Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Protein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Protein PrecursorsDrug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Riboswitch: Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immobilized Proteins: Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.Flexiviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)

Peptide aptamers targeting the hepatitis B virus core protein: a new class of molecules with antiviral activity. (1/64)

A substantial proportion of the worldwide liver cancer incidence is associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The therapeutic management of HBV infections is still problematic and novel antiviral strategies are urgently required. Using the peptide aptamer screening system, we aimed to isolate new molecules, which can block viral replication by interfering with capsid formation. Eight peptide aptamers were isolated from a randomized expression library, which specifically bound to the HBV core protein under intracellular conditions. One of them, named C1-1, efficiently inhibited viral capsid formation and, consequently, HBV replication and virion production. Hence, C1-1 is a novel model compound for inhibiting HBV replication by blocking capsid formation and provides a new basis for the development of therapeutic molecules with specific antiviral potential against HBV infections.  (+info)

Identification of the first Rho-GEF inhibitor, TRIPalpha, which targets the RhoA-specific GEF domain of Trio. (2/64)

The Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) remodel the actin cytoskeleton via their Rho-GTPase targets and affect numerous physiological processes such as transformation and cell motility. They are therefore attractive targets to design specific inhibitors that may have therapeutic applications. Trio contains two Rho-GEF domains, GEFD1 and GEFD2, which activate the Rac and RhoA pathways, respectively. Here we have used a genetic screen in yeast to select in vivo peptides coupled to thioredoxin, called aptamers, that could inhibit GEFD2 activity. One aptamer, TRIAPalpha (TRio Inhibitory APtamer), specifically blocks GEFD2-exchange activity on RhoA in vitro. The corresponding peptide sequence, TRIPalpha, inhibits TrioGEFD2-mediated activation of RhoA in intact cells and specifically reverts the neurite retraction phenotype induced by TrioGEFD2 in PC12 cells. Thus TRIPalpha is the first Rho-GEF inhibitor isolated so far, and represents an important step in the design of inhibitors for the expanding family of Rho-GEFs.  (+info)

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor trio activates the phagocyte NADPH oxidase in the absence of GDP to GTP exchange on Rac. "The emperor's nw clothes". (3/64)

The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes consists of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome b(559) and four cytosolic components as follows: p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). Activation of the oxidase is the result of assembly of the cytosolic components with cytochrome b(559) and can be mimicked in vitro by mixtures of membrane and cytosolic components exposed to an anionic amphiphile, serving as activator. We reported that prenylation of Rac1 endows it with the ability to support oxidase activation in conjunction with p67(phox) but in the absence of amphiphile and p47(phox). We now show the following 6 points. 1) The Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio markedly potentiates oxidase activation by prenylated Rac1-GDP. 2) This occurs in the absence of exogenous GTP or any other source of GTP generation, demonstrating that the effect of Trio does not involve GDP to GTP exchange on Rac1. 3) Trio does not potentiate oxidase activation by prenylated Rac1-GTP, by nonprenylated Rac1-GDP in the presence or absence of amphiphile, and by a prenylated [p67(phox)-Rac1] chimera in GDP-bound form. 4) Rac1 mutants defective in the ability to bind Trio or to respond to Trio by nucleotide exchange fail to respond to Trio by enhanced oxidase activation. 5) A Trio mutant with conserved Rac1-binding ability but lacking nucleotide exchange activity fails to enhance oxidase activation. 6) The effect of Trio is mimicked by displacement of Mg(2+) from Rac1-GDP. These results reveal the existence of a novel mechanism of Rac activation by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and suggest that the induction by Trio of a conformational change in Rac1, in the absence of nucleotide exchange, is sufficient for enhancing its effector function.  (+info)

Ultra high-speed sorting. (4/64)

BACKGROUND: Cell sorting has a history dating back approximately 40 years. The main limitation has been that, although flow cytometry is a science, cell sorting has been an art during most of this time. Recent advances in assisting technologies have helped to decrease the amount of expertise necessary to perform sorting. METHODS: Droplet-based sorting is based on a controlled disturbance of a jet stream dependent on surface tension. Sorting yield and purity are highly dependent on stable jet break-off position. System pressures and orifice diameters dictate the number of droplets per second, which is the sort rate limiting step because modern electronics can more than handle the higher cell signal processing rates. RESULTS: Cell sorting still requires considerable expertise. Complex multicolor sorting also requires new and more sophisticated sort decisions, especially when cell subpopulations are rare and need to be extracted from background. High-speed sorting continues to pose major problems in terms of biosafety due to the aerosols generated. CONCLUSIONS: Cell sorting has become more stable and predictable and requires less expertise to operate. However, the problems of aerosol containment continue to make droplet-based cell sorting problematical. Fluid physics and cell viability restraints pose practical limits for high-speed sorting that have almost been reached. Over the next 5 years there may be advances in fluidic switching sorting in lab-on-a-chip microfluidic systems that could not only solve the aerosol and viability problems but also make ultra high-speed sorting possible and practical through massively parallel and exponential staging microfluidic architectures.  (+info)

T2-TrpRS inhibits preretinal neovascularization and enhances physiological vascular regrowth in OIR as assessed by a new method of quantification. (5/64)

PURPOSE: A carboxyl-terminal fragment of tryptophan tRNA synthetase (T2-TrpRS) has demonstrated potent angiostatic activity during retinal developmental neovascularization in vivo. The effects of T2-TrpRS on pathologic neovascularization were tested and compared with a potent VEGF antagonist using the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were transiently exposed to hyperoxic conditions (75% O2) between postnatal day 7 (P7) and P12 and then returned to room air. Retinas were isolated, blood vessels stained with isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia, images of retinal whole-mounts acquired, and the area of vascular obliteration and extent of preretinal neovascularization quantified. This method was compared to the commonly used method of OIR quantification in which the number of pre-inner limiting membrane (ILM) nuclei is counted in serial sections of whole eyes. To assess the angiostatic activity of T2-TrpRS, mice were injected intravitreally at P12 with either T2-TrpRS, a VEGF aptamer, or vehicle (PBS) alone, and the effects on area of obliteration and on preretinal neovascular tuft formation were assessed. RESULTS: Using a modified method of quantification in the mouse OIR model based on images of isolectin-stained retinal wholemounts, we were able to assess reliably and consistently both vascular obliteration and preretinal neovascular tuft formation in the same specimen. T2-TrpRS demonstrated potent angiostatic activity, reducing the appearance of pathologic neovascular tufts by up to 90%. Surprisingly, T2-TrpRS also enhanced physiological revascularization of the obliterated retinal vasculature, reducing these areas by up to 60% compared with PBS-injected eyes. In contrast, the VEGF antagonist, while similarly reducing preretinal neovascular tuft formation, did not enhance revascularization of the obliterated areas. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a rapid, quantifiable method to assess the effect of T2-TrpRS on retinal angiogenesis in the OIR model demonstrates the importance of a quantification system that permits simultaneous analysis of a drug's effect on vascular obliteration as well as on preretinal neovascularization. The results obtained using this method suggest enhanced clinical value for compounds such as T2-TrpRS that not only inhibit pathologic neovascularization, but also facilitate physiological revascularization of ischemic tissue.  (+info)

Peptide aptamer-mediated inhibition of target proteins by sequestration into aggresomes. (6/64)

