Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor: An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.Hirudin Therapy: Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Pipecolic AcidsDisseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Heparin Antagonists: Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Factor XI Deficiency: A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.Activated Protein C Resistance: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Factor VII Deficiency: An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Coagulation Protein Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Hemostatic Disorders: Pathological processes involving the integrity of blood circulation. Hemostasis depends on the integrity of BLOOD VESSELS, blood fluidity, and BLOOD COAGULATION. Majority of the hemostatic disorders are caused by disruption of the normal interaction between the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM, the plasma proteins (including BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS), and PLATELETS.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Factor X Deficiency: Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Factor XII Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Factor XIIa: Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Heparinoids: Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Antibodies, Anticardiolipin: Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
This test is called the aPTT, or activated partial thromboplastin time. It was not until much later that the subcomponents of ... thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin were identified. Thromboplastin contains phospholipids as well as tissue factor, both ... Thromboplastin defines the cascade that leads to the activation of factor X - the tissue factor pathway. In doing so it has ... When manipulated in the laboratory, a derivative could be created called partial thromboplastin, which was used to measure the ...
These include activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and antifactor Xa activity. The specimen of choice is usually fresh ... aPTT), one of the measures of the time it takes the blood plasma to clot. Partial thromboplastin time should not be confused ... Monitoring of the activated partial thromboplastin time is also not required and does not reflect the anticoagulant effect, as ... The effects of heparin are measured in the lab by the partial thromboplastin time ( ...
Specifically prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) are prolonged. The diagnosis is confirmed by ...
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT), or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) Thrombin time (TT) ... It is used in conjunction with the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measures the intrinsic pathway and common ... Variations between various thromboplastin preparations have in the past led to decreased accuracy of INR readings, and a 2005 ... A multicentre calibration study of WHO international reference preparations for thromboplastin, rabbit (RBT/90) and human (rTF/ ...
... and normal levels for the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). FVII levels are ...
It can prolong the partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in some women, but still, the APTT is not useful for monitoring. To check ...
APTT). Epidemiological studies have shown that high concentrations of HDL (over 60 mg/dL) have protective value against ... in this study revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between HDL and activated partial thromboplastin time ...
Lab exams revealed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) of 34.4 and acquired partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 81.7, as well as ... PT examination was 51 seconds and aPTT at 87 seconds. Prothrombin activity levels were less than 1%. All other exams revealed ... Mixing of PT and aPTT was performed in order to further evaluate coagulopathy and revealed no correction. Factor activity ... Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin improved the PT and aPTT. Did not improve bleeding conditions until treatment of ...
... and can be measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test. The tissue factor (extrinsic) pathway is ... The exceptions are prothrombin, fibrinogen, and some variants of FX that can be detected only by either aPTT or PT. If an ... Numerous tests are used to assess the function of the coagulation system: Common: aPTT, PT (also used to determine INR), ... Factors III and VI are unassigned, as thromboplastin was never identified, and actually turned out to consist of ten further ...
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is used for heparin studies and the normal range is 20-36 seconds, depending upon ...
The classical coagulation tests such as PT (prothrombin time), aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) or thrombin time ...
The APTT (plus 80:20 mix), dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT), kaolin clotting time (KCT), dilute thromboplastin time ( ... The patient on initial screening will typically have been found to have a prolonged APTT that does not correct in an 80:20 ... Monitoring IV anticoagulant therapy by the APTT ratio is compromised due to the effects of the lupus anticoagulant and in these ... TDT/DTT), silica clotting time (SCT) and prothrombin time (using a lupus sensitive thromboplastin) are the principal tests used ...
... and prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Prolonged time for lysis further displays the anti-fibrinolytic ...
... activated partial thromboplastin time-APTT, prothrombin time with International Normalized Ratio-PTINR, thrombin time-TT, and ... with von Willebrand disease typically display a normal prothrombin time and a variable prolongation of partial thromboplastin ...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) should be considered. Blood chemistry tests are conducted if renal cell carcinoma ...
