A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.
Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Purification and properties of a Bacillus subtilis endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in DNA. (1/114)

An endonuclease which hydrolyzes depurinated DNA has been purified from extracts of Bacillus subtilis cells. The endonuclease is a monomeric protein and has a molecular weight of around 56,000. The enzyme is specific for apurinic sites in double-stranded DNA, has a pH optimum at 8.0, and is slightly stimulated with 50 mM NaCl but completely inhibited with 500 mM NaCl. It requires no divalent cations and is insensitive to EDTA; it has no associated exonuclease. These properties are very similar to those of Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is also insensitive to EDTA and has no exonuclease activity, and very different from those of the main endonuclease for apurinic sites (endonuclease IV) of the same bacterium.  (+info)

Comparison of cytochrome P450- and peroxidase-dependent metabolic activation of the potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in human cell lines: formation of stable DNA adducts and absence of a detectable increase in apurinic sites. (2/114)

The potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) has been reported to form both stable and depurinating DNA adducts upon activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or cellular peroxidases. Only stable DB[a,l]P-DNA adducts were detected in DNA after reaction of DB[a,I]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxides in solution or cells in culture. To determine whether DB[a,l]P can be activated to metabolites that form depurinating adducts in cells with either high peroxidase (human leukemia HL-60 cell line) or cytochrome P450 activity (human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cell line), cultures were treated with DB[a,l]P for 4 h, and the levels of stable adducts and apurinic (AP) sites in the DNA were determined. DNA samples from DB[a,l]P-treated HL-60 cells contained no detectable levels of either stable adducts or AP sites. MCF-7 cells exposed to 2 microM DB[a,l]P for 4 h contained 4 stable adducts per 10(6) nucleotides, but no detectable increase in AP sites. The results indicate that metabolic activation of DB[a,l]P by cytochrome P450 enzymes to diol epoxides that form stable DNA adducts, rather than one-electron oxidation catalyzed either by cytochrome P450 enzymes or peroxidases to form AP sites, is responsible for the high carcinogenic activity of DB[a,l]P.  (+info)

Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. (3/114)

UV damage endonuclease (UVDE) initiates a novel form of excision repair by introducing a nick imme-diately 5" to UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or 6-4 photoproducts. Here, we report that apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are also nicked by Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe UVDE. UVDE introduces a nick immediately 5" to the AP site leaving a 3"-OH and a 5"-phosphate AP. Apyrimidinic sites are more effectively nicked by UVDE than apurinic sites. UVDE also possesses 3"-repair activities for AP sites nicked by AP lyase and for 3"-phosphoglycolate produced by bleomycin. The Uvde gene introduced into Escherichia coli cells lacking two types of AP endonuclease, Exo III and Endo IV, gave the host cells resistance to methylmethane sulfonate and t-butyl hydroperoxide. We identified two AP endonuclease activities in S.pombe cell extracts. Besides cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts, N. crassa UVDE also nicks Dewar photoproducts. Thus, UVDE is able to repair both of the major forms of DNA damage in living organisms: UV-induced DNA lesions and AP sites.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Escherichia coli MutY using substrate analogs. (4/114)

The Escherichia coli adenine glycosylase MutY is involved in the repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2"-deoxyguanosine (OG):A and G:A mispairs in DNA. Our approach toward understanding recognition and processing of DNA damage by MutY has been to use substrate analogs that retain the recognition properties of the substrate mispair but are resistant to the glycosylase activity of MutY. This approach provides stable MutY-DNA complexes that are amenable to structural and biochemical characterization. In this work, the interaction of MutY with the 2"-deoxyadenosine analogs 2"-deoxy-2"-fluoroadenosine (FA), 2"-deoxyaristeromycin (R) and 2"-deoxyformycin A (F) was investigated. MutY binds to duplexes containing the FA, R or F analogs opposite G and OG within DNA with high affinity; however, no enzymatic processing of these duplexes is observed. The specific nature of the interaction of MutY with an OG:FA duplex was demonstrated by MPE-Fe(II) hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments which showed a nine base pair region of protection by MutY surrounding the mispair. DMS footprinting experiments with an OG:A duplex revealed that a specific G residue located on the OG-containing strand was protected from DMS in the presence of MutY. In contrast, a G residue flanking the substrate analogs R, F or FA was observed to be hypersensitive to DMS in the presence of MutY. These results suggest a major conformational change in the DNA helix upon binding of MutY that exposes the substrate analog-containing strand. This finding is consistent with a nucleotide flipping mechanism for damage recognition by MutY. This work demonstrates that duplex substrates for MutY containing FA, R or F instead of A are excellent substrate mimics that may be used to provide insight into the recognition by MutY of damaged and mismatched base pairs within DNA.  (+info)

An altered apurinic DNA endonuclease activity in group A and group D xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. (5/114)

Endonuclease activity upon depurinated DNA was measured in extracts of cultured fibroblasts from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. Cell lines from complementation groups A, B, C, E, and the XP-variant had slightly reduced levels of activity, but cell lines from complementation group D had one-sixth of the normal activity. An altered pH dependence and a higher apparent Km for substrate in D-cell lines indicate that the remaining activity is also qualitatively different from the activity found in normal cells. A higher Km was also found in cell lines from the A-complementation group but not in cell lines from the C-complementation group. These defects in apurinic DNase might account for the neurological disorders in patients from the D- and the A-complementation groups.  (+info)

A method for detecting abasic sites in living cells: age-dependent changes in base excision repair. (6/114)

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are common DNA lesions that arise from spontaneous depurination or by base excision repair (BER) of modified bases. A biotin-containing aldehyde-reactive probe (ARP) [Kubo, K., Ide, H., Wallace, S. S. & Kow, Y. W. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 3703-3708] is used to measure AP sites in living cells. ARP penetrates the plasma membrane of cells and reacts with AP sites in DNA to form a stable ARP-DNA adduct. The DNA is isolated and treated with avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), forming a DNA-HRP complex at each biotin residue, which is rapidly separated from free avidin-HRP by selective precipitation with a DNA precipitating dye (DAPER). The number of AP sites is estimated by HRP activity toward chromogenic substrate in an ELISA assay. The assay integrates the AP sites formed by the different glycosylases of BER during a 1-h incubation and eliminates artifactual depurination or loss of AP sites during DNA isolation. The assay was applied to living cells and nuclei. The number of AP sites after a 1-h incubation in old IMR90 cells was about two to three times higher than that in young cells, and the number in human leukocytes from old donors was about seven times that in young donors. The repair of AP sites was slower in senescent compared with young IMR90 cells. An age-dependent decline is shown in the activity of the glycosylase that removes methylated bases in IMR90 cells and in human leukocytes. The decline in excision of methylated bases from DNA suggests an age-dependent decline in 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase, a BER enzyme responsible for removing alkylated bases.  (+info)

Specificity of DNA lesion bypass by the yeast DNA polymerase eta. (7/114)

DNA polymerase eta (Pol(eta), xeroderma pigmentosum variant, or Rad30) plays an important role in an error-free response to unrepaired UV damage during replication. It faithfully synthesizes DNA opposite a thymine-thymine cis-syn-cyclobutane dimer. We have purified the yeast Pol(eta) and studied its lesion bypass activity in vitro with various types of DNA damage. The yeast Pol(eta) lacked a nuclease or a proofreading activity. It efficiently bypassed 8-oxoguanine, incorporating C, A, and G opposite the lesion with a relative efficiency of approximately 100:56:14, respectively. The yeast Pol(eta) efficiently incorporated a C opposite an acetylaminofluorene-modified G, and efficiently inserted a G or less frequently an A opposite an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site but was unable to extend the DNA synthesis further in both cases. However, some continued DNA synthesis was observed in the presence of the yeast Pol(zeta) following the Pol(eta) action opposite an AP site, achieving true lesion bypass. In contrast, the yeast Pol(alpha) was able to bypass efficiently a template AP site, predominantly incorporating an A residue opposite the lesion. These results suggest that other than UV damage, Pol(eta) may also play a role in bypassing additional DNA lesions, some of which can be error-prone.  (+info)

Sensitivity of human type II topoisomerases to DNA damage: stimulation of enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage by abasic, oxidized and alkylated lesions. (8/114)

Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that are also the primary cellular targets for a number of important anticancer drugs. These drugs act by increasing levels of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Recent studies indicate that endogenous forms of DNA damage, such as abasic sites and base mismatches, also stimulate the DNA scission activity of the enzyme. To extend our understanding of how type II topoisomerases react to DNA damage, the effects of abasic sites, and oxidized and alkylated bases on DNA cleavage mediated by human topo-isomerase IIalpha and beta were determined. Based on experiments that incorporated random abasic sites into plasmid DNA, human type II enzymes can locate lesions even within a background of several thousand undamaged base pairs. As determined by experiments that utilized site-specific forms of DNA lesions, oxidized or monoalkylated purines that allow base pairing and induce little distortion in the double helix have modest effects on topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. In contrast, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, a bulky lesion that disrupts base pairing, enhanced DNA cleavage approximately 10-fold. 1,N(6)-Ethenoadenine is the first lesion found to rival the stimulatory effects of apurinic sites on the DNA scission activity of eukaryotic type II topoisomerases.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines. AU - Moses, Robb. AU - Beaudet, Arthur L.. PY - 1978/2. Y1 - 1978/2. N2 - Several autosomal recessive diseases are associated with apparent DNA repair defects in cell culture. It seemed likely that a defect in excision repair reported for ataxia telangiectasia cells might reflect a lack of apurinic endonuclease activity. We report here normal levels of apurinic endonuclease activity in extracts of cell lines derived from patients with ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group D), Cockayne dwarfism, Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome.. AB - Several autosomal recessive diseases are associated with apparent DNA repair defects in cell culture. It seemed likely that a defect in excision repair reported for ataxia telangiectasia cells might reflect a lack of apurinic endonuclease activity. We report here normal levels of apurinic endonuclease activity in extracts of cell lines derived ...
