A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at sympathetically innervated SMOOTH MUSCLE. It may play a functional role regulating the juxtoglomerular apparatus of the KIDNEY.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The imide of phthalic acids.

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (1/540)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Specific inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro. (2/540)

1. The thienopyridine clopidogrel is a specific inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo. No direct effects of clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) on platelet aggregation in vitro have been described so far. 2. Possible in vitro antiaggregatory effects (turbidimetry) of clopidogrel were studied in human platelet-rich plasma and in washed platelets. 3. Incubation of platelet-rich plasma with clopidogrel (< or = 100 microM) for up to 8 h did not result in any inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. 4. Incubation of washed platelets with clopidogrel resulted in a time- (maximum effects after 30 min) and concentration-dependent (IC50 1.9+/-0.3 microM) inhibition of ADP (6 microM)-induced platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel (30 microM) did not inhibit collagen (2.5 microg ml(-1))-, U46619 (1 microM)- or thrombin (0.1 u ml(-1))-induced platelet aggregation. The inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation by clopidogrel (30 microM) was insurmountable indicating a non-equilibrium antagonism of ADP actions. The R enantiomer SR 25989 C (30 microM) was significantly less active than clopidogrel (30 microM) in inhibiting platelet aggregation (32+/-5% vs 70+/-1% inhibition, P < 0.05, n = 5). 5. In washed platelets, clopidogrel (< or = 30 microM) did not significantly reverse the inhibition of prostaglandin E1 (1 microM)-induced platelet cyclic AMP formation by ADP (6 microM). 6. The antiaggregatory effects of clopidogrel were unchanged when the compound was removed from the platelet suspension. However, platelet inhibition by clopidogrel was completely abolished when albumin (350 mg ml(-1)) was present in the test buffer. 7. It is concluded that clopidogrel specifically inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of washed platelets in vitro without hepatic bioactivation. Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by clopidogrel in vitro occurs in the absence of measurable effects on the reversal of PGE1-stimulated cyclic AMP by ADP.  (+info)

Functional characterization of rat ecto-ATPase and ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase after heterologous expression in CHO cells. (3/540)

The recently cloned ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase (ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase) are plasma-membrane-bound enzymes responsible for the extracellular degradation of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. We expressed the rat-derived enzymes in CHO cells to compare their molecular and functional properties. Sequence-specific polyclonal antibodies differentiate between the two proteins and reveal identical molecular masses of 70-80 kDa. Both enzymes are stimulated by either Ca2+ or Mg2+ and reveal a broad substrate specificity towards purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Whereas ecto-apyrase hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates at a rate approximately 20-30% lower than nucleoside-5'-triphosphates, ecto-ATPase hydrolyzes nucleoside-5'-diphosphates only to a marginal extent. The sensitivity of the two enzymes to the inhibitors of P2 receptors suramin, PPADS and reactive blue differs. Hydrolysis of ATP by ecto-ATPase leads to the accumulation in the medium of extracellular ADP as an intermediate product, whereas ecto-apyrase dephosphorylates ATP directly to AMP. Our results suggest that previous data describing extracellular hydrolysis of ATP by a variety of intact cellular systems with unidentified ecto-nucleotidases may be explained by the coexpression of ecto-ATPase and ecto-apyrase.  (+info)

A nod factor binding lectin with apyrase activity from legume roots. (4/540)

A lectin isolated from the roots of the legume, Dolichos biflorus, binds to Nod factors produced by rhizobial strains that nodulate this plant and has a deduced amino acid sequence with no significant homology to any lectin reported to date. This lectin also is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside di- and triphosphates; the enzyme activity is increased in the presence of carbohydrate ligands. This lectin-nucleotide phosphohydrolase (LNP) has a substrate specificity characteristic of the apyrase category of phosphohydrolases, and its sequence contains four motifs characteristic of this category of enzymes. LNP is present on the surface of the root hairs, and treatment of roots with antiserum to LNP inhibits their ability to undergo root hair deformation and to form nodules on exposure to rhizobia. These properties suggest that this protein may play a role in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis and/or in a related carbohydrate recognition event endogenous to the plant.  (+info)

Inhibition of an ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolase by azide. (5/540)

Cell surface ATPases (ecto-ATPases or E-ATPases) hydrolyze extracellular ATP and other nucleotides. Regulation of extracellular nucleotide concentration is one of their major proposed functions. Based on enzymatic characterization, the E-ATPases have been divided into two subfamilies, ecto-ATPases and ecto-ATP-diphosphohydrolases (ecto-ATPDases). In the presence of either Mg2+ or Ca2+, ecto-ATPDases, including proteins closely related to CD39, hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates in addition to nucleoside triphosphates and are inhibited by millimolar concentrations of azide, whereas ecto-ATPases appear to lack these two properties. This report presents the first systematic kinetic study of a purified ecto-ATPDase, the chicken oviduct ecto-ATPDase (Strobel, R.S., Nagy, A.K., Knowles, A.F., Buegel, J. & Rosenberg, M.O. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16323-16331), with respect to ATP and ADP, and azide inhibition. Km values for ATP obtained at pH 6.4 and 7.4 are 10-30 times lower than for ADP and the catalytic efficiency is greater with ATP as the substrate. The enzyme also exhibits complicated behavior toward azide. Variable inhibition by azide is observed depending on nucleotide substrate, divalent ion, and pH. Nearly complete inhibition by 5 mm azide is obtained when MgADP is the substrate and when assays are conducted at pH 6-6.4. Azide inhibition diminishes when ATP is the substrate, Ca2+ as the activating ion, and at higher pH. The greater efficacy of azide in inhibiting ADP hydrolysis compared to ATP hydrolysis may be related to the different modes of inhibition with the two nucleotide substrates. While azide decreases both Vmax and Km for ADP, it does not alter the Km for ATP. These results suggest that the apparent affinity of azide for the E.ADP complex is significantly greater than that for the free enzyme or E.ATP. The response of the enzyme to three other inhibitors, fluoride, vanadate, and pyrophosphate, is also dependent on substrate and pH. Taken together, these results are indicative of a discrimination between ADP and ATP by the enzyme. A mechanism of azide inhibition is proposed.  (+info)

Insertion of atToc34 into the chloroplastic outer membrane is assisted by at least two proteinaceous components in the import system. (6/540)

Toc34 is a member of the outer membrane translocon complex that mediates the initial stage of protein import into chloroplasts. Toc34, like most outer membrane proteins, is synthesized in the cytosol at its mature size without a cleavable transit peptide. The majority of outer membrane proteins do not require thermolysin-sensitive components on the chloroplastic surface or ATP for their insertion into the outer membrane. However, different results have been obtained concerning the factors required for Toc34 insertion into the outer membrane. Using an Arabidopsis homologue of pea Toc34, atToc34, we show that the insertion of atToc34 was greatly reduced by thermolysin pretreatment of chloroplasts as assayed either by protease digestion or by alkaline extraction. The insertion was also dependent on the presence of ATP or GTP. A mutant of atToc34 with the GTP-binding domain deleted still required ATP for optimal insertion, indicating that ATP was used by other protein components in the import system. The ATP-supported insertion was observed even in thermolysin-pretreated chloroplasts, suggesting that the protein component responsible for ATP-stimulated insertion is a different protein from the thermolysin-sensitive component that assists atToc34 insertion.  (+info)

Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing intracellular calcium. (7/540)

AIM: To examine whether platelet-released adenosine diphosphate (ADP) would contribute to the stabilization of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF). METHODS: Rabbit platelet aggregation induced by PAF was measured turbimetrically. ADP release from rabbit platelets stimulated by PAF was determined by HPLC. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fura 2-AM. RESULTS: PAF > or = 1 nmol.L-1 induced full platelet aggregation, which did not deaggregate over 5 min after aggregation reached peak. Platelet aggregation was deaggregated in a concentration-dependent manner by subsequent addition of ADP scavenger ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) at 5-100 mg.L-1. PAF 3 nmol.L-1 stimulated release of ADP (29% vs 6% of control), and elicited a rapid rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) which peaked at approximately 15 s. Then the [Ca2+]i gradually decayed from 585 +/- 80 nmol.L-1 within 100 s to a low level (364 +/- 82 nmol.L-1). Apyrase 100 mg.L-1, added 2 min after PAF, reduced [Ca2+]i to a lower level (171 +/- 29 nmol.L-1). CONCLUSION: Platelet-released ADP stabilizes PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation by stabilizing [Ca2+]i at elevated level.  (+info)

