Apurinic Acid: Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced): An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.DioxolanesCrystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Endocrine Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.PhotochemistryPyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cockayne Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.

Purification and properties of a Bacillus subtilis endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in DNA. (1/114)

An endonuclease which hydrolyzes depurinated DNA has been purified from extracts of Bacillus subtilis cells. The endonuclease is a monomeric protein and has a molecular weight of around 56,000. The enzyme is specific for apurinic sites in double-stranded DNA, has a pH optimum at 8.0, and is slightly stimulated with 50 mM NaCl but completely inhibited with 500 mM NaCl. It requires no divalent cations and is insensitive to EDTA; it has no associated exonuclease. These properties are very similar to those of Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is also insensitive to EDTA and has no exonuclease activity, and very different from those of the main endonuclease for apurinic sites (endonuclease IV) of the same bacterium.  (+info)

Comparison of cytochrome P450- and peroxidase-dependent metabolic activation of the potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in human cell lines: formation of stable DNA adducts and absence of a detectable increase in apurinic sites. (2/114)

The potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) has been reported to form both stable and depurinating DNA adducts upon activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or cellular peroxidases. Only stable DB[a,l]P-DNA adducts were detected in DNA after reaction of DB[a,I]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxides in solution or cells in culture. To determine whether DB[a,l]P can be activated to metabolites that form depurinating adducts in cells with either high peroxidase (human leukemia HL-60 cell line) or cytochrome P450 activity (human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cell line), cultures were treated with DB[a,l]P for 4 h, and the levels of stable adducts and apurinic (AP) sites in the DNA were determined. DNA samples from DB[a,l]P-treated HL-60 cells contained no detectable levels of either stable adducts or AP sites. MCF-7 cells exposed to 2 microM DB[a,l]P for 4 h contained 4 stable adducts per 10(6) nucleotides, but no detectable increase in AP sites. The results indicate that metabolic activation of DB[a,l]P by cytochrome P450 enzymes to diol epoxides that form stable DNA adducts, rather than one-electron oxidation catalyzed either by cytochrome P450 enzymes or peroxidases to form AP sites, is responsible for the high carcinogenic activity of DB[a,l]P.  (+info)

Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. (3/114)

UV damage endonuclease (UVDE) initiates a novel form of excision repair by introducing a nick imme-diately 5" to UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or 6-4 photoproducts. Here, we report that apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are also nicked by Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe UVDE. UVDE introduces a nick immediately 5" to the AP site leaving a 3"-OH and a 5"-phosphate AP. Apyrimidinic sites are more effectively nicked by UVDE than apurinic sites. UVDE also possesses 3"-repair activities for AP sites nicked by AP lyase and for 3"-phosphoglycolate produced by bleomycin. The Uvde gene introduced into Escherichia coli cells lacking two types of AP endonuclease, Exo III and Endo IV, gave the host cells resistance to methylmethane sulfonate and t-butyl hydroperoxide. We identified two AP endonuclease activities in S.pombe cell extracts. Besides cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts, N. crassa UVDE also nicks Dewar photoproducts. Thus, UVDE is able to repair both of the major forms of DNA damage in living organisms: UV-induced DNA lesions and AP sites.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Escherichia coli MutY using substrate analogs. (4/114)

The Escherichia coli adenine glycosylase MutY is involved in the repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2"-deoxyguanosine (OG):A and G:A mispairs in DNA. Our approach toward understanding recognition and processing of DNA damage by MutY has been to use substrate analogs that retain the recognition properties of the substrate mispair but are resistant to the glycosylase activity of MutY. This approach provides stable MutY-DNA complexes that are amenable to structural and biochemical characterization. In this work, the interaction of MutY with the 2"-deoxyadenosine analogs 2"-deoxy-2"-fluoroadenosine (FA), 2"-deoxyaristeromycin (R) and 2"-deoxyformycin A (F) was investigated. MutY binds to duplexes containing the FA, R or F analogs opposite G and OG within DNA with high affinity; however, no enzymatic processing of these duplexes is observed. The specific nature of the interaction of MutY with an OG:FA duplex was demonstrated by MPE-Fe(II) hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments which showed a nine base pair region of protection by MutY surrounding the mispair. DMS footprinting experiments with an OG:A duplex revealed that a specific G residue located on the OG-containing strand was protected from DMS in the presence of MutY. In contrast, a G residue flanking the substrate analogs R, F or FA was observed to be hypersensitive to DMS in the presence of MutY. These results suggest a major conformational change in the DNA helix upon binding of MutY that exposes the substrate analog-containing strand. This finding is consistent with a nucleotide flipping mechanism for damage recognition by MutY. This work demonstrates that duplex substrates for MutY containing FA, R or F instead of A are excellent substrate mimics that may be used to provide insight into the recognition by MutY of damaged and mismatched base pairs within DNA.  (+info)

An altered apurinic DNA endonuclease activity in group A and group D xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. (5/114)

Endonuclease activity upon depurinated DNA was measured in extracts of cultured fibroblasts from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. Cell lines from complementation groups A, B, C, E, and the XP-variant had slightly reduced levels of activity, but cell lines from complementation group D had one-sixth of the normal activity. An altered pH dependence and a higher apparent Km for substrate in D-cell lines indicate that the remaining activity is also qualitatively different from the activity found in normal cells. A higher Km was also found in cell lines from the A-complementation group but not in cell lines from the C-complementation group. These defects in apurinic DNase might account for the neurological disorders in patients from the D- and the A-complementation groups.  (+info)

A method for detecting abasic sites in living cells: age-dependent changes in base excision repair. (6/114)

