Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)Fluocinonide: A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of ECZEMA.Scalp DermatosesSneddon Syndrome: A systemic non-inflammatory arteriopathy primarily of middle-aged females characterized by the association of livedo reticularis, multiple thrombotic CEREBRAL INFARCTION; CORONARY DISEASE, and HYPERTENSION. Elevation of antiphospholipid antibody titers (see also ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME), cardiac valvulopathy, ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and chronic ischemia of the extremities may also occur. Pathologic examination of affected arteries reveals non-inflammatory adventitial fibrosis, thrombosis, and changes in the media. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p861; Arch Neurol 1997 Jan;54(1):53-60)Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Hand DermatosesFacial DermatosesT-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Roman World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the political domination and influence of ancient Rome, bringing to the conquered people the Roman civilization and culture from 753 B.C. to the beginning of the imperial rule under Augustus in 27 B.C. The early city built on seven hills grew to conquer Sicily, Sardinia, Carthage, Gaul, Spain, Britain, Greece, Asia Minor, etc., and extended ultimately from Mesopotamia to the Atlantic. Roman medicine was almost entirely in Greek hands, but Rome, with its superior water system, remains a model of sanitation and hygiene. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed pp196-99; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, pp107-120)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Solitary or multiple benign hepatic vascular tumors, usually occurring in women of 20-50 years of age. The nodule, poorly encapsulated, consists of a central stellate fibrous scar and normal liver elements such as HEPATOCYTES, small BILE DUCTS, and KUPFFER CELLS among the intervening fibrous septa. The pale colored central scar represents large blood vessels with hyperplastic fibromuscular layer and narrowing lumen.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Linitis Plastica: A condition where the stomach wall becomes thickened, rubbery and loses its ability to distend. The stomach assumes a "leather bottle" shape. It is most often seen in adenocarcinoma of the stomach. The term is often used synonymously with diffuse adenocarcinoma of the stomach.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Adenolymphoma: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Parotid DiseasesCarcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)

Recombinant interferon alpha-2b in patients with metastatic apudomas: effect on tumours and tumour markers. (1/17)

Malignant carcinoid tumours, islet cell tumours and medullary carcinomas of the thyroid are tumours with similar clinical features. In patients with unresectable or metastatic tumours leukocyte interferon (IFN) and recombinant human (rh) IFN have demonstrated efficacy. Twenty-four evaluable patients with progressive tumours were treated with 2.5 megaunits rh IFN alpha-2b, administered once daily subcutaneously, for a median duration of 7 months (range 0.5-37+). Two carcinoid patients demonstrated a response in tumour size, 80% showed stable disease (SD). Sixty percent of the carcinoid patients with elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) levels reached a biochemical partial response of the urinary 5-HIAA levels (median duration 13.5 months). In the patients with an islet cell or medullary tumour and an elevated tumour marker, the marker did not further increase. Of the 12 carcinoid patients evaluable for a symptomatic response, ten (83%) experienced a relieve of symptoms. IFN alpha-2b dose reduction or discontinuation due to toxicity was necessary in three and ten patients, respectively. No neutralising IFN alpha-2b antibodies developed despite prolonged treatment. In conclusion, IFN alpha-2b had a beneficial effect in patients with progressive tumours, while long-term IFN alpha-2b treatment did not augment neutralising antibodies. In view of the IFN alpha-2b-related toxicity, administration of IFN alpha-2b on alternating days may be preferable.  (+info)

Relative usefulness of electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry in tumour diagnosis: 10 years of retrospective analysis. (2/17)

AIMS: To determine retrospectively the relative usefulness of electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for tumour diagnosis; to monitor the influence of new antibodies and antisera on the use of these techniques in one laboratory. METHODS: During 1980 to 1989 inclusive, 726 tumours were examined by electron microscopy, 862 by immunocytochemistry, and 286 by both techniques. The choice of techniques and, for immunocytochemistry, the range of antibodies used were compared between each category of final diagnosis. RESULTS: During the study period there was a sharp fall in the use of electron microscopy and a corresponding rise in immunocytochemistry. These trends applied to all categories of final tumour diagnosis, but the use of electron microscopy was sustained longer for lesions suspected or eventually confirmed to be melanomas or amine precursor uptake decarboxylation cell carcinoma (APUDomas)--for example, carcinoid tumours. The immunocytochemistry:electron microscopy use ratios ranged from 2.07:1 to 0.44:1 for the categories in which lymphoma and APUDoma, respectively, were the final diagnoses. The abandonment of electron microscopy for suspected or confirmed lymphomas and carcinomas corresponded to the increasing availability of relevant antisera and antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The wider application of immunocytochemistry for tumour diagnosis is endorsed, but electron microscopy should be retained for selected cases in which the results of immunocytochemistry might be predictably ambiguous or otherwise unhelpful.  (+info)

Production of calcitonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in tumors derived from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells. (3/17)

The tumor production of human calcitonin (CT) was examined by radioimmunoassay, and it was found that 50 of 85 (59%) tumor tissues collected at random contained immunoreactive CT. These tumors were grouped as to whether they were derived from the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) series. The group that was derived from APUD cells showed appreciable amounts of CT in 30 of 31 (97%) of these tumors or in 20 of 21 (95%) when the medullary carcinomas of the thyroid were excluded. However, of the non-APUD group of tumors only 20 of 54 (37%) were found to contain CT, so that the difference between these two groups was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Of the tumors with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production, 12 of 14 were shown to contain CT. These data indicate that CT is a common product of the APUD tumors and that tumor production of CT is often associated with that of adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.  (+info)

Cyclical release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from a pancreatic islet cell apudoma. (4/17)

A patient is described who presented with the classical symptomatology and profound electrolyte disturbance of the Verner-Morrison syndrome due to a pancreatic apudoma secreting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Diagnosis was confirmed by plasma VIP as measured by a radio-immunoassay technique now available. It is suggested that the cyclical nature of the symptoms in this case was due to cyclical release of VIP from the tumour in response to an unknown stimulus. Perfusion studies confirmed the excess secretory state of water, sodium and chloride in the small intestine. Symptoms were completely abolished by surgery and the progress is being monitored by means of serial plasma VIP estimations to detect any early recurrence of metastatic disease.  (+info)

Apudoma of the pancreas: benign or malignant? (5/17)

A middle-aged, obese, black woman complained of abdominal pain and tenderness in the left upper quadrant. An abdominal computerized tomographic (CT) scan revealed an encapsulated cystic mass in the tail region of the pancreas. Selective angiography confirmed mass and hypervascularity, definite encapsulation, and lack of capsular invasion. The diagnostic value of the CT scan, angiography, and special staining in classifying the excised pancreatic mass as an apudoma is discussed. Malignancy was excluded by the lack of capsular-vascular invasion and the absence of metastases. Nonfunctional status was determined by lack of hormone hypersecretion.  (+info)

ACTH-producing apudoma metastatic to the liver. (6/17)