CD39-L4 is a secreted human apyrase, specific for the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates. (8/540)

The human ecto-apyrase gene family consists of five reported members (CD39, CD39-L1, CD39-L2, CD39-L3, and CD39-L4). The family can be subdivided into two groups by conservation of proposed structural domains. The CD39, CD39-L1, and CD39-L3 genes all encode hydrophobic portions in their carboxy and amino termini, serving as transmembrane domains for CD39 and potentially for the other two members. CD39-L2 and CD39-L4 genes encode hydrophobic portions in their amino termini, suggesting that they might encode secreted apyrases. We demonstrate that the CD39-L4 gene encodes the first reported human secreted ecto-apyrase. COS-7 cells transfected with a CD39-L4 expression construct utilizing the naturally occurring leader peptide express recombinant protein outside of the cells. This expression can be blocked by brefeldin A, a chemical that inhibits a step in mammalian secretory pathways. We also demonstrate expression of CD39-L4 message in macrophages, suggesting that the protein is present in the circulation. Furthermore, we show that CD39-L4 is an E-type apyrase, is dependent on calcium and magnesium cations, and has high degree of specificity for NDPs over NTPs as enzymatic substrates. A potential physiological role in hemostasis and platelet aggregation is presented.  (+info)

ENTPD3 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Rat Compact disc39 a membrane-bound ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleoside tri- and diphosphates is anchored towards the membrane by two transmembrane domains at both ends of the molecule. transmembrane domain name indicates that there is contact between particular faces of the transmembrane domains. strains DH5α (strain YMR4 ([24]. Standard rich (YPD) and complete minimal uracil drop-out (DO-U) media were used for yeast [25]. The composition of the DO-U medium with 0.3 mM ATP was 0.9 g of DO-U powder 5 g of IKBKB antibody (NH4)2SO4 1.02 g of MgSO4-7H2O 0.1675 g of CaCl2 0.1 g of NaCl 0.55 g of KCl 12.1 g of Tris base and 0.165 g of ATP disodium salt (Sigma Aldrich) per liter of water; the pH was titrated to 7.2 with HCl. Glucose (2%) vitamins and trace elements (DIFCO SB-262470 manual) were added after sterilization. Creation of an acid phosphatase-negative strain of and genes respectively to create an acid phosphatase-negative (APN) YMR4 yeast ...
PubMedID: 23536768 | Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes. | PloS one | 1/1/2013
Although dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) analog with profound effects on energy metabolism, immune system, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is widely used therapeutically, its impact on the brain is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of repeated low-dose DEX administration on the activity and expression of the ectonucleotidase enzymes which hydrolyze and therefore control extracellular ATP and adenosine concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Ectonucleotidases tested were ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1-3 (NTPDase1-3) and ecto-5-nucleotidase (eN), whereas the effects were evaluated in two brain areas that show different sensitivity to glucocorticoid action, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. In the hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex, modest level of neurodegenerative changes as well as increase in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis and upregulation of NTPDase1 and eN mRNA expression ensued under t...he ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role for apyrases in polar auxin transport in arabidopsis. AU - Liu, Xing. AU - Wu, Jian. AU - Clark, Greg. AU - Lundy, Stacey. AU - Lim, Minhui. AU - Arnold, David. AU - Chan, Jing. AU - Tang, Wenqiang. AU - Muday, Gloria K.. AU - Gardner, Gary. AU - Roux, Stanley J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - Recent evidence indicates that extracellular nucleotides regulate plant growth. Exogenous ATP has been shown to block auxin transport and gravitropic growth in primary roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Cells limit the concentration of extracellular ATP in part through the activity of ectoapyrases (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases), and two nearly identical Arabidopsis apyrases, APY1 and APY2, appear to share this function. These findings, plus the fact that suppression of APY1 and APY2 blocks growth in Arabidopsis, suggested that the expression of these apyrases could influence auxin ...
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Human and more. Compare 7 different ENTPD5 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was expressed as ng of inorganic phosphate
ANGELI, J.K. et al. Gadolinium increases the vascular reactivity of rat aortic rings. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.5, pp.445-452. Epub Apr 01, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500044.. Gadolinium (Gd) blocks intra- and extracellular ATP hydrolysis. We determined whether Gd affects vascular reactivity to contractile responses to phenylephrine (PHE) by blocking aortic ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase). Wistar rats of both sexes (260-300 g, 23 females, 7 males) were used. Experiments were performed before and after incubation of aortic rings with 3 µM Gd. Concentration-response curves to PHE (0.1 nM to 0.1 mM) were obtained in the presence and absence of endothelium, after incubation with 100 µM L-NAME, 10 µM losartan, or 10 µM enalaprilat. Gd significantly increased the maximum response (control: 72.3 ± 3.5; Gd: 101.3 ± 6.4%) and sensitivity (control: 6.6 ± 0.1; Gd: 10.5 ± 2.8%) to PHE. To investigate the blockade of ...
Four pre-designed shRNA constructs targeting ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 4 (ENTPD4), transcript variant 1 and one scrambled control. Each shRNA construct is driven by the U6 promoter and contains a GFP reporter.
1b) a nucleoside 5-diphosphate + H2O = a nucleoside 5-phosphate + phosphate. Other name(s): ATP-diphosphatase; adenosine diphosphatase; ADPase; ATP diphosphohydrolase [ambiguous]. Systematic name: nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase (nucleoside monophosphoate-forming). Comments: Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9000-95-7. References:. 1. Krishnan, P.S. Apyrase, pyrophosphatase and metaphosphatase of Penicillium chrysogenum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 37 ...
ADPase (adenosine diphosphatase) was assayed in rat liver homogenates with [beta-32P]ADP as substrate. The activity had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was strongly activated by Mg2+. The intracellular localization was determined by analytical subcellular fractionation with single-step sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Selective membrane perturbants were used to enhance the resolution of the various organelles. ADPase was localized to the mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation and subfractionated by selective disruption of the inner and outer membranes. The intramitochondrial localization of ADPase was compared with various marker enzymes and was shown to be concentrated in the outer-membrane fractions. The effects of various inhibitors on the ADPase activity were determined and the possibility that the activity could be due to known enzyme systems was considered. It is concluded that ADP degradation is due to a hitherto unrecognized mitochondrial enzyme. ...
However, in multiplex Pyrosequencing, more proportional signals are expected in a Addition of this enzyme has eliminated the need for solid support and interme- diate washing thereby enabling the pyrosequencing re- action to be performed in a single tube. a real-time DNA sequencing technique based on monitoring DNA synthesis by BIOLUMINESCENCE using four enzymes: DNA POLYMERASE, ATP sulfurylase, LUCIFERASE and apyrase. Application of Pyrosequencing Pyrosequencing has shown well performance in determination of complex DNA structure such as cDNA analysis, mutation detection Re-sequencing of diseases linked genes, viral typing, bacterial typing, and SNPs. Detection ( light sensor) V. Washing or add enzyme apyrase enzyme. Das Verfahren wird von vier verschiedenen Enzymen eingesetzt: DNA-Polymerse, ATP-Sulfurylase, Luciferase und Apyrase und zwei Substrate Adenosin-5-phosphosulfat (APS) und Luciferin. [12,13] Unused dNTPs are washed out with the apyrase. Pyrosequencing, a nonelectrophoretic DNA ...
Recombinant Mouse PAP Has pH-Dependent Ectonucleotidase Activity and Acts through A1-Adenosine Receptors to Mediate Antinociception. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The 105,000 x g supernatant fluid (S[subscript HS]) from extracts of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska) etiolated for 60 hours yielded a very potent adenosine triphosphatase activity. This activity was designated as an apyrase when the reaction stoichiometry indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was hydrolyzed to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and two moles of inorganic phosphate (P[subscript i]). The apyrase has been purified 88-fold with 40% recovery from acetone powders of the S[subscript HS]. This 6-day procedure involved filtration of the acetone powder solutions through Sephadex G-200 and G-75 followed by protamine sulfate treatment to remove polyanionic material. After film dialysis the enzyme activity was chromatographed on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a gradient NaCl elution. A second more rapid purification scheme was used to purify extracts of acetone powders to 79- to 100-fold with overall yield of 67% to ,100%. This 15-hour scheme involved protamine treatment of ...