The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is .the most reliable coagulation parameter and should be obtained regularly ...
More common tests of blood coagulation include prothrombin time (PT,INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measure ...
... and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) reflect the underlying consumption and impaired synthesis of the ...
... aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin time) for the contact activation pathway (intrinsic pathway) TCT or fibrinogen assay for ...
Partial thromboplastin was used to measure the intrinsic pathway. This test is called the aPTT, or activated partial ... It was not until much later that the subcomponents of thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin were identified. Thromboplastin ... thromboplastin, tissue factor]"), this is a misconception. Historically, thromboplastin was a lab reagent, usually derived from ... Thromboplastin (TPL) is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through catalyzing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin ...
The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that ... may lead to a prolonged aPTT correcting on mixing studies. The aPTT was first described in 1953 by researchers at the ... Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) measures the overall speed at which blood clots by means of two consecutive series of ... The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is used in conjunction with another measure of how quickly blood clotting takes place ...
... and can be measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test. ... XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent). Activates IX. Haemophilia C. XII (Hageman factor). Activates factor XI, VII and ... Common: aPTT, PT (also used to determine INR), fibrinogen testing (often by the Clauss method), platelet count, platelet ... An alternative name for the factor is plasma thromboplastin component, given by an independent group in California.[22] ...
The name derives from their properties in vitro, since in laboratory tests, these antibodies increase aPTT. Investigators ... antibodies tend to delay in-vitro coagulation in phospholipid-dependent laboratory tests such as the partial thromboplastin ...
The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a blood test that ... "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)". Retrieved 2009-01-01.. *^ Korte, Wolfgang; Clarke, Susan ... The aPTT was first described in 1953 by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill explaining the Carolina ... Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) measures the overall speed at which blood clots by means of two consecutive series of ...
... based test or an aPTT based test. In both methods, the time it takes for blood to clot is decreased in the presence of the ... "Comparison of Russell viper venom-based and activated partial thromboplastin time-based screening assays for resistance to ...
To distinguish the above causes, mixing tests are performed, in which the patient's plasma is mixed (initially at a 50:50 dilution) with normal plasma. If the abnormality does not disappear, the sample is said to contain an "inhibitor" (either heparin, antiphospholipid antibodies or coagulation factor specific inhibitors), while if it does disappear a factor deficiency is more likely. Deficiencies of factors VIII, IX, XI and XII and rarely von Willebrand factor (if causing a low factor VIII level) may lead to a prolonged aPTT correcting on mixing studies. ...
... (TEG) is a method of testing the efficiency of blood coagulation. It is a test mainly used in surgery and anesthesiology, although few centers are capable of performing it. More common tests of blood coagulation include prothrombin time (PT,INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measure coagulation factor function, but TEG also can assess platelet function, clot strength, and fibrinolysis which these other tests cannot. Thromboelastometry (TEM), previously named rotational thromboelastography (ROTEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), is another version of TEG in which it is the sensor shaft, rather than the cup, that rotates. A small sample of blood is taken from the selected person and rotated gently through 4º 45', six times a minute, to imitate sluggish venous flow and activate coagulation. A thin wire probe is used to measure, which the clot forms around. The speed and strength of clot formation is measured in various ways, ...
Mixing studies are tests performed on blood plasma used to distinguish factor deficiencies from factor inhibitors, such as lupus anticoagulant, or specific factor inhibitors, such as antibodies directed against factor VIII. Mixing studies take advantage of the fact that factor levels that are 50 percent of normal should give a normal Prothrombin time (PT) or Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) result. If the problem is a simple factor deficiency, mixing the patient plasma 1:1 with plasma that contains 100% of the normal factor level results in a level ≥50% in the mixture (say the patient has an activity of 0%; the average of 100% + 0% = 50%). The PT or PTT will be normal (the mixing study shows correction). Correction with mixing indicates factor deficiency; failure to correct indicates an inhibitor. Performing a thrombin time on the test plasma can provide useful additional information for the interpretation of mixing tests. Some inhibitors are time dependent. In other words, it takes time ...