In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. In the case-control study, 92 RCC patients and 580 cancer-free patients matched by age and gender were recruited. The apurinic/APE genotyping work was con...
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fapy-DNA glycosylase)(gene fpg) is a bacterial enzyme involved in DNA repair and which excise oxidized purine bases to release 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methylformamido-pyrimidine (Fapy) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OxoG) residues. In addition to its glycosylase activity, FPG can also nick DNA at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). FPG is a monomeric protein of about 32 Kd which binds and require zinc for its activity ...
Histones and polyamines nick the phosphodiester bond 3′ to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in DNA by inducing a beta-elimination reaction, which can be followed by delta-elimination. These beta- and delta-elimination reactions might be important for the repair of AP sites in chromatin DNA in either of two ways. In one pathway, after the phosphodiester bond 5′ to the AP site has been hydrolysed with an AP endonuclease, the 5′-terminal base-free sugar 5′-phosphate is released by beta-elimination. The one-nucleotide gap limited by 3′-OH and 5′-phosphate ends is then closed by DNA polymerase-beta and DNA ligase. We have shown in vitro that such a repair is possible. In the other pathway, the nicking 3′ to the AP site by beta-elimination occurs first. We have shown that the 3′-terminal base-free sugar so produced cannot be released by the chromatin AP endonuclease from rat liver. But it can be released by delta-elimination, leaving a gap limited by 3′-phosphate and 5′-phosphate. ...
0092]Other anti-cancer drugs include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
0108]Other second agents include, but are not limited to: 20-epi-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3; 5-ethynyluracil; abiraterone; aclarubicin; acylfulvene; adecypenol; adozelesin; aldesleukin; ALL-TK antagonists; altretamine; ambamustine; amidox; amifostine; aminolevulinic acid; amrubicin; amsacrine; anagrelide; anastrozole; andrographolide; angiogenesis inhibitors; antagonist D; antagonist G; antarelix; anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein-1; antiandrogen, prostatic carcinoma; antiestrogen; antineoplaston; antisense oligonucleotides; aphidicolin glycinate; apoptosis gene modulators; apoptosis regulators; apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; axinastatin 3; azasetron; azatoxin; azatyrosine; baccatin III derivatives; balanol; batimastat; BCR/ABL antagonists; benzochlorins; benzoylstaurosporine; beta lactam derivatives; beta-alethine; betaclamycin B; betulinic acid; bFGF inhibitor; bicalutamide; bisantrene; ...
Failure to maintain mtDNA integrity can lead to a wide variety of neuromuscular disorders. Despite its central role in the development of these disorders, many mechanistic details of mtDNA maintenance are still unclear. In the present work, we have studied the role of PrimPol, an unusual primase-polymerase, in mammalian mtDNA maintenance. We report here that PrimPol is specifically required for replication reinitiation after DNA damage. PrimPol synthesizes DNA primers on an ssDNA template, which can be elongated by the mitochondrial replicative polymerase γ, a solution to reprime replication beyond DNA lesions and to facilitate lagging-strand replication. Our findings show that PrimPol has biological relevance for mtDNA maintenance. ...
The biochemical properties of phage P22 Abc-modified RecBCD enzyme from Escherichia coli have been examined. RecBCD purified from a cell that expresses Abc (anti-RecBCD) contains all three RecBCD subunits and the 11.6-kDa Abc protein in equal stoichiometric amounts. Abc depresses the rate of RecBCD double-stranded DNA exonuclease, helicase, and ATPase activities about 3-4-fold, yet it has no effect on the rate of the single-stranded DNA exonuclease activity. Abc induces a slight increase in the ATP-independent single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity and does not induce dimerization of the RecBCD trimer. Abc-modified RecBCD helicase activity possesses reduced but significant processivity (10 kilobase pairs) relative to the native enzyme (30 kilobase pairs). In the absence of ATP, Abc-modified RecBCD shows a 2-4-fold higher affinity for double-stranded DNA ends. The RecBCD-binding Gam protein from bacteriophage lambda inhibits binding of both native and Abc-modified RecBCD to double-stranded DNA ends.
Endonuclease III; DNA repair enzyme that has both DNA N-glycosylase activity and AP-lyase activity. The DNA N-glycosylase activity releases various damaged pyrimidines from DNA by cleaving the N- glycosidic bond, leaving an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site. The AP-lyase activity cleaves the phosphodiester bond 3 to the AP site by a beta-elimination, leaving a 3-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5-phosphate (219 aa ...
A registry to collect info regarding dialysis or KT individuals with COVID-19 in Spain started to gather info on March 18, 2020 (www.senefro.com). A confirmed COVID-19 analysis was defined as a patient with positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of a specimen collected via nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoalveolar lavage. Comparisons between groups were made using a two-sided 2 test having a significance level of 0.05, using SPSS v22. The study was authorized by the ethics committee of Hospital del Mar. Among the 502 KT patients with COVID-19 included until May 9, 2020, 24 had received a KT less than 60 d before becoming diagnosed as having COVID-19. Instances were diagnosed in 12 Spanish transplant centers between March 17 and April 18, 2020 and experienced at least 1 mo of follow-up. During the period and 60 d before the 1st case, 275 KT surgeries were performed in those 12 centers. Consequently, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 9%. The median age of the ...
APEX1, 0.1 mg. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases.
Complete information for APEX2 gene (Protein Coding), Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endodeoxyribonuclease 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This modification is available as part of a custom oligonucleotide configuration. Please use OLIGObuilder™ to generate pricing and order or contact us to speak with a customer service representative. ...
DNA damage can stall the DNA replication machinery, leading to genomic instability. Thus, numerous mechanisms exist to complete genome duplication in the absence of a pristine DNA template, but identification of the enzymes involved remains incomplete. Here, we establish that Primase-Polymerase (PrimPol; CCDC111), an archaeal-eukaryotic primase (AEP) in eukaryotic cells, is involved in chromosomal DNA replication. PrimPol is required for replication fork progression on ultraviolet (UV) lightdamaged DNA templates, possibly mediated by its ability to catalyze translesion synthesis (TLS) of these lesions. This PrimPol UV lesion bypass pathway is not epistatic with the Pol h-dependent pathway and, as a consequence, protects xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) patient cells from UV-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, we establish that PrimPol is also required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S phase. These and other findings indicate that PrimPol is an important player ...
FUNCTION: DNA repair enzyme that cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and removes 3-blocking groups present at single strand breaks of damaged DNA. APN1 accounts for > 97% of both apurinic/ apyrimidinic (AP) lyase and DNA 3-repair diesterase activities ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APE-1) antibody | P27695 | APEX nuclease (APEN), Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (AP endonuclease 1), (APE-1), REF-1, Redox factor-1, APEX1, APE, APE1, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF1
Objective Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is usually routinely performed for experiments designed to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dental care fluorosis. samples. Results Probably the most stably indicated genes relating to geNorm were and and were and and and is a component of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 and a cell surface marker for those nucleated cells 48 is definitely a member of the family of TATA-box transcription factors 49 is definitely a glycolytic enzyme 50 Hprt is definitely portion of purine synthesis in the salvage pathway 51 and functions in the translational machinery.52 The data presented here will facilitate accurate and reproducible transcript profiling MP-470 studies in fluoride treated rats and in enamel organ-derived LS8 cells. 2 Materials and MP-470 Methods 2.1 Animals All animals were treated humanely. Sprague-Dawley rats (6-week-old) were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington MA). Animals were ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitors of nuclease and redox activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1). AU - Laev, Sergey S.. AU - Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.. AU - Lavrik, Olga I.. N1 - Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein which is essential in the base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions caused by oxidation and alkylation. This protein hydrolyzes DNA adjacent to the 5′-end of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site to produce a nick with a 3′-hydroxyl group and a 5′-deoxyribose phosphate moiety or activates the DNA-binding activity of certain transcription factors through its redox function. Studies have indicated a role for APE1/Ref-1 in the pathogenesis of cancer and in resistance to DNA-interactive drugs. Thus, this protein has potential as a target in cancer treatment. As a result, major ...