Shop Probable apyrase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable apyrase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide and has a predicted 5-year survival rate of ,20%. Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints such as the programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling pathway has led to a shift of paradigm in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but remains without effect in ∼80% of patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that several immunosuppressive mechanisms may work together in NSCLC. The contribution and cooperation between different immunosuppressive mechanisms in NSCLC remain unknown. Recently, the CD39-adenosine pathway has gained increasing attention as a crucial immunosuppressive mechanism and possible target for immunotherapy. Immune cells were extracted from lung and tumor tissue after lung resection in 12 patients by combined enzymatic and mechanical tissue disaggregation. A multiparameter flow cytometry panel was established to investigate the expression and coexpression of CD39 and PD-1 on key lymphocyte ...
Living Skills Program APY Lands 2010/11- Emmanuelle Barone Page 1 LIVING SKILLS PROGRAM APY LANDS 2010/2011 PLANNING, DESIGN & MODULES Emmanuelle Barone July 2…
Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family ...
Dear Histonetters: Happy New Year! Heres a message I received regarding glycerogel/ADPase histochemistry. If you can help Bavani, please respond directly to him as I am not sure he is on the list. His email is [email protected] Dear sir, I am bavani,i am working in Aravind eye hospital,India.I Have been doing pathology of retina.In that I am Mounting the retina with glycerogel.I want to know what is glycerogel,and the name of the company which is supplying a good one.If you find time could you please tell me the information.Till now iam using buffered glycerol(GLYCEROL in PBS ).If you have some idea about this ADPase histochemical study on retina,please help me. thanking you, yours sincerely, bavani ...
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Effects of oxidative stress on EC ATPDase activity. (a) ATPDase biochemical activity assay. The decreased capacity of pEC directly perturbed by oxidative stres
Two forms of ATP-diphosphohydrolase were identified in Solanum tuberosum tuber var. Ultimus. Their hydrolytic activity ratios (ATPase/ADPase) were over 10 for form A and 1 for form B. In the potato tuber homogenate the ...
The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 hydrolyze extracellular ATP and ADP to generate adenosine, which binds to adenosine receptors and inhibits T cell and NK cell responses, thereby suppressing the immune system. The generation of adenosine via the CD39/CD73 pathway is recognized as a major mechanism of Treg immunosuppressive function. The number of CD39+ Tregs is increased in some human cancers, and the importance of CD39+ Tregs in promoting tumor growth and metastasis has been demonstrated using several in vivo models. Here, we addressed whether CD39 is expressed by tumor cells and whether CD39+ tumor cells mediate immunosuppression via the adenosine pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of normal and tumor tissues revealed that CD39 expression is significantly higher in several types of human cancer than in normal tissues. In cancer specimens, CD39 is expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes, the tumor stroma and tumor cells. Furthermore, the expression of CD39 at the cell surface of tumor cells ...
Faria-Pinto, P et al. Cross-immunoreactivity between anti-potato apyrase antibodies and mammalian ATP diphosphohydrolases: potential use of the vegetal protein in experimental schistosomiasis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Oct 2006, vol.101, suppl.1, p.359-363. ISSN 0074- ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant ENTPD7. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human ENTPD7. (PAB20714) - Products - Abnova
Kit Component:- KN203487G1, ENTPD6 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN203487G2, ENTPD6 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN203487D, donor vector…
The cell attached configuration was an important tool in our work in assessing the role of second messengers because of its unique features: 1) it allows for controlled compartmentalization of the intra- and extracellular milieux, and 2) it isolates membrane patches, creating specific areas that can be surrounded by other areas exposed to different pharmacological stimuli.. Taking advantage of the cell-attached condition, we observed that pore formation occurred both in the patch and in the rest of the membrane, despite preincubation of cells with oxidized ATP in the pipette solution at a concentration previously shown to block P2X7 receptors (Fig. 2B). The response was the same when oxidized ATP was used in the bath and ATP applied in the pipette solution (Fig. 2G). By using apyrase (an ectonucleotidase) in similar conditions (Fig. 2, D and E), we ruled out the idea that this effect could be a mere artifact due to mechanical stimulation, a well-known mechanism of ATP release in most cell ...
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ENTPD3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 465 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 52kDa.
Human ENTPD5 partial ORF ( NP_001240, 319 a.a. - 400 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000957-Q01) - Products - Abnova
A-317491 is a potent and selective antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors. In the present studies, the ability of [3H]A-317491 to label recombinant human P2X2/3 and P2X3 receptors was characterized. Using membranes prepared from 1321N1 cells expressing P2X2/3 receptors, [3H]A-317491 specifically labeled high-affinity (Kd = 0.9 nM) recognition sites. High-affinity [3H]A-317491 binding was not detected in membrane preparations from native 1321N1 cells or cells expressing homomeric P2X1, P2X2, or P2X3 receptors. Specific [3H]A-317491 P2X3 receptors could only be reliably detected following treatment of intact P2X3 receptor-expressing cells with apyrase (1 U/ml) both before and during membrane preparation. Under these conditions, [3H]A-317491 also labeled high-affinity (Kd = 9 nM) binding sites. Lower affinity binding components (Kd values of 87-790 nM) were detected in both assays using higher ligand concentrations that likely represent nonfunctional recognition sites. [3H]A-317491 binding to both ...
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cellular homeostasis and fibrotic response involve the integration of signaling that is pro-fibrotic by ATP and anti-fibrotic by adenosine and that is regulated by ENTPD1 and ENTPD2 ...
Dinucleoside polyphosphates are well described as direct vasoconstrictors and as mediators with strong proliferative properties, however, less is known about their effects on nucleotide-converting pathways. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of Ap4A (diadenosine tetraphosphate), Up4A (uridine adenosine tetraphosphate) and Ap5A (diadenosine pentaphosphate) and the non-selective P2 antagonist suramin on human serum and endothelial nucleotide-converting enzymes. Human serum and HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were pretreated with various concentrations of dinucleotide polyphosphates and suramin. Adenylate kinase and NDP kinase activities were then quantified radiochemically by TLC analysis of the ATP-induced conversion of [3H]AMP and [3H]ADP into [3H]ADP/ATP and [3H]ATP respectively. Endothelial NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) activity was additionally determined using [3H]ADP and [3H]ATP as preferred substrates. Dinucleoside polyphosphates ...
Looking for ADPase? Find out information about ADPase. adenosine diphosphatase McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Explanation of ADPase
Concordant with data derived from A2A-null CD4+/CD25− (Fig. 4 D), proliferation responses of CD4+/CD25− T cells obtained from Cd39-null mice are exaggerated after 6 d of stimulation, which is coincident with the up-regulation of adenosine receptor A2A in CD4+/CD25− cells (Fig. 5 C). As a further confirmation of direct connections between CD39 expression and adenosine generation, effects of the addition of soluble exogenous NTPDases (apyrase grade VII) to Cd39-null T cell cultures were tested. This reconstitution effectively suppresses the abnormal proliferation of CD4+/CD25− cells (Fig. 5 C) and restores anergy within the T reg cell pool (not depicted).. We next examined the suppressive ability of WT and Cd39-null T reg cells to inhibit the proliferation of WT or Cd39-null effector cells, respectively. An in vitro system was chosen whereby effector cells were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. This system was chosen to eliminate the expression of CD39 on stimulating cells, which ...
In this weeks program, we talk with Sarah Brown, the Chief Executive Officer of Western Desert Nganampa Walytja Palyantjaku Tjutaku, also called the Purple House.. The Purple House provides renal dialysis services across remote communities in Central Australia and plans are underway for them to set up a dialysis centre in Ernabella/Pukatja Anangu community on the APY Lands.. We chat with Sarah to find out how the plans are going for the dialysis centre in Ernabella Pukatja. We also ask her to tell us more about an exciting fundraising event thats happening in Adelaide during the Tarnanthi Festival, to raise money for running the dialysis centre for the first twelve months.. Artists from across the APY Lands have painted and donated their works for a fine art auction which is being held at Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute (253 Grenfell Street, Adelaide) on Sunday the 15th October from 12:30 - 3:30pm. You are invited to attend and to support the auction and see all the wonderful ...