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are common DNA lesions that arise from spontaneous depurination or by base excision repair (BER) of modified bases. A biotin-containing aldehyde-reactive probe (ARP) [Kubo, K., Ide, H., Wallace, S. S. & Kow, Y. W. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 3703-3708] is used to measure AP sites in living cells. ARP penetrates the plasma membrane of cells and reacts with AP sites in DNA to form a stable ARP-DNA adduct. The DNA is isolated and treated with avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), forming a DNA-HRP complex at each biotin residue, which is rapidly separated from free avidin-HRP by selective precipitation with a DNA precipitating dye (DAPER). The number of AP sites is estimated by HRP activity toward chromogenic substrate in an ELISA assay. The assay integrates the AP sites formed by the different glycosylases of BER during a 1-h incubation and eliminates artifactual depurination or loss of AP sites during DNA isolation. The assay was applied to living cells and nuclei. The number of AP sites after a 1-h incubation in old IMR90 cells was about two to three times higher than that in young cells, and the number in human leukocytes from old donors was about seven times that in young donors. The repair of AP sites was slower in senescent compared with young IMR90 cells. An age-dependent decline is shown in the activity of the glycosylase that removes methylated bases in IMR90 cells and in human leukocytes. The decline in excision of methylated bases from DNA suggests an age-dependent decline in 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase, a BER enzyme responsible for removing alkylated bases.  (+info)

Specificity of DNA lesion bypass by the yeast DNA polymerase eta. (7/114)

DNA polymerase eta (Pol(eta), xeroderma pigmentosum variant, or Rad30) plays an important role in an error-free response to unrepaired UV damage during replication. It faithfully synthesizes DNA opposite a thymine-thymine cis-syn-cyclobutane dimer. We have purified the yeast Pol(eta) and studied its lesion bypass activity in vitro with various types of DNA damage. The yeast Pol(eta) lacked a nuclease or a proofreading activity. It efficiently bypassed 8-oxoguanine, incorporating C, A, and G opposite the lesion with a relative efficiency of approximately 100:56:14, respectively. The yeast Pol(eta) efficiently incorporated a C opposite an acetylaminofluorene-modified G, and efficiently inserted a G or less frequently an A opposite an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site but was unable to extend the DNA synthesis further in both cases. However, some continued DNA synthesis was observed in the presence of the yeast Pol(zeta) following the Pol(eta) action opposite an AP site, achieving true lesion bypass. In contrast, the yeast Pol(alpha) was able to bypass efficiently a template AP site, predominantly incorporating an A residue opposite the lesion. These results suggest that other than UV damage, Pol(eta) may also play a role in bypassing additional DNA lesions, some of which can be error-prone.  (+info)

Sensitivity of human type II topoisomerases to DNA damage: stimulation of enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage by abasic, oxidized and alkylated lesions. (8/114)

Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that are also the primary cellular targets for a number of important anticancer drugs. These drugs act by increasing levels of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Recent studies indicate that endogenous forms of DNA damage, such as abasic sites and base mismatches, also stimulate the DNA scission activity of the enzyme. To extend our understanding of how type II topoisomerases react to DNA damage, the effects of abasic sites, and oxidized and alkylated bases on DNA cleavage mediated by human topo-isomerase IIalpha and beta were determined. Based on experiments that incorporated random abasic sites into plasmid DNA, human type II enzymes can locate lesions even within a background of several thousand undamaged base pairs. As determined by experiments that utilized site-specific forms of DNA lesions, oxidized or monoalkylated purines that allow base pairing and induce little distortion in the double helix have modest effects on topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. In contrast, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, a bulky lesion that disrupts base pairing, enhanced DNA cleavage approximately 10-fold. 1,N(6)-Ethenoadenine is the first lesion found to rival the stimulatory effects of apurinic sites on the DNA scission activity of eukaryotic type II topoisomerases.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines. AU - Moses, Robb. AU - Beaudet, Arthur L.. PY - 1978/2. Y1 - 1978/2. N2 - Several autosomal recessive diseases are associated with apparent DNA repair defects in cell culture. It seemed likely that a defect in excision repair reported for ataxia telangiectasia cells might reflect a lack of apurinic endonuclease activity. We report here normal levels of apurinic endonuclease activity in extracts of cell lines derived from patients with ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group D), Cockayne dwarfism, Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome.. AB - Several autosomal recessive diseases are associated with apparent DNA repair defects in cell culture. It seemed likely that a defect in excision repair reported for ataxia telangiectasia cells might reflect a lack of apurinic endonuclease activity. We report here normal levels of apurinic endonuclease activity in extracts of cell lines derived ...
In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. In the case-control study, 92 RCC patients and 580 cancer-free patients matched by age and gender were recruited. The apurinic/APE genotyping work was con...
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fapy-DNA glycosylase)(gene fpg) is a bacterial enzyme involved in DNA repair and which excise oxidized purine bases to release 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methylformamido-pyrimidine (Fapy) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OxoG) residues. In addition to its glycosylase activity, FPG can also nick DNA at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). FPG is a monomeric protein of about 32 Kd which binds and require zinc for its activity ...
Histones and polyamines nick the phosphodiester bond 3′ to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in DNA by inducing a beta-elimination reaction, which can be followed by delta-elimination. These beta- and delta-elimination reactions might be important for the repair of AP sites in chromatin DNA in either of two ways. In one pathway, after the phosphodiester bond 5′ to the AP site has been hydrolysed with an AP endonuclease, the 5′-terminal base-free sugar 5′-phosphate is released by beta-elimination. The one-nucleotide gap limited by 3′-OH and 5′-phosphate ends is then closed by DNA polymerase-beta and DNA ligase. We have shown in vitro that such a repair is possible. In the other pathway, the nicking 3′ to the AP site by beta-elimination occurs first. We have shown that the 3′-terminal base-free sugar so produced cannot be released by the chromatin AP endonuclease from rat liver. But it can be released by delta-elimination, leaving a gap limited by 3′-phosphate and 5′-phosphate. ...
0092]Other anti-cancer drugs include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
0108]Other second agents include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
The biochemical properties of phage P22 Abc-modified RecBCD enzyme from Escherichia coli have been examined. RecBCD purified from a cell that expresses Abc (anti-RecBCD) contains all three RecBCD subunits and the 11.6-kDa Abc protein in equal stoichiometric amounts. Abc depresses the rate of RecBCD double-stranded DNA exonuclease, helicase, and ATPase activities about 3-4-fold, yet it has no effect on the rate of the single-stranded DNA exonuclease activity. Abc induces a slight increase in the ATP-independent single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity and does not induce dimerization of the RecBCD trimer. Abc-modified RecBCD helicase activity possesses reduced but significant processivity (10 kilobase pairs) relative to the native enzyme (30 kilobase pairs). In the absence of ATP, Abc-modified RecBCD shows a 2-4-fold higher affinity for double-stranded DNA ends. The RecBCD-binding Gam protein from bacteriophage lambda inhibits binding of both native and Abc-modified RecBCD to double-stranded DNA ends.
Endonuclease III; DNA repair enzyme that has both DNA N-glycosylase activity and AP-lyase activity. The DNA N-glycosylase activity releases various damaged pyrimidines from DNA by cleaving the N- glycosidic bond, leaving an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site. The AP-lyase activity cleaves the phosphodiester bond 3 to the AP site by a beta-elimination, leaving a 3-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5-phosphate (219 aa ...
APEX1, 0.1 mg. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases.
Complete information for APEX2 gene (Protein Coding), Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endodeoxyribonuclease 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This modification is available as part of a custom oligonucleotide configuration. Please use OLIGObuilder™ to generate pricing and order or contact us to speak with a customer service representative. ...
DNA damage can stall the DNA replication machinery, leading to genomic instability. Thus, numerous mechanisms exist to complete genome duplication in the absence of a pristine DNA template, but identification of the enzymes involved remains incomplete. Here, we establish that Primase-Polymerase (PrimPol; CCDC111), an archaeal-eukaryotic primase (AEP) in eukaryotic cells, is involved in chromosomal DNA replication. PrimPol is required for replication fork progression on ultraviolet (UV) lightdamaged DNA templates, possibly mediated by its ability to catalyze translesion synthesis (TLS) of these lesions. This PrimPol UV lesion bypass pathway is not epistatic with the Pol h-dependent pathway and, as a consequence, protects xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) patient cells from UV-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, we establish that PrimPol is also required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S phase. These and other findings indicate that PrimPol is an important player ...
FUNCTION: DNA repair enzyme that cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and removes 3-blocking groups present at single strand breaks of damaged DNA. APN1 accounts for > 97% of both apurinic/ apyrimidinic (AP) lyase and DNA 3-repair diesterase activities ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APE-1) antibody | P27695 | APEX nuclease (APEN), Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (AP endonuclease 1), (APE-1), REF-1, Redox factor-1, APEX1, APE, APE1, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF1
Objective Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is usually routinely performed for experiments designed to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dental care fluorosis. samples. Results Probably the most stably indicated genes relating to geNorm were and and were and and and is a component of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 and a cell surface marker for those nucleated cells 48 is definitely a member of the family of TATA-box transcription factors 49 is definitely a glycolytic enzyme 50 Hprt is definitely portion of purine synthesis in the salvage pathway 51 and functions in the translational machinery.52 The data presented here will facilitate accurate and reproducible transcript profiling MP-470 studies in fluoride treated rats and in enamel organ-derived LS8 cells. 2 Materials and MP-470 Methods 2.1 Animals All animals were treated humanely. Sprague-Dawley rats (6-week-old) were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington MA). Animals were ...