Anticoagulants are drugs used to prevent the formation of blood clots, reducing the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[6] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[6] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[6][7] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[7]. Once clots have formed, other drugs can be used to promote thrombolysis or clot ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6]. Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6] Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6] Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several ...
... (development name, AA-2414; marketed originally as Bronica) is a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP receptor) antagonist used primarily in the treatment of asthma. It was the first TP receptor antagonist that was developed as an anti-asthmatic drug and received marketing approval in Japan in 1997. As of 2017 seratrodast was marketed as Bronica in Japan, and as Changnuo, Mai Xu Jia, Quan Kang Nuo in China. Unlike thromboxane synthase inhibitors such as ozagrel, seratrodast does not affect thrombus formation, time to occlusion and bleeding time. Seratrodast has no effect on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, thus ruling out any action on blood coagulation cascade. Seratrodast is used to treat asthma. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of seratrodast in pregnant women. The drug should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the risk to the fetus. Seratrodast should not be used during lactation. The safety and efficacy of ...
... is the time required for a sample of blood to coagulate in vitro under standard conditions. There are various methods for determining the clotting time, the most common being the capillary tube method. It is affected by calcium ion levels and many diseases. Normal value of clotting time is 8 to 15 minutes. For the measurement of clotting time by test tube method, blood is placed in a glass test tube and kept at 37° C. The required time is measured for the blood to clot. There are several other methods, including testing for those on blood thinners, such as heparin or warfarin. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is used for heparin studies and the normal range is 20-36 seconds, depending upon which type of activator is used in the study. Prothrombin time (PT) is used for warfarin studies and the normal values differ for men and women. PT time for adult males' normal range is 9.6-11.8 seconds, while adult females' normal range is 9.5-11.3 ...
Faktor PTA (bahasa Inggris: plasma thromboplastin antecedent, PTA, antihemophilic factor C, PTA factor, plasma thromboplastin factor C, PTF-C, Factor XI, FXI) adalah zimogen dari jenis serina protease yang merupakan prekursor dari faktor XIa, yang disekresi ke dalam sirkulasi darah untuk mengaktivasi plasma tromboplastin intrinsik[1] saat darah terpapar oleh permukaan asing.[2] Pada manusia, FXI terkodikasi dalam gen F11.[3][4][5][6] FXI disintesis oleh hati dan disekresi dalam bentuk homo-dimer yang tidak aktif[7] dengan waktu paruh sekitar 52 jam dan rasio plasma sekitar 5 mcg/mL.[8] ...
Mixing studies are tests performed on blood plasma used to distinguish factor deficiencies from factor inhibitors, such as lupus anticoagulant, or specific factor inhibitors, such as antibodies directed against factor VIII. Mixing studies take advantage of the fact that factor levels that are 50 percent of normal should give a normal Prothrombin time (PT) or Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) result. If the problem is a simple factor deficiency, mixing the patient plasma 1:1 with plasma that contains 100% of the normal factor level results in a level ≥50% in the mixture (say the patient has an activity of 0%; the average of 100% + 0% = 50%). The PT or PTT will be normal (the mixing study shows correction). Correction with mixing indicates factor deficiency; failure to correct indicates an inhibitor. Performing a thrombin time on the test plasma can provide useful additional information for the interpretation of mixing tests. Some inhibitors are time dependent. In other words, it takes time ...