A young man presented with combative psychosis and elevated levels of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A solitary vascular pancreatic mass and diffuse vascular hepatic nodules were demonstrated on selective splenic and hepatic arteriograms. These classic angiographic findings are used to emphasize the role of angiography in initial radiographic evaluation and to summarize the angiographic appearance of functioning pancreatic adenomas. Even though this is an aggressive tumor, early diagnosis and intensive treatment may allow prolonged remission, if not cure.  (+info)

Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumors other than pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. (7/17)

Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) locates most pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. The tracer is concentrated in intracellular storage vesicles by an active process. Many other neuroendocrine tumors of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) series have hormonal storage vesicles and, thus, the potential to take up [131I]MIBG. A variety of neuroendocrine tumors in 57 patients were studied 1, 2, and 3 days after 0.5 mCi [131I]MIBG. Views from skull to pelvis were obtained. Results of MIBG scans were compared with all available imaging modalities (including plain radiography, liver scan, ultrasound, computed tomography, and angiography) and surgical exploration. The neuroendocrine nature of the tumor was determined by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and the assay of appropriate biogenic amines and peptide hormones. Results were (positive/total cases): carcinoids (four of ten), nonsecreting paragangliomas (three of three), sporadic medullary carcinomas of the thyroid (MCT) (one of five), familial MCT (one of 26), chemodectomas (two of five), oat cell carcinomas (zero of four), choriocarcinoma (one of one), atypical schwannoma (with storage granules) (one of one), Merkel cell skin cancer (one of one), islet cell carcinoma (zero of one). We conclude that a wide range of neuroendocrine tumors show [131I]MIBG uptake; tumors other than pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas are less often seen scintigraphically, but in certain cases (e.g., carcinoid and nonsecreting paragangliomas) scintigraphy may be useful in depicting the extent and location of disease and may indicate therapeutic potential. Iodine-131 MIBG shows promise in the diagnosis and staging of tumors of varied types.  (+info)

Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin. Its natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. (8/17)

Over 400 cases of neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin (NCS) have been reported. This tumor continues to pose problems in diagnosis and effective treatment for physicians unfamiliar with its biological characteristics. Reported here are five additional cases of NCS and the literature for this rare neoplasm is comprehensively reviewed. An early and accurate diagnosis is made possible by combining clinical presentation with results of histologic study, immunoperoxidase staining for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratins, and electron microscopy. NCS is an aggressive tumor. Depending on the length of follow-up, up to 40% of tumors locally recur, 55% develop regional nodal metastases, and 36% undergo distant metastasis. Survival is sex, but not age, dependent, with an overall 2-year survival rate of 72% (males 58% vs. females 79%). No standard procedure for initial and/or follow-up treatment for NCS exists. The authors recommend that NCS be treated, whenever possible, using the same rationale as applied for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.  (+info)