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1E9N: Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: Implications for the Catalytic Mechanism
One of the most frequent lesions formed in cellular DNA are abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) sites that are both cytotoxic and mutagenic, and must be removed efficiently to maintain genetic stability. It is generally believed that the repair of AP
In the process of cell metabolism, genomic DNA is harmed by free radicals, mutagens, and ionizing radiation. The damage in DNA results in carcinogenesis, aging, and cell death. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which arise by hydrolysis of N-glycos
DNA damaging agents such as the antitumor drugs bleomycin and neocarzinostatin or those that generate oxygen radicals produce a variety of lesions in DNA. Amongst these is base-loss which forms apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites or strand breaks with atypical 3termini. DNA repair at the AP sites is initiated by specific endonuclease cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. Such endonucleases are also generally capable of removing blocking groups from the 3terminus of DNA strand breaks ...
The expression of bilaterian-mesodermal genes changes the epithelial properties of the endomesoderm during the embryogenesis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The exonuclease activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1). Biochemical properties and inhibition by the natural dinucleotide Gp4G. AU - Chou, Kai Ming. AU - Cheng, Yung Chi. PY - 2003/5/16. Y1 - 2003/5/16. N2 - Human DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a key role in the DNA base excision repair process. In this study, we further characterized the exonuclease activity of APE1. The magnesium requirement and pH dependence of the exonuclease and endonuclease activities of APE1 are significantly different. APE1 showed a similar Km value for matched, 3′ mispaired, or nucleoside analog β-L-dioxolane-cytidine terminated nicked DNA as well as for DNA containing a tetrahydrofuran, an abasic site analog. The kcat for exonuclease activity on matched, 3′ mispaired, and β-L-dioxolane-cytidine nicked DNA are 2.3, 61.2, and 98.8 min-1, respectively, and 787.5 min-1 for APE1 endonuclease. Site-directed APE1 mutant proteins (E96A, E96Q, D210E, D210N, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Y-box-binding protein 1 stimulates abasic site cleavage. AU - Alemasova, E. E.. AU - Naumenko, K. N.. AU - Moor, N. A.. AU - Lavrik, O. I.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are among the most frequent DNA lesions. The first step in the AP site repair involves the magnesium-dependent enzyme AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) that catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the DNA phosphodiester bond at the 5′ side of the AP site, thereby generating a single-strand DNA break flanked by the 3′-OH and 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) groups. Increased APE1 activity in cancer cells might correlate with tumor chemoresistance to DNA-damaging treatment. It has been previously shown that the multifunctional oncoprotein Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) interacts with APE1 and inhibits APE1-catalyzed hydrolysis of AP sites in single-stranded DNAs. In this work, we demonstrated that YB-1 stabilizes the APE1 complex with double-stranded DNAs containing the AP sites and ...
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor (Ref-1) is a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. It is a multifunctional protein involved in both transcriptional regulation of gene expression during adaptive cellular response to oxidative stress, and in base excision repair pathway of DNA lesions generated as a consequence of oxidant-induced base damages. In the latter, APE1/Ref-1 contributes to the maintenance of the genome stability. APE1 normally resides in the nucleus and this is consistent with its established role in base excision repair and redox regulation of transcription factors [Tell et al 2009]. However, in some cancers, abnormal re-distribution of APE1 to the cytoplasm or its presence in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm without losing its ability to repair abasic DNA has been observed and these have baffled many researchers [Tell et al 2005]. We have recently identified APE1/Ref-1 as an endoribonuclease that cleaves c-myc mRNA in vitro and ...
AIMS: Human AP endonuclease 1 (HAP1) plays a major role in the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in cellular DNA by catalysing hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone 5 to the site. HAP1 is also known to be a potent reduction-oxidation (redox) factor, regulating the binding activity of a number of transcription factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the expression of HAP-1 in a wide range of human tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a recently developed specific rabbit polyclonal antibody, we performed immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue material. Nuclear staining was detected in crypt cells of the small and large intestine, epithelial cells of breast ducts, basal cells of the skin, alveolar cells of the lung, lymphocytes of the marginal zone of the spleen, in the surface epithelium and stromal cells of the ovary and the transitional epithelium of the bladder. Unexpectedly for a presumed nuclear protein, the staining pattern in some cell ...
DNA with an abasic site is a cyto-toxic intermediate in the base excision repair (BER) pathway that is handled by the enzyme Apuridinic/Apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) [99, 56, 168, 90]. Several kinetics and thermodynamics aspects of the mechanism by which the APE1 enzyme processes its abasic DNA substrate have been discussed in this thesis. APE1 is an endonuclease that is it cleaves the DNA backbone at a non-terminal site, here at the abasic site. To obtain eminent insight about the catalytic role of amino acid residues and magnesium ions which are representatively recognized in active sites of endonuclease enzymes, quantum mechanical calculations of reaction pathways based on various cluster models mimicking such active sites of endonuclease enzymes have been performed and subsequently discussed in section 4. In this light our results underline the importance of an enzymatic active site architecture in the catalytic reaction, given the substrate is properly positioned. As a side-effect, we ...
Effect of depurination location on replicase activity in vitro. Regions of RNA3 were treated with PAP and then ligated to the remaining RNA to regenerate full-l
Exonuclease Iii Solution, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates a process generating DNA mutations and breaks in germinal center (GC) B cells that are necessary for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. GC B cells can tolerate DNA damage while rapidly proliferating because of partial suppression of the DNA damage response by BCL6. In this study, we develop a model to study the response of mouse GC B cells to endogenous DNA damage. We show that the base excision repair protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) 2 protects activated B cells from oxidative damage in vitro. APE2-deficient mice have smaller GCs and reduced Ab responses compared with wild-type mice. DNA double-strand breaks are increased in the rapidly dividing GC centroblasts of APE2-deficient mice, which activate a p53-independent cell cycle checkpoint and a p53-dependent apoptotic response. Proliferative and/or oxidative damage and AID-dependent damage are additive stresses that correlate inversely with GC size in ...
Endonuclease IV is the archetype for a conserved apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family that primes DNA repair synthesis by cleaving the DNA backbone 5 of AP sites. The crystal structures of Endonuclease IV and its AP-DNA complex at 1.02 and 1.55 A resolution reveal how an alpha8beta8 TIM barrel fold can bind dsDNA. Enzyme loops intercalate side chains at the abasic site, compress the DNA backbone, bend the DNA approximately 90 degrees, and promote double-nucleotide flipping to sequester the extrahelical AP site in an enzyme pocket that excludes undamaged nucleotides. These structures suggest three Zn2+ ions directly participate in phosphodiester bond cleavage and prompt hypotheses that double-nucleotide flipping and sharp bending by AP endonucleases provide exquisite damage specificity while aiding subsequent base excision repair pathway progression ...
Chronic administration of Aluminum is proposed as an environmental factor that may affect several enzymes and other biomolecules related to neurotoxicity and Alzheimers disease (AD). APE1 a multifunctional protein, functions in DNA repair and plays a key role in cell survival versus cell death upon stimulation with cytotoxic agent, making it an attractive emerging therapeutic target. The promising protective effect of resveratrol (resv), which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects on neurotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3), may be derived from its own antioxidant properties. In the present work we investigated the modulation of APE1 expression during AlCl3-induced neuroinflammation (25 mg/Kg body weight by oral gavages) in experimental rats. We tested the hypothesis that a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenger, resveratrol at 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects, would attenuate central inflammation and modulate APE1 expression in
END8_ECOLI] Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized pyrimidines, such as thymine glycol, 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine. Acts on DNA bubble and 3-fork structures, suggesting a role in replication-associated DNA repair. Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3- and 5-phosphates.[1] ...
Methods Expression of APE1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 55 RBs and in retina. In tumours, APE1 expression was analysed in cytoplasm and nucleus independently and correlated with histopathological features, including invasion, differentiation and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification groups. Relative APE1 mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot. The expression of APE1 in tumour groups was compared with retinal tissue.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slow loss of deoxyribose from the N7deoxyguanosine adducts of estradiol-3,4-quinone and hexestrol-3′,4′-quinone.. T2 - Implications for mutagenic activity. AU - Saeed, Muhammad. AU - Zahid, Muhammad. AU - Gunselman, Sandra J.. AU - Rogan, Eleanor. AU - Cavalieri, Ercole. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - A variety of evidence has been obtained that estrogens are weak tumor initiators. A major step in the multi-stage process leading to tumor initiation involves metabolic formation of 4-catechol estrogens from estradiol (E 2) and/or estrone and further oxidation of the catechol estrogens to the corresponding catechol estrogen quinones. The electrophilic catechol quinones react with DNA mostly at the N-3 of adenine (Ade) and N-7 of guanine (Gua) by 1,4-Michael addition to form depurinating adducts. The N3Ade adducts depurinate instantaneously, whereas the N7Gua adducts depurinate with a half-life of several hours. Only the apurinic sites generated in the DNA by the rapidly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The transition state for RNA depurination by ricin a-chain. AU - Chen, Xiangyang. AU - Link, Todd M.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Ricin A-chain (RTA) catalyzes a specific depurination of ribosomal RNA at the elongation factor binding site, causing loss of protein biosynthesis. In vitro, RTA also catalyzes the hydrolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides. The Km and kcat for a 10-base stem-loop RNA, CGC GAGA GCG (A-10) are 4.1 #M and 4.1 rain-l, respectively. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transition state of RTA depurination by multiple V/K kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) using labeled A-10 as the substrate. The specifically labeled A-10 was synthesized enzymatically by conversion of labeled glucose or ribose 5-phosphate to ATP and subsequently incorporation into RNA by RNA polymerase. KIEs for the hydrolysis are the following: primary 14C = 0.997 + 0.002, primary lSN = 1.020 :t: 0.004, a-secondary 3H = 1.163 + 0.010, /3-secondary aH= ...