Histologic analyses were performed as previously described on adenosine diphosphatase (ADPase)-stained flatmounts. 15 Briefly, on day 20 of life, rat pups were killed while under urethane anesthesia (0.083 mL of a 36% solution of urethane/20 g animal weight, intraperitoneally, freshly made daily; Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI), by intracardiac injection of a saturated solution of potassium chloride (KCl). Both eyes were enucleated and the retinas removed as previously described. 15 The extent of peripheral avascularity (i.e., the peripheral avascular severity or the ratio of the size of central vascular to the size of peripheral avascular retina was determined with NIH Image (available by ftp at zippy.nimh.nih.gov/ or at http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image; developed by Wayne Rasband, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) from the captured image of ADPase-stained flatmounts, as previously described. 16 Vascular density was measured by first converting the captured image to a binary image by ...
In a year of disruptions, 34 artists from the APY Lands have grasped the opportunity to shine on an international stage with works that tell the story of a new movement in Australian art history, writes Art Gallery of SA assistant director Lisa Slade.
Background Ovarian cancer (OvCA) tissues show abundant expression of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 which generate immunomodulatory adenosine, thereby inhibiting cytotoxic lymphocytes. Little, however, is known about the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells. Considering that tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) constitute up to 20 % of OvCA tissue, we investigated the effect of adenosine on myeloid cells and explored a possible contribution of myeloid cells to adenosine generation in vitro and ex vivo. Methods Monocytes were used as human blood-derived myeloid cells. After co-incubation with SK-OV-3 or OAW-42 OvCA cells, monocyte migration was determined in transwell assays. For conversion into M2-polarized
Biologically active agents covalently linked to a polymer. The polymer is preferably a biodegradable polymer are provided. The biologically active agent is preferably a protein, such as an extracellular soluble protein, e.g., an extracellular enzyme. The enzyme can be an apyrase, e.g., NTPDase. Conjugates of the invention can be used as therapeutics in subjects. For example, a conjugate comprising an apyrase can be used for treating and preventing thrombosis, atherosclerotic plaque complications and vascular disorders.
Ecto-ATPase is an enzyme which belongs to the group of the E-NTPDases. Those enzymes are ectoenzymes, and that they participate in the metabolism of extracellular molecules. Ecto-ATPase participate in metabolism of nucleoside triphosphate and nucleoside diphosphate with higher affinity for the nucleoside triphosphate. The metabolism of extracellular molecules with the appropriate enzymes is one of the steps in purinergic signaling that mediates a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Therefore it is considered that value of ecto-ATPase activity in human serum may be a potential factor in the diagnosis of diseases associated with purinergic signaling. Ecto-ATPase activity in the human serum was measured by Fiske-Subbarow method, and the average value of 13 healthy samples was 992.3±281.2 nmol/ml/h. Results showed that the most suitable sample volume for the measuring enzyme activity is 50 μL, incubation time on 37 °C is 60 min and that 100 μL 1.12 mol/L TCA is required ...
Accepted name: diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate diphosphatase. Reaction: diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol polyphosphate + phosphate. Other name(s): diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate phosphohydrolase; DIPP. Systematic name: diphospho-myo-inositol-polyphosphate diphosphohydrolase. Comments: This enzyme hydrolyses the diphosphate bond, leaving a phospho group where a diphospho group had been. It can also act on bis(adenosine) diphosphate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Safrany, S.T., Caffrey, J.J., Yang, X., Bembenek, M.E., Moyer, M.B., Burkhart, W.A. and Shears, S.B. A novel context for the MutT module, a guardian of cell integrity, in a diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase. EMBO J. 17 (1998) 6599-6607. [PMID: 9822604]. 2. Caffrey, J.J., Safrany, S.T., Yang, X. and Shears, S.B. Discovery of molecular and catalytic diversity among human diphosphoinositol-polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. An ...
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads ENTPD5 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
The paucity of detectable apoptotic cells in tissues where many cells undergo apoptosis demonstrates the efficiency of cell-clearance mechanisms. Apoptotic cells are thought to release factors that signal their presence to scavenger cells such as macrophages, but the nature of these signals is unclear (see commentary by Gregory). Elliott et al. found that supernatant from thymocytes in which apoptosis was induced recruited more monocytes in a migration assay than did supernatant from live cells. Similarly, supernatant from apoptotic cells introduced into a subcutaneous air pouch in mice recruited more macrophages than did supernatant from live cells. Treatment of the supernatant from the apoptotic cells with apyrase, which hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates, blocked the recruitment of macrophages to the air pouch. Of various nucleotides tested, ATP and UTP were the most efficient at recruiting monocytes in in vitro migration assays, and both nucleotides were detectable in the ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Let sides ,math,\overline{AB},/math, and ,math,\overline{AC},/math, be tangent to ,math,\omega,/math, at ,math,Z,/math, and ,math,W,/math,, respectively. Let ,math,\alpha = \angle BAX,/math, and ,math,\beta = \angle AXC,/math,. Because ,math,\overline{PQ},/math, and ,math,\overline{BC},/math, are both tangent to ,math,\omega,/math, and ,math,\angle YXC,/math, and ,math,\angle QYX,/math, subtend the same arc of ,math,\omega,/math,, it follows that ,math,\angle AYP = \angle QYX = \angle YXC = \beta,/math,. By equal tangents, ,math,PZ = PY,/math,. Applying the Law of Sines to ,math,\triangle APY,/math, yields ,cmath,\frac{AZ}{AP} = 1 + \frac{ZP}{AP} = 1 + \frac{PY}{AP} = 1 + \frac{\sin\alpha}{\sin\beta}.,/cmath,Similarly, applying the Law of Sines to ,math,\triangle ABX,/math, gives ,cmath,\frac{AZ}{AB} = 1 - \frac{BZ}{AB} = 1 - \frac{BX}{AB} = 1 - \frac{\sin\alpha}{\sin\beta}.,/cmath,It follows that ,cmath,2 = \frac{AZ}{AP} + \frac{AZ}{AB} = \frac{AZ}3 + \frac{AZ}7,,/cmath,implying ,math,AZ = ...
Dear all I have been extracting DNA from clinical blood samples collected using vacutec tubes. I have been experiencing some problems with inhibition in PCR. Does anyone have any advise on DNA extraction from blood ie to remove inhibition or to improve DNA recovery. Any comments would be most helpful. Thankyou Sushma ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Sushma Patel PhD Central Public Health laboratory 61 Colindale Avenue London NW9 5HT fax (+ ) 181 205 6528 tel ( + ) 0181 200 4400 e- mail apy019 at cov.ac.uk ...
Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior Blume ) Lelijinių (Liliaceae) šeimos, tamsiųjų Pietų Kinijos ir Japonijos miškų augalas. Jo dideli tamsiai žali arba margi (gelsvais dryžiais), tvirti, lancetiški lapai auga iš žemės paviršiuje esančio šakniastie-bio. Žiedai nedideli, rudi su kietu, šešių lapelių apyži ėdžiu, kurie lyg žvyneliai atsiranda žiemą ant išlindusio iš žemės šakniastiebio. Žiedus apdulkina bešliaužiodami sliekai. […]
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Wang TF, Guidotti G (Apr 1996). "CD39 is an ecto-(Ca2+,Mg2+)-apyrase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (17): 9898-901 ...
Nucleoside Nucleotide DNA RNA Oligonucleotide Apyrase Phosphate Cox, Michael; Nelson, David R.; Lehninger, Albert L (2008). ...
This gene encodes a member of the apyrase protein family. Apyrases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide ... The encoded protein is an endo-apyrase and may play a role in salvaging nucleotides from lysosomes. Alternatively spliced ... "The VSFASSQQ motif confers calcium sensitivity to the intracellular apyrase LALP70". BMC Biochem. 5: 8. doi:10.1186/1471-2091-5 ...
... the enzyme apyrase removes any unincorporated nucleotide remaining in the reaction. This method requires neither fluorescently- ...
... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168032 - ... Smith TM, Kirley TL (1998). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a human brain ecto-apyrase related to both the ecto-ATPases ... inactivation and conversion of an ecto-apyrase to an ecto-NTPase". Biochemistry. 38 (18): 5849-57. doi:10.1021/bi990171k. PMID ... the importance of residues in the apyrase conserved regions". Biochemistry. 40 (13): 3943-50. doi:10.1021/bi002711f. PMID ...
... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187097 - ... ENTPD5 is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. NTPases, such as CD39, mediate catabolism of ... "CD39-L4 is a secreted human apyrase, specific for the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20064-7 ...
... contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. Model organisms have been used in the study of ...
This species is of interest because of the pathogens it carries, and its salivary apyrases which prevent platelet activation ... soft tick apyrase belongs to the 5'-nucleotidase family". Exp. Parasitol. 122 (4): 318-27. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2009.04.007. ...