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neuroendocrine adenoma" OR "neuroendocrine adenomas" OR "neuroendocrine tumor" OR "neuroendocrine tumors" OR "neuroendocrine cancer" OR "neuroendocrine cancers" OR "neuroendocrine carcinoma" OR "neuroendocrine carcinomas" OR "neuroendocrine neoplasm" OR "neuroendocrine neoplasms" OR (("Cushings syndrome" OR "Kulchitsky cell") AND (adenoma[tiab] OR adenomas[tiab] OR tumor[tiab] OR tumors[tiab] OR cancer[tiab] OR cancers[tiab] OR carcinoma[tiab] OR carcinomas[tiab] OR neoplasm[tiab] OR neoplasms[tiab] OR neoplastic[tiab] OR malign* OR metastas* OR metastat*)) OR carcinoid*[ti] OR vipoma* OR "Verner-Morrison syndrome" OR "pancreatic cholera" OR WDHA[tiab] OR "watery diarrhea hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome" OR apudoma* OR gastrinoma* OR "Zollinger-Ellison syndrome" OR insulinoma*[ti] OR Glucagonoma* OR Somatostatinoma* OR GRFoma* OR ACTHoma* OR PPoma* OR "islet cell tumor"[ti] OR "islet cell tumors"[ti] OR "pancreatic endocrine tumor" OR "pancreatic endocrine tumors" OR "Merkel cell ...
Merkel-cell carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, which, in most cases, is caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) discovered by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008. It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. ...
Merkel-cell carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, which, in most cases, is caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) discovered by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008. It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. ...
In evaluating patients with a potential brain tumor diagnosis, members of Lahey Hospital & Medical Center s Brain Tumor Clinic will review the individual s medical history, perform a neurologic exam, and order imaging studies such as a CT scan or MRI. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Maria Menounos opens up about unbelievable brain tumor diagnosis, steps down from job at E!. Maria Menounos has revealed she was diagnosed with a brain tumor and will step down from her position as co-anchor of E! News.
‘Shocking’ delays to brain tumour diagnoses in the UK will be investigated as part of a new drive to tackle the disease.
Looking into your microscope, you spot an unusual cell. Instead of the typical rounded cell shape, the cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends. It sort of looks like the number 8! Then you realize that this cell ...
Chloe Wickham, 17, was having her hair cut in September 2016 when the hairdresser noticed a strange bump on the back of her head.
Affiliation (Current):鹿児島大学,理工学域工学系,助教, Research Field:Living organism molecular science,Bio-related chemistry,Tumor diagnosis, Keywords:コンドロイチン硫酸,デルマタン硫酸,糖鎖合成,神経突起伸長活性,糖鎖,生理活性,有機化学,神経科学,グリコサミノグリカン,系統的合成, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:84
Merkel cell carcinoma (also known as a "Cutaneous apudoma," "Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin," Primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and "Trabecular carcinoma of the skin is a rare and highly aggressive cancer in which malignant cancer cells develop on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles.. • The majority of Merkel cell carcinomas appear to be caused in part by a newly discovered virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus or MCV. Direct evidence for this comes from studies showing that inhibition of MCV proteins causes MCV-infected Merkel carcinoma cells to die but has no effect on tumor cells from Merkel cell carcinomas that are not infected with the virus. • This cancer is a type of neuroendocrine tumor, like small cell lung cancer. Once it has metastasized to the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate for a patient is about 50 percent. A patient with a small tumor (less than 2 cm) that has not metastasized to the lymph nodes may have a 5-year survival rate of more than 80 ...
Esthesioneuroblastoma has been reported to originate from sphenopalatine ganglion, vomeronasal organ of Jacobson, neuroepithelial cells of the olfactory membrane, the ectopic olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa and the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells [1, 2]. It is a locally infiltrating malignant neoplasm; frequently invades the skull base, orbit and adjacent soft tissue from the typical "cribriform" site. In our patient, the neoplasm has infiltrated the left orbit through destruction of medial orbital wall resulting in proptosis. Distant and regional metastases are seen in about 14-38% of cases at the time of diagnosis; cervical lymph nodes, lung and bone being the frequently involved sites [4]. Esthesioneuroblastoma should be differentiated from other malignant tumors in anterior skull base.. CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are helpful to identify the margin and spread approaches of the tumor. Fine-cut CT scan (3 mm slice thickness) with direct coronal imaging is ...
A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the visual contrast of samples for microscopy. Chromophil cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, amino acid precursors to certain hormones are accumulated and subsequently decarboxylated to the corresponding amines, for example epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine or serotonin. Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are scattered throughout the whole body, but particularly in glands such as the hypothalamus, hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid and pancreas ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of telophase; however, cytokinesis is a separate process that begins at the same time as telophase. Cytokinesis is technically not even a phase of mitosis, but rather a separate process, necessary for completing cell division. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, pinching off the separated nuclei.[17] In both animal and plant cells, cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus, which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell.[18] In plants this structure coalesces into a cell plate at the center of the phragmoplast and develops into a cell wall, separating the two nuclei. The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule array during cytokinesis.[19] Each daughter cell has a complete copy of the genome of its parent cell. The end of cytokinesis ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Immunocytochemistry_in_tumor_diagnosis.html?id=IpJrAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareImmunocytochemistry in tumor diagnosis ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Immunocytochemistry_in_tumor_diagnosis.html?id=IpJrAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareImmunocytochemistry in tumor diagnosis ...
Benign ovarian tumours diagnosis (costs for program #143611) ✔ Academic Hospital Harlaching ✔ Department of Gynecology, Mammology and Obstetrics ✔ BookingHealth.com
Borderline epithelial ovarian tumors Diagnosis (costs for program #248705) ✔ University Hospital Halle (Saale) ✔ Department of Gynecology and Mammology ✔ BookingHealth.com
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim [Leukine]) is a powerful cytokine that is able to stimulate the generation of dendritic cells. Adjuvant treatment with continuous lowdose GM-CSF has been shown to prolong survival of stage III/IV melanoma patients. Data on continuous low-dose GM-CSF therapy in tumors other than prostate cancer are still lacking. 1
Publications COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY (28 TOTAL) Kang, W.H., Simon, M.J., Gao, S., Banta, S., and Morrison III, B. (2011) "Attenuation of astrocyte activation by TAT mediated delivery of a peptide JNK inhibitor" Journal of Neurotrauma (In Press). Kim, Y.H., and Banta, S. (2011) "A self-assembling hydrogel created from three modified dehydrogenases enables the complete oxidation of methanol in an enzymatic biofuel cell" Angewandte Chemie International Edition (In Press). (Recognized as VIP publication) Szilvay, G.R., Brocato, S., Ivnitski, D., Li, C., DeLa Iglesia, P., Lau, C., Chi, E., Werner-Washburne, M., Banta, S., and Atanassov, P. (2011) "Engineering of a redox protein for DNA-directed assembly" Chemical Communications (In Press) Gao, S., Simon, M.J., Hue, C.D., Morrison III, B., and Banta, S. (2011) "An unusual cell penetrating peptide identified using a plasmid display-based functional selection platform" ACS Chemical Biology (In Press). (Recommended by Faculty of 1000, Featured in ...
Leukemias are cancers of the blood and happen when there is an excess amassing of strange (juvenile) blood cells (called blasts). Instead of developing regularly, expansive numbers of these blast cells transform into irregular white blood cells. These unusual cells cant complete the ordinary functions of white blood cells. They swarm the bone marrow and spill into the blood and may then spread into organs such as the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys and into the cerebro spinal liquid to the brain.. Causes. In leukemia, the cells dont develop legitimately yet keep on reproducing and these strange cells spilling over into the blood supplant the bone marrow. Because the bone marrow can no more create sufficient ordinary blood cells and platelets, frailty, infections and bruising occurs.. Diagnosis and treatment. Leukemia occurs in several forms. Some forms show up suddenly and progress quickly over days to weeks. These are called acute leukemias. Others are less obvious and progress slowly over ...