Local production of endothelial NO plays a pivotal role in governing the overall redox state of the vascular wall. A reduction in endothelial NO production would be expected to result in an increase in vascular oxidative stress. Arachidonic acid is a prime target of oxidants and is peroxidized to yield metabolites including F2-isoprostanes. APE1/ref-1+/− mice have been reported to have elevations in circulating markers of oxidative stress such as F2-isoprostanes.19 F2-isoprostanes themselves lead to vasoconstriction by direct action on vascular smooth muscle cells via thromboxane receptors.20 Therefore, in addition to a decrease in NO-mediated smooth muscle relaxation, the hypertension seen in APE1/ref-1+/− mice may also be attributable to the paracrine vasoconstricting effects of F2-isoprostanes and other oxidative stress-induced metabolites of arachidonic acid.. In addition to eNOS-derived NO production, the governance of H-ras expression by APE1/ref-1 could also contribute to some of the ...
He fluorescence enhancement must be the AP site involved. The optical properties of SG bound in the AP site environment should be different from that directly
García-Gómez S, Reyes A, Martínez-Jiménez MI, E Chocrón S, Mourón S, Terrados G, Powell C, Salido E, Méndez J, Holt IJ & Blanco L (2013) PrimPol, an archaic primase/polymerase operating in human cells. Mol Cell 52, 541-53 ...
PrimPol, an Archaic Primase/Polymerase Operating in Human Cells Sara García-Gómez,Aurelio Reyes,María I. Martínez-Jiménez,E. Sandra Chocrón,Silvana Mourón,Gloria Terrados,Christopher Powell,Eduardo Salido,Juan Méndez,Ian J. Holt,Luis Blanco Molecular Cell, 24 October 2013 ...
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized purines, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3- and 5-phosphates.
OK, for my rocket scientist readers and others, ponder this one: Youve got the worlds most ancient civilization (OK, Iraq has a case, but tourism isnt big there right now), the only surviving one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (pointy structures conveniently near your capital city with lots of five-star hotels), a huge and longstanding tourism infrastructure with many guides speaking European languages, and are dependent on tourism for hard currency. And, since you had this little revolution thingy a few months back that was on all the TV channels, your tourism revenues are sharply down this summer, though starting to improve a bit. So what do you do about it? You there with your hand up, yes, you: The Egyptian Cabinet, you say? And your answer is ...
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Tamm C, Hodes ME, Chargaff E (March 1952). "The formation apurinic acid from the desoxyribonucleic acid of calf thymus". The ... Evidence has shown that a fatty acid messenger, cis-2-decenoic acid, is capable of inducing dispersion and inhibiting growth of ... Dietary carbohydrates can cause a dramatic decrease in pH in oral biofilms to values of 4 and below (acid stress). A pH of 4 at ... The EPS matrix consists of exopolysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. A large proportion of the EPS is more or less ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the APEX1 gene. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) ... Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (2): 370. doi:10.1093/nar/20.2.370. PMC 310384. PMID 1371347. Xanthoudakis S, Miao G, Wang F, Pan YC ... Zhao B, Grandy DK, Hagerup JM, Magenis RE, Smith L, Chauhan BC, Henner WD (August 1992). "The human gene for apurinic/ ... Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (December 1991). "Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic ...
... three amino acids of the 8-oxoguanine-binding pocket". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (2): 570-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh224. PMC 373348. ... Levin, Joshua D; Demple, Bruce (1990). "Analysis of class II (hydrolytic) and class I (beta-lyase) apurinic/apyrimidinic ... TET3o is created by alternative promoter use and contains an additional first N-terminal exon coding for 11 amino acids. TET3o ... creating an apurinic/apyrimidinic site, commonly referred to as an AP site. In this Figure, the 8-OHdG is left in the DNA, ...
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease is an enzyme that is involved in the DNA base excision repair pathway (BER). Its main ... APE1 contains several amino acid residues that enable it to react selectively with AP sites. Three APE1 residues (Arg73, Ala74 ... Known inhibitors of APE1 include 7-nitroindole-2-carboxylic acid (NCA) and lucanthone. Both of these structures possess rings ... Levin, Joshua D; Demple, Bruce (1990). "Analysis of class II (hydrolytic) and class I (beta-lyase) apurinic/apyrimidinic ...
Mutations in ERCC6 that lead to CS deal with both the size of the protein as well as the specific amino acid residues utilized ... Wong HK, Muftuoglu M, Beck G, Imam SZ, Bohr VA, Wilson DM (June 2007). "Cockayne syndrome B protein stimulates apurinic ... A specific mutation at the 1097 position (M1097V) as well as polymorphisms at amino acid residue 1413 have been associated with ... Nucleic Acids Res. 43 (1): 247-58. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1279. PMC 4288174. PMID 25505141. Chang CH, Chiu CF, Wang HC, Wu HC, Tsai ...
Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (1991). "Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: ... Nucleic Acids Research. 23 (23): 4836-4843. doi:10.1093/nar/23.23.4836. PMC 307472. PMID 8532526. Retrieved 10 March 2019. ... Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (5): 1223-1242. doi:10.1093/nar/27.5.1223. PMC 148307. PMID 9973609. ... "Coordination of Steps in Single-nucleotide Base Excision Repair Mediated by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and DNA ...
Apurinic sites in double-stranded DNA are efficiently repaired by portions of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. ... More complex compounds containing nucleoside residues, nucleotides and nucleic acids, also suffer from depurination. ... When depurination occurs with DNA, it leads to the formation of apurinic site and results in an alteration of the structure. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (8): 2522-2540. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq163. PMC 2860131. PMID 20308161. Hartwell, Leland; Hood, Leroy; ...
... were predicted to be 500 to 700 amino acids longer because of a C-terminal fusion of a domain with homology to apurinic- ... one or two tyrosine residues that are separated by several amino acids). The PiF1 family of helicases (Hel) has 5′ to 3′ ... which are present in a protein comprising 1000-3000 amino acids (aa) (Rep/Hel) encoded by all autonomous Helitron elements. The ...
... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.578.550.500 - poly a MeSH D13.695.578.550.500.510 - poly a-u MeSH D13.695.578.550.530 - poly ... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.578.500.300 - poly da-dt MeSH D13.695.578.500.600 - poly t MeSH D13.695.578.550 - ... apurinic acid MeSH D13.695.740.246 - cytosine nucleotides MeSH D13.695.740.246.050 - arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate MeSH ... amino acid-specific MeSH D13.444.735.757.700.050 - rna, transfer, ala MeSH D13.444.735.757.700.075 - rna, transfer, arg MeSH ...
1999). "Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified ... Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (16): 5166-79. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn498. PMC 2532730. PMID 18682526. Bae SH, Bae KH, Kim JA, Seo YS (2001 ...
In contrast, a mutation is a change in the nucleic acid sequence that can be replicated; hence, a mutation can be inherited ... Numerous DNA repair pathways exist for DNA; however, if the apurinic site is not repaired, misincorporation of nucleotides may ... In DNA replication, tautomerization alters the base-pairing sites and can cause the improper pairing of nucleic acid bases. ... Adenine is preferentially incorporated by DNA polymerases in an apurinic site. Cytidine may also become deaminated to uridine ...
Lindahl, T; Nyberg, B (1972). "Rate of depurination of native deoxyribonucleic acid". Biochemistry. 11 (19): 3610-8. doi: ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5'- ... In the 1970s, this class of enzyme was found to repair at apurinic or apyrimidinic DNA sites in E. coli and in mammalian cells ... Initially, AP hydrolyses, such as apurinic or apyrimidinic endonuclease I contain a Mg2+ active site that cleaves the DNA on ...
High-normal levels of the bile acid deoxycholic acid cause apoptosis in human colon cells, but may also lead to colon cancer if ... Nakamura J, Walker VE, Upton PB, Chiang SY, Kow YW, Swenberg JA (January 1998). "Highly sensitive apurinic/apyrimidinic site ... Bile acids, stored in the gall bladder, are released into the small intestine in response to fat in the diet. Higher levels of ... Bile acids cause DNA damage, including oxidative DNA damage, double-strand DNA breaks, aneuploidy and chromosome breakage. ...