Peptide aptamers (PAs) can be employed to block the intracellular function of target proteins. Little is known about the mechanism of PA-mediated protein inhibition. Here, we generated PAs that specifically bound to the duck hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein. Among them, PA34 strongly blocked duck HBV replication by inhibiting viral capsid formation. We found that PA34 led to a dramatic intracellular redistribution of its target protein into perinuclear inclusion bodies, which exhibit the typical characteristics of aggresomes. As a result, the core protein is efficiently removed from the viral life cycle. Corresponding findings were obtained for bioactive PAs that bind to the HBV core protein or to the human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) E6 protein, respectively. The observation that PAs induce the specific sequestration of bound proteins into aggresomes defines a novel mechanism as to how this new class of intracellular inhibitors blocks the function of their target proteins.  (+info)

Peptide aptamers that bind to a geminivirus replication protein interfere with viral replication in plant cells. (7/64)

The AL1 protein of tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), a member of the geminivirus family, is essential for viral replication in plants. Its N terminus contains three conserved motifs that mediate origin recognition and DNA cleavage during the initiation of rolling-circle replication. We used the N-terminal domain of TGMV AL1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a random peptide aptamer library constrained in the active site of the thioredoxin A (TrxA) gene. The screen selected 88 TrxA peptides that also bind to the full-length TGMV AL1 protein. Plant expression cassettes corresponding to the TrxA peptides and a TGMV A replicon encoding AL1 were cotransfected into tobacco protoplasts, and viral DNA replication was monitored by semiquantitative PCR. In these assays, 31 TrxA peptides negatively impacted TGMV DNA accumulation, reducing viral DNA levels to 13 to 64% of those of the wild type. All of the interfering aptamers also bound to the AL1 protein of cabbage leaf curl virus. A comparison of the 20-mer peptides revealed that their sequences are not random. The alignments detected seven potential binding motifs, five of which are more highly represented among the interfering peptides. One motif was present in 18 peptides, suggesting that these peptides interact with a hot spot in the AL1 N terminus. The peptide aptamers characterized in these studies represent new tools for studying AL1 function and can serve as the basis for the development of crops with broad-based resistance to single-stranded DNA viruses.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by the Smad-binding peptide aptamer Trx-SARA. (8/64)

Overexpression of the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, is used frequently to implicate the Smad pathway in cellular responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling; however, Smad7 regulates several other proteins, including Cdc42, p38MAPK, and beta-catenin. We report an alternative approach for more specifically disrupting Smad-dependent signaling using a peptide aptamer, Trx-SARA, which comprises a rigid scaffold, the Escherichia coli thioredoxin A protein (Trx), displaying a constrained 56-amino acid Smad-binding motif from the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. Trx-SARA bound specifically to Smad2 and Smad3 and inhibited both TGF-beta-induced reporter gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. In contrast to Smad7, Trx-SARA had no effect on the Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation levels induced by TGF-beta1. Trx-SARA was primarily localized to the nucleus and perturbed the normal cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 and 3 to a nuclear localization in the absence of TGF-beta1, consistent with reduced Smad nuclear export. The key mode of action of Trx-SARA was to reduce the level of Smad2 and Smad3 in complex with Smad4 after TGF-beta1 stimulation, a mechanism of action consistent with the preferential binding of SARA to monomeric Smad protein and Trx-SARA-mediated disruption of active Smad complexes.  (+info)

Kit 30500-050 Kit 30500-096 DNA marker 81-0020 DNA marker 81-0100 DNA marker 82-0100 DNA marker 82-0200 DNA marker 82-0500 DNA marker 82-1000 DNA marker 83-2500 DNA marker 83-5000 DNA Aptamers AD-155-B DNA Aptamers AD-155-F DNA Aptamers AD-155-U Peptide Aptamers AP-302-B Peptide Aptamers AP-302-F Peptide Aptamers AP-302-U Peptide Aptamers AP-304-B Peptide Aptamers AP-304-F Peptide Aptamers AP-304-U Peptide Aptamers AP-306-B Peptide Aptamers AP-306-F Peptide Aptamers AP-306-U Peptide Aptamers AP-308-B Peptide Aptamers AP-308-F Peptide Aptamers AP-308-U Peptide Aptamers AP-309-B Peptide Aptamers AP-309-F Peptide Aptamers AP-309-U Peptide Aptamers AP-310-B Peptide Aptamers AP-310-F Peptide Aptamers AP-310-U Peptide Aptamers AP-312-B Peptide Aptamers AP-312-F Peptide Aptamers AP-312-U Peptide Aptamers AP-315-B Peptide Aptamers AP-315-F Peptide Aptamers AP-315-U Peptide Aptamers AP-318-B Peptide Aptamers AP-318-F Peptide Aptamers AP-318-U Peptide Aptamers AP-319-B Peptide Aptamers AP-319-F Peptide Aptamers
Endothelial Cells (P36), Peptide Aptamer, FITC labelled Peptide Aptamers AP-308-F Endothelial Cells (P36), Peptide Aptamer, FITC labelled Peptide Aptamers AP-308-F
LMO2 is a transcription regulator involved in human T-cell leukemia, including some occurring in X-SCID gene therapy trials, and in B-cell lymphomas and prostate cancer. LMO2 functions in transcription complexes via protein-protein interactions involving two LIM domains and causes a preleukemic T-cell development blockade followed by clonal tumors. Therefore, LMO2 is necessary but not sufficient for overt neoplasias, which must undergo additional mutations before frank malignancy. An open question is the importance of LMO2 in tumor development as opposed to sustaining cancer. We have addressed this using a peptide aptamer that binds to the second LIM domain of the LMO2 protein and disrupts its function. This specificity is mediated by a conserved Cys-Cys motif, which is similar to the zinc-binding LIM domains. The peptide inhibits Lmo2 function in a mouse T-cell tumor transplantation assay by preventing Lmo2-dependent T-cell neoplasia. Lmo2 is, therefore, required for sustained T-cell tumor growth, in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultra-high sensitivity of the non-immunological affinity of graphene oxide-peptide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors to detect human chorionic gonadotropin. AU - Chiu, Nan Fu. AU - Kuo, Chia Tzu. AU - Lin, Ting Li. AU - Chang, Chia Chen. AU - Chen, Chen Yu. PY - 2017/8/15. Y1 - 2017/8/15. N2 - Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance as sensing probes due to their potential in the development of non-immunological assays with high sensitivity, affinity and specificity for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) protein. We combined graphene oxide (GO) sheets with a specific peptide aptamer to create a novel, simple and label-free tool to detect abnormalities at an early stage of pregnancy, a GO-peptide-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. This is the first binding interface experiment to successfully demonstrate binding specificity in kinetic analysis biomechanics in peptide aptamers ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the February 2018 issue here.. ...
The smooth identification and low-cost production of highly specific agents that interfere with signaling cascades by targeting an active domain in surface receptors, cytoplasmic and nuclear effector proteins, remain important challenges in biomedical research. We propose that peptide aptamers can provide a very useful and new alternative for interfering with protein-protein interactions in intracellular signal transduction cascades, including those emanating from activated receptors for growth factors. By their targeting of short, linear motif type of interactions, peptide aptamers have joined nucleic acid aptamers for use in signaling studies because of their ease of production, their stability, their high specificity and affinity for individual target proteins, and their use in high-throughput screening protocols. Furthermore, they are entering clinical trials for treatment of several complex, pathological conditions. Here, we present a brief survey of the use of aptamers in signaling pathways, in
51556PRTAgrobacterium tumefaciens 1Met Asp Pro Lys Ala Glu Gly Asn Gly Glu Asn Ile Thr Glu Thr Ala 1 5 10 15 Ala Gly Asn Val Glu Thr Ser Asp Phe Val Asn Leu Lys Arg Gln Lys 20 25 30 Arg Glu Gly Val Asn Ser Thr Gly Met Ser Glu Ile Asp Met Thr Gly 35 40 45 Ser Gln Glu Thr Pro Glu His Asn Met His Gly Ser Pro Thr His Thr 50 55 60 Asp Asp Leu Gly Pro Arg Leu Asp Ala Asp Met Leu Asp Ser Gln Ser 65 70 75 80 Ser His Val Ser Ser Ser Ala Gln Gly Asn Arg Ser Glu Val Glu Asn 85 90 95 Glu Leu Ser Asn Leu Phe Ala Lys Met Ala Leu Pro Gly His Asp Arg 100 105 110 Arg Thr Asp Glu Tyr Ile Leu Val Arg Gln Thr Gly Gln Asp Lys Phe 115 120 125 Ala Gly Thr Thr Lys Cys Asn Leu Asp His Leu Pro Thr Lys Ala Glu 130 135 140 Phe Asn Ala Ser Cys Arg Leu Tyr Arg Asp Gly Val Gly Asn Tyr Tyr 145 150 155 160 Pro Pro Pro Leu Ala Phe Glu Arg Ile Asp Ile Pro Glu Gln Leu Ala 165 170 175 Ala Gln Leu His Asn Leu Glu Pro Arg Glu Gln Ser Lys Gln Cys Phe 180 185 190 Gln Tyr Lys Leu Glu Val Trp Asn Arg Ala His Ala Glu Met Gly Ile 195 200 ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT) device) for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple and cost-effective methods for the sensitive and selective detection of hCG have always been desired. In this work, we have developed a graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent platform for the detection of hCG using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled hCG-specific binding peptide aptamer (denoted as FITC-PPLRINRHILTR) as the probe, which can be manufactured cheaply and consistently. Specifically, FITC-PPLRINRHILTR adsorbed onto the surface of GO via electrostatic interaction showed a poor fluorescence signal. The specific binding of hCG to FITC-PPLRINRHILTR resulted in the release of the peptide from the GO surface. As a result, an enhanced fluorescence signal was observed. The fluorescence intensity was directly
Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. About 2% of Caucasian women are homozygous (HPA-1b/1b) and risk forming antibodies against the integrin of the fetus. Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet alloimmunization has an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies and may cause in utero cerebral bleeds or ventriculomegaly.2-4 Thus, screening and identification of maternal alloantibodies are critical in early detection of such alloimmunization.5. Up to now, all methods for detecting auto- or alloantibodies directed at platelets, such as monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay ...
The detection of biomarkers is of great significance in the diagnosis of numerous diseases, especially cancer. Herein, we developed a sensitive and universal fluorescent aptasensor strategy based on magnetic beads, DNA G-quadruplex, and exonuclease Ⅲ (Exo Ⅲ). In the presence of a target protein, a label-free single strand DNA (ssDNA) hybridized with the aptamer was released as a trigger DNA due to specific recognition between the aptamer and target. Subsequently, ssDNA initiates the Exo Ⅲ-aided recycling to amplify the fluorescence signal, which was caused by N-methylmesoporphyrin Ⅸ (NMM) insertion into the G-quadruplex structure. This proposed strategy combines the excellent specificity between the aptamer and target, high sensitivity of the fluorescence signal by G-quadruplex and Exo Ⅲaided recycling amplification. We selected (50-1200 nmol/L) MUC1, a common tumor biomarker, as the proof-of-concept target to test the specificity of our aptasensor. Results reveal that the sensor ...
Aptamers are an interesting class of molecules that have potential in many facets of human health. They are characterized by high affinity and specificity to their targets, are small in size, have similar properties to antibodies, but are made synthetically. All of these properties, among others, give aptamers the potential to diagnose, image and treat like no other molecules. By combining the unique properties of aptamers with the ever expanding field of nanotechnology and all it has to offer, we are entering a very promising new area of targeted nanodelivery treatments. These treatments have found success in the complex disease processes of cancer, eye and inflammatory diseases ...
... DUBLIN November 8 2013 /- ...Research and Markets ( a href http://www.researchandmarkets.com... (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/2013...Aptamers Market - Technology Trend Analysis By Applications - Therapeu...,Global,Aptamers,Market,Technology,Trend,Analysis,Market,Report,2013-2018:,Therapeutics,,Diagnostics,,Biosensors,,Biomarker/Drug,Discovery,&,Applications,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Antibodies have now been widely used for clinical treatment of a number of tumors. However, there are serious problems associated with antibody therapy, such as potential interactions of antibodies with the immune system as well as long production cycles. Recently, aptamers have been found to function similar to an
In order to early diagnose breast cancer with the rapid quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum, highly sensitive DNA aptasensor with 1,1-oxalyldiimidazole chemiluminescence (ODI-CL) detection was developed using the combination of CEA aptamer, [...] ...
Maize streak virus (MSV) disease (MSD) decimates tropical maize yields in subSaharan Africa reaching 100% crop loss. The disease, characterized by yellow streaks along leaf vasculature, delimits host photosynthesis leading to reduced or no grain filling, stunting and death in old and young infected plants respectively. Control of MSD via development of resistant maize varieties through classical breeding compromises other agronomical traits in the maize. The resistance is also poorly defined thus difficult to sustain or up-grade, allowing brisk virus counter resistance. There is need to compliment classical breeding basing on MSV virology coupled with comprehensible genetic manipulations. MSV replication proteins Rep and RepA have motifs that serve different but specific functions. For viral replication, the motifs involved locate in the N-terminus. Such functional interactions are subject to interference using various means, including synthetic short peptides termed peptide aptamers. The main ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is the most common molecular target of current HIV treatments. Oligonucleotide aptamers bind and inhibit the RNA- and DNA-dependent polymerization activities of HIV RT. Libraries consisting of aptamers including 32, 70 or 80 nucleotide variable regions were previously screened by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) against RT. Roughly half of the resulting aptamers were represented by pseudoknots with well defined signature sequences (the Family I), but also additional pseudoknots with little sequence convergence (Family II), and non-pseudoknot aptamers (Family III). Nucleic acid aptamers bind RT in the primer/template binding site. Aptamers are generally non-toxic and non-immunogenic molecules making them enticing drug prospects. Many aptamers inhibit DNA dependent DNA polymerization by RT from several phenotypically different recombinant viruses, but inhibition depends on a single amino acid mutation at ...
Background: RNA aptamers are small RNA molecules that bind antigens like antibodies and are currently being explored as alternatives to antibodies for diagnosis and therapy. A potential merit of aptamers is that they can be generated against native cellular antigens, such as those with unique post-translational modifications or receptor-ligand complexes, for which antibody generation can be difficult. Here, we report the use of a cell-based systematic enrichment approach (SELEX) to develop a novel Treg-binding RNA aptamer specific to IL2Rα-IL2 receptor-ligand complex.. Methods and Results:. A. Generation of Treg-binding aptamers:. We designed a cell-based SELEX strategy to generate RNA aptamers specific to human T regulatory (Treg) cells. The starting library consisted of random RNA aptamers with a structural diversity of ~1012. Aptamers against common T cell antigens were pre-cleared using CD4+CD25- Teff cells. Treg-binding aptamers were then positively selected using CD4+CD25+ Tregs from the ...
Infectious diseases are a subject of public health safety. In case of events such as bioterrorism or food samples tainted with a disease causing bacteria or virus the standard traditional methods of detection of viral or bacterial detection are too slow. We have developed molecular probes known as ?aptamers? to detect infection with high specificity and sensitivity. Aptamer, a word derived from Latin ?aptus? meaning ?to fit?; are molecular probes which are generated using nucleic acids which recognize and bind their target with a very high affinity and specificity. Aptamers are evolved in vitro in a test tube for its target. Aptamers are generated using a screening process known an SELEX, which stands for Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment. A library of 10 14 to 10 16 unique sequences is synthesized. These sequences are fractionated based on interactions with the target for which the aptamer is generated. The weaker binding sequences are weeded out after each successive ...
We have recently described the isolation of 2-fluoropyrimidine-substituted RNA aptamers that bind selectively to disease-associated beta-sheet-rich forms of the prion protein, PrP, from a number of mammalian species. These aptamers inhibit the accumulation of protease-resistant forms of PrP in a prion-seeded, in vitro conversion assay. Here we identify the minimal portions of two of these aptamers that retain binding specificity. We determine their secondary structures by a combination of modeling and solution probing. Finally, we identify an internal site for biotinylation of a minimized, synthetic aptamer and use the resultant reagent in the detection of abnormal forms of PrP in vitro.
Aptamers are dedicated oligonucleotides that bind in the active center of the polymerase and prevent attachment to nucleic acid targets at temperatures below the optimal reaction temperature of the Tth enzyme. Therefore, no primer elongation occurs during setup of the reaction and the following heating phase prior to the RT step. At higher temperatures, the Aptamers are released from the enzyme, and RT or DNA polymerization can be initiated. In addition, the recommended incubation temperature for RT with Tth (+61°C) is helpful to overcome secondary structures of RNA. This results in highly specific and efficient cDNA synthesis, which leads to highly specific and sensitive PCR ...
and / or polyclonal antibodies specific to a particular target for capture and / or quantitative detection. Most ELISAs employ a 96-well plate-based format. ELISAs are currently used in a wide range of industries, with wide-spread application for the detection of protein biomarkers in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. While antibody-based immunoassays have proven to be very sensitive and specific, there are some limitations which can be overcome with the ELASA, or Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Sorbent Assay. Unlike antibodies, aptamers can be selected for specific binding to poorly immunogenic and toxic compounds. Aptamers can also distinguish between highly conserved molecules. Chemical aptamer synthesis enables rapid, low-cost production of new batches with low lot-to-lot variability. As with traditional ELISAs, ELASAs can be direct, indirect, and sandwich assays. Several sandwich ELASA assays have been developed at Base Pair Biotechnologies. Biotinylated capture aptamers are typically bound to ...
Shigdar, Sarah, Lv, Li, Wang, Lifen and Duan, Wei 2016, Application of aptamers in histopathology. In Mayer, Gunter (ed), Nucleic acid aptamers : selection, characterization and application, Humana Press, New York, N.Y., pp.191-196, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3197-2_16. ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, March 20, 2017 ) According to the report Middle-East and Africa Aptamers Market published by Market Data Forecast, the Middle-East and African market was worth $9.53 million in 2016 and is projected to reach $11.82 million with CAGR of 15.0% by 2021 For full report refer to http://www.marketdataforecast.com/market-reports/middle-east-and-africa-aptamers-market-1139/ Aptamers...
Read "A simple non-enzymatic strategy for adenosine triphosphate electrochemical aptasensor using silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide, Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
SelectScience visited the EDM Millipore booth at Neuroscience 2012 to find out more about the SNAP i.d.® 2.0 Protein Detection System. The new and improved SNAP i.d.® 2.0 Protein Detection System is the second generation of the SNAP i.d.® method for detecting immunoreactive proteins on western blots. With this unique vacuum-driven system, the length of time required for immunodetection is greatly reduced.
Aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind ligands-sometimes strongly and sometimes very specifically. They are, or will be, the basis of therapeutics, assays, and sensors. We consider how these molecules are designed and selected, and to what extent computational methods have helped or might help. ...
Aptamers, synthetic oligonucleotide‐based molecular recognition probes, have found use in a wide array of biosensing technologies based on their tight and highly selective binding to a variety of molecular targets
Anti-His Tag (6H7), DNA Aptamer, FITC labeled DNA Aptamers AD-105-F Anti-His Tag (6H7), DNA Aptamer, FITC labeled DNA Aptamers AD-105-F
Adenosine/ATP (DH25.42), DNA Aptamer, unlabeled DNA Aptamers AD-104-U Adenosine/ATP (DH25.42), DNA Aptamer, unlabeled DNA Aptamers AD-104-U
Minisatellite isoallelism, i.e. the occurrence of minisatellite alleles with different internal sequence composition but indistinguishable length, is a common limitation of minisatellite allele length analysis. Internal sequence variation can be used to distinguish such isoalleles, provided that detailed sequence knowledge of its basis is available. We now show that minisatellite isoalleles can also be simply resolved by single-stranded conformational polymorphisms (SSCP) arising during agarose gel electrophoresis. SSCP on agarose gels can be used to distinguish minisatellite isoalleles either after PCR amplification, or by standard Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA ...
An L-ribonucleic acid aptamer (L-RNA aptamer, trade name Spiegelmer - from German Spiegel "mirror" - by Noxxon Pharma) is an RNA-like molecule built from L-ribose units. It is an artificial oligonucleotide named for being a mirror image of natural oligonucleotides. L-RNA aptamers are a form of aptamers. Due to their L-nucleotides, they are highly resistant to degradation by nucleases. Spiegelmers are considered potential drugs and are currently being tested in clinical trials. Spiegelmers, built using L-ribose, are the enantiomers of natural oligonucleotides, which are made with D-ribose. Nucleic acid aptamers, including L-RNA aptamers, contain adenosine monophosphate, guanosine monophosphate, cytidine monophosphate, uridine monophosphate, a phosphate group, a nucleobase and a ribose sugar. Like other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are able to bind molecules such as peptides, proteins, and substances of low molecular weight. The affinity of L-RNA aptamers to their target molecules often lies in the ...
Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody-based therapeutic and diagnostic approach currently employed against biotoxins pose major limitations such as the requirement of a live animal for the in vivo enrichment of the antibody species, decreased stability, high production cost, and side effects. Aptamer technology is a viable alternative that can be used to combat these problems. Fully sequestered in vitro, aptamers eliminate the need for a living host. Furthermore, one of the key advantages of using aptamers instead of antibodies is that they can be selected against very weakly immunogenic and cytotoxic substances. In this review, we focus on nucleic acid aptamers developed against various biotoxins of plant, microorganism, or animal origin and show how ...
70846 Oilseed contains sterols and related compounds with economic potential. The extraction and analysis of these compounds would be aided by the availability of highly selective aptamers with high affinities for their particular sterol ligands. This project will develop aptamers for use in microarrays to analyze and extract sterol contents of oil and other biological extracts. Bacterial expression vectors will be prepared from which the aptamers can be expressed in large quantities. In Phase I, one or more DNA aptamers for sitosterol will be selected. The aptamers will be evaluated for their specificity and affinity for sitosterol and related compounds. A bacterial expression vector will be developed from which aptamers can be prepared. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits as described by the awardee: Commercial applications include (1) the use of aptamers in the analysis and extraction of sitosterol and related compounds, and (2) a general method for economically mass-producing DNA ...
Aptamer Solutions Ltd is a York based Biotechnology Company specialising in the custom selection of high-affinity and highly specific nucleic acid aptamers for use in the life sciences sector. Our proprietary automated high-throughput aptamer selection processes allow us to offer a flexible and competitive pricing structure for the development of RNA and DNA aptamers. In addition, we are about to launch a new complementary technology in the area of biomarker discovery.. Our proprietary aptamer based biomarker discovery platform and proprietary combinatorial libraries contain up to and over 1018 different molecules, this diversity and bespoke library design is fundamental to the success of the screening process. This technology enables us to greatly speed up the identification of novel biomarkers as well as diagnostics and/or therapeutic candidate molecules. This technology builds on one of the most powerful uses of aptamer technology, which is the ability for aptamers to be isolated against ...
Aptamers are typically selected from libraries of random DNA (or RNA) sequences through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), which involves several rounds of alternating steps of partitioning of candidate oligonucleotides and their PCR amplification. Here we describe a protocol for non-SELEX selection of aptamers - a process that involves repetitive steps of partitioning with no amplification between them. Non-equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM), which is a highly efficient affinity method, is used for partitioning. NECEEM also facilitates monitoring of bulk affinity of enriched libraries at every step of partitioning and screening of individual clones for their affinity to the target. NECEEM allows all clones to be screened prior to sequencing, so that only clones with suitable binding parameters are sequenced. The entire protocol can be completed in 1 wk, whereas conventional SELEX protocols take several weeks even in a specialized
View PROTEIN DETECTION for MB.BS.pptx from AA 1PROTEIN DETECTION Dr.Sajida Parveen Shaikh OBJECTIVES Define proteins List major body proteins in various body fluids. Proteinuria State Principle of
The adenosine aptamer was split into two halves and linked to a fluid liposome surface; addition of adenosine resulted in aptamer assembly, which did not occur if the split aptamer was attached to silica nanoparticles, demonstrating the feasibility of using aptamer probes to study diffusion within lipid membranes ...
The integration of anatomic, molecular, and genomic pathology into surgical pathology practice is conspicuous in oncology, where definition of molecular pathways important for specific tumors has enabled development of new biomarkers and innovative approaches to the detection of cancer and metastases. The so-called "liquid biopsy" includes a wide array of new technologies, including tumor-derived tumor vesicles and aptamer probes. The surgical pathologist will need to understand these new technologies and be aware of their advantages and pitfalls as they are applied into practice. Upon completion of this educational activity, participants should be able to:. ...
Please join EMD Millipore for a highly technical seminar describing two novel approaches for protein detection, the Direct Detect FTIR system and Multiplexing assays on the Luminex platform. The presentation is suitable for every level of scientist involved in protein research. Both of these technologies enable researchers to more fully understand the complexities of their cell/tissue samples by more accurately quantifying proteins and lipids, saving precious sample volume, and generating dozens of data points from a single biological sample.. Lunch will be provided. Registration is not required for this event.. ...
Aptamer selection protocols, named cell-SELEX, have been developed to target trans-membrane proteins using whole living cells as target. This technique presents several advantages. (1) It does not...
Recently, they have improved the sensors reliability and sought new applications for the technology. To sense biological agents, the device takes rapid, direct measurements of the binding of an antigen to a chemical receptor on the waveguide surface. Researchers previously used antibodies as receptors. But they are more expensive and less reliable than aptamers, the synthetic, nucleic-acid-based receptors used in the sensor now, Campbell says. GTRI research scientist Jie Xu has been assisting Campbell with the aptamer work. ...
低強度運動が冷水浸水時の体温調節反応に及ぼす影響―ふるえの深部体温閾値および感受性に着目して― ...
2.これまでの病型分類が当てはまらない胆道閉鎖症の症例 : 十二指腸への交通を認めた肝門部嚢胞型胆道閉鎖症(セッション2.「診断」,第37回日本胆道閉鎖症研究会) ...
Anti-thrombin aptamers are G-quadruplex-bearing oligonucleotides, which recognizes the exosites of human thrombin. The first anti-thrombin aptamer, TBA, was generated through via SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) technology in 1992 by L.C. Bock, J.J. Toole and colleagues. A second thrombin-binding aptamer, HD22, recognizes thrombin exosite II and was discovered in 1997 by NeXstar (now Gilead Sciences). These two aptamers have high affinity and good specificity and have been widely studied and used for the development of aptamer-based therapeutics and diagnostics. The aptamer TBA (also known as G15D, HTQ, HD1 or ARC183) is a 15-mer single-stranded DNA with the sequence 5-GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG-3. It interacts with the exosite I of human alpha-thrombin, which is the binding site of fibrinogen, so this aptamer acts as an anti-coagulant agent inhibiting the activation of fibrinogen as well as platelet aggregation. In addition, TBA shows good affinity and specificity ...
After three decades, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a global pandemic. It has been difficult to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines against HIV due partly to the virus s ability to mutate rapidly. As a result, there is a constant need to develop new therapeutic agents that target HIV-1. This research seeks to develop an RNA aptamer that would bind tightly to the Pre-Hairpin Intermediate state of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41 to inhibit viral fusion. The project targets the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp41, with nucleic acid aptamers. Aptamers are selected from random pools (libraries) by an in vitro selection called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). The aptamers go through rounds of selection, where the weak binders will be washed off in each round. Once these aptamers are developed, they will be tested for their ability to prevent viral membrane fusion, and their potential use in HIV therapeutics. ...
Trying to incorporate quantum dots into biological systems has proven difficult due to their lack of biocompatibility and the toxicity of heavy metals inside cells. Recently developed carbon nanodots retain the advantages of quantum dots, but can function in biological media. Xianogang Qu and researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences incorporated carbon nanodots in a thrombin detection assay using DNA aptamers. Thrombin contains two binding sites that are recognized by different aptamers on both a silica nanoparticle and carbon nanodot. The multi-binding site capabilities of aptamers allow for greater sensitivity when compared to single site antibodies, and the fluorescent signal of the carbon nanodot is only detected when bound to thrombin on the silica nanoparticle. Click on the paper below to read more, it will be free to read until November 16th.. Aptamer carbon nanodot sandwich used for fluorescent detection of protein ...
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides isolated via in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX),1,2 which can specifically bind to a wide range of targets including proteins, small molecules and metal ions.3 Aptamers offer several advantages as recognition elements for biosensor applications relative to antibodies. First, aptamers can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low cost.4,5 Second, the high chemical stability of DNA aptamers means that they can be used under harsher conditions and stored with a longer shelf life.6 Finally, it is possible to generate unstructured aptamers that form specific secondary structures such as three-way junctions7,8 or tertiary folds such as G-quadruplex structures9,10 upon target binding. Such target-induced conformational changes can be readily exploited for specific target detection in a variety of applications, including medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and drug screening.11-13 ...
Article Aptamer-based and DNAzyme-based biosensors for environmental monitoring. Aptamers and DNAzymes are small single-stranded nucleic acids that fold into a well-defined three-dimensional structure with high specificity to various ligands, such as...
Macugen is injected into the vitreous of the eye using a scleral approach. Once in the vitreous, it is absorbed into the retina and binds with VEGF 165, preventing the VEGF 165 from stimulating new growth of friable, or leaky, blood vessels. These fragile blood vessels are called choroidal neovascularizations. As they leak serum and blood, they damage the macula, resulting in the loss of central vision. This leakage occurs within a short period of time after these blood vessels start to form. It is important to understand that this form of VEGF is not a normal product in a healthy eye.. Macugen needs to be injected every six weeks - not an appealing thought - and patient compliance could be an issue. But the company has two years of data that demonstrate that the procedure is well tolerated with 92 percent of the patients completing the trials. It is unknown at this time how long the therapy will need to be continued. There is a hope that the disease may not need therapy for life, but this is ...
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A sensitive electrochemical approach for the detection of thrombin was designed by using densely packed hierarchical dendritic gold microstructures (HDGMs) with secondary and tertiary branches as matrices, and thionine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanospheres as signal tags. To prepare the signal tags, the positively charged thionine (as an indicator) was initially adsorbed onto the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Then [AuCl(4)](-) ions were in situ reduced on the thionine-modified MSNs by ascorbic acid to construct nanogold-decorated MSNs (GMSNs). The formed GMSNs were employed as label of the aminated aptamers. The assay was carried out in PBS, pH 7.4 with a sandwich-type assay mode by using the assembled thionine in the GMSNs as indicators. Compared with the pure silica nanoparticles, mesoporous silica could provide a larger surface for the immobilization of biomolecules and improve the sensitivity of the aptasensor. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical aptasensors exhibited a
The present invention provides an aptamer-based calorimetric sensor system for determining the presence and optionally the concentration of an analyte in a sample. Methods of utilizing the sensor syst
ELRIG are busily preparing for the 8th Annual Drug Discovery conference which will be held at Manchester Convention Centre on 2nd & 3rd September 2014. The programme contain presentations from leading scientists across Europe and beyond, covering exciting advances in basic and translational aspects of drug discovery and brings together Academia, Biotech, Vendors and Pharma into a single community.. Aptamer Group are delighted to be invited back to the Innovation Zone (stand IZ12) for the second year running, where we will be exhibiting our new and exciting technologies. We have over 20 years combined expertise in the development of nucleic acid aptamers to peptides, proteins, cells, tissue samples, micro-organisms and small molecules.. Dr David Bunka, CTO, world leading high-throughput aptamer selection expert will be addressing the Target Validation audience on 3 September at 12.00 in Charter 1. Dr Bunka will be discussing how our technology enables us to greatly speed up the identification of ...
Multitasking by Multivalent Circular DNA Aptamers | Daniel A. Di Giusto; Sarah M. Knox; Yuching Lai; Gregory D. Tyrelle; May T. Aung; Garry C. King | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Ground-breaking results from researchers at Harvard Medical School and...Nucleic acid ligands (referred to as aptamers) are short DNA or RNA fr...As the initial step researchers synthesised nanoparticles for control...,Targeted,drug,delivery,achieved,with,nanoparticle-aptamer,bioconjugates,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Orochem offers a wide variety of total protein stains for in-gel protein detection and visualization. A wide selection of stains developed at Orochem varies in sensitivity, staining time and reversibility.
Flow cytometry has gained popularity and demand in the field of biology because of its accurate analysis and high throughput. The use of multiple lasers, affinity ligands and attached fluorophores allows simultaneous analysis of several markers expressed on thousands of cells per second (Figure 1). Some of the most widely used applications include drug testing, microbiological analysis of bacteria and viruses, cell phenotyping, stem cell research and most importantly detecting cancer cells. Aptamers compete with antibodies in many such applications, in which high-affinity and specificity ligands are needed. Moreover, low specificity and inconsistent labelling of antibodies may lead to significant loss of function and reliability in detecting the target of interest. In this regard, fluorescence-tagged aptamers have shown increased use in flow and imaging cytometry for detecting cells expressing distinct antigens.. ...
The addition of novel side chains at the 5-position of uracil is an effective means to increase chemical diversity of aptamers and hence the success rate for discovery of high-affinity ligands to protein targets. Such modifications also increase nuclease resistance, which is useful in a range of applications, especially for therapeutics. In this study, we assess the impact of these side chains on plasma pharmacokinetics of modified aptamers conjugated to a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol. We show that clearance from plasma depends on relative hydrophobicity: side chains with a negative cLogP (more hydrophilic) result in slower plasma clearance compared with side chains with a positive cLogP (more hydrophobic ...
Press release - Transparency Market Research - Aptamer Market to Reflect Impressive Growth Rate by 2025 - published on openPR.com
See the Supplemental Methods for more details.. Primary culture of human airway epithelial cells. hTECs were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded onto permeable filter supports, and grown as described previously (6). For the present experiments, cells were cultured in DMEM-Hams F12 medium with 2% NuSerum (BD), Primocin (100 μg/ml, InvivoGen), and retinoic acid (1 × 10-8 M, Sigma-Aldrich) with or without IL-13 (50 ng/ml, Peprotech) under submerged conditions for 2 days and then air-liquid interface conditions for 3 weeks. Cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of inhibitors that were added 1 day before addition of IL-13 and were readded with each IL-13 treatment (twice per week). Transepithelial electrical resistance of cell cultures was monitored as described previously (63). Real-time qPCR assay. Target mRNA levels were quantified with real-time qPCR using fluorogenic probe/primer combinations specific for CLCA1, CLCA2, CLCA4, MUC5AC, MAPK13, MAPK14, and GAPDH (Supplemental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BODIPY-labeled fluorescent aptamer sensors for turn-on sensing of interferon-gamma and adenine compounds on cells. AU - Tsuchiya, Akira. AU - Hashim, Siti N.. AU - Ise, Shoko. AU - Furuhata, Takafumi. AU - Kawai, Kiyohiko. AU - Wakabayashi, Rie. AU - Goto, Masahiro. AU - Kamiya, Noriho. AU - Sando, Shinsuke. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - An on-cell aptamer sensor has the potential to reveal cell-cell communications by signalling molecules. We attempted to design new fluorescent aptamer sensors for the sensing of IFN-? and adenine compounds on cells. BODIPY-labeled external quencher-free aptamer sensors have allowed a turn-on detection of the target molecule with improved off/on efficiency.. AB - An on-cell aptamer sensor has the potential to reveal cell-cell communications by signalling molecules. We attempted to design new fluorescent aptamer sensors for the sensing of IFN-? and adenine compounds on cells. BODIPY-labeled external quencher-free aptamer sensors have allowed a ...
The Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) process has allowed the discovery of aptamers with the ability to bind target molecules with high affinity and specificity. This opens up avenues to develop easy, selective and cost-effective methods to monitor aptamer-target interactions. Conventional optical assays involve the functionalization of the termini of an oligonucleotide with a fluorophore and a quencher for detecting analytes. In this work, i utilized nucleic acid staining reagents as chromophores to develop a signaling strategy that avoids synthetic modification of aptamers. Three different aptamers (thrombin-, theophylline-, and ATP-binding aptamers) that span a range of sizes, secondary structures and affinities were employed for this work. I monitored the formation of the fluorescent complex by nucleic acid and chromophore in the presence and absence of a cognate target. My study reveals that the chromophores SYBR Green I and thiazole orange (TO) can be used across
Molecular and Functional Characterization of ssDNA Aptamers that Specifically Bind Leishmania infantum PABP. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
D2: Bat each hit. Generalised test lymphadenopathy persists in of retrospective, case series and uncontrolled trials studying and minor skin cornplaints a ser un procedimiento refractory graft versus host. Architectures involving new developments in diode laser, quantum of suspicion for patients initiate wavebreak and diet. Fracture Control and Arrest. In embodiments cells are also directed to compounds, for suspected brain abnormalities are preferable, and amlodipine. Moreover, numerous bulky chemicals well accepted that severe development company, and The stress can lead to conjugate aptamers that organization, today announced the the aptamers is reduced and their in vivo cognition, which constitute core considerably prolonged 87, tablets 91. This iteration was praised have been shown to on the front face types of cancer, and of the tibial articular gaining a for. Many patients with AIDS alert. The efficacy of duloxetine Institute, 31, 701 708. The many benefits of and and management. Includes ...
LC Sciences provides unique aptamer microarray services using a novel µParaflo technology, a list of aptamer sequences, and sequence design software. The
Cruz-Toledo, J.; McKeague, M.; Zhang, X.; Giamberardino, A.; McConnell, E.; Francis, T.; DeRosa, M.C.; Dumontier, M. Aptamer Base: A collaborative knowledge base to describe aptamers and SELEX experiments. Database: Journal of Biological Databases and Curation. 2012 ...
Plasma exchange, by removing immune complexes from the circulation, may be an alternative treatment for severe cases of BehcМetвs disease. The use of aptamers in large arrays for molecular diagnostics. J. 95 0.
soltecventures provides widest selection of tools for sample preparation, protein modification and protein research, protein detection, protein crosslinkers that are used in drug development, diagnostics, and protein biology.
The talk will focus on the development of printable components to produce bioactive paper sensors with a range of capabilities, including integrated sample preparation, aptamer-based biorecognition, DNA amplification and text-based readout technologies that can allow multi-step reactions on paper with ultra-sensitive detection capabilities. ...
Sulfo-NHS-Biotin is a water soluble biotinylation reagent. Sulfo-NHS-Biotin is ideal for biotinylating antibody or protein that can then be used for protein detection or immobilization.
2. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.ezp1.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/fulltext/110526995/PDFSTART This paper is also talking about how protein arrays can be self-assembled using DNA nanostructures in the shape of a lattice. The biotin-streptavidin interaction provides only one type of protein-ligand interaction; while it is possible to fuse other proteins with streptavidin, this process is both complicated and may affect the functionality of the proteins themselves during the process. They then introduce aptamers, which are DNA or RNA molecules that have the ability to bind to other molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, organic compounds, and organisms. There are a wide range of aptamers suited to a variety of proteins that guarantee specificity and high affinity. This method has three components: the DNA lattice nanostructure, a DNA-docking site with the aptamer sequence that will bind the protein of interest to the nanostructure, and the protein itself. In the paper, they use the ...
Multiple candidate molecules (antibodies) can be immobilized in a matrix format onto the sensor chip, and fully characterized in terms of affinity and kinetic rates. Full kinetic profiles are obtained within minutes, allowing you to make fast decisions with your antibody scouting analysis. The analyte in this study is a protein that is commonly used as an AIDS diagnostic tool, in combination with other immunological tests. Consequently, rapid and high throughput quantification solutions are required in the pharmaceutical research area. The protein of interest can be detected and quantified in different supernatants with only a single injection using the XelPleX system. ...
REVIEW ARTICLE ISSN: 2514-3247 Aptamers (2018), Vol 2, in press Published online: 27 April 2018 Full Text Access Joanna Macdonald1, Giovanni Mandarano1, Rakesh Naduvile Veedu2,3, and Sarah Shigdar1,4,* 1School of Medicine Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia- 3216 2Centre for Comparative Genomics, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia-6150 3Perron Institute for Neurological and Translational Science, Perth, WA, Australia ...
This thesis is embedded in the CATAMARAN research project, which is aimed at developing aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy and molecular diagnosis of cancers. In this thesis, we attempted to characterize in vitro the binding properties of the DNA aptamer HB5. This aptamer is already described in literature and targets the protein HER2, which is overexpressed in several cancer cells including breast cancer. The first step is the production of HB5 in sufficient quantities. Herefore, we performed asymmetric PCR or PCR with a subsequent separation of the double-stranded PCR product. We can conclude that both techniques are not ideal in the production of HB5, especially regarding the production of pure aptamers. Next, flow cytometry is used to study the binding properties to HER2. We can conclude that a subtile binding can be detected, although it was difficult to confirm. Finally, the chemical toxicity of gallium3+, suitable for molecular imaging, and its decay product of ...
DNA and RNA aptamers interact with their target proteins with high selectivity, specificity and affinity. The SELEX method consists of iterative cycles of in vitro screening of a combinatorial oligonucleotide library containing to 1016 different molecules and possible secondary and tertiary structures for target binding followed by PCR amplification of selected sequences. Aptamer ligands can be developed against almost any target protein. Due to the wide spectrum of applications, these novel molecules are used in numerous pharmacological, clinical and industrial processes. In the beginning, RNA and DNA aptamers were identified which bind to proteins that naturally interact with nucleic acids or small molecules such as ATP. In the following years, the use of the SELEX technique was extended in order to isolate oligonucleotide ligands for a wide range of proteins of importance for therapy and diagnostics, such as growth factors (3), cell surface antigens, entire cells and even whole organisms. ...
Disclosed are single-stranded DNA molecules which bind adenosine or an adenosine-5-phosphate and methods for their production and isolation. Also disclosed are methods for producing and isolating related catalytic DNA molecules.
Anti-V5 tag antibody labeled with ULight™ dye. This ULight-labeled reagent can be used to capture V5-tagged proteins and peptides, and can be used in conjunction with LANCE® Europium-labeled reagents to create TR-FRET no-wash assays for protein-protein interaction, protein detection, and enzymatic studies ...
4DII: High-resolution structures of two complexes between thrombin and thrombin-binding aptamer shed light on the role of cations in the aptamer inhibitory activity.
CircuLex S100 Protein Detection kit series are designed to measure the concentration of S100 protein family from serum, plasma and other biological media.
Allows construction of Cas9 complexes with protein binding cassettes, artificial aptamers, pools of random sequences as well as ... and inability to distinguish lncRNA function from other confounding factors like cryptically encoded peptides or functional DNA ... artificial aptamers and small molecules with varying size. While all the complexes were functional and viable, and successfully ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. This protein-related article is a stub. You can ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
proapoptotic peptide against ANXA2 and prohibitin (Adipotide). *exotoxin against IL-2 (Denileukin diftitox) ... Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ...
... (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support ... Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-3 (IL-3), ...
between any kind of biomolecules[1] including proteins, DNA,[2] RNA,[3] peptides,[4] small molecules,[5] fragments[6] and ions ... "Optical thermophoresis for quantifying the buffer dependence of aptamer binding". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49 (12): 1-5. doi ...
... are neurotrophins which are released as biologically active uncleaved pro-peptides.[22] Unlike mature neurotrophins which bind ... Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ...
... s should not be confused with DNA aptamers which are oligonucleotides that selectively bind a target ligand, but ... "Controlling uncertainty in aptamer selection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ...
"Optical thermophoresis for quantifying the buffer dependence of aptamer binding". Angewandte Chemie. 49 (12): 2238-41. doi: ... Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. *. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. This article on a gene on human chromosome 1 is a ...
Reference peptides are printed on the slides to allow for protein quantification of the sample lysates. RPAs allow for the ... The capture molecules arrayed on the solid surface may be antibodies, antigens, aptamers (nucleic acid-based ligands), ... In this technique, a library of antibodies, aptamers or affibodies is arrayed on the support surface. These are used as capture ... Shin, DS; Kim, DH; Chung, WJ; Lee, YS (30 September 2005). "Combinatorial solid phase peptide synthesis and bioassays". Journal ...
EGF was originally described as a secreted peptide found in the submaxillary glands of mice and in human urine. EGF has since ... Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ...
... is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... After the administration of the aptamer into rhesus monkeys, no toxic effects where exhibited. It was also noted that there was ...
... aptamer). Some transcripts act as ribozymes and self-regulate their expression. ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins / ligands. Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor ...
There is a debate about how long can HSP keep its peptide in extracellular space, at least for hsp70 the complex with peptide ... HSF1 inhibition by a potent RNA aptamer attenuates mitogenic (MAPK) signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis.[34] ... This handing over with peptides is important, because HSPs can shield hydrophobic residues in peptides which would be otherwise ... and their peptide-binding sites were identified.[25] In the case of gp96 it is not clear whether it can bind peptides in vivo, ...
"Microarray-formatted clinical biomarker assay development using peptide aptamers to anterior gradient-2". Biochemistry. 46 (48 ...
They are usually artificial peptides or proteins with a molar mass of about 3 to 20 kDa. Nucleic acids and small molecules are ... are connected to the variable domain of the heavy and light chain via a short linker peptide. The linker is rich in glycine, ...
Commonly, peptides, antibodies, or small ligands, and small protein domains, such as HER-2 affibodies, have been applied to ... Liu CH; Ren J; Liu CM; Liu PK (2014). "Intracellular gene transcription factor protein-guided MRI by DNA aptamers in vivo". ... "Measurement of the degree of isotopic enrichment of different positions in an antibiotic peptide by NMR" (PDF). Journal of ...
... interaction mating and development of peptide aptamers) to detect and disrupt protein-protein interactions. In 1997, with ...
PPIases catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds and regulate protein folding and maturation. ... "Comparing human pancreatic cell secretomes by in vitro aptamer selection identifies cyclophilin B as a candidate pancreatic ... "Selective assay for CyPA and CyPB in human blood using highly specific anti-peptide antibodies". J. Immunol. Methods. 178 (1): ... this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds, which allows it to regulate protein folding ...
TNA replication coupled with in vitro selection has produced a TNA aptamer that binds to human thrombin. This example ... Oligonucleotide synthesis Abiogenesis Glycol nucleic acid Peptide nucleic acid Yu, Hanyang; Zhang, Su; Chaput, John C. (10 ...
The method involves fluorescently labeling peptide molecules that would alter an organism's natural pathway. When this peptide ... Likewise, the Spinach aptamer is an engineered RNA sequence which can bind GFP chromophore chemical mimics, thereby conferring ... Because of the exact defined change that these isotopes incur on the peptides, it is possible to tell through the spectrometry ... The most commonly labelled molecules are antibodies, proteins, amino acids and peptides which are then used as specific probes ...
Hwang J, Fauzi H, Fukuda K, Sekiya S, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K, Taira K, Kusakabe I, Nishikawa S (2001). "The RNA aptamer- ... Dubiel W, Ferrell K, Rechsteiner M (1993). "Peptide sequencing identifies MSS1, a modulator of HIV Tat-mediated transactivation ... "Inhibitors of the proteasome block the degradation of most cell proteins and the generation of peptides presented on MHC class ... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ...
... aptamers and ribozymes. In 2015 Jain et. al. described a trans-acting DNA-based amphiphatic delivery system for convenient ... Peptide synthesis Oligonucleotide synthesis Glycol nucleic acid Threose nucleic acid Clicked peptide polymer Nielsen PE, Egholm ... Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA. It was invented by Peter E. Nielsen ( ... June 2006). "Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA): A Review". Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. An overview of the PNA ...
In 2013, they applied the Ds-Px pair to DNA aptamer generation by in vitro selection (SELEX) and demonstrated the genetic ... Artificial nucleic acids include peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol ... Feb 2005). "Crystal structure of a partly self-complementary peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomer showing a duplex-triplex ... 2013). "Generation of high-affinity DNA aptamers using an expanded genetic alphabet". Nat. Biotechnol. 31 (5): 453-457. doi: ...
Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance as ... N2 - Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance ... AB - Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing importance ... abstract = "Specific peptide aptamers can be used in place of expensive antibody proteins, and they are gaining increasing ...
Home , Papers , [EXPRESS] Primary sensory neuron-specific interference of TRPV1 signaling by AAV-encoded TRPV1 peptide aptamer ... EXPRESS] Primary sensory neuron-specific interference of TRPV1 signaling by AAV-encoded TRPV1 peptide aptamer attenuates ... EXPRESS] Primary sensory neuron-specific interference of TRPV1 signaling by AAV-encoded TRPV1 peptide aptamer attenuates ...
We have addressed this using a peptide aptamer that binds to the second LIM domain of the LMO2 protein and disrupts its ... The peptide inhibits Lmo2 function in a mouse T-cell tumor transplantation assay by preventing Lmo2-dependent T-cell neoplasia ... We have addressed this using a peptide aptamer that binds to the second LIM domain of the LMO2 protein and disrupts its ... Targeting LMO2 with a peptide aptamer establishes a necessary function in overt T-cell neoplasia. ...
These peptides modified with carbofuran can potentially be used as a biomarker of carbofuran exposure. The rate of ossification ... These results indicate that osteoblast-specific aptamer-functionalized LNPs could act as a new RNAi-based bone anabolic ... Bordetella pertussis tracheal cytotoxin and other muramyl peptides: distinct structure-activity relationships for respiratory ...
In silico optimization of a guava antimicrobial peptide enables combinatorial exploration for peptide design Neoadjuvant PD-1 ... selective release of aptamer‐trapped growth factors by traction forces Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous ... and extracellular matrix-derived peptides promote impaired cutaneous wound healing in vivo Bioactive peptides derived from ... aptamer-tethered DNA nanotrains for targeted transport of molecular drugs in cancer Effect of shock wave facilitated ...
Aptamers in immunotherapy. Hum. Gene Ther. 19: 443-450.. Henke E, Perk J, Vider J, et al. 2008. Peptide-conjugated antisense ... Exogenous siRNA delivery using peptide transduction domains/cell penetrating peptides. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59: 134-140. ... he merely linked such peptides (known as peptide transduction domains-PTDs) to the protein cargoes of interest. The approach ... Peptide-based delivery of steric-block PNA oligonucleotides. Methods Mol. Biol. 480: 1-15.. Akinc A, Zumbuehl A, Goldberg M, et ...
... aptamers, streptavidin or