help few you stand the download heterogenized homogeneous catalysts for fine chemicals production: materials and processes and endoproteinase figures( if financial). In The impression of Science, John Horgan is the centrifugation that the something of radioactively popular disparate Questions about the progress and our spectrometer in it leads even. getting immediate Voices many as Stephen Hawking, Francis Crick, and Richard Dawkins, he does that all the unusual cells that can average minded Are removed obtained, as download heterogenized homogeneous catalysts for fields thereby against Initial derivatives.
If you suspect you may have a brain tumour, it is important to go see your doctor who may recommend tests. Learn more about how a brain tumour is diagnosed.
Method and apparatus for extraction of breast tumors from three-dimensional ultrasonic images obtained by interpolation of a series of cross sectional images. The method consists of two stages are disclosed. In the first stage a membership function is automatically generated by using an output of three dimensional LoG(Laplace of Gaussian) filtering for the voxel data. In the second stage, the membership function is used for a fuzzy logic based calculation to produce three grades of the voxel attributable to three classes of
Oxfords Isis Innovation and Canadas Centre for Imaging Technology Commercialization (CIMTEC) partner to develop superior imaging technology
Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system.
Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system.
Yellow, cancerous tumors of hormone-making cells in the gastrointestinal tract (specifically, they are classed as neuroendocrine or amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors). They produce excess endocrines such as kallikrein (an activator of bradykinin release) and serotonin. These tumors can be found in the intestine, stomach, or sometimes on the liver. In later stages, this type of cancer causes symptoms such as diarrhea, wheezing, heart murmurs, enlarged liver, and a dusky appearance to the skin. Carcinoids can be diagnosed with a urine test or with a CAT scan ...
Somatostatin levels are often elevated in diabetics, but the levels return to normal upon correction of the hormonal and metabolic deficiencies present. Elevated levels are also found in many cases of APUDomas including Vasoactive intestinal polypedtideoma, Insulinoma, Glucagonoma, and Gastrinoma. ...
Roughly one-fifth of Americans take low-dose aspirin every day for heart-healthy benefits. But based on either urine or blood tests of how aspirin blocks the stickiness of platelets - blood cells that clump together in the first stages of forming harmful clots - up to one-third of patients are deemed unlikely to benefit from daily use, or aspirin resistant.. In people who have suffered a heart attack, low-dose aspirin reduces the chances of a second event by about one-fifth, making it perhaps one of the most cost-effective drugs currently prescribed, noted study author Tilo Grosser, director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics. Although consumed widely by the worried well, the relative usefulness of low-dose aspirin in patients who have never had a heart attack is more controversial. According to previous primary prevention studies, low-dose aspirin reduces this groups very low risk of a first attack by about the same number of serious stomach bleeds it causes.. In the ...
2,6-dimethylpyridin-4-amine 3512-80-9 Precursor and Downstream products, 2,6-dimethylpyridin-4-amine Precursor products, 2,6-dimethylpyridin-4-amine Downstream products ect.
N-diaminophosphinothioylbutan-1-amine 94317-64-3 Precursor and Downstream products, N-diaminophosphinothioylbutan-1-amine Precursor products, N-diaminophosphinothioylbutan-1-amine Downstream products ect.
Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Childrens Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33 ...
Hi: I really no idea about this fatty tissue tumor other than information found online. I am a 52 yr old female and have a lipoma on my neck about the size of a golf ball. Not sure where to begin to take care of this. I have always been healthy and fortunate to stay out of the medical world. But my husband insists that I should consider having this checked out just to make sure it it is nothing else and to inquire as to the most minimal invasive process to remove (my spouse is an MRI tech). Thank you for your professional courtesy. Janet Suarez
References. Calabretta B, Kaczmarek LL, Selleri L, Torelli G, Ming PML, Ming SC and Mercer WE (1986) Growth-dependent expression of human Mr 53,000 tumor antigen messenger RNA in normal and neoplastic cells. Cancer. Res. 46: 5738-5742.. Deppert W, Buschhausendenker G, Patschinsky T and Steinmeyer K (1990) Cell cycle control of p53 in normal (3T3) and chemically transformed (Meth-A) mouse cells . II. requirement for cell cycle progression. Oncogene 5: 1701-1706.. Eliyahu D, Raz A, Gruss P, Givol D and Oren M (1984) Participation of p53 cellular tumour antigen in transformation of normal embryonic cells. Nature 312: 646-649.. Jenkins JR, Rudge K, Chumakov P and Currie GA (1985) The cellular oncogene p53 can be activated by mutagenesis. Nature 317: 816-818.. Jenkins JR, Rudge K and Currie GA (1984) Cellular immortalization by a cDNA clone encoding the transformation-associated phosphoprotein p53. Nature 312: 651-654.. Mercer WE, Avignolo C and Baserga R (1984) Role of the p53 protein in cell ...
In her first televised interview since undergoing a seven-hour surgery to remove a golf-ball-sized meningioma brain tumor in June, former E! News anchor Maria Menounos opened up to NBC News Megyn Kelly about her diagnosis and recovery.
Method and apparatus for extraction of breast tumors from three-dimensional ultrasonic images obtained by interpolation of a series of cross sectional images. The method consists of two stages are disclosed. In the first stage a membership function is automatically generated by using an output of three dimensional LoG(Laplace of Gaussian) filtering for the voxel data. In the second stage, the membership function is used for a fuzzy logic based calculation to produce three grades of the voxel attributable to three classes of
Hejazi N, Hassler W, Farghaly F: Transconjunctival microsurgical approach to the orbit: a retrospective preliminary review and analysis of experience with the first 15 operative cases. Neurosurg Quart 1999; 9: 197 208 ...
Affiliation:北海道大学,医学研究科,准教授, Research Field:Digestive surgery,Tumor diagnostics,Laboratory medicine,Tumor diagnosis,Chemical biology, Keywords:肝細胞癌,バイオマーカー,糖鎖,浸潤,予後,Mesothelin,リンパ管浸潤,mesothelin,グライコブロッティング法,cancer, # of Research Projects:10, # of Research Products:51, Ongoing Project:APC結合タンパクEB1による膵癌の放射線抵抗性の画期的診断とその分子機構の解明
[email protected] Outside office hours please call 08448 481189. About childhood cancer Every day, 10 children ... the most out of life. For more information visit www.clicsargent.org.uk ... CLIC Sargent responds to research on Wilms Tumour diagnosis in the UK New research released .... ...
The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discove ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations. AU - Méndez-Ferrer, Simón. AU - Lucas, Daniel. AU - Battista, Michela. AU - Frenette, Paul S.. PY - 2008/3/27. Y1 - 2008/3/27. N2 - Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) circulate in the bloodstream under steady-state conditions, but the mechanisms controlling their physiological trafficking are unknown. Here we show that circulating HSCs and their progenitors exhibit robust circadian fluctuations, peaking 5 h after the initiation of light and reaching a nadir 5 h after darkness. Circadian oscillations are markedly altered when mice are subjected to continuous light or to a jet lag (defined as a shift of 12 h). Circulating HSCs and their progenitors fluctuate in antiphase with the expression of the chemokine CXCL12 in the bone marrow microenvironment. The cyclical release of HSCs and expression of Cxcl12 are regulated by core genes of the molecular clock through circadian noradrenaline secretion by the ...
Ventilatory patterns were examined in the Eastern lubber grasshopper Romalea guttata and correlated with respiratory transpiration. Discontinuous release of CO2 was only observed in quiescent individuals during their scotophase. Interburst periods (spiracles closed) alternated with bouts of CO2 emission and O2 consumption (burst phase); no true flutter phase was observed. Cycle duration decreased with increasing temperature in both hydrated and dehydrated individuals. Metabolic rates for this large, sluggish species are lower than those reported for smaller and/or more active grasshoppers. Water loss rates fell within an expected range of values for arthropods from mesic environments. Respiratory transpiration accounted for only 1.9-3.9 % of the total water loss between 15 and 30 sC and for only 7 % of the water loss during the burst phase of the cycle. These data indicate that the cyclic release of CO2 in this adult insect does not result in substantial savings of water. ...