Nucleic Acid Quadruplexes and Metallo-Drugs". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Freisinger E, Sigel RK (eds.). Metallo-Drugs: Development ... Poetsch, Anna R. (2020). "AP-Seq: A Method to Measure Apurinic Sites and Small Base Adducts Genome-Wide". The Nucleus. Methods ... 2006). Quadruplex Nucleic Acids. ISBN 978-0-85404-374-3. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Rowland GB, Barnett K, ... Largy E, Mergny J, Gabelica V (2016). "Chapter 7. Role of Alkali Metal Ions in G-Quadruplex Nucleic Acid Structure and ...
In a given mammalian cell, 5000-10,000 apurinic sites are estimated to form per day. Apyrimidinic sites form at a rate roughly ... The glycosidic linkages in DNA can be broken via acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Purine bases can be ejected under weakly acidic ... In biochemistry and molecular genetics, an AP site (apurinic/apyrimidinic site), also known as an abasic site, is a location in ... It has been estimated that under physiological conditions 10,000 apurinic sites and 500 apyrimidinic may be generated in a cell ...
Yang B, Chen K, Zhang C, Huang S, Zhang H (April 2007). "Virion-associated uracil DNA glycosylase-2 and apurinic/apyrimidinic ... Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (12): 3879-92. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm372. PMC 1919486. PMID 17537817. CCNO human gene location in the ...
Twelve studies (summarized in Bernstein et al.) indicate that the bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) or lithocholic acid (LCA) ... followed by inaccurate repair or replication of the apurinic site leading to mutation and eventually cancer. This genotoxic ... When the bile acid DCA was added to the standard diet of wild-type mice invasive colon cancer was induced in 56% of the mice ... Epidemiologic studies have found that fecal bile acid concentrations are increased in populations with a high incidence of ...
... amino acid oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.062 - alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 - d-amino-acid ... apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase MeSH D08.811.074.781 - muts dna mismatch-binding protein MeSH D08.811.074.812 - muts ... l-amino acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.724 - leucine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772 - nitric oxide synthase ... oxo-acid-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.200 - anthranilate synthase MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.700 - isocitrate lyase MeSH ...
DNase IV is coomposed of 185 amino acid residues with magnesium ions acting as a cofactor. Diavalent metal ion such as Mg²⁺ ... Deoxyribonuclease IV is a type of deoxyribonuclease that functions at abasic or apurinic-apyrimidininc sites when the cell is ... Enzyme properties and studies on the degradation of alkylated and native deoxyribonucleic acid". The Journal of Biological ... Sadowski PD, Hurwitz J (November 1969). "Enzymatic breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid. I. Purification and properties of ...
Shen B, Nolan JP, Sklar LA, Park MS (1996). "Essential amino acids for substrate binding and catalysis of human flap ... "Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified human ... Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (17): 3925-32. doi:10.1093/nar/26.17.3925. PMC 147798. PMID 9705499. Hosfield DJ, Mol CD, Shen B, Tainer ...
... codon for amino acid serine), while the second cancer had a nucleotide base change at codon 400 from CAG (codon for amino acid ... The excision of the bases causes the formation of an apurinic/ apyrimidinic (AP site) gap. These gap sites are mutagenic in ... The other common mutation switches the amino acid glycine with aspartic acid at position 396 (also written as p.Gly396Asp(G396D ... These amino acid mutations provide the basis for the somatic mutations in the gastric system. Pilomatricoma has been noted in a ...
This thioester species is much higher in energy (less stable) than the carboxylic acid species that would result if GAP were ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), thus converting oxidized APE1 to its reduced form, to restart its endonuclease ... Koningic acid Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File ... in which an aldehyde is converted into a carboxylic acid (ΔG°'=-50 kJ/mol (−12kcal/mol)) and NAD+ is simultaneously reduced ...
... s are transferase enzymes of phosphorus-containing groups, e.g., substituents of nucleotidylic acids or ... "Coordination of Steps in Single-nucleotide Base Excision Repair Mediated by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and DNA ...
... is derived from both a dedicated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a polyketide synthase (PKS), together known as ... These adducts may then rearrange or become removed from the backbone all-together, forming an apurinic site. These adducts and ... A reductase then catalyzes the reduction of the ketone on the norsolorinic acid side-chain to yield averantin. Averantin is ... Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the carboxylic acid and subsequently a ...
In vitro, CUT domains of CUX1 stimulate the enzymatic activities of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and the apurinic/ ... In addition to these conserved domains, the n-terminal 100 amino acids contains an autoinhibitory domain, while the carboxy- ... Nucleic Acids Research 2012, 40(10):4483-95. Michl P, Ramjaun AR, Pardo OE, Warne PH, Wagner M, Poulsom R, ... and Downward J ... Nucleic Acids Research 2008, 36(1):189-202. Kedinger V, Sansregret L, Harada R, Vadnais C, Cadieux C, Fathers K, ... and Nepveu ...
Bennett RA, Wilson DM, Wong D, Demple B (July 1997). "Interaction of human apurinic endonuclease and DNA polymerase beta in the ... Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression". Nucleic Acids Research. 22 (14): 2719-25. doi:10.1093/nar/22.14.2719. PMC ... Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (18): 4859-64. doi:10.1093/nar/20.18.4859. PMC 334243. PMID 1408801. Wang L, Patel U, Ghosh L, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (20): 9587-96. doi:10.1093/nar/16.20.9587. PMC 338765. PMID 2460824. Widen SG, Kedar P, Wilson SH ( ...
Limiting the amount of glucose or amino acids in the growth medium has been shown to increase RLS and CLS in yeast as well as ... reactive oxygen species increase leading to the accumulation of DNA damages such as apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and double- ... They can also use most amino acids, small peptides, and nitrogen bases as nitrogen sources. Histidine, glycine, cystine, and ... especially amino acids and B-complex vitamins. Owing to the high cost of commercial CO2 cylinder systems, CO2 injection by ...
Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... Depurination - Loss of a purine base (A or G) to form an apurinic site (AP site). Deamination - Hydrolysis changes a normal ... For example, the code CCU GAC UAC CUA codes for the amino acids proline, aspartic acid, tyrosine, and leucine. If the U in CCU ... Nonsense mutations are represented with an X for the second amino acid (e.g. D111X). Amino acid deletion (e.g., ΔF508) - The ...
This abasic site (or AP, apurinic/apyrimidinic) may be copied by a translesion synthesis DNA polymerase such as DNA polymerase ... Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (12): 2990-4. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg464. PMC 162340. PMID 12799424. AICDA+protein at the US National Library ... Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (12): 2990-4. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg464. PMC 162340. PMID 12799424. Ramiro AR, Stavropoulos P, Jankovic ... this abasic site may be cleaved by apurinic endonuclease (APE), creating a break in the deoxyribose phosphate backbone. This ...
... bile-acid 7a-dehydratase EC 4.2.1.107: 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA dehydratase EC 4.2.1.108: ectoine synthase ... apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase EC 4.2.99.19: transferred entry, now EC 4.4.1.23 EC 4.2.99.20: 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4- ... N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate etherase EC 4.2.1.127: linalool dehydratase EC 4.2.1.128: lupan-3beta,20-diol synthase EC 4.2. ... olivetolic acid cyclase EC 4.5.1.1: DDT-dehydrochlorinase EC 4.5.1.2: 3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase EC 4.5.1.3: ...
Twelve studies (summarized in Bernstein et al.[43]) indicate that the bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and/or lithocholic acid ... followed by inaccurate repair or replication of the apurinic site leading to mutation and eventually cancer. This genotoxic ... When the bile acid DCA was added to the standard diet of wild-type mice invasive colon cancer was induced in 56% of the mice ... Also 27 studies reported that bile acids cause programmed cell death (apoptosis). Increased apoptosis can result in selective ...
retinoic acid receptor binding. • enzyme binding. • peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding. • DNA binding. • GO: ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease activity. • GO:0001158 cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (18): 4259-67. doi:10.1093/nar/21.18.4259. PMC 310059. PMID 8414980.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (16): 7124-33. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr396. PMC 3167630. PMID 21596776.. ...
This involves two types of enzymes: Bifunctional glycosylases: the endonuclease III (encoded by nth gene) Apurinic/Apirimidinic ... nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides and other biological macromolecules. EPS secretion protects bacteria from HNF grazing. ...
Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... Depurination - Loss of a purine base (A or G) to form an apurinic site (AP site). ... Amino acid deletion (e.g., ΔF508) - The Greek letter Δ (delta) indicates a deletion. The letter refers to the amino acid ... For example, the code CCU GAC UAC CUA codes for the amino acids proline, aspartic acid, tyrosine, and leucine. If the U in CCU ...
Nucleic acids became the sole and universal means of encoding genetic information, requiring DNA repair mechanisms that in ... These enzymes remove a single base to create an apurinic or apyrimidinic site (AP site). Enzymes called AP endonucleases nick ... Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (18): 5377-88. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg728. PMC 203313. PMID 12954774. Jung D, Alt FW (January 2004). " ...