... (development name, AA-2414; marketed originally as Bronica) is a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP receptor) antagonist used primarily in the treatment of asthma. It was the first TP receptor antagonist that was developed as an anti-asthmatic drug and received marketing approval in Japan in 1997. As of 2017 seratrodast was marketed as Bronica in Japan, and as Changnuo, Mai Xu Jia, Quan Kang Nuo in China. Unlike thromboxane synthase inhibitors such as ozagrel, seratrodast does not affect thrombus formation, time to occlusion and bleeding time. Seratrodast has no effect on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, thus ruling out any action on blood coagulation cascade. Seratrodast is used to treat asthma. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of seratrodast in pregnant women. The drug should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the risk to the fetus. Seratrodast should not be used during lactation. The safety and efficacy of ...
... is the time required for a sample of blood to coagulate in vitro under standard conditions. There are various methods for determining the clotting time, the most common being the capillary tube method. It is affected by calcium ion levels and many diseases. Normal value of clotting time is 8 to 15 minutes. For the measurement of clotting time by test tube method, blood is placed in a glass test tube and kept at 37° C. The required time is measured for the blood to clot. There are several other methods, including testing for those on blood thinners, such as heparin or warfarin. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is used for heparin studies and the normal range is 20-36 seconds, depending upon which type of activator is used in the study. Prothrombin time (PT) is used for warfarin studies and the normal values differ for men and women. PT time for adult males' normal range is 9.6-11.8 seconds, while adult females' normal range is 9.5-11.3 ...
A partial thromboplastin time test tells you how long it takes your blood to clot. Learn what it looks for, when you might need ... A typical aPTT value is 30 to 40 seconds.. If you get the test because youre taking heparin, youd want your PTT results to be ... Theres also an activated PTT (aPTT) test that measures the same thing, but they add a substance to your blood to make it clot ... Thats when your doctor might order a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test, which measures how many seconds it takes for your ...
aPTT is indicated for the following{ref1}{ref2}{ref6}: Unexplained bleeding or bruising Thrombotic episode or recurrent ... aPTT) test indicated?) and When is an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test indicated? What to Read Next on ... Influence of factor XII deficiency on activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in critically ill patients. J Thromb ... Drugs & Diseases , Laboratory Medicine , Partial Thromboplastin Time, Activated Q&A When is an activated partial thromboplastin ...
Also called partial thromboplastin time (PTT); originally described in 1953 (J Lab Clin Med 1953;41:637) * Second most commonly ... Cite this page: Parsons J. aPTT - activated partial thromboplastin time. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www. ... Mix patient plasma with excess calcium (to counteract the citrate anticoagulant), phospholipid (called partial thromboplastin ...
What is activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)? Meaning of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) medical term. ... APTT) in the Medical Dictionary? activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) explanation free. ... What does activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) mean? ... for online definition of activated partial thromboplastin time ... Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) , definition of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) by Medical dictionary ...
... aPTT). The response of available aPTT reagents to heparin varies significantly. The aim of this study was to highlight the ... Conclusion: Two reagents, namely aPTT-SP and SynthASIL both of which are based on synthetic phospholipids and silica, were ... differences between aPTT reagents stored in a dried format to select the most suitable formulations to be used for the ... The most commonly used test for monitoring heparin therapy is the activated partial thromboplastin time ( ...
... aPTT), which is widely used to monitor thromboprophylaxis. Misinterpretation of spontaneously prolonged... ... FXII deficiency results in spontaneous prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time ( ... A target aPTT of 60 s was standard in heparin therapy. An overshoot of the targeted upper aPTT range (, 60 s) was defined as ... FXII deficiency results in spontaneous prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), which is widely used to ...
APTT) in cats. Lab test paper including overview, sampling, tests, result data and more. All information is peer reviewed. ... Hematology: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) Synonym(s): aPTT, PTT, Partial thromboplastin time, (Kaolin-cephalin ... Varied bench top automated analyzers available for in house (mainly PT, APTT and/or ACT). ... PT and APTT) and possibly fibrin degradation products (FDP) Fibrin degradation products or D-dimers Hematology: D-dimers. ...