This type of nanoparticle design could be easily adapted to carry other types of drugs, or even more than one drug at a time, as the researchers reported in a PNAS paper last October. They could also be designed to target tumors other than prostate cancer, as long as those tumors have known receptors that could be targeted. One example is the Her-2 receptor abundant in some types of breast cancer, says Lippard ...
Podcast: Play in new window , Download. Cardiologists dont have crystal balls in their examination rooms. But new technologies developed in the past 18 months just might help them see into the future.. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women, and each year 525,000 Americans suffer a heart attack for the first time. But these new tests should help cardiologists determine just who is most at risk of a heart attack.. In one new technology, a simple blood test allows cardiologists to check for a trait, or biomarker, known to be associated with heart attack patients. People who had recently suffered heart attacks were found to have abnormally large or oddly shaped circulating endothelial cells, or CECs.. By testing blood for this unusual cell characteristic, physicians can identify patients who appear primed to suffer an imminent heart attack.. More new tests involve imaging technology that allows heart doctors to see the underlying causes of heart attacks more clearly. A ...
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Our Head and Neck Cancer team is made up of specialists across multiple disciplines who work together to accurately diagnose benign and malignant skull base tumors.
In case of symptoms or an abnormal screening test, more testing can help find out if its cancer. Learn about Wilms tumor diagnosis tests here.
Were here to help you cope with a brain tumour diagnosis, with info and answers to common questions about getting diagnosed with brain cancer.
Objective: to assess the use of, knowledge about, and the demand for information concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on consecutive patients visiting the outpatient tumor treatment center of a university hospital at Munich, Germany. The authors used a questionnaire with questions on sociodemographics, tumor diagnosis and treatment, current symptoms, previous use of CAM, and expectations and attitudes with respect to CAM. Results: 52% used at least 1 CAM method, 24% did not use CAM but asked for consultation, and 24% neither used CAM nor were interested; 59% rated CAM treatment as personally important; 76% and 34% described themselves as well informed about conventional treatment and CAM, respectively. Current CAM use was associated with higher degrees of information and subjective importance, and not suffering from lymphatic cancer and metastases. Conclusions: CAM is a relevant topic for the care of cancer ...
The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discove ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Molecular & Cellular Proteomics.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Wilms Tumor Other Known Aliases - nephroblastoma Definition - The most common childhood primary renal tumor and can occur due to a mutation in the WT-1 cancer suppressor gene on 11p13. There are five clinical stages depending on anatomical findings and tumor cell pathology. Clinical Significance - Current estimates are…
This image depicts the freshly dissected retina of a chicken (Gallus gallus) viewed en face from the photoreceptor side. Birds have an elaborate color visual system consisting of five cone photoreceptor types which are evenly distributed across the retina: four single cones maximally sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, green and red light that mediate tetrachromatic color vision; and an unusual cell type called a double cone which detects changes in luminance. Each of the five cone types contains a differently colored, carotenoid-containing oil droplet in its inner segment (shown in the image) which filters the incoming light before it reaches the light-sensitive outer segment, thereby improving color discrimination. Such brightly colored oil droplets are found in turtles and birds, animals that frequently use carotenoids to pigment their integument. Thus, carotenoids serve a complementary role in both seeing and in coloring what is seen.. ...
Learn about brain tumor symptoms, classification of meningiomas and treatment options from the multidisciplinary Meningioma Center at Johns Hopkins.
The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy,
Positron emission tomography (PET) supplies a range of labelled compounds to be used for the characterization of tumour biochemistry. Some of these have proved to be of value for clinical diagnosis, treatment follow-up, and clinical research. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning is now a widely accepted imaging approach in clinical oncology, reflecting increased expression of glucose transporters in cancerous tissue. This tracer, however, does not show sufficient uptake in well-differentiated tumours such as neuroendocrine tumours. Endocrine tumours have the unique characteristics of taking up and decarboxylating amine precursors. These so-called APUD characteristics offer highly specific targets for PET tracers. Using this approach, radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]-5-hydroxytryptophan and [11C]-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine for localization of carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumours, 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine and [11C]-hydroxyephedrine for phaeochromocytomas, and [11C]-metomidate for adrenal ...
The pituitary gland lies in between the two halves of the brain at the base of the third vertebrae. In scientific terms, it is known as the master gland because it regulates and controls the rate at which the other glands release their hormones and the timing of the release. Until the pineal gland tells the body to act, it doesnt act.. The pituitary gland is divided into three lobes. The anterior lobe is in charge of regulating the activity of the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and the gonads. It tells the body when to grow, how much to grow, and when to stop growing. It also regulates the production of breast milk by pregnant and nursing mothers so that they can nourish the growth of their young. The intermediate lobe dictates the pigmentation of skin, releasing more Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone when theres been increased exposure to direct sunlight and more protection is needed and decreasing the levels when theres less sunlight so that more of sunlight can be taken in and ...
Pel-Ebstein fever, also known as Ebstein-Cardarelli fever, is a rarely seen condition noted in patients with Hodgkins lymphoma in which the patient experiences fevers which cyclically increase then decrease over an average period of one or two weeks. A cyclic fever may also be associated with other conditions, but it is not called "Pel-Ebstein fever" unless the fever is associated with Hodgkins. The cause is currently unknown although speculation centers on host immune response - particularly the cyclical release of cytokines, lymph node necrosis, and damaged stromal cells. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or treatment of the underlying Hodgkins (usually with chemotherapy) will help the symptoms. The condition is named after Wilhelm Ebstein and P.K. Pel who both published papers in 1887 noting the phenomenon. Both doctors published in the same journal, though Pel published first by several months. Interestingly, a long-term dispute persisted between Pel and Ebstein on the ...
If your pap exam reveals any abnormalities, you may need to have a colposcopy. A colposcopy is a procedure in which a licensed medical provider uses a special magnifying device to examine your vagina and cervix for signs of disease. If you provider finds an area of unusual cells during the exam, a sample of tissue can be collected for laboratory testing (biopsy).. A colposcopy is the primary tool for preventing cervical cancer and can be life saving. We offer safe, affordable, and confidential colposcopy exams at most of our clinics. If you have questions or need to book an appointment, please contact us today.. For more information about abnormal pap exams and colposcopies, please click here to visit the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions website.. ...
The capture and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients is a valuable tool for treatment decisions and therapy monitoring. Until recently, it was a huge challenge to capture these rare cells in a blood sample. In a new approach funded by NIBIB, bioengineers have developed a system that efficiently isolates CTCs using sound waves, without physical contact or damage to the cells, assuring that their original characteristics are maintained. The contact-free nature of the method offers the potential for more precise cancer treatment and monitoring, and new discoveries on how cancer spreads.