Nucleic acids Nucleic acid analogues Peptide nucleic acid Bridged Nucleic Acids Beaucage, S. L.; Iyer, R. P. (1992). "Advances ... The apurinic sites thus formed are readily cleaved in the course of the final deprotection of the oligonucleotide under the ... The DMT group is removed with a solution of an acid, such as 2% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or 3% dichloroacetic acid (DCA), in ... In one approach, the removal of the 5'-O-DMT group is effected by electrochemical generation of the acid at the required site(s ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (2): 525-31. doi:10.1093/nar/26.2.525. PMC 147278. PMID 9421510. Taylor MR, Conrad JA, Wahl D, ... "Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified human ...
In order to perform, Cdk5 needs to be activated by p35 (these 3 amino acids, Asp-259, Asn-266 and Ser-270, are involved in the ... "APEX1 - DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease - Homo sapiens (Human) - APEX1 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... Cdk5 has 292 amino acids and presents both α-helix and β strand structures. Even though Cdk5 has a similar structure to other ...
The most N-terminal conserved region contains an aspartic acid residue which has been proposed, based on X-ray structures to ... They remove the damaged nitrogenous base while leaving the sugar-phosphate backbone intact, creating an apurinic/apyrimidinic ... The N-terminal 77 amino acids of UNG1 seem to be required for mitochondrial localization, but the presence of a mitochondrial ... Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (17): 5291-5302. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh859. PMC 521670. PMID 15466595. Wu P, Qiu C, Sohail A, Zhang X, ...
Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions ... Nucleic Acids Res. 37:3946-3958(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]. Cited for: FUNCTION, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonucleaseAdd BLAST. 317. ChainiPRO_0000402574. 31 - 317. DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic ... Nucleic Acids Res. 37:3946-3958(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]. Cited for: FUNCTION, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS ...
APN1 accounts for > 97% of both apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and DNA 3-repair diesterase activities. ... DNA repair enzyme that cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and removes 3-blocking groups present at single strand breaks ... Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1Add BLAST. 366. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease activity Source: SGDInferred from direct assayi*. "Characterization of two ...
Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: ... DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE A, B 318 Homo sapiens EC#: 3.1 IUBMB 4.2.99.18 IUBMB Gene Name(s): APEX1 Gene View ... A second divalent metal ion in the active site of a new crystal form of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Ape1, and its ...
DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE. A, B. 318. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: APE1, APEX1, APE, APEX, APX, ... A second divalent metal ion in the active site of a new crystal form of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Ape1, and its ... Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: ... The major human abasic endonuclease, Ape1, is an essential DNA repair enzyme that initiates the removal of apurinic/ ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019] DNA complexes with human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1: structural insights revealed by pulsed ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens] DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens]. gi,18375503, ... It encodes the APEX endonuclease, a DNA repair enzyme with apurinic/apyrimid... Also Known As: APE, APE1, APEN, APEX, ... ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_542379.1 ...
A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain ... Seki, S., Akiyama, K., Watanabe, S., Hatsushika, M., Ikeda, S., Tsutsui, K. (1991). cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a ... Takiguchi, Y., Chen, D.J. Genomic structure of the mouse apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease gene. Mammalian Genome 5, 717-722 ( ... A mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (AP endonuclease) is known to have two distinct functional domains. One domain ...
Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and cobalt chloride were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), ... Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 Is a Key Modulator of Keratinocyte Inflammatory Responses. Hye-Mi Lee, Jae-Min Yuk, Dong- ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1)3 is a multifunctional protein containing a redox-sensitive domain ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) functions in both DNA repair and redox signaling, making it an ...
Lindahl, T; Nyberg, B (1972). "Rate of depurination of native deoxyribonucleic acid". Biochemistry. 11 (19): 3610-8. doi: ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5- ... In the 1970s, this class of enzyme was found to repair at apurinic or apyrimidinic DNA sites in E. coli and in mammalian cells ... Initially, AP hydrolyses, such as apurinic or apyrimidinic endonuclease I contain a Mg2+ active site that cleaves the DNA on ...
Ono Y, Furuta T, Ohmoto T, Akiyama K, Seki S. Stable expression in rat glioma cells of sense and antisense nucleic acids to a ... Purpose: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo) is a key DNA repair enzyme that cleaves DNA at cytotoxic abasic sites ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is elevated in human adult gliomas. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7:3510-18. ... Apurinic Endonuclease Activity in Adult Gliomas and Time to Tumor Progression after Alkylating Agent-Based Chemotherapy and ...
GO:0003676 nucleic acid binding GO:0003684 damaged DNA binding GO:0003906 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity GO ...
1999) Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. Nucleic ... Nucleic Acids Res 25:1553-1558.. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text. *↵. *Lombaerts M, ...
BEHMOARAS, T., TOULME, J.J., and HELENE, C. (1981). Specific recognition of apurinic sites in DNA by a tryptophancontaining ... Aromatic Amino Acid Indole Ring Nucleic Acid Basis Nucleic Acid Structure Polynucleotide Chain These keywords were added by ... RASZKA, M. and MANDEL, M. (1971). Interaction of aromatic amino acids with neutral poly(adenylic) acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... McPHERSON, A. (1982). X-ray crystallographic studies of nucleic acid binding proteins. In: Topics in Nucleic Acid Structure, (S ...
... apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; amsacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; ... The first 23 amino acids function as a signal sequence that is cleaved to yield a mature protein with 1451 amino acid residues ... Human .alpha.2M is synthesized as a 1474 amino acid precursor, the first 23 of which function as a signal sequence that is ... Such nucleic acids, many of which are oligonucleotides comprising an unmethylated CpG motif, are mitogenic to vertebrate ...
... naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid. Also provided are methods of treatment using this compound with chemotherapy, radiation ... apurinic acid; ara-CDP-DL-PTBA; arginine deaminase; asulacrine; atamestane; atrimustine; axinastatin 1; axinastatin 2; ... The acids that can be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such basic compounds are those that form salts ... Examples of mutants include, but are not limited to, proteins that have one or more amino acid residues that differ from the ...
The assay is used to analyze the kinetics of inserting deoxynucleotides opposite a synthetic abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) ... Apurinic Acid * DNA Polymerase II Grant support * GM21422/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... The assay is used to analyze the kinetics of inserting deoxynucleotides opposite a synthetic abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) ...
2008 Potent inhibition of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 by arylstibonic acids. Mol. Pharmacol. 73: 669-677. doi: ... in vitro assays have classified NSC-13755 and other arylstibonic acid derivatives as enzymatic inhibitors of the human apurinic ... A more robust complementation was observed after converting five human histone amino acid residues to the amino acids found in ... 2008 Arylstibonic acids: novel inhibitors and activators of human topoisomerase IB. Bioorg. Chem. 36: 190-197. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Tamm C, Hodes ME, Chargaff E (March 1952). "The formation apurinic acid from the desoxyribonucleic acid of calf thymus". The ... Evidence has shown that a fatty acid messenger, cis-2-decenoic acid, is capable of inducing dispersion and inhibiting growth of ... Dietary carbohydrates can cause a dramatic decrease in pH in oral biofilms to values of 4 and below (acid stress). A pH of 4 at ... The EPS matrix consists of exopolysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. A large proportion of the EPS is more or less ...
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 processing of AP sites with 5 mismatches. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol, 74, pp. ... A Portal for Three-dimensional Structural Information about Nucleic Acids. As of 16-Jan-2019 number of released structures: ... [email protected] ©1995-2019 The Nucleic Acid Database Project , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ...
1997) 3′-phosphodiesterase activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at DNA double-strand break ends. Nucleic Acids ... 1974) The number of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid genomes in mouse L and human HeLa cells. Quantitative isolation of ... 1999) Removal by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape 1) and Escherichia coli exonuclease III of 3′- ... 2010) Identification and characterization of mitochondrial targeting sequence of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. J ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase/DNA Complex. Deposited:. 2019-06-09 Released:. 2020-01-01 Structural Keywords:. B ... A Portal for Three-dimensional Structural Information about Nucleic Acids. As of 15-Jan-2020 number of released structures: ... [email protected] ©1995-2019 The Nucleic Acid Database Project , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ...
1972 Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 11, 3618-3623. doi:10.1021 ... 1996 Amino acid racemization and the preservation of ancient DNA. Science 272, 864-866. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.864 (doi: ... 2004 Isolation of nucleic acids and cultures from fossil ice and permafrost. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 19, 141-147. doi:10.1016/J. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 1304-1307. doi:10.1093/nar/24.7.1304 (doi:10.1093/nar/24.7.1304). ...
Lindahl, T. and A. Andersson, Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double- stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry ... Verly, W.G., Y. Paquette, and L. Thibodeau, Nuclease for DNA apurinic sites may be involved in the maintenance of DNA in normal ... An E. coli activity specific for apurinic sites had been identified just two years earlier by Walter Verly [41, 42]. Lindahl ... Seeberg, E., W.D. Rupp, and P. Strike, Impaired incision of ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid in uvrC mutants of ...