This enabled the enzyme mixture including the DNA polymerase, the luciferase and the apyrase to be added at the start and kept ... In this alternative method, an additional enzyme apyrase is introduced to remove nucleotides that are not incorporated by the ... Unincorporated nucleotides and ATP are degraded by the apyrase, and the reaction can restart with another nucleotide. The ... luciferase and apyrase, and with the substrates adenosine 5´ phosphosulfate (APS) and luciferin. The addition of one of the ...
... may refer to: Apyrase, an enzyme Nucleoside-diphosphatase, an enzyme This disambiguation page lists ...
... most notably apyrase, collagenase, and calin), vasodilators, and proteinase inhibitors. It is also thought that the saliva ...
... apyrase and, in certain tick species, antihistamines. Prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin inhibit platelet aggregation and dilate ...
Four such proteins, termed Aed a 1 (an apyrase), Aed 2 (Female-specific protein, D7), Aed 3 (an as yet undefined protein), and ...
... apyrase MeSH D08.811.277.040.330 - gtp phosphohydrolases MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.200 - dynamins MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.200. ...
... apyrase EC 3.6.1.6: nucleoside-diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.7: acylphosphatase EC 3.6.1.8: ATP diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.9: nucleotide ...
... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ... The salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods are nucleotide hydrolysing enzymes that are implicated in the inhibition of ... Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma ...
Recently, Cdc42 has been shown to actively assist in cancer progression. Several studies have established the basis for this and hypothesized about the underlying mechanisms. Cdc42 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, breast cancer, and testicular cancer.[8] Elevated levels of the protein have been correlated with negative patient survival. Cdc42 has also been shown to be required for both G1-S phase progression and mitosis, and it also modulates the transcription factors SRF, STAT3, and NFkB.[8] It has been hypothesized that targeting Cdc42 in conjunction with chemotherapy may be an effective cancer treatment strategy. In one study studying the role of Cdc42 in cervical cancer, immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cdc42 expression in three types of tissues: normal cervical tissues, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I or below, CIN II or above, and cervical cancer tissues.[9] Cdc42 expression was gradually increased showing significant ...
... s, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). When they are bound to GTP, they are 'on', and, when they are bound to GDP, they are 'off'. G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases.. There are two classes of G proteins. The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits.[1] In addition, the beta and gamma subunits can form a stable dimeric complex referred to as the beta-gamma complex.. G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell ...
Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are composed of three distinct protein subunits named alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits.[10] The alpha subunits contain the GTP binding/GTPase domain flanked by long regulatory regions, while the beta and gamma subunits form a stable dimeric complex referred to as the beta-gamma complex.[11] When activated, a heterotrimeric G protein dissociates into activated, GTP-bound alpha subunit and separate beta-gamma subunit, each of which can perform distinct signaling roles.[2][3] The α and γ subunit are modified by lipid anchors to increase their association with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane.[12] Heterotrimeric G proteins act as the transducers of G protein-coupled receptors, coupling receptor activation to downstream signaling effectors and second messengers.[2][3][13] In unstimulated cells, heterotrimeric G proteins are assembled as the GDP bound, inactive trimer (Gα-GDP-Gβγ complex).[2][3] Upon receptor activation, the activated ...
Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 megadaltons (MDa), is a dimer of dimers, containing approximately twelve polypeptide subunits: two identical "heavy chains", 520 kDa in mass, which contain the ATPase activity and are thus responsible for generating movement along the microtubule; two 74 kDa intermediate chains which are believed to anchor the dynein to its cargo; two 53-59 kDa light intermediate chains; and several light chains. The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of detachment and reattachment. The other projection, the extended tail, binds to the light intermediate, intermediate and light chain subunits which attach dynein to its cargo. The alternating ...
SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms.[14][15] To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is self-folded through anti-parallel coiled-coil interactions, forming a rod-shaped molecule. At one end of the molecule, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains together form an ATP-binding domain. The other end is called a hinge domain. Two protomers then dimerize through their hinge domains and assemble a V-shaped dimer.[16][17] The length of the coiled-coil arms is ~50 nm long. Such long "antiparallel" coiled-coils are very rare, and found only among SMC proteins (and its relatives such as Rad50). The ATP-binding domain of SMC proteins is structurally related to that of ABC transporters, a large family of transmembrane proteins that actively transport small molecules across cellular membranes. It is thought that the cycle of ATP binding and hydrolysis modulates the cycle of closing and opening of the V-shaped molecule, but the detailed mechanisms of action of SMC ...
Along with other subfamily of Rac and Rho proteins, they exert an important regulatory role specifically in cell motility and cell growth. Rac1 has ubiquitous tissue expression, and drives cell motility by formation of lamellipodia.[12] In order for cancer cells to grow and invade local and distant tissues, deregulation of cell motility is one of the hallmark events in cancer cell invasion and metastasis.[13] Overexpression of a constitutively active Rac1 V12 in mice caused a tumor that's phenotypically indistinguishable from human Kaposi's sarcoma.[14] Activating or gain-of-function mutations of Rac1 are shown to play active roles in promoting mesenchymal-type of cell movement assisted by NEDD9 and DOCK3 protein complex.[15] Such abnormal cell motility may result in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) - a driving mechanism for tumor metastasis as well as drug-resistant tumor relapse.[16][17] ...
The wide variety of myosin genes found throughout the eukaryotic phyla were named according to different schemes as they were discovered. The nomenclature can therefore be somewhat confusing when attempting to compare the functions of myosin proteins within and between organisms. Skeletal muscle myosin, the most conspicuous of the myosin superfamily due to its abundance in muscle fibers, was the first to be discovered. This protein makes up part of the sarcomere and forms macromolecular filaments composed of multiple myosin subunits. Similar filament-forming myosin proteins were found in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. However, beginning in the 1970s, researchers began to discover new myosin genes in simple eukaryotes[3] encoding proteins that acted as monomers and were therefore entitled Class I myosins. These new myosins were collectively termed "unconventional myosins"[7] and have been found in many tissues other than muscle. These new superfamily members have been grouped ...
The impact of KRAS mutations is heavily dependent on the order of mutations. Primary KRAS mutations generally lead to a self-limiting hyperplastic or borderline lesion, but if they occur after a previous APC mutation it often progresses to cancer.[18] KRAS mutations are more commonly observed in cecal cancers than colorectal cancers located in any other places from ascending colon to rectum.[19][20] KRAS mutation is predictive of a very poor response to panitumumab (Vectibix) and cetuximab (Erbitux) therapy in colorectal cancer.[21] Currently, the most reliable way to predict whether a colorectal cancer patient will respond to one of the EGFR-inhibiting drugs is to test for certain "activating" mutations in the gene that encodes KRAS, which occurs in 30%-50% of colorectal cancers. Studies show patients whose tumors express the mutated version of the KRAS gene will not respond to cetuximab or panitumumab.[22] Although presence of the wild-type (or normal) KRAS gene does not guarantee that these ...
三磷酸腺苷双磷酸酶(英语:Apyrase) ...
Apyrase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ... The salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods are nucleotide hydrolysing enzymes that are implicated in the inhibition of ... Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma ...
Salivary apyrase of Aedes aegypti: characterization and secretory fate.. *José M. C. Ribeiro, João José Freitas Sarkis, ... Apyrase. Known as: ATP diphosphohydrolase, ATP Diphosphatase, ADPase Expand. A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the ... Salivary gland homogenates of female adult Aedes aegypti hydrolyzed ATP and ADP thereby defining an apyrase activity. Activity ...
Apyrase in cell culture - Half-life? (Dec/03/2007 ). I would like to use apyrase in my cell culture to remove extracellular ATP ... Can you inform me if this is feasible or will fresh apyrase containing media need to be added regularly? Most the literature ... or you might consider adding the apyrase in the afternoon, and then adding it again just before going home. V ... state the use of apyrase for periods of less than an hour.. Any help will be appreciated,. Many thanks ...
This review also summarizes and discusses recent advances in research on the roles of apyrases and extracellular nucleotides in ... Breakthroughs spotlighting roles for extracellular nucleotides and apyrases in stress responses and growth and development.. ... The concentration of extracellular nucleotides is controlled by various phosphatases, prominent among which are apyrases EC 3.6 ... These include new findings that document how apyrases and extracellular nucleotides control auxin transport, modulate stomatal ...
With ATP as substrate the apyrase (ATPase activity) showed a temperature optimum at 30°C and an optimum of the apparent V[ ... In contrast to other apyrases in the literature, the pea seedling enzyme was seen to hydrolyze ADP faster than ATP. Co- ... Purification and characterization of a cytoplasmic apyrase plumules of Pisum sativum Public Deposited ... This activity was designated as an apyrase when the reaction stoichiometry indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was ...
Genetic Mapping of Apyrases. To determine the genetic map position of the apyrase cluster (Mtapy1, Mtapy3, and Mtapy4) and of ... An apyrase cluster was also found on soybean linkage group J (Gm LG-J), based on analysis of the map positions of two apyrases ... Genetic maps of apyrases from M. truncatula. The maps indicate that the apyrase cluster, including at least Mtapy1, Mtapy3, and ... Apyrase genes have also been characterized from soybean (Day et al., 2000). Hybridization of these apyrases to high-density BAC ...
We first began by constructing vectors for apyrase to either overexpress the gene through a 35-S promoter in a pCambia 2300 ... In previous studies the role of apyrase in plant growth and development has been investigated in the model plant, Arabidopsis ... Thus far we have successfully produced transgenic tomato lines with Solanum apyrase overexpressed as judged by RT-PCR analysis ... To apply these findings to an agriculturally relevant plant we transformed apyrase into tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum, ...
Recombinant Protein and Probable apyrase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Probable apyrase 1. Probable apyrase 1 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 1 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 1 Antibody. Also known as ... Probable apyrase 2. Probable apyrase 2 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 2 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 2 Antibody. Also known as ... Probable apyrase 3. Probable apyrase 3 ELISA Kit. Probable apyrase 3 Recombinant. Probable apyrase 3 Antibody. Also known as ...
Synaptic depression may thus be linked to endogenous adenosine formed by dephosphorylation of released ATP by an ecto-apyrase. ... potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane isolated from ... Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ.. @article{Mart1996ActionOS, ... title={Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ.}, author={Eul{\`a}lia ...
... - n. [Gr. an, without; pyr, fire; ase, enzyme] An enzyme that functions in the utilization of energy … Dictionary of ... apyrase - Enzyme (EC 3.6.1.5) that catalyses breakdown of ATP to AMP; usually extracted from plants, but aortic and placental ... apyrase - noun Any of a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP, releasing phosphate and available energy … ... Apyrase - is a calcium activated plasma membrane bound enzyme (magnesium can also activate it) (EC number,3.6.1.5) that ...
Of several apyrase in pyrosequencing of apyrase this case, dNTP is dispensed into the mixture, to! Apyrase ( 4 ) Einbau von ... tuberosum apyrase ( 4 ) out with the apyrase [ 6 ] combining the models for all enzymes! + apyrase the entire pyrosequencing ... Apyrase, a nucleotide-degrading enzyme, continuously degrades unincorporated nucleotides and ATP. Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP- ... Durch das Enzym apyrase abgebaut, continuously degrades unincorporated nucleotides and ATP + +! A broadening of the apyrase ...
"Apyrase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Apyrase" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Apyrase" by people in Profiles. ...
... then propagation should be compromised by the addition of apyrase, which hydrolyzes ATP. This was the case. Apyrase (80 U/ml) ... 1D). Maximum wave radius in Müller cells was 21 μm (Table 1). Apyrase also reduced wave propagation in astrocytes to a lesser ... Apyrase. If wave propagation from astrocytes to Müller cells is mediated by the release of ATP, ... Purinergic antagonists and apyrase did reduce propagation through astrocytes somewhat (see Table 1), suggesting that ATP, ...
Apyrase (recombinant, E. coli) is a highly active ATP-diphosphohydrolase that catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to ... Apyrase - 50 units APYRASE apyrase neb. Manufacturer: New England Biolabs, Inc. M0398L Apyrase - 50 units. Apyrase (recombinant ... Apyrase, New England Biolabs , VWR. Apyrase, New England Biolabs Enzymes Apyrase (recombinant, E.coli) is a highly active ATP- ... Expression of the Apyrase-Like APY1 Genes in Roots of apyrase neb. scribed as an apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolases, EC 3.6.1.5 ...
LOCUS BAA75506 455 aa PLN 05-JUN-1999 DEFINITION apyrase. ACCESSION BAA75506 PID g4519173 VERSION BAA75506.1 GI:4519173 ... apyrase /EC_number=3.6.1.5 transit_peptide 1..20 CDS 1..455 /standard_name=ATP diphosphohydrolase /note=cytoskeleton ...
Anopheles gambiae Apyrase and 5′-Nucleotidase.. The clones cF3 and iC6 both showed similarity to the Ae. aegypti apyrase and to ... aegypti apyrase and to several members of the 5′-nucleotidase family (24). Apyrase activity is generally rare in animal tissues ... aegypti apyrase is shown in Fig. 1A. The two clones show, respectively, a 45 and 56% identity and a 70 and 67% similarity to ... The apyrase is a secreted protein that hydrolizes ATP and ADP to AMP and Pi. Its function is to help mosquitoes blood-feed ...
Optimizing human apyrase to treat arterial thrombosis and limit reperfusion injury without bleeding risk. Moeckel D, Jeong S, ... To devise a different strategy, we engineered and optimized the apyrase activity of human nucleoside triphosphate ... greater than four times higher adenosine diphosphatase activity and a 50 times longer plasma half-life than did native apyrase ...
... Nilsson, Per H. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science ... The goal of this study was to immobilize apyrase on a biomaterial surface in order to develop an enzymatically active surface ... Blood compatibiliy; Apyrase; Platelet; Platelet regulation; Adenosine diphosphate National Category Immunology in the medical ... We were able to immobilize apyrase on a polystyrene surface with preservation of the enzymatic activity. We then analyzed the ...
Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was ... The nearly absence of saliva in the forced fed nymphs was confirmed by using the salivary enzyme apyrase as a saliva tracker ( ... The nearly absence of saliva in the forced fed nymphs was confirmed by using the salivary enzyme apyrase as a saliva tracker ( ... pone-0006047-g002: Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The ...
... which encodes apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase), is regulated by the same regulators that govern the expression of virulence ... 1995; Virulent Shigella codes for a soluble apyrase: identification, characterization and cloning of the gene. Curr Sci68:293- ... 1998; Expression of the virulence plasmid-carried apyrase gene ( apy) of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri ... 2002; Shigella apyrase - a novel variant of bacterial acid phosphatases?. FEBS Lett512:8-12[CrossRef] ...
Apyrase Activity Assay. Three series of experiments were conducted to characterize PeAPY2 apyrase in terms of substrate ... PeAPY2 Localization and Apyrase Activity. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeAPY2 was homologous to apyrases in various ... 3), a strong inhibitor for apyrases in Arabidopsis. Moreover, NGXT191 could not suppress P. euphratica apyrase in vivo (PeAPY2- ... Supplemental Figure S2. Multiple sequence alignment of PeAPY2 (apyrase from P. euphratica) with other apyrases from different ...
Role for apyrases in polar auxin transport in arabidopsis. Xing Liu, Jian Wu, Greg Clark, Stacey Lundy, Minhui Lim, David ... Role for apyrases in polar auxin transport in arabidopsis. / Liu, Xing; Wu, Jian; Clark, Greg; Lundy, Stacey; Lim, Minhui; ... title = "Role for apyrases in polar auxin transport in arabidopsis",. abstract = "Recent evidence indicates that extracellular ... Chemicals that suppress apyrase activity also inhibit gravitropic curvature and, to a lesser extent, growth. Taken together, ...
Combination Treatment of tPA and Apyrase for Stroke SBC: APT THERAPEUTICS, INC. Topic: NINDS ... Combination Therapy of Aspirin and Apyrase for Stroke SBC: APT THERAPEUTICS, INC. Topic: NINDS ... DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human apyrase represents a highly promising therapy for acute ischemic stroke which is a ... DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human apyrase represents a highly promising therapy for acute ischemic stroke which is a ...
... apyrase significantly inhibited hyperoxia-induced IL-1β release (Fig. 9). In addition, apyrase inhibited the release of IL-1β ... for 1 h in the presence or absence of apyrase. IL-1β levels in the media were measured by ELISA. Addition of apyrase resulted ... Apyrase inhibited hyperoxia-induced release of IL-1β. To test whether hyperoxia-induced autocrine ATP release is responsible ... Louis, MO). N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and apyrase were purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Abs for immunoblotting ...
Wang TF, Rosenberg PA, Guidotti G (1997) Characterization of brain ecto-apyrase: Evidence for only one ecto-apyrase (CD39) gene ... and expression of a human brain ecto-apyrase related to both the ecto-ATPases and CD39 ecto-apyrases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1386 ... apyrase brain CD39 ecto-ATPase immunology ischemia kidney liver nervous tissue NTPDase platelet vasculature ... Wang TF, Guidotti G (1996) CD39 is an ecto-(Ca2+,Mg2+)-apyrase. J Biol Chem 271:9898-9901PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Apyrase from potatoes. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. ATPase ≥200 units/mg protein, lyophilized powder Read more... ...
... apyrase) from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum)," Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 229-237, 2003. View ... A recombinant potato apyrase was expressed and purified in the hyperglycosylated form at 1 mg/L protein concentration [75]. The ...
a) Apyrase, RNase and DNase; (b) Proteinase K, trypsin, papain and 72 °C heat; (c) 37, 55, 72 °C water bath; (d) HSP90 ... ATP, DNA and RNA removed DRibbles, which were respectively pre-treated with apyrase, DNase, RNase, could still induce IL-1β ...
5-Nucleotidase/apyrase (IPR006179). *Serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase/bis(5-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase ( ...
A calcium-activated apyrase from Teladorsagia circumcincta: an excretory/secretory antigen capable of modulating host immune ...
  • The salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods are nucleotide hydrolysing enzymes that are implicated in the inhibition of host platelet aggregation through the hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine diphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • I would like to use apyrase in my cell culture to remove extracellular ATP, however I will require an overnight incubation with this enzyme. (protocol-online.org)
  • Breakthroughs spotlighting roles for extracellular nucleotides and apyrases in stress responses and growth and development. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of extracellular nucleotides is controlled by various phosphatases, prominent among which are apyrases EC 3.6.1.5 (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases, NTPDases). (nih.gov)
  • This review also summarizes and discusses recent advances in research on the roles of apyrases and extracellular nucleotides in controlling plant growth and development. (nih.gov)
  • These include new findings that document how apyrases and extracellular nucleotides control auxin transport, modulate stomatal aperture, and mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses, and on how apyrase suppression leads to growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • To devise a different strategy, we engineered and optimized the apyrase activity of human nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (CD39L3) to enhance scavenging of extracellular adenosine diphosphate, a predominant ligand of P2Y12 receptors. (wustl.edu)
  • Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cells limit the concentration of extracellular ATP in part through the activity of ectoapyrases (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases), and two nearly identical Arabidopsis apyrases, APY1 and APY2, appear to share this function. (elsevier.com)
  • This increase in IL-1 β was eliminated by degradation of extracellular ATP with apyrase, or by the block of pannexin hemichannels with carbenoxolone, probenecid, or 10panx1 peptide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the flow response was greatly inhibited with luminal and basolateral scavenging of extracellular ATP (apyrase 7.5 U/ml) or blockage of P2 receptors (suramin 300 μM). (asnjournals.org)
  • In some experiments apyrase (1 U/ml) was added to degrade extracellular ATP. (bmj.com)
  • 1], structure and protein design of human apyrase, This article incorporates text from the public domain, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apyrase&oldid=992437885, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 07:43. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • APT102, an optimized human apyrase designed for treatment of myocardial infarction, improves recanalization of occluded arteries and decreases heart muscle damage, without an increased bleeding risk. (sciencemag.org)
  • Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. (genome.jp)
  • The encoded protein is an endo-apyrase and may play a role in salvaging nucleotides from lysosomes. (genecards.org)
  • Apyrase degrades those nucleotides that are not incorporated and ATP. (openpr.com)
  • Apyrase, a nucleotide-degrading enzyme, continuously degrades unincorporated nucleotides and ATP. (qiagen.com)
  • Any unincorporated nucleotides are degraded by apyrase, before the next nucleotide is added to the tube and the cascade of reactions repeated. (thermofisher.com)
  • Apyrases are enzymes that have the ability to hydrolyze nucleotide tri- and diphosphates to nucleotide monophosphates ( Komoszynski and Wojtczak, 1996 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Apyrases can be classified as endoapyrases, enzymes that act intracellularly, and as ectoapyrases, enzymes that have their catalytic domain outside the cell. (plantphysiol.org)
  • a real-time DNA sequencing technique based on monitoring DNA synthesis by BIOLUMINESCENCE using four enzymes: DNA POLYMERASE, ATP sulfurylase, LUCIFERASE and apyrase. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • The Pyrosequencing reaction began with the addition of enzymes (DNA polymerase exonuclease-deficient, apyrase, luciferase, ATP sulfurylase) and substrates (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and luciferin) to each well. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • Luciferase + sulfurylase + polymerase + apyrase The entire Pyrosequencing enzyme system can be modeled by combining the models for all four enzymes. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • Apyrases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide diphosphates and triphosphates in a calcium or magnesium-dependent manner. (genecards.org)
  • Four different enzymes are used-DNA polymerase, ATP sulfurylase, firefly luciferase and apyrase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Salivary apyrase of Aedes aegypti: characterization and secretory fate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Salivary gland homogenates of female adult Aedes aegypti hydrolyzed ATP and ADP thereby defining an apyrase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fragments showing a high degree of similarity to D7 and apyrase, two salivary gland-specific genes previously found in Aedes aegypti , were identified. (pnas.org)
  • The nearly absence of saliva in the forced fed nymphs was confirmed by using the salivary enzyme apyrase as a saliva tracker (Figure 2). (nih.gov)
  • Production of the nucleotide degrading enzyme apyrase by Pichia pastoris expression system, both in small-scale and in an optimized large-scale bioreactor, is described. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • This review provides phylogenetic and pHMM analyses of plant apyrases as well as analysis of predicted post-translational modifications for Arabidopsis apyrases. (nih.gov)
  • In previous studies the role of apyrase in plant growth and development has been investigated in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. (utexas.edu)
  • These findings, plus the fact that suppression of APY1 and APY2 blocks growth in Arabidopsis, suggested that the expression of these apyrases could influence auxin transport. (elsevier.com)
  • The resulting recombinant protein, APT102, exhibited greater than four times higher adenosine diphosphatase activity and a 50 times longer plasma half-life than did native apyrase. (wustl.edu)
  • When a green fluorescent protein fluorescence signal encoded by a DR5:green fluorescent protein construct was measured in primary roots whose apyrase expression was suppressed either genetically or chemically, the roots showed no signal asymmetry following gravistimulation, and both their growth and gravitropic curvature were inhibited. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the apyrase protein family. (genecards.org)
  • Apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5, ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma membrane-bound enzyme (magnesium can also activate it) (EC 3.6.1.5) that catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and inorganic phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as Probable apyrase 1 (OsAPY1) (ATP-diphosphatase) (ATP-diphosphohydrolase) (Adenosine diphosphatase) (ADPase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Probable apyrase 3 (AtAPY3) (ATP-diphosphatase) (ATP-diphosphohydrolase) (Adenosine diphosphatase) (ADPase) (NTPDase) (Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3). (mybiosource.com)
  • Apyrase (recombinant, E. coli) is a highly active ATP-diphosphohydrolase that catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and ADP to AMP releasing inorganic phosphate. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • In Shigella flexneri and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) the expression of the virulence-plasmid(pINV)-carried potential pathogenesis-associated apy gene, which encodes apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase), is regulated by the same regulators that govern the expression of virulence genes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Handa M and Guidotti G (1996) Purification and cloning of a soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). (yeastgenome.org)
  • A soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase, EC 3.6.1.5) has been purified from potato tubers. (yeastgenome.org)
  • To apply these findings to an agriculturally relevant plant we transformed apyrase into tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum, MicroTom). (utexas.edu)
  • Thus far we have successfully produced transgenic tomato lines with Solanum apyrase overexpressed as judged by RT-PCR analysis. (utexas.edu)
  • Apyrase activity from the crop soluble contents of Rhodnius prolixus after artificial and forced feeding.The activity was expressed as ng of inorganic phosphate (Pi) released in a minute by 1/12 of anterior midgut contents±standard error. (nih.gov)
  • 19 . The conjugate of claim 18 , wherein the apyrase is a soluble form of CD39. (google.com)
  • 20 . The conjugate of claim 19 , wherein the apyrase comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least about 90% identical to SEQ ID NO: 2 and catalyzes hydrolysis of NDPs. (google.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence reveals eight putative N-glycosylation sites, two transmembrane domains, five apyrase-conserved regions, and 20-50% amino acid identity with other mammalian NTPDases. (nih.gov)
  • Encodes a putative apyrase involved in pollen exine pattern formation and anther dehiscence. (mybiosource.com)
  • Four putative apyrase genes were identified from the model legume Medicago truncatula . (plantphysiol.org)
  • The level of mRNA expression of the other two putative apyrases, Mtapy2 and Mtapy3 , was unaffected by rhizobial inoculation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Das Verfahren wird von vier verschiedenen Enzymen eingesetzt: DNA-Polymerse, ATP-Sulfurylase, Luciferase und Apyrase und zwei Substrate Adenosin-5'-phosphosulfat (APS) und Luciferin. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • In pyrosequencing chemistry, four cascade enzymatic reactions with the catalysis of polymerase, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase, luciferase, and apyrase are employed. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • DNA POLYMERASE , ATP sulfurylase, LUCIFERASE and apyrase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hybridized primer and template strand is incubated with enzyme DNA polymerase, luciferin, luciferase, apyrase, ATP sulfurylase, with substrates adenosine 5' phosphosulfate (APS). (openpr.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that a critical step connecting apyrase suppression to growth suppression is the inhibition of polar auxin transport. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been postulated that an apyrase isolated from potato is involved in starch biosynthesis ( Handa and Guidotti, 1996 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is also able to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertion-deletions or other sequence variations, in â ¦ 3) apyrase, a nucleo- tide-degrading enzyme from potato, is introduced to make a four-enzyme system. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • The cDNA corresponding to the potato apyrase has been isolated and termed RROP1. (yeastgenome.org)
  • These apyrases control the turn over of GDP arising from hydrolysis of GTP sugars. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This pathway was mimicked by ATP application, and inhibited by apyrase, cadmium, and ω-agatoxin-IVA. (biologists.org)
  • Apyrase This family consists of several eukaryotic apyrase proteins (EC:3.6.1.5). (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • A syntenic region on soybean linkage group J was found to contain at least two apyrase genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli virulence-plasmid-carried apyrase (apy) and ospB genes are organized as a bicistronic operon and are subject to differential expressionaaThis paper is dedicated to the memory of our dear friends and colleagues Giuseppe Carruba and Franco Tatò, who died prematurely.bbThe GenBank accession number for the sequence reported in this paper is AJ315184. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 21 . The conjugate of claim 20 , wherein the apyrase comprises the catalytic domain set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2. (google.com)
  • With ATP as substrate the apyrase (ATPase activity) showed a temperature optimum at 30°C and an optimum of the apparent V[subscript m] at pH 6.1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Abstract Apyrase is a calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and P i. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • In addition, apyrase effects on the ATP + ADP/AMP ratio modulate the action of 5′-nucleotidase, an enzyme that is abundant in the synaptic space. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We then analyzed the hemocompatibility of the apyrase surface and of control surfaces by incubation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or whole blood. (diva-portal.org)
  • ATP did not induce aggregation in platelet-rich plasma, but aggregation did occur when apyrase or hexokinase was added. (ahajournals.org)
  • For this case, dNTP is dispensed into the mixture, leading to production It is approximately 50% active when Mg 2+ substitutes Ca in Apyrase Reaction Buffer. (evilorchidgames.com)
  • An additional peak corresponding to AMP generated by the removal of - and -phosphate of ATP, which is provided in the control buffer of Apyrase (NEB ). (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • Sandfly apyrase is a potent antiplatelet haemostatic factor (Valenzuela et al. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • apyrase - ˈapəˌrās noun ( s) Etymology: adenylpyrophosphatase : any enzyme that hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate with the liberation of phosphate compare adenosine triphosphatase * * * /ap euh rays , rayz /, n. (academic.ru)
  • N-acetyl- l -cysteine (NAC) and apyrase were purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Abs for immunoblotting included anti-caspase-1, NALP3, ASC, proIL-1β, and IL-1β-17 (Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA). (jimmunol.org)
  • Pyrophosphorolysis time courses were taken at 5 s12 min intervals by mixing TEC U9 or U10 in WB containing 2.5 units of apyrase (NEB ) with inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the reaction was started by addition of MgCl 2. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • Purinergic receptor antagonists suramin (100 μ m ), PPADS (20-50 μ m ), and apyrase (80 U/ml), in contrast, substantially reduced wave propagation into Müller cells (wave radii reduced to 16-61% of control). (jneurosci.org)
  • The goal of this study was to immobilize apyrase on a biomaterial surface in order to develop an enzymatically active surface that would have the capacity to inhibit platelet activation by degrading ADP. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chemicals that suppress apyrase activity also inhibit gravitropic curvature and, to a lesser extent, growth. (elsevier.com)
  • We first began by constructing vectors for apyrase to either overexpress the gene through a 35-S promoter in a pCambia 2300 plasmid or knockdown the gene by RNAi. (utexas.edu)
  • 2010). Finally, in a recent rice genetic screen of a root hairless mutant, rth1, the disrupted gene causing the phenotype was found to be apyrase (Yuo et al. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • Apyrase is used to hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • Inhibition of platelet aggregation by bovine endocardial apyrase. (chinaphar.com)
  • 7 and resuspended in Tyrode's solution containing CaCl 2 2 mM, MgCl 2 1 mM, 0.1% dextrose, 0.35% bovine serum albumin, 0.05 U/mL apyrase, pH 7.35. (haematologica.org)
  • Apyrase significantly reduced the secretion of IL-1β (20%) and IL-8 (47%) induced by costimulation with MSU and F. (bmj.com)
  • 2009), which we chose to target for several reasons: it is a vaccine candidate, because a recombinant expressing the apyrase of P. ariasi produced an appropriate protectivelike cellular DTH response in a mouse model (Oliveira et al. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • It is a recombinant version of one of several isoforms of apyrase . (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • The pea apyrase has been found not only in nuclei, but also in the plasma membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Suramin [8-(3-benzamido-4-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulphoni c acid], a P2 purinoceptor antagonist, potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane isolated from cholinergic nerve terminals of Torpedo electric organ. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Action of suramin upon ecto-apyrase activity and synaptic depression of Torpedo electric organ. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apyrase has a higher ratio of activity for ATP:ADP (14:1). (evilorchidgames.com)
  • What is the activity of Apyrase in other NEBuffers? (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • E. coli Apyrase retains approximately 30% activity in NEBuffers 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, and CutSmart. (gerardducrocq.fr)
  • We were able to immobilize apyrase on a polystyrene surface with preservation of the enzymatic activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The formation of antithrombin-thrombin and antithrombin-factor XIa complexes and the extent of platelet consumption were significantly lower on the apyrase surface than on any of the control surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, when ATP was scavenged with apyrase, hyperoxia-induced inflammasome activation was significantly decreased. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast to other apyrases in the literature, the pea seedling enzyme was seen to hydrolyze ADP faster than ATP. (oregonstate.edu)
  • One function proposed for apyrases in animals is the regulation of blood platelet aggregation. (plantphysiol.org)