A brain tumor diagnosis can be scary and overwhelming. Connecting to others is an important way to find information, support, and hope. This section on brain tumor support groups includes information to help you and/or your loved one find the support you need to stay strong via online communities. Review Date: Wednesday, April 01, 2015 National Brain Tumor Society ...
I did not have the best summer. With the brain tumor diagnosis in June, followed by whole brain radiation, steroids, then new chemo meds, I have been reeling from the side effects. The last three weeks have been the worst - with nausea, upset stomach and general exhaustion dominating my life. I am not myself at all, and I am totally sick of it. I am sick of feeling sick. I drag myself up in the morning for work, and collapse on the couch at the end of the day. I can barely function at night. I am sick of not being able to drive. But even if I could drive, the amount of energy it takes to navigate the northern Virginia streets is overwhelming ...
Although the integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) into human DNA has been found to be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In order to obtain additional insight into the correlation of HBV integration and HCC development, integrated HBV in 14 primary HCC cases was isolated and characterized by sequencing analysis. Our findings in this study showed that: (1) none of the known cellular oncogene or tumor suppressor gene was affected by the HBV integration; (2) although the integration of HBV is random, the integration site was often within or close to human repetitive sequences; (3) integrated HBV may possess the capacity to transpose to another chromosome region through reintegration; (4) rearrangements of HBV sequence were observed in all the 14 integrants, involving (most frequently) X (12/14 integrants), P (8/14), S (7/14), and C (7/14) genes; and (5) 3′-deleted X gene and consequent C-terminal truncated X protein caused ...
One out of about every five persons in the US who die this year will die of tumors (about 500,000 total). For the foreseeable future, all tumor diagnoses will be made by us anatomic pathologists, using conventional light microscopy as our primary tool. All of the 1.3 million patients with cancer in the USA will be diagnosed by pathologists; many million more people will have biopsies that will turn out "no cancer." Overall, we pathologists do a pretty good job. Please remember these commonplaces (CA 60: 139, 2010): (1) If you miss the tumor on your biopsy, we cant diagnose it; (2) If the diagnosis we report doesnt match what you think it is, come talk with us about it; (3) If I were a clinician, Id insist that there be two different pathologists signatures on every positive cancer biopsy. * DNA microarray technology, while fascinating, is still almost exclusively a research tool. See Am. J. Path. 171: 375, 2007. * "Tumor"--literally any swelling. Galen distinguished tumors that are: ...
0009] Both of the N-chloramine compounds mentioned above are able to easily be synthesized using methods known to those of skill in the art. Aqueous solutions of the un-halogenated amine precursor for either compound may be simply exposed to a dilute aqueous solution of household bleach (e.g., sodium hypochlorite) or sodium chlorite or by bubbling in chlorine gas to form the N-chloramine. For example, compound 1 has been prepared by Worley, et al., by using chlorine gas to react with an aqueous alkaline solution of the precursor amine (see Tsao, et al., "Novel N-Halamine Disinfectant Compounds", Biotechnol. Prog. 1991, 7, 60 or Worley, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,057,612). It can also be purchased commercially from the HaloSource Corporation in Bothell, Wash. The precursor 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone is able to be prepared according to the method outlined in Tsao, et al., "Novel N-Halamine Disinfectant Compounds", Biotechnol. Prog. 1991, 7, 60 or Worley, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,057,612. ...
Mycobacterium smegmatis is 3.0 to 5.0 µm long with a bacillus shape, an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria. It can be stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method and the auramine-rhodamine fluorescent method. It was first reported in 1884. Alvarez and Tavel found organisms similar to Lustgarten, who first discovered Mycobacterium. This organism was later named M. smegmatis. It is considered a non-pathogenic microorganism although, in rare cases, it can cause disease. M. smegmatis is useful for the research analysis of other Mycobacteria species in laboratory experiments. Since it is a fast grower and non-pathogenic it makes a simple model that is easy to work with. It shares more than 2000 homologs with M. tuberculosis and shares the same unusual cell wall structure of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species. The discovery of plasmids, phages, and mobile elements has enabled the construction of dedicated gene-inactivation and gene reporter systems. The M. smegmatis strain is ...
We are attempting to identify cellular oncogenes activated in mammary tumours by using the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) as an insertional mutagen. MMTV, a retrovirus lacking a host cell-derived viral oncogene, induces adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland after a long latency period. The tumours are clonal outgrowths of cells carrying one or more integrated MMTV proviral copies. We have cloned an integrated MMTV provirus with its adjacent chromosomal DNA and we have established that the insertion site was part of a domain of the mouse genome in which MMTV proviruses are inserted in many different tumours. A gene within this domain, called int-1 is transcriptionally activated as a consequence of proviral integration. We have proposed that int-1 is a cellular oncogene for mammary tumours. Proviral activation of int-1 occurs in cis, over distances of up to 10 kilobases and is presumably caused by the transcriptional enhancer present on the MMTV long terminal repeat. The putative int-1 mammary ...
Located in the center of the brain, the pituitary gland manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual development and functioning, and the fluid balance of the body. About 10% of all cancers in the skull are pituitary tumors...
The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the worldwide cancer diagnostics market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. The rise in geriatric population will further compound the growing demand for malignancy assays and the rapid market expansion. ...
This new report from VPGMarketResearch.com provides a strategic analysis of the major business opportunities emerging in the cancer diagnostics market during the next five years. The report examines emerging trends in the cancer diagnostics market; reviews current and emerging tests; analyzes potential applications of innovative technologies; forecasts volume and sales for major cancer diagnostics tests; profiles leading market players and potential entrants; and suggests alternative market expansion strategies for suppliers. Rationale The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the cancer diagnostics market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining ...
PL-09 Despite dedicated efforts by physicians and scientists, significant government support and the tireless advocacy of fundraising groups, a high mortality rate and poor quality of life almost inevitably follow a brain tumor diagnosis. Many reasons have been proposed to explain why brain tumors continue to resist conventional medical treatment. These are summarized well by the real estate adage "location, location, location." Simply put, brain tumors are hard to treat because they occur in the brain. Although brain tumors rarely spread outside the nervous system, they infiltrate critical structures, curtailing the use of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation that can damage normal brain tissue. Thus most patients eventually succumb to the progressive destruction inflicted by their expanding tumor. However, a new hope is now emerging in the war on brain cancer. The new charge is being led by a joint force of basic neuroscientists, cancer biologists, and oncologists. This diverse band is ...
Primary brain tumors, including brain stem gliomas, are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification...
The biologic and clinical significance of the oncofetal antigens carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) are discussed. Although the current assays for these molecules are not tumor-specific, measurement of these molecules in the circulation of cancer patients is useful either for tumor diagnosis or for management of the cancer patient in the postoperative or post-chemotherapy state. An approach to increasing the specificity of the CEA radioimmunoassay is described. ...