Apurinic acid endonuclease and exonuclease Iii, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 73: 4324.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Dunn, D. B., 1963, The isolation of 1-methyladenylic acid and 7-methylguanylic acid from ribonucleic acid, Biochem. J. 86: 14 P ... Lawley, P. D., 1966, Effects of some chemical mutagens and carcinogens on nucleic acids, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 5: ... Yang, J. T., And Samejima, T., 1969, Optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism of nucleic acids, Prog. Nucleic Acid ...
"Crystal structure of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease IV from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Biochemical and Biophysical ... Characterization of amino acid substitutions that severely alter the DNA repair functions of Escherichia coli endonuclease IV ... DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic site binding and excision by endonuclease IV. Garcin, E.D.; Hosfield, D.J.; Desai, S.A.; Haas, B.J.; ... Crystal structure of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease IV from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yueyang; Yan, ...
Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. Nucleic Acids ... Two mutants having amino acid replacement mutations are also shown here. The results are given at the extreme right-hand side. ... During base excision repair, SSB are produced by DNA glycosylases and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases at the site of ... Two additional pCY4B-Flag constructs of XRCC1 mutants having amino acid replacement mutations in the BRCT1 domain were ...
Repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by UV damage endonuclease; a repair protein for UV and oxidative damage. Nucleic Acids ... Conidia germinate in response to plant signals, such as amino acids and plant peroxidases, but also in response to humidity and ...
... and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as ... Doetsch, P. and R. Cunningham, The enzymology of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases. Mutation Res, 1990. 236: p. 173-201. ... which is generally regarded as a carrier nucleic acid molecule into which a nucleic acid sequence can be inserted for ... Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol, 2001. 68: p. 257-271. Eizirik, D. and T. Mandrup-Poulsen, A choice of death-the signal- ...
Rate of chain breakage at apurinic sites in double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry. 11:3618-3623. ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) efficiently nicks DNA at abasic sites, but it is unknown whether APE participates in ... Reduced CSR in B cells treated with the APE inhibitor 7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (CRT0044876). To further confirm that ... Substrate binding by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease indicates a Briggs-Haldane mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1302- ...
Henderson A et al. Detection of G-quadruplex DNA in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res N/A:N/A (2013). ICC/IF ; Human . PubMed ... Madlener S et al. Essential role for mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease Ape1/Ref-1 in telomere maintenance. Proc ... Schenkwein D et al. rDNA-directed integration by an HIV-1 integrase--I-PpoI fusion protein. Nucleic Acids Res 41:e61 (2013). ... Kang J et al. Amino acid-dependent signaling via S6K1 and MYC is essential for regulation of rDNA transcription. Oncotarget 7: ...
DNA glycosylases, endonucleases for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and base excision-repair. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. ... Nucleic acids were extracted from HSV-1-infected wild-type A1-expressing and control RSCs at 8 hpi. (B) DNA copy number was ... Real-time PCR.Nucleic acids were extracted as previously described (4). For the analyses of HSV-1 mRNA products, 1 μg of RNA ... Identification of amino acid residues in APOBEC3G required for regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif and virion ...
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) functions in both DNA repair and redox signaling, making it an attractive emerging therapeutic target. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) 3 is a multifunctional protein containing a redox-sensitive domain and a DNA repair domain ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombinant fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 1-318 of Human APE1 protein (P27695). (abcam.com)
  • The enzyme apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease 1 (APE1) cleaves the abasic DNA strand. (els.net)
  • We determined the structures of abasic DNA cocrystallized with APE1, the primary human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease. (scripps.edu)
  • The geometry of the active site of APE1 and of a ternary complex consisting of the enzyme, cleaved apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA, and metal ion support a distinct structure-based catalytic mechanism. (scripps.edu)
  • Both the larger APE1-DNA interface and the induced DNA kink suggest how APE1 may enhance glycosylase activity by completely displacing DNA glycosylases from their tightly bound apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA products. (scripps.edu)
  • The DNA Base Excision Repair Pathway Inhibitor, also referenced under CAS 6960-45-8, controls the biological activity of APE1 (human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose protein, is also known as redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we found that cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 expression was upregulated in reactive astrocytes of the kainic acid- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose nuclear protein, is involved in the base excision repair pathway for damaged bases and DNA single-strand breaks following endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzymology of apurinic/apyrimininic endonucleases. (springer.com)
  • During base excision repair, SSB are produced by DNA glycosylases and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases at the site of base damage. (asm.org)
  • In the BER pathway, abasic sites are subsequently recognized by apurinic/apyrimidic endonucleases (APEs), which nick the DNA backbone to create DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) ( 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The abasic sites generated either spontaneously or by UDG and other DNA repair glycosylases are recognized by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, which cleave the DNA backbone to create a free 3´-OH end to prime DNA repair synthesis. (scripps.edu)
  • DNA repair enzyme that cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and removes 3'-blocking groups present at single strand breaks of damaged DNA. (uniprot.org)
  • cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a mouse DNA repair enzyme (APEX nuclease) with significant homology to Escherichia coli exonuclease III. (springer.com)
  • In the 1970s, this class of enzyme was found to repair at apurinic or apyrimidinic DNA sites in E. coli and in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo) is a key DNA repair enzyme that cleaves DNA at cytotoxic abasic sites caused by alkylating agents and radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the base excision repair pathway, the enzyme that acts subsequent to UNG is apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE), which nicks the DNA backbone at abasic sites to create DNA single-stranded (SS) breaks (SSBs) ( 9 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Computer simulation of a HAP1 (lower frame, called APE/Ref-1) enzyme repairing a damaged Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA, stick model) molecule. (sciencephoto.com)
  • We found that enzyme loops insert into both the DNA major and minor grooves, severely kinking the DNA to bind a flipped-out apurinic/apyrimidinic site in a pocket that excludes DNA bases. (scripps.edu)
  • The enzyme also exhibits lyase activity with substrates containing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (deoxyribose moieties lacking the nucleobase). (bvsalud.org)
  • OGG1 is highly specific for the base opposite the lesion, efficiently excising oxoG and cleaving AP sites located opposite to C, but not opposite to A. The activity is also profoundly decreased by amino acid changes that sterically interfere with oxoG binding in the active site of the enzyme after the lesion is everted from the DNA duplex. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 The enzyme also has intrinsic RNase H, 3´-DNA phosphatase, and apurinic DNA endonuclease activities. (lucigen.com)
  • The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease and nucleic-acid-binding domains encoded upstream of the reverse transcriptase, and the RNase H and the restriction enzyme-like endonuclease motifs encoded downstream of the reverse transcriptase were identified in the corresponding Ciona families. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila S3 also possesses an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity in which the enzyme catalyzes a β-elimination reaction that cleaves phosphodiester bonds 3′ and adjacent to an AP lesion in DNA. (iupui.edu)
  • Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions induced by oxidative and alkylating agents. (uniprot.org)
  • APEX2 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endodeoxyribonuclease 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Your search returned 2 apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Although Kae1 is annotated as O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase in most genomes, we found that the Kae1 protein from Pyrococcus abyssi has no protease activity, but is an atypical DNA-binding protein with an AP (apurinic) lyase activity. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes. (springer.com)
  • We may consider the active center of a nucleic acid-binding protein as a three dimensional distribution of functional groups able to form ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic bonds (including stacking). (springer.com)
  • Interactions between functional groups in protein-nucleic acid associations. (springer.com)
  • Specific recognition of guanine bases in protein-nucleic acid complexes. (springer.com)
  • An archaeal orthologue of the universal protein Kae1 is an iron metalloprotein which exhibits atypical DNA-binding properties and apurinic-endonuclease activity in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Isolated, purified, and recombinant nucleic acids and proteins corresponding to the human GC6 gene and its mRNA and protein products, as well as peptides and antibodies corresponding to the GC6 protein can be used to identify. (google.es)
  • We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the polymorphic variant in apurinic/apyriminidinic endonuclease (APEX1) gene to its mRNA and protein levels and the risk of endometriosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Background Art Nucleic acids, including DNA, are generally prepared from cells by treating a sample containing the cells with SDS or Proteinase K and then denaturing and removing the protein with phenol to purify the nucleic acid (Molecular Cloning 2nd Edition, 9.16-9.23, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989). (google.com)
  • Changes in nucleic acid, protein, and metal content as a consequence of zinc deficiency in Euglena gracilis. (docphin.com)
  • The human S3 protein, although 80% identical to its Drosophila homolog and shorter by only two amino acids, has only marginal N-glycosylase activity. (iupui.edu)
  • Thus, a single amino acid change converted the Drosophila activity into one that is similar to that possessed by the human S3 protein. (iupui.edu)
  • Human apurinic endonuclease gene (APE): structure and genomic mapping (chromosome 14q11.2-12). (springer.com)
