean linkage group J was found to contain at least two apyrase genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli virulence-plasmid-carried apyrase (apy) and ospB genes are organized as a bicistronic operon and are subject to differential expressionaaThis paper is dedicated to the memory of our dear friends and colleagues Giuseppe Carruba and Franco Tatò, who died prematurely.bbThe GenBank accession number for the sequence reported in this paper is AJ315184. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The level of mRNA expression of the other two putative apyrases, Mtapy2 and Mtapy3 , was unaffected by rhizobial inoculation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Suramin [8-(3-benzamido-4-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulphoni c acid], a P2 purinoceptor antagonist, potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane isolated from cholinergic nerve terminals of Torpedo electric organ. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We were able to immobilize apyrase on a polystyrene surface with preservation of the enzymatic activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Apyrases identified in plants have been implicated to play functional roles in a variety of different systems. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The goal of this study was to immobilize apyrase on a biomaterial surface in order to develop an enzymatically active surface that would have the capacity to inhibit platelet activation by degrading ADP. (diva-portal.org)
  • The pea apyrase has been found not only in nuclei, but also in the plasma membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The data suggest a role for apyrases early in the nodulation response before the involvement of root cortical cell division leading to the nodule structure. (plantphysiol.org)
  • N-acetyl- l -cysteine (NAC) and apyrase were purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Abs for immunoblotting included anti-caspase-1, NALP3, ASC, proIL-1β, and IL-1β-17 (Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA). (jimmunol.org)
  • Most the literature state the use of apyrase for periods of less than an hour. (protocol-online.org)
  • Monitoring of markers of platelet, coagulation, and complement activation and staining of the surfaces revealed decreased levels of platelet and coagulation activation parameters on the apyrase surface. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results demonstrate that it is possible to create an antithrombotic surface targeting the ADP amplification of platelet activation by immobilizing apyrase. (diva-portal.org)
  • Apyrases found in animal cells have also been proposed to function in neurotransmission by interacting indirectly with P 2 purinoreceptors ( Edwards and Gibb, 1993 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • A recent report indicated that an apyrase purified from the roots of the legume Dolichos biflorus , lectin nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP), bound to the lipo-chitin nodulation signals produced by Bradyrhizobium spp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • C) Representative western blot showing phospho-CREB levels in SCMN and SC co-cultures exposed to FS3+NHS for 10, 15 and 30 min (as indicated), and their reduction by apyrase. (biologists.org)