Recently several studies have described the in vivo gene expression profiles of rhabdomyosarcoma, with the aim of associating specific genes that distinguish subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma either for tumor diagnosis or for tumorigenesis (4, 6, 12-18, 30). Our study represents the first attempt to identify novel therapeutic targets by directly measuring the inhibitory effect of siRNA libraries on the growth of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. As a result, we have identified 16 phosphatases and 50 kinases that play significant roles in the growth control of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Some of these genes are implicated in rhabdomyosarcoma cells for the first time, whereas others have previously been linked to this disease, including CDK4, PDGFRA, PRKCD, PRKCQ, SKP2, etc. (Table 2; refs. 4, 22, 25, 31). Overall these examples illustrate the power of using an unbiased genome-wide screening strategy to identify novel targets, particularly when the results confirm more traditional candidate gene approaches. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of HER2/neu expression with sensitivity to tumor-specific CTL in human ovarian cancer. AU - Yoshino, Ichiro. AU - Peoples, George E.. AU - Goedegebuure, Peter S.. AU - Maziarz, Richard. AU - Eberlein, Timothy J.. PY - 1994/3/1. Y1 - 1994/3/1. N2 - To study potential sources of tumor-associated Ags in human ovarian cancer, we have established two ovarian tumor cell lines (OvS1 and OvA2) from two ovarian cancer patients, which express the cellular oncogene HER2/neu. Corresponding tumor infiltrating lymphocyte cultures have also been established and display an autologous tumor-specific pattern of cytotoxicity that is HLA-A2 restricted. To determine the potential relationship between HER2/neu expression and CTL-mediated cytolysis, we first established tumor cell clones from OvS1. These were categorized as high or low expressors of HER2/neu (cOvS1+ or cOVS1-, respectively), and cOvS1+ clones displayed a significantly higher sensitivity to CTL killing as compared with ...
To study potential sources of tumor-associated Ags in human ovarian cancer, we have established two ovarian tumor cell lines (OvS1 and OvA2) from two ovarian cancer patients, which express the cellular oncogene HER2/neu. Corresponding tumor infiltrating lymphocyte cultures have also been established and display an autologous tumor-specific pattern of cytotoxicity that is HLA-A2 restricted. To determine the potential relationship between HER2/neu expression and CTL-mediated cytolysis, we first established tumor cell clones from OvS1. These were categorized as high or low expressors of HER2/neu (cOvS1+ or cOvS1-, respectively), and cOvS1+ clones displayed a significantly higher sensitivity to CTL killing as compared with cOvS1- clones. To modulate the expression of HER2/neu, ovarian cancer cells were treated with IFN-gamma. After this exposure, HER2/neu expression was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of HLA Class I was significantly increased. Despite the increase in HLA Class I ...
Citation: Witter, R.L., Gimeno, I.M., Pandiri, A.R., Fadly, A.M. 2010. Towards the standardization of tumor diagnosis [abstract]. In: 5th International Workshop on the Molecular Pathogenesis of Mareks Disease Virus and 1st Symposium on Avian Herpesviruses, October 17-20, 2010, Athens, Georgia, p. 135. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a decision tree (flow chart) is proposed to simplify the process. Tumor-specific criteria are generally more useful than infection-based criteria. Although pathology is still important, advanced criteria of several types are often necessary to support definitive diagnoses. Immunohistochemistry is used to identify lymphocyte surface markers, meq antigen, and several ...
Rationale. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the worldwide cancer diagnostics market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. The rise in geriatric population will further compound the growing demand for malignancy assays and the rapid market expansion.. Business Opportunities and Strategic Recommendations. - Specific new product development opportunities with ...
The discovery at the end of the 1960s that the Australia antigen (now called hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) is a component of hepatitis B virus (HBV) opened the door to preparation of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) having titers of specific antibody (anti-HBs) many hundredfold times higher than those in standard immune serum globulin (ISG). As rapidly as anti-HBs-rich units of plasma could be identified and batches of HBIG prepared, studies of prophylaxis of type B hepatitis were carried out (1-6). Unfortunately, these investigations did not provide an easily interpretable answer to relative usefulness of HBIG and ISG. Hence, ...
Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Childrens Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33 ...
Although a great deal is known about molecular motors that drive movement of the eukaryotic flagellum, little is known about mechanisms that regulate/coordinate flagellar beat (Cosson, 1996). Our results demonstrate that trypanin is required for directional cell motility in T. brucei. EM studies revealed that the unusual cell motility defect of trypanin(−) mutants results from uncoupling of the flagellar apparatus from the subpellicular cytoskeleton. The punctate distribution of trypanin along the cell body side of the paraflagellar rod (Fig. 5) supports the interpretation that trypanin is part of the attachment complex that connects the flagellum to the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Our data further indicate that this flagellum attachment complex has two components, a cytoskeletal component, of which trypanin is a part, and a membrane component that operates even in the absence of trypanin and stabilizes the direct cytoskeleton connection (Balber, 1990; Hemphill et al., 1991). The only other ...
Medullary Carcinoma Treatment cost in India starts from USD 2050. Find affordable packages, best specialists, hospitals and patient experiences for Medullary Carcinoma Treatment in India through Vaidam.
Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer.
Apudoma Enteroendocrine cell Neuroendocrine cell Welbourn RB (January 1977). "Current status of the apudomas". Ann. Surg. 185 ( ...
Merkel cell tumor Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma M8248/1 Apudoma M8249/3 Atypical carcinoid tumor M8250/1 Pulmonary ...
It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, ...
Argentaffinoma syndrome Cassidy-Scholte syndrome Flush syndrome Carcinoid Neuroendocrine tumor Kulchitsky cells Apudoma ...
... apudoma MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.200 --- carcinoid tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.200.500 --- malignant carcinoid syndrome MeSH ... apudoma MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.200 --- carcinoid tumor MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.200.500 --- malignant carcinoid syndrome MeSH ... apudoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.320 --- cystadenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.320.225 --- cystadenoma, mucinous MeSH C04.557.470.035. ...
Cogan type Apraxia Apudoma Aqueductal stenosis Aqueductal stenosis, X linked Arachindonic acid, absence of Arachnodactyly ...
... cutaneous apudoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, trabecular carcinoma ...
In pathology, an apudoma is an endocrine tumour that arises from an APUD cell from structures such as the ampulla of Vater,. ... Because the label "Apudoma" is very general, it is preferred to use a more specific term when possible.[citation needed] VIPoma ... 2002). "[Apudoma of Vater's ampulla: case report and review of the literature]". Il Giornale di chirurgia (in Italian). 23 (3 ... Spence RW, Burns-Cox CJ (1975). "ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of gallbladder". Gut. 16 (6): 473-6. doi:10.1136/gut.16.6.473. PMC ...
This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and endocrine tumor derived from crypt cells of the appendix. Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. The growth pattern is distinctive: typically producing a concentric band of tumor nests interspersed among the muscle and stroma of the appendiceal wall extending up the shaft of the appendix. This makes the lesion difficult to suspect grossly and difficult to measure. Small tumor nests may be camouflaged amongst the muscle or in periappendiceal fat; cytokeratin preparations best demonstrate the tumor cells; mucin stains are also helpful in identifying them. They behave in a more aggressive manner than do classical appendiceal carcinoids. Spread is usually to regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and particularly the ovary. They do not produce sufficient hormonal substances to cause the carcinoid or other endocrine syndromes. In fact, they more closely resemble ...
Staging of carcinoma refers to the process of combining physical/clinical examination, pathological review of cells and tissues, surgical techniques, laboratory tests, and imaging studies in a logical fashion to obtain information about the size of the neoplasm and the extent of its invasion and metastasis. Carcinomas are usually staged with Roman numerals. In most classifications, Stage I and Stage II carcinomas are confirmed when the tumor has been found to be small and/or to have spread to local structures only. Stage III carcinomas typically have been found to have spread to regional lymph nodes, tissues, and/or organ structures, while Stage IV tumors have already metastasized through the blood to distant sites, tissues, or organs. In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable only via examination of sputum for malignant cells (in lung carcinomas). In more recent staging systems, substages (a, b, c) are becoming ...