  • The enzymatic removal of chemical damage in DNA, the regulation of gene expression by a repressor molecule, and the binding of RNA polymerase to a promoter are some examples of processes which involve specific interactions between proteins and nucleic acids. (springer.com)
  • Within nucleic acid and genetic material technologies, it is often necessary to determine whether a gene, a part of a gene, or a nucleotide sequence is present in a living organism, a cellular extract of this organism, or a biological sample. (justia.com)
  • We also demonstrated a significant increase in gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in cerebral cortex of the HFD group, reinforcing the anti-inflammatory role of this family of fatty acids. (springermedizin.de)
  • Mutation of the NADH oxidase gene (nox) reveals an overlap of the oxygen- and acid-mediated stress responses in Streptococcus mutans. (rochester.edu)
  • Stimulates APEX1 endonuclease activity on apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) double-stranded DNA but inhibits APEX1 endonuclease activity on AP single-stranded RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • PCNA induces a robust stimulatory effect on the 3'-5' exonuclease and 3'-phosphodiesterase, but not apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APEX2 activities. (ptglab.com)
  • Moses, R & Beaudet, AL 1978, ' Apurinic DNA endonuclease activities in repair-deficient human cell lines ', Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 463-473. (elsevier.com)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. (genecards.org)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are frequently generated in the genome by spontaneous depurination/depyrimidination or after removal of oxidized/modified basics by DNA glycosylases during the foundation excision restoration (BER) path. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • Actually, most of the steps of replication, transcription, and translation of the genetic information, as well as DNA repair, RNA maturation, or building of nucleosomes or ribosomes require the specific recognition of a nucleic acid structure or base sequence by proteins. (springer.com)
  • Nucleic acid-binding molecules with high affinity and base sequence specificity: Intercalating agents covalently linked to oligodeoxynucleotides," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Nucleic acids separated and purified by the above method are usable in nucleic acid amplification or base sequence analysis techniques. (google.com)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 processing of AP sites with 5' mismatches. (rutgers.edu)
  • Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) efficiently nicks DNA at abasic sites, but it is unknown whether APE participates in CSR. (rupress.org)
  • One of the most frequent lesions formed in cellular DNA are abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) sites that are both cytotoxic and mutagenic, and must be removed efficiently to maintain genetic stability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This DNA repair pathway is responsible for relieving the burden of approximately 10,000 abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic [AP]) sites estimated to arise each day by spontaneous hydrolysis in the genome of a mammalian cell ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Amongst these is base-loss which forms apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites or strand breaks with atypical 3' termini. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms of DNA strand nicking at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by Escherichia coli [formamidopyrimidine]DNA glycosylase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The UV-DDB complex preferentially binds to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PP), apurinic sites and short mismatches. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that Gcp plays an important role in the modulation of the branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A major mechanism of directed prereplicative excision of 8-oxodG is the OGG1 glycosylase/apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase-initiated base excision repair (BER) pathway ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides gross structural complementarity between the two interacting macromolecules, interactions between individual amino acids and nucleotides can provide the required specificity. (springer.com)
  • One unit of Exonuclease III catalyzes the release of 1 nmol of acid-soluble nucleotides from double stranded calf thymus DNA in 30 minutes at 37°C under standard assay conditions. (lucigen.com)
  • A process of amplifying a nucleic acid template dependent on partial destruction of primer molecules which have extended onto the template molecule followed by strand invasion of the partially destroyed primer template by a replacement primer. (justia.com)
  • The invention relates to the amplification of nucleic acids, in particular to a process of amplifying a nucleic acid template dependent on partial destruction of primer molecules which have extended onto the template molecule followed by strand invasion of the partially destroyed primer template by a replacement primer. (justia.com)
  • Once the specific sequence of an organism or a disease is known, the nucleic acids should be extracted from a sample and a determination should be made as to whether this sequence is present. (justia.com)
  • DNA complexes with human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1: structural insights revealed by pulsed dipolar EPR with orthogonal spin labeling. (nih.gov)
  • Isolation of cDNA clones encoding a human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that corrects DNA repair and mutagenesis defects in E. coli xth (exonuclease III) mutants. (springer.com)
  • the deduced amino acid sequences of rat and human differ by only 4 of 261 amino acids. (ptglab.com)
  • Testing the knowledge of basic concepts in Nucleic acid in Biochemistry. (scribd.com)
  • Cells rely on several DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) repair pathways to maintain the integrity of their genetic information, including DNA base excision repair (BER). (els.net)
  • Except for Rrp1 and arp, these enzymes are proteins of about 300 amino-acid residues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Stacking Interactions: The Key Mechanism for Binding of Proteins to Single-Stranded Regions of Native and Damaged Nucleic Acids? (springer.com)
  • Thermodynamic analysis of ion effects on the binding and conformational equilibria of proteins and nucleic acids: the roles of ion association or release, screening, and ion effects on water activity. (springer.com)
  • X-ray crystallographic studies of nucleic acid binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • At the amino acid level, all of these organisms have many different conserved DNA repair proteins for diverse DNA repair pathways, which indicates that DNA repair processes evolved very early ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • 1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID No: 15. (google.es)
  • 2. A recombinant nucleic acid molecule comprising a promoter sequence operably linked to a nucleic acid molecule according to claim 1. (google.es)
  • 3. A recombinant nucleic acid vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule according to claim 1. (google.es)
  • 4. A host cell comprising a recombinant nucleic acid molecule according to claim 2. (google.es)
  • 6. An isolated nucleic acid molecule according to claim 1, wherein the molecule comprises the nucleic acid sequence shown in SEQ ID No: 16. (google.es)
  • The assay is used to analyze the kinetics of inserting deoxynucleotides opposite a synthetic abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lesions using Drosophila DNA polymerase alpha. (nih.gov)
  • The tyrosine is located in motif B and highly conserved throughout evolution from bacteria to humans indicating a general amino acid templating mechanism for bypass of non‐instructive lesions by DNA polymerases at least from this sequence family. (embopress.org)
  • Specifically, we identified that the depletion of Gcp dramatically elevated the production of key enzymes that are encoded in the ilv-leu operon and responsible for the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV) using proteomic approaches. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These studies on direct DNA repair complement our work on base-excision repair enzymes such as uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), which specifically recognizes and cleaves uracil from DNA to create the central base-excision repair intermediate: an apurinic/apyrimidinic, or abasic, site. (scripps.edu)
  • Recent research advances confirm the presence of different clusters in enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • 97% of both apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and DNA 3'-repair diesterase activities. (uniprot.org)
  • It seemed likely that a defect in excision repair reported for ataxia telangiectasia cells might reflect a lack of apurinic endonuclease activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Associated with nucleolar ribonucleoprotein structures and bind single-stranded nucleic acids. (proteopedia.org)
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is definitely a class of commercially available fatty acids that have been associated with anticancer properties in rodent models of chemical carcinogenesis. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a class of fatty acid isomers of linoleic acid formed from the action of anaerobic bacteria in the rumen of ruminant animals (3). (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • Therefore, omega-3 fatty acids may play an important role in the central nervous system, preventing the progression of neuroinflammation in obesity. (springermedizin.de)
  • Arendash GW, Jensen MT, Salem N, Hussein N, Cracchiolo J, Dickson A, Leighty R, Potter H (2007) A diet high in omega-3 fatty acids does not improve or protect cognitive performance in Alzheimer's transgenic mice. (springermedizin.de)
  • Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis by the global regulator CcpA and the local regulator FabT in Streptococcus mutans. (rochester.edu)
  • Role of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in virulence of Streptococcus mutans. (rochester.edu)
  • Low pH-induced membrane fatty acid alterations in oral bacteria. (rochester.edu)
  • The essentiality of staphylococcal Gcp is independent of its repression of branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report here normal levels of apurinic endonuclease activity in extracts of cell lines derived from patients with ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group D), Cockayne dwarfism, Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • Technical Field The present invention relates to a simple method of preparing nucleic acids at a high purity from cells using a nonwoven fabric, and to a preparation kit therefor. (google.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • The most direct method for detecting the presence of a target sequence in a nucleic acid sample is to obtain a "probe" whose sequence is sufficiently complementary to part of the target nucleic acid to hybridize therewith. (justia.com)
  • The invention further relates to a method of amplifying nucleic acid from a nonwoven fabric which has adsorbed the nucleic acid, to a method of detecting a nucleic acid sequence from a nonwoven fabric which has adsorbed the nucleic acid, and to a method and kit for preparation of the nonwoven fabric which has adsorbed the nucleic acid, to be used in the aforementioned method. (google.com)
  • Depurination occurs via hydrolysis of the purine-deoxyribose glycosyl bond and causes nucleic acid damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepatobiliary Delivery of Polyaminopolycarboxylate Chelates: Synthesis and Characterization of a Cholic Acid Conjugate of EDTA and Biodistribution and Imaging Studies with Its Indium-111 Chelate", Bioconjugate Chem. (patentgenius.com)