APTT) in dogs. Lab test paper including overview, sampling, tests, result data and more. All information is peer reviewed. ... Hematology: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) Synonym(s): aPTT, PTT, Partial thromboplastin time, (Kaolin-cephalin ... OBrien S R, Teresa, Sellers T, Meyer D (1995) Artifactual Prolongation of the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Associated ... Varied bench top automated analyzers available for in house (mainly PT, APTT and/or ACT) ...
Test ID APTSC Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Plasma Necessary Information. Heparin or Coumadin therapy should be ... especially when the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) mixing test results are combined with results of other ... The APTT may be 35% longer in full-term newborns that reach adult reference range by age 3 months and twice the adult upper ... Evaluating a prolonged APTT test result to assist in differentiating coagulation factor deficiencies from coagulation ...
the partial thromboplastin time (ptt) is a screening take a look at that helps compare a persons ability to appropriately ... the partial thromboplastin time (ptt) is a screening take a look at that helps compare a persons ability to appropriately ...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) Test in India, with their prices. ... Find out path labs and diagnostic centers offering APTT ( ... APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) Test Cost. APTT ( ... APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) Test Cost in Various Indian Cities. We have APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin ... APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) Test FAQs. Q: Why is APTT test ordered?. A: To detect blood clotting difficulties ...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). View cart "Hepatitis B Antigen (HBsAg) Screening (Rapid)" has been added to your ... APTT is responsible for measuring common and intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. A prolonged APT may be caused by ...
... the APTT mix typically fails to correct a prolonged APTT. However, the presence of a weak inhibitor may be missed by the APTT ... Test Code APTTB Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Plasma Necessary Information. Heparin or Coumadin therapy should ... The normal full-term newborn activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) may be up to 35% longer than in adults and even ... Prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) can occur as a result of deficiency of 1 or more coagulation ...
This test measures how long it takes for blood to clot. It measures the clotting ability of factors VIII (8), IX (9), XI (11)& XII
Prothrombin time (PT)/activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Some form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) ...
length of time taken for the mixture to clot is called the APTT and the normal range is 26-39 secs, depending on the analyser ... causes of a prolonged APTT. *. deficiency of one or more coagulation factors in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. ... the APTT test measures the overall activity of the intrinsic coagulation pathway. ... performed by warming a thromboplastin reagent that contains phospholipid with an aliquot of the patients plasma, and then ...
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you ... Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you ... Activated partial thromboplastin substitution test - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and ...
Abbreviations: aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; INR = international normalized ratio; MAP = mean arterial pressure ...
APTT - activated partial thromboplastin time. AR - autosomal recessive. FFP - fresh frozen plasma. FI - fibrinogen. FII - ... The results of initial coagulation studies, especially prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, are often ...
aPTT - activated partial thromboplastin time. DIC - disseminated intravascular coagulation. ICH - intracranial hemorrhage. ITP ...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) Test. This test measures how long it takes for blood to clot. It measures the ... This test is ordered either along with other blood clotting tests or when a patient has an abnormal PTexternal icon or APTT ...
Partial thromboplastin was used to measure the intrinsic pathway. This test is called the aPTT, or activated partial ... It was not until much later that the subcomponents of thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin were identified. Thromboplastin ... thromboplastin, tissue factor]"), this is a misconception. Historically, thromboplastin was a lab reagent, usually derived from ... Thromboplastin (TPL) is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through catalyzing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin ...
This test is called the aPTT, or activated partial thromboplastin time. It was not until much later that the subcomponents of ... thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin were identified. Thromboplastin contains phospholipids as well as tissue factor, both ... Thromboplastin defines the cascade that leads to the activation of factor X - the tissue factor pathway. In doing so it has ... When manipulated in the laboratory, a derivative could be created called partial thromboplastin, which was used to measure the ...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). , Haematology. Register Interest. Summary. This programme is operated by UK NEQAS ...
... aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDLC, low-density lipoprotein ...
  • There's also an activated PTT (aPTT) test that measures the same thing, but they add a substance to your blood to make it clot faster. (webmd.com)
  • If you get the test because you're taking heparin, you'd want your PTT results to be more like 120 to 140 seconds, and your aPTT to be 60 to 80 seconds. (webmd.com)
  • The APTT test is frequently used to monitor therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH). (testcatalog.org)
  • the APTT test measures the overall activity of the intrinsic coagulation pathway . (ozemedicine.com)
  • This test is ordered either along with other blood clotting tests or when a patient has an abnormal PT external icon or APTT test external icon result, or both. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Nonspecific, lupus-type anticoagulants can also extend the aPTT, but the more sensitive aPTT-LA test should be used to screen for this condition. (labcorp.com)
  • The aPTT-LA is a more sensitive screening test for identifying lupus anticoagulants in patients with a history of thrombosis. (labcorp.com)
  • Whenever prolonged APTT results were observed, abnormal data were investigated according to an algorithm combining familiar history of bleeding (yes/no), personal history of bleeding (yes/no) and signs/symptoms of bleeding with results of hemostasis testing, including mixing test, lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and clotting factor assays. (amegroups.com)
  • The APTT test results may also show other problems such as liver disease or a need for vitamins. (orlandohealth.com)
  • 2012 Global APTT Market Outlook: Test Volume Forecasts by Country and Mark. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This report presents a detailed analysis of the APTT testing market in the US, Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) and Japan, including clinical significance and current laboratory practice, as well as 5- and 10-year test volume forecasts by country and market segment. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The aPTT test can be used to look at how well those clotting factors are working. (ahealthyme.com)
  • If this test is done because you are taking heparin to help prevent blood clots, your healthcare provider will usually want the aPTT to be about twice as long as what it would be normally. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Methods: Over an 18-month period, the admission r-TEG values (ACT, R-value, k-time, alpha, mA, and LY30) and CCTs (aPTT, INR, platelet count, and fibrinogen) were recorded on the highest-level trauma activations admitted directly from the injury scene. (omicsonline.org)
  • Lastly, those factors that tend to cause a prolonged aPTT in the absence of heparin therapy should be considered. (labcorp.com)
  • Most clinical pathology laboratories offer a basic hemostatic/clotting profile Hematology: complete blood count (CBC) , coagulation times (PT and APTT) and possibly fibrin degradation products (FDP) Fibrin degradation products or D-dimers Hematology: D-dimers . (vetstream.com)
  • The aPTT was first described in 1953 by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill explaining the Carolina blue Vacutainer tube top color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortening of the APTT usually reflects either elevation of factor VIII activity secondary to acute or chronic illness or inflammation, or spurious results from suboptimal venipuncture, specimen collection or processing. (testcatalog.org)
  • 6 Factor VIII elevations, as can occur due to acute phase reactions, can normalize a mildly extended aPTT result. (labcorp.com)
  • Deficiencies or inhibition of high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein, or factors XII, XI, IX, and VIII can result in an extended aPTT with a normal protime (PT) since these factors are not part of the extrinsic pathway. (labcorp.com)
  • The influence of fabricated dressing material on the activation of blood clots through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways was signified using the APTT and PT assay respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Misinterpretation of spontaneously prolonged aPTT may result in omission of thromboembolic treatment or even unnecessary transfusion of blood products. (springer.com)
  • The aPTT may not be extended in individual factor deficiencies unless the levels drop below 15% to 45% depending on the factor. (labcorp.com)
  • Deficiencies of factors VIII , IX , XI and XII and rarely von Willebrand factor (if causing a low factor VIII level) may lead to a prolonged aPTT correcting on mixing studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the APTT is in the adult reference range by age 3 months in healthy full-term infants and by age 6 months in healthy premature infants (30-60 weeks gestation. (testcatalog.org)