... is a malignant tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin. Increased levels of somatostatin inhibit pancreatic hormones and gastrointestinal hormones. Thus somatostatinomas are associated with mild diabetes mellitus (due to inhibition of insulin release), steatorrhoea and gallstones (due to inhibition of cholecystokinin release), and achlorhydria (due to inhibition of gastrin release). Somatostatinomas are commonly found in head of pancreas. ...
Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that several liver tumors appear similarly on these imaging modalities, a multi-phase contrast-enhanced imaging study such as CT or MRI may be used to provide more information.[3][4] The significance of making a specific diagnosis is that, unlike other benign liver tumors such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenomas have a small but meaningful risk of progressing into a malignancy.[3] Although imaging provides supportive information, a definitive diagnosis of hepatic adenoma requires biopsy of the tissue. ...
... , also known as Brinton's disease or leather bottle stomach, is a morphological variant of diffuse (or infiltrating) stomach cancer.. Causes of linitis plastica could be lye ingestion or metastatic infiltration of the stomach, particularly breast and lung carcinoma.[1] It is not associated with H. pylori infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors are undefined, except for rare inherited mutations in E-cadherin, which are found in about 50% of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas.[1]. ...
... type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary endocrine cancer syndrome characterized primarily by tumors of the parathyroid glands (95% of cases), endocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract (30-80% of cases), and anterior pituitary (15-90% of cases).[17] Other endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasms including adrenocortical and thyroid tumors, visceral and cutaneous lipomas, meningiomas, facial angiofibromas and collagenomas, and thymic, gastric, and bronchial carcinoids also occur. The phenotype of MEN1 is broad, and over 20 different combinations of endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations have been described. MEN1 should be suspected in patients with an endocrinopathy of two of the three characteristic affected organs, or with an endocrinopathy of one of these organs plus a first-degree relative affected by MEN1 syndrome. MEN1 patients usually have a family history of MEN1. Inheritance is autosomal dominant; any affected parent has a 50% chance to transmit the disease to ...
... primarily affects older individuals (age 60-70 years). There is a slight male predilection according to recent studies. The tumor is slow growing, painless, and usually appears in the tail of the parotid gland near the angle of the mandible. In 5-14% of cases, Warthin's tumor is bilateral, but the two masses usually are at different times. Warthin's tumor is highly unlikely to become malignant. ...
A papilloma (plural papillomas or papillomata) (papillo- + -oma) is a benign epithelial tumor[1] growing exophytically (outwardly projecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds. In this context papilla refers to the projection created by the tumor, not a tumor on an already existing papilla (such as the nipple). When used without context, it frequently refers to infections (squamous cell papilloma) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), such as warts. Human papillomavirus infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, although most HPV infections do not cause cancer.[citation needed] There are, however, a number of other conditions that cause papilloma, as well as many cases in which there is no known cause. ...
Apudoma(英语:Apudoma). *Cylindroma(英语:Adenoid cystic carcinoma). *乳突状汗腺瘤 ...
Get natural cures for Apudoma that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with alternative ... Apudoma in Indiana. Apudoma in Iowa. Apudoma in Kansas. Apudoma in Kentucky. Apudoma in Louisiana. Apudoma in Maine. Apudoma in ... Apudoma by state. Apudoma in Alabama. Apudoma in Alaska. Apudoma in Arizona. Apudoma in Arkansas. Apudoma in Armed Forces. ... Apudoma in Nebraska. Apudoma in Nevada. Apudoma in New Hampshire. Apudoma in New Jersey. Apudoma in New Mexico. Apudoma in New ...
34] APUDoma (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cell-derived tumor), [35] and thymoma. [36] ... Villey MC, Ehrsam E, Marrakchi S, Colombel JF, Thomas P. Apudoma and subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease ...
Linitis plastica, also known as Brintons disease or leather bottle stomach, is a morphological variant of diffuse (or infiltrating) stomach cancer.. Causes of linitis plastica could be lye ingestion or metastatic infiltration of the stomach, particularly breast and lung carcinoma.[1] It is not associated with H. pylori infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors are undefined, except for rare inherited mutations in E-cadherin, which are found in about 50% of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas.[1]. ...
In pathology, an apudoma is an endocrine tumour that arises from an APUD cell from structures such as the ampulla of Vater,. ... Because the label "Apudoma" is very general, it is preferred to use a more specific term when possible.[citation needed] VIPoma ... 2002). "[Apudoma of Vaters ampulla: case report and review of the literature]". Il Giornale di chirurgia (in Italian). 23 (3 ... Spence RW, Burns-Cox CJ (1975). "ACTH-secreting apudoma of gallbladder". Gut. 16 (6): 473-6. doi:10.1136/gut.16.6.473. PMC ...
Apudoma. -A tumor capable of Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation (APUD).. Bronchi. -Air passages to the lungs. ...
Apudoma in Cats. Apudoma is a gastrointestinal tumor which secretes peptide hormones -- hormones that play a role in regulating ...
Apudoma.. Arsenic Poisoning.. Arteriovenous Fistula.. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Liver.. Arthritis (Degenerative Joint ...
apudoma. // Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary;2005, p156 A definition of the medical term "apudoma" is presented. Apudoma ...
Apudoma o tumor neuroendocrino pancreático. Serotonina. Ácido 5-hidroxindolacético (5-HIAA). Octeotrida. ... Apudoma or neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor. Serotonin. 5-Hydroxyndoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Octreotide. ...
Neural crest cells are precursors of APUDoma and neurogenic cells.. The symptoms of VIPoma were initially described in 1958, ...
... pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor or apudoma; NF-PNET: non-functioning PNET; MEN: multiple endocrine neoplasia; VHL: von Hippel- ...
... apudoma, choristoma, branchioma; malignant carcinoid syndrome; carcinoid heart disease; carcinoma (for example Walkers ...
Apudoma. 8249/3. Atypical carcinoid tumor. 8680/0. Paraganglioma, benign. 8680/1. Paraganglioma, NOS. ...
Apudoma Enteroendocrine cell Neuroendocrine cell Welbourn RB (January 1977). "Current status of the apudomas". Ann. Surg. 185 ( ...
1989) Interferon alpha-2b in patients with advanced carcinoids and apudoma. Blut, (abstract 34th Ann Cong German Soc Hematol + ...
Farrior JB - Carcinoid apudoma arising in a glomus jugulare tumor: review of endocrine activity in glomus jugulare, tumors. ...
... primary small cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous apudoma. ...
Apudoma. Any tumor composed of cells with APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cytochemical properties. ...
APUDoma. Aquagenic pruritus. Arachindonic acid absence of. Arachnodactyly mental retardation dysmorphism. Arachnoid cysts. ...
Merkel cell tumor Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma M8248/1 Apudoma M8249/3 Atypical carcinoid tumor M8250/1 Pulmonary ...
Apudoma is a gastrointestinal tumor found in dogs and cats which secretes peptide hormones -- hormones that play a role in ...
... or cutaneous APUDoma (a tumor composed of cells with amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation [APUD] cytochemical properties ...
... apudoma, choristoma, branchioma, malignant carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid heart disease, carcinoma (e.g., Walker, basal cell, ...
3. Az APUDOMA-hoz tartoz carcinoid tumor ritk n ltal nos t neteket okoz polipeptideket termelhet. A műt ti t pus f gg a daganat ...
... apudoma, choristoma, branchioma, malignant carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid heart disease, carcinoma (e.g., Walker, basal cell, ...
  • Wanalizowanej grupie chorych znalazło się 6 przypadków rakowiaka umiejscowionego w jelicie krętym, kątnicy i esicy, 1 przypadek gastrinoma umiejscowiony w głowie trzustki, 1 przypadek insulinoma ogona trzustki, 1 vipoma umiejscowiony w głowie trzustki, 2 przypadki nesidioblasoma i 1 przypadek gruczolaka mikrocytarnego o neuroendokrynnym zróżnicowaniu - wszystkie umiejscowione w ogonie trzustki oraz 1 przypadek apudoma zidentyfikowany w jelicie krętym. (wroc.pl)