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1E9N: Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: Implications for the Catalytic Mechanism
One of the most frequent lesions formed in cellular DNA are abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) sites that are both cytotoxic and mutagenic, and must be removed efficiently to maintain genetic stability. It is generally believed that the repair of AP
In the process of cell metabolism, genomic DNA is harmed by free radicals, mutagens, and ionizing radiation. The damage in DNA results in carcinogenesis, aging, and cell death. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which arise by hydrolysis of N-glycos
DNA damaging agents such as the antitumor drugs bleomycin and neocarzinostatin or those that generate oxygen radicals produce a variety of lesions in DNA. Amongst these is base-loss which forms apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites or strand breaks with atypical 3termini. DNA repair at the AP sites is initiated by specific endonuclease cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. Such endonucleases are also generally capable of removing blocking groups from the 3terminus of DNA strand breaks ...
The expression of bilaterian-mesodermal genes changes the epithelial properties of the endomesoderm during the embryogenesis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor (Ref-1) is a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. It is a multifunctional protein involved in both transcriptional regulation of gene expression during adaptive cellular response to oxidative stress, and in base excision repair pathway of DNA lesions generated as a consequence of oxidant-induced base damages. In the latter, APE1/Ref-1 contributes to the maintenance of the genome stability. APE1 normally resides in the nucleus and this is consistent with its established role in base excision repair and redox regulation of transcription factors [Tell et al 2009]. However, in some cancers, abnormal re-distribution of APE1 to the cytoplasm or its presence in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm without losing its ability to repair abasic DNA has been observed and these have baffled many researchers [Tell et al 2005]. We have recently identified APE1/Ref-1 as an endoribonuclease that cleaves c-myc mRNA in vitro and ...
AIMS: Human AP endonuclease 1 (HAP1) plays a major role in the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in cellular DNA by catalysing hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone 5 to the site. HAP1 is also known to be a potent reduction-oxidation (redox) factor, regulating the binding activity of a number of transcription factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the expression of HAP-1 in a wide range of human tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a recently developed specific rabbit polyclonal antibody, we performed immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue material. Nuclear staining was detected in crypt cells of the small and large intestine, epithelial cells of breast ducts, basal cells of the skin, alveolar cells of the lung, lymphocytes of the marginal zone of the spleen, in the surface epithelium and stromal cells of the ovary and the transitional epithelium of the bladder. Unexpectedly for a presumed nuclear protein, the staining pattern in some cell ...
DNA with an abasic site is a cyto-toxic intermediate in the base excision repair (BER) pathway that is handled by the enzyme Apuridinic/Apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) [99, 56, 168, 90]. Several kinetics and thermodynamics aspects of the mechanism by which the APE1 enzyme processes its abasic DNA substrate have been discussed in this thesis. APE1 is an endonuclease that is it cleaves the DNA backbone at a non-terminal site, here at the abasic site. To obtain eminent insight about the catalytic role of amino acid residues and magnesium ions which are representatively recognized in active sites of endonuclease enzymes, quantum mechanical calculations of reaction pathways based on various cluster models mimicking such active sites of endonuclease enzymes have been performed and subsequently discussed in section 4. In this light our results underline the importance of an enzymatic active site architecture in the catalytic reaction, given the substrate is properly positioned. As a side-effect, we ...
The environmental contaminant 2 3 7 8 ligand model of human being Go 6976 B cell differentiation have shown that TCDD impairs both B cell activation and differentiation. high BCL-6 levels showed decreased CD80 and CD69 manifestation indicative of impaired cellular activation. The elevated BCL-6 levels resulted in a concomitant increase in BCL-6 DNA binding activity at its cognate binding site within an enhancer region for CD80. Furthermore a small molecule inhibitor of BCL-6 activity reversed TCDD-mediated suppression of CD80 manifestation in human being B cells. In the presence of Go 6976 a low-affinity ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) suppression of B cell activation and modified BCL-6 regulation were not observed. These results provide fresh mechanistic insights into the part of BCL-6 in the suppression of human being B cell activation by TCDD. tradition of main lymphocytes (Solid wood (Roche Applied Sciences) with a final salt concentration of 180?mM NaCl. Double-stranded DNA ...
Effect of depurination location on replicase activity in vitro. Regions of RNA3 were treated with PAP and then ligated to the remaining RNA to regenerate full-l
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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates a process generating DNA mutations and breaks in germinal center (GC) B cells that are necessary for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. GC B cells can "tolerate" DNA damage while rapidly proliferating because of partial suppression of the DNA damage response by BCL6. In this study, we develop a model to study the response of mouse GC B cells to endogenous DNA damage. We show that the base excision repair protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) 2 protects activated B cells from oxidative damage in vitro. APE2-deficient mice have smaller GCs and reduced Ab responses compared with wild-type mice. DNA double-strand breaks are increased in the rapidly dividing GC centroblasts of APE2-deficient mice, which activate a p53-independent cell cycle checkpoint and a p53-dependent apoptotic response. Proliferative and/or oxidative damage and AID-dependent damage are additive stresses that correlate inversely with GC size in ...
Methods Expression of APE1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 55 RBs and in retina. In tumours, APE1 expression was analysed in cytoplasm and nucleus independently and correlated with histopathological features, including invasion, differentiation and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification groups. Relative APE1 mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot. The expression of APE1 in tumour groups was compared with retinal tissue.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The transition state for RNA depurination by ricin a-chain. AU - Chen, Xiangyang. AU - Link, Todd M.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Ricin A-chain (RTA) catalyzes a specific depurination of ribosomal RNA at the elongation factor binding site, causing loss of protein biosynthesis. In vitro, RTA also catalyzes the hydrolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides. The Km and kcat for a 10-base stem-loop RNA, CGC GAGA GCG (A-10) are 4.1 #M and 4.1 rain-l, respectively. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transition state of RTA depurination by multiple V/K kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) using labeled A-10 as the substrate. The specifically labeled A-10 was synthesized enzymatically by conversion of labeled glucose or ribose 5-phosphate to ATP and subsequently incorporation into RNA by RNA polymerase. KIEs for the hydrolysis are the following: primary 14C = 0.997 + 0.002, primary lSN = 1.020 :t: 0.004, a-secondary 3H = 1.163 + 0.010, /3-secondary aH= ...
Local production of endothelial NO plays a pivotal role in governing the overall redox state of the vascular wall. A reduction in endothelial NO production would be expected to result in an increase in vascular oxidative stress. Arachidonic acid is a prime target of oxidants and is peroxidized to yield metabolites including F2-isoprostanes. APE1/ref-1+/− mice have been reported to have elevations in circulating markers of oxidative stress such as F2-isoprostanes.19 F2-isoprostanes themselves lead to vasoconstriction by direct action on vascular smooth muscle cells via thromboxane receptors.20 Therefore, in addition to a decrease in NO-mediated smooth muscle relaxation, the hypertension seen in APE1/ref-1+/− mice may also be attributable to the paracrine vasoconstricting effects of F2-isoprostanes and other oxidative stress-induced metabolites of arachidonic acid.. In addition to eNOS-derived NO production, the governance of H-ras expression by APE1/ref-1 could also contribute to some of the ...
He fluorescence enhancement must be the AP site involved. The optical properties of SG bound in the AP site environment should be different from that directly
García-Gómez S, Reyes A, Martínez-Jiménez MI, E Chocrón S, Mourón S, Terrados G, Powell C, Salido E, Méndez J, Holt IJ & Blanco L (2013) PrimPol, an archaic primase/polymerase operating in human cells. Mol Cell 52, 541-53 ...
PrimPol, an Archaic Primase/Polymerase Operating in Human Cells Sara García-Gómez,Aurelio Reyes,María I. Martínez-Jiménez,E. Sandra Chocrón,Silvana Mourón,Gloria Terrados,Christopher Powell,Eduardo Salido,Juan Méndez,Ian J. Holt,Luis Blanco Molecular Cell, 24 October 2013 ...
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized purines, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3- and 5-phosphates.
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DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the APEX1 gene. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) ... 1992). "Structure of the human DNA repair gene HAP1 and its localisation to chromosome 14q 11.2-12". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (17 ... 1993). "Human apurinic endonuclease gene (APE): structure and genomic mapping (chromosome 14q11.2-12)". Hum. Mol. Genet. 1 (9 ... Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (1992). "Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: ...
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease is an enzyme that is involved in the DNA base excision repair pathway (BER). Its main ... APE1 contains several amino acid residues that enable it to react selectively with AP sites. Three APE1 residues (Arg73, Ala74 ... Known inhibitors of APE1 include 7-nitroindole-2-carboxylic acid (NCA) and lucanthone. Both of these structures possess rings ... Levin, Joshua D; Demple, Bruce (1990). "Analysis of class II (hydrolytic) and class I (beta-lyase) apurinic/apyrimidinic ...
Mutations in ERCC6 that lead to CS deal with both the size of the protein as well as the specific amino acid residues utilized ... Wong HK, Muftuoglu M, Beck G, Imam SZ, Bohr VA, Wilson DM (June 2007). "Cockayne syndrome B protein stimulates apurinic ... A specific mutation at the 1097 position (M1097V) as well as polymorphisms at amino acid residue 1413 have been associated with ... Nucleic Acids Res. 43 (1): 247-58. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1279. PMC 4288174 . PMID 25505141. Chang CH, Chiu CF, Wang HC, Wu HC, ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 29(10):2117-26. PMID 11353081 Helbock HJ, Beckman KB, Shigenaga MK, Walter PB, Woodall AA, Yeo HC, Ames BN ... 1999) Endogenous apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in genomic DNA of mammalian tissues. Cancer Res. 59(11):2522-2526. PMID 10363965 ... J Nucleic Acids 2010:929047. PMID 21209721 Kadlubar FF, Anderson KE, Häussermann S, Lang NP, Barone GW, Thompson PA, MacLeod SL ... Nucleic Acids Res 29(10):2117-2126. PMID 11353081 Lindahl T, Nyberg B. (1972) Rate of depurination of native deoxyribonucleic ...
Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (1991). "Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: ... Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (5): 1223-1242. doi:10.1093/nar/27.5.1223. PMC 148307 . PMID 9973609. ... "Coordination of Steps in Single-nucleotide Base Excision Repair Mediated by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and DNA ...
Apurinic sites in double-stranded DNA are efficiently repaired by portions of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. ... More complex compounds containing nucleoside residues, nucleotides and nucleic acids, also suffer from depurination. ... When depurination occurs with DNA, it leads to the formation of apurinic site and results in an alteration of the structure. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (8): 2522-2540. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq163. PMC 2860131 . PMID 20308161. Hartwell, Leland; Hood, Leroy; ...
Only one such study has appeared in which the binding of dibenzo(a,e)fluoranthene to nucleic acids was investigated. Here the ... The radical cation mechanism involves generation of unstable adducts at G and A, leading to apurinic sites and mutations in ...
... were predicted to be 500 to 700 amino acids longer because of a C-terminal fusion of a domain with homology to apurinic- ... one or two tyrosine residues that are separated by several amino acids). The PiF1 family of helicases (Hel) has 5′ to 3′ ... which are present in a protein comprising 1000-3000 amino acids (aa) (Rep/Hel) encoded by all autonomous Helitron elements. The ...
... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.578.550.500 --- poly a MeSH D13.695.578.550.500.510 --- poly a-u MeSH D13.695.578.550.530 --- poly ... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.578.500.300 --- poly da-dt MeSH D13.695.578.500.600 --- poly t MeSH D13.695.578.550 --- ... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.740.246 --- cytosine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.740.246.050 --- arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate ... guanylic acid MeSH D13.695.667.454.700 --- rna caps MeSH D13.695.667.454.700.710 --- rna cap analogs MeSH D13.695.667.616 --- ...
1999). "Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified ... Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (16): 5166-79. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn498. PMC 2532730 . PMID 18682526. Bae SH, Bae KH, Kim JA, Seo YS (2001 ...
Bailly, V; Verly, W. G. (1989). "AP endonucleases and AP lyases". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (9): 3617-8. doi:10.1093/nar/17.9. ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5'- ... In the 1970s, this class of enzyme was found to repair at apurinic or apyrimidinic DNA sites in E. coli and in mammalian cells ... Initially, AP hydrolyses, such as apurinic or apyrimidinic endonuclease I contain a Mg2+ active site that cleaves the DNA on ...
The DDB2 protein contains five putative WD40 repeats (sequences of about 40 amino acids that can interact with each other) ... apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and compound lesions in DNA". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (48): 39982-9. doi:10.1074/ ... Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (11): 2588-98. doi:10.1093/nar/30.11.2588. PMC 117178 . PMID 12034848. Rapić Otrin V, Kuraoka I, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 44 (22): 10727-10743. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw873. PMC 5159553 . PMID 27694624. Fantini D, Huang S, Asara JM ...
Yang B, Chen K, Zhang C, Huang S, Zhang H (April 2007). "Virion-associated uracil DNA glycosylase-2 and apurinic/apyrimidinic ... Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (12): 3879-92. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm372. PMC 1919486 . PMID 17537817. CCNO human gene location in the ...
Twelve studies (summarized in Bernstein et al.) indicate that the bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and/or lithocholic acid ( ... followed by inaccurate repair or replication of the apurinic site leading to mutation and eventually cancer. This genotoxic ... When the bile acid DCA was added to the standard diet of wild-type mice invasive colon cancer was induced in 56% of the mice ... Epidemiologic studies have found that fecal bile acid concentrations are increased in populations with a high incidence of ...
... amino acid oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.062 --- alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 --- d-amino-acid ... apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase MeSH D08.811.074.781 --- muts dna mismatch-binding protein MeSH D08.811.074.812 --- muts ... oxo-acid-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.200 --- anthranilate synthase MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.700 --- isocitrate lyase MeSH ... l-amino acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.724 --- leucine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772 --- nitric oxide ...
Shen B, Nolan JP, Sklar LA, Park MS (1996). "Essential amino acids for substrate binding and catalysis of human flap ... "Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified human ... Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (17): 3925-32. doi:10.1093/nar/26.17.3925. PMC 147798 . PMID 9705499. Hosfield DJ, Mol CD, Shen B, Tainer ...
... codon for amino acid proline) to TCG ( codon for amino acid serine), while the second cancer had a nucleotide base change at ... The excision of the bases causes the formation of an apurinic/ apyrimidinic (AP site) gap. These gap sites are mutagenic in ... The other common mutation switches the amino acid glycine with aspartic acid at position 396 (also written as p.Gly396Asp(G396D ... These amino acid mutations provide the basis for the somatic mutations in the gastric system. Pilomatrixoma has been noted in a ...
... s are transferase enzymes of phosphorus-containing groups, e.g., substituents of nucleotidylic acids or ... "Coordination of Steps in Single-nucleotide Base Excision Repair Mediated by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and DNA ...
This thioester species is much higher in energy than the carboxylic acid species that would result in the absence of GAPDH (the ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), thus converting oxidized APE1 to its reduced form, to restart its endonuclease ... Koningic acid Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File ... GAPDH binds to single-stranded RNA and DNA and a number of nucleic acid binding partners have been identified: tRNA, Hepatitis ...
found that HGMA2 protein can efficiently cleave DNA containing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (is an AP lyase). In addition, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (24): 6793-7. doi:10.1093/nar/19.24.6793. PMC 329311 . PMID 1762909. Chau KY, Patel UA, Lee KL, Lam HY, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (13): 4371-84. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp375. PMC 2715238 . PMID 19465398. Zentner MD, Lin HH, Deng HT, Kim KJ, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (23): 6841-51. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg884. PMC 290254 . PMID 14627817. Facista A, Nguyen H, Lewis C, ...
The endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retroposons may be AP (Apurinic/Pyrimidinic) type or REL (Restriction Endonuclease Like) ... These functions include reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities, in addition to a nucleic acid-binding property ...
... apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity introduces nicks in the DNA strand, cleaving the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination ... As IleRS can inadvertently accommodate and process structurally similar amino acids such as valine, to avoid such errors it has ... phosphodiester bonds of the resulting apurinic/apyrimidinic site (AP lyase activity; EC). Fpg has a preference for oxidised ...
... is derived from both a dedicated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a polyketide synthase (PKS), together known as ... These adducts may then rearrange or become removed from the backbone all-together, forming an apurinic site. These adducts and ... A reductase then catalyzes the reduction of the ketone on the norsolorinic acid side-chain to yield averantin. Averantin is ... Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the carboxylic acid and subsequently a ...
Bennett RA, Wilson DM, Wong D, Demple B (Jul 1997). "Interaction of human apurinic endonuclease and DNA polymerase beta in the ... Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression". Nucleic Acids Research. 22 (14): 2719-25. doi:10.1093/nar/22.14.2719. PMC ... Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (18): 4859-64. doi:10.1093/nar/20.18.4859. PMC 334243 . PMID 1408801. Wang L, Patel U, Ghosh L, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (20): 9587-96. doi:10.1093/nar/16.20.9587. PMC 338765 . PMID 2460824. Widen SG, Kedar P, Wilson SH ( ...
In contrast, a mutation is a change in the nucleic acid sequence that can be replicated; hence, a mutation can be inherited ... Numerous DNA repair pathways exist for DNA; however, if the apurinic site is not repaired, misincorporation of nucleotides may ... Adenine is preferentially incorporated by DNA polymerases in an apurinic site. Cytidine may also become deaminated to uridine ... and nitrous acid. Interstrand cross-linking is more damaging as it blocks replication and transcription and can cause ...
Twelve studies (summarized in Bernstein et al.[43]) indicate that the bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and/or lithocholic acid ... followed by inaccurate repair or replication of the apurinic site leading to mutation and eventually cancer. This genotoxic ... When the bile acid DCA was added to the standard diet of wild-type mice invasive colon cancer was induced in 56% of the mice ... Also 27 studies reported that bile acids cause programmed cell death (apoptosis). Increased apoptosis can result in selective ...
Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines. Nucleic Acids Research. 1978 Feb;5(2):463-473. https ... Moses, R., & Beaudet, A. L. (1978). Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines. Nucleic Acids ... Moses, Robb ; Beaudet, Arthur L. / Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines. In: Nucleic Acids ... Moses, R & Beaudet, AL 1978, Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines, Nucleic Acids ...
Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: ... DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE A, B 318 Homo sapiens EC#: 3.1 IUBMB 4.2.99.18 IUBMB Gene Name(s): APEX1 Gene View ... A second divalent metal ion in the active site of a new crystal form of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Ape1, and its ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019] DNA complexes with human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1: structural insights revealed by pulsed ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens] DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens]. gi,18375503, ... It encodes the APEX endonuclease, a DNA repair enzyme with apurinic/apyrimid... Also Known As: APE, APE1, APEN, APEX, ... ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_542379.1 ...
A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain ... Seki, S., Akiyama, K., Watanabe, S., Hatsushika, M., Ikeda, S., Tsutsui, K. (1991). cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a ... Takiguchi, Y., Chen, D.J. Genomic structure of the mouse apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease gene. Mammalian Genome 5, 717-722 ( ... A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain ...
Bailly, V; Verly, W. G. (1989). "AP endonucleases and AP lyases". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (9): 3617-8. doi:10.1093/nar/17.9. ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5- ... In the 1970s, this class of enzyme was found to repair at apurinic or apyrimidinic DNA sites in E. coli and in mammalian cells ... Initially, AP hydrolyses, such as apurinic or apyrimidinic endonuclease I contain a Mg2+ active site that cleaves the DNA on ...
GO:0003676 nucleic acid binding GO:0003684 damaged DNA binding GO:0003906 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity GO ...
Ono Y, Furuta T, Ohmoto T, Akiyama K, Seki S. Stable expression in rat glioma cells of sense and antisense nucleic acids to a ... Purpose: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo) is a key DNA repair enzyme that cleaves DNA at cytotoxic abasic sites ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is elevated in human adult gliomas. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:3510-18. ... Apurinic Endonuclease Activity in Adult Gliomas and Time to Tumor Progression after Alkylating Agent-Based Chemotherapy and ...
1999) Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. Nucleic ... Nucleic Acids Res 25:1553-1558.. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text. *↵. *Lombaerts M, ...
BEHMOARAS, T., TOULME, J.J., and HELENE, C. (1981). Specific recognition of apurinic sites in DNA by a tryptophancontaining ... Aromatic Amino Acid Indole Ring Nucleic Acid Basis Nucleic Acid Structure Polynucleotide Chain These keywords were added by ... RASZKA, M. and MANDEL, M. (1971). Interaction of aromatic amino acids with neutral poly(adenylic) acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... McPHERSON, A. (1982). X-ray crystallographic studies of nucleic acid binding proteins. In: Topics in Nucleic Acid Structure, (S ...
... apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; amsacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; ... The first 23 amino acids function as a signal sequence that is cleaved to yield a mature protein with 1451 amino acid residues ... Human .alpha.2M is synthesized as a 1474 amino acid precursor, the first 23 of which function as a signal sequence that is ... Such nucleic acids, many of which are oligonucleotides comprising an unmethylated CpG motif, are mitogenic to vertebrate ...
... naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid. Also provided are methods of treatment using this compound with chemotherapy, radiation ... apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; ... The acids that can be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such basic compounds are those that form salts ... Examples of mutants include, but are not limited to, proteins that have one or more amino acid residues that differ from the ...
The assay is used to analyze the kinetics of inserting deoxynucleotides opposite a synthetic abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) ... Apurinic Acid * DNA Polymerase II Grant support * GM21422/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... The assay is used to analyze the kinetics of inserting deoxynucleotides opposite a synthetic abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) ...
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 processing of AP sites with 5 mismatches. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol, 74, pp. ... A Portal for Three-dimensional Structural Information about Nucleic Acids. As of 16-Jan-2019 number of released structures: ... [email protected] ©1995-2019 The Nucleic Acid Database Project , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4473-4478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. 5.. Loeb, L. A. (1985) Apurinic sites as mutagenic intermediates. ... Loeb, L. A. and Preston, B. D. (1986) Mutagenesis by apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. Annu. Rev. Genet. 20, 201-230.PubMedCrossRef ... Lindahl, T. and Nyberg, B. (1972) Rate of depurination of native deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 11, 3610-3618.PubMed ... Doetsch, P. W. and Cunningham, R. P. (1990) The enzymology of apurinic/ apyrimidinic endonucleases. Mutat. Res. 236, 173-201. ...
1997) 3′-phosphodiesterase activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at DNA double-strand break ends. Nucleic Acids ... 1974) The number of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid genomes in mouse L and human HeLa cells. Quantitative isolation of ... 1999) Removal by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape 1) and Escherichia coli exonuclease III of 3′- ... 2010) Identification and characterization of mitochondrial targeting sequence of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. J ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase/DNA Complex. Deposited:. 2019-06-09 Released:. 2020-01-01 Structural Keywords:. B ... A Portal for Three-dimensional Structural Information about Nucleic Acids. As of 15-Jan-2020 number of released structures: ... [email protected] ©1995-2019 The Nucleic Acid Database Project , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ...
1972 Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 11, 3618-3623. doi:10.1021 ... 1996 Amino acid racemization and the preservation of ancient DNA. Science 272, 864-866. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.864 (doi: ... 2004 Isolation of nucleic acids and cultures from fossil ice and permafrost. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 19, 141-147. doi:10.1016/J. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 1304-1307. doi:10.1093/nar/24.7.1304 (doi:10.1093/nar/24.7.1304). ...
Lindahl, T. and A. Andersson, Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double- stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry ... Verly, W.G., Y. Paquette, and L. Thibodeau, Nuclease for DNA apurinic sites may be involved in the maintenance of DNA in normal ... An E. coli activity specific for apurinic sites had been identified just two years earlier by Walter Verly [41, 42]. Lindahl ... Seeberg, E., W.D. Rupp, and P. Strike, Impaired incision of ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid in uvrC mutants of ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the APEX1 gene. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) ... 1992). "Structure of the human DNA repair gene HAP1 and its localisation to chromosome 14q 11.2-12". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (17 ... 1993). "Human apurinic endonuclease gene (APE): structure and genomic mapping (chromosome 14q11.2-12)". Hum. Mol. Genet. 1 (9 ... Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (1992). "Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: ...
Apurinic acid endonuclease and exonuclease Iii, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 73: 4324.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Dunn, D. B., 1963, The isolation of 1-methyladenylic acid and 7-methylguanylic acid from ribonucleic acid, Biochem. J. 86: 14 P ... Lawley, P. D., 1966, Effects of some chemical mutagens and carcinogens on nucleic acids, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 5: ... Yang, J. T., And Samejima, T., 1969, Optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism of nucleic acids, Prog. Nucleic Acid ...
Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. Nucleic Acids ... Two mutants having amino acid replacement mutations are also shown here. The results are given at the extreme right-hand side. ... During base excision repair, SSB are produced by DNA glycosylases and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases at the site of ... Two additional pCY4B-Flag constructs of XRCC1 mutants having amino acid replacement mutations in the BRCT1 domain were ...
Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry. 11:3618-3623. ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) efficiently nicks DNA at abasic sites, but it is unknown whether APE participates in ... Reduced CSR in B cells treated with the APE inhibitor 7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (CRT0044876). To further confirm that ... Substrate binding by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease indicates a Briggs-Haldane mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1302- ...
Insertion of Nucleotides Opposite Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites in Deoxyribonucleic Acid During in vitro Synthesis: Uniqueness of ... Apurinic Sites Cause Mutations in Simian Virus 40. Mutat. Res. 129: 141-147 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Mutagenesis by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites. Ann. Rev. Genetics 20: 201-230 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In Photochemistry and Photobiology of Nucleic Acids, S. Y. Wang, ed., p. 521. Academic Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar ...
Henderson A et al. Detection of G-quadruplex DNA in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res N/A:N/A (2013). ICC/IF ; Human . PubMed ... Madlener S et al. Essential role for mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease Ape1/Ref-1 in telomere maintenance. Proc ... Schenkwein D et al. rDNA-directed integration by an HIV-1 integrase--I-PpoI fusion protein. Nucleic Acids Res 41:e61 (2013). ... Kang J et al. Amino acid-dependent signaling via S6K1 and MYC is essential for regulation of rDNA transcription. Oncotarget 7: ...
DNA glycosylases, endonucleases for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and base excision-repair. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. ... Nucleic acids were extracted from HSV-1-infected wild-type A1-expressing and control RSCs at 8 hpi. (B) DNA copy number was ... Real-time PCR.Nucleic acids were extracted as previously described (4). For the analyses of HSV-1 mRNA products, 1 μg of RNA ... Identification of amino acid residues in APOBEC3G required for regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and virion ...
  • Although Kae1 is annotated as O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase in most genomes, we found that the Kae1 protein from Pyrococcus abyssi has no protease activity, but is an atypical DNA-binding protein with an AP (apurinic) lyase activity. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The enzyme also exhibits lyase activity with substrates containing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (deoxyribose moieties lacking the nucleobase). (bvsalud.org)
  • Drosophila S3 also possesses an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity in which the enzyme catalyzes a β-elimination reaction that cleaves phosphodiester bonds 3′ and adjacent to an AP lesion in DNA. (iupui.edu)
  • ITs AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity introduces nicks in the DNA strand, cleaving the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3'- and 5'-phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human apurinic endonuclease gene (APE): structure and genomic mapping (chromosome 14q11.2-12). (springer.com)
  • The enzymatic removal of chemical damage in DNA, the regulation of gene expression by a repressor molecule, and the binding of RNA polymerase to a promoter are some examples of processes which involve specific interactions between proteins and nucleic acids. (springer.com)
  • A rice gene, OsRALyase1, encoding a product similar to wheat ribosomal RNA apurinic site specific lyase (RALyase), was isolated and expressed in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Inactivation of the CMP- N -acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene has provided an example of human-specific genomic mutation that results in a widespread biochemical difference between human and nonhuman primates. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike these gene changes, inactivation of the CMP- N -acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene is unique in that it is a single gene and inactivated in the hominid lineage only ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Isolated, purified, and recombinant nucleic acids and proteins corresponding to the human GC6 gene and its mRNA and protein products, as well as peptides and antibodies corresponding to the GC6 protein can be used to identify. (google.es)
  • Within nucleic acid and genetic material technologies, it is often necessary to determine whether a gene, a part of a gene, or a nucleotide sequence is present in a living organism, a cellular extract of this organism, or a biological sample. (justia.com)
  • We also demonstrated a significant increase in gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in cerebral cortex of the HFD group, reinforcing the anti-inflammatory role of this family of fatty acids. (springermedizin.de)
  • Mutation of the NADH oxidase gene (nox) reveals an overlap of the oxygen- and acid-mediated stress responses in Streptococcus mutans. (rochester.edu)
  • The gene is composed of 16 exons and has a size of 546 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • We may consider the active center of a nucleic acid-binding protein as a three dimensional distribution of functional groups able to form ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic bonds (including stacking). (springer.com)
  • Interactions between functional groups in protein-nucleic acid associations. (springer.com)
  • Specific recognition of guanine bases in protein-nucleic acid complexes. (springer.com)
  • An archaeal orthologue of the universal protein Kae1 is an iron metalloprotein which exhibits atypical DNA-binding properties and apurinic-endonuclease activity in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana Arp, an apurinic endonuclease-redox protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The main enzymatic hallmarks of Helitrons are the rolling-circle (RC) replication initiator (Rep) and DNA helicase (Hel) domains, which are present in a protein comprising 1000-3000 amino acids (aa) (Rep/Hel) encoded by all autonomous Helitron elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Art Nucleic acids, including DNA, are generally prepared from cells by treating a sample containing the cells with SDS or Proteinase K and then denaturing and removing the protein with phenol to purify the nucleic acid (Molecular Cloning 2nd Edition, 9.16-9.23, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989). (google.com)
  • Changes in nucleic acid, protein, and metal content as a consequence of zinc deficiency in Euglena gracilis. (docphin.com)
  • The human S3 protein, although 80% identical to its Drosophila homolog and shorter by only two amino acids, has only marginal N-glycosylase activity. (iupui.edu)
  • Thus, a single amino acid change converted the Drosophila activity into one that is similar to that possessed by the human S3 protein. (iupui.edu)
  • The DDB2 protein contains five putative WD40 repeats (sequences of about 40 amino acids that can interact with each other) positioned downstream from the second exon. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies on direct DNA repair complement our work on base-excision repair enzymes such as uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), which specifically recognizes and cleaves uracil from DNA to create the central base-excision repair intermediate: an apurinic/apyrimidinic, or abasic, site. (scripps.edu)
  • This abasic site (or AP, apurinic/apyrimidinic) may be copied by a translesion synthesis DNA polymerase such as DNA polymerase eta, resulting in random incorporation of any of the four nucleotides, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • A, G, C, or T. Also, this abasic site may be cleaved by apurinic endonuclease (APE), creating a break in the deoxyribose phosphate backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The damaged base is first recognized and excised by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), leaving an apurinic site (AP-site). (springer.com)
  • A process of amplifying a nucleic acid template dependent on partial destruction of primer molecules which have extended onto the template molecule followed by strand invasion of the partially destroyed primer template by a replacement primer. (justia.com)
  • The invention relates to the amplification of nucleic acids, in particular to a process of amplifying a nucleic acid template dependent on partial destruction of primer molecules which have extended onto the template molecule followed by strand invasion of the partially destroyed primer template by a replacement primer. (justia.com)
  • Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the carboxylic acid and subsequently a decarboxylation event occurs to close the ring, forming the six-member ether ring system seen in demethylsterigmatocystin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depurination occurs via hydrolysis of the purine-deoxyribose glycosyl bond and causes nucleic acid damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2008) Structural insights on the pamoic acid and the 8 kDa domain of DNA polymerase beta complex: towards the design of higher‐affinity inhibitors. (els.net)
  • Li, H., Z. Yao, B. Degenhardt, G. Teper, and V. Papadopoulos, Cholesterol binding at the cholesterol recognition/interation amino acid consensus (CRAC) of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and inhibition of steroidogenesis by an HIV TAT-CRAC peptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These nine-carbon sugars function as ligands in recognition systems mediated by sialic acid-binding lectins, such as CD22, myelin-associated glycoprotein, sialoadhesin, and influenza A virus hemagglutinin (reviewed in ref. 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hepatobiliary Delivery of Polyaminopolycarboxylate Chelates: Synthesis and Characterization of a Cholic Acid Conjugate of EDTA and Biodistribution and Imaging Studies with Its Indium-111 Chelate", Bioconjugate Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Technical Field The present invention relates to a simple method of preparing nucleic acids at a high purity from cells using a nonwoven fabric, and to a preparation kit therefor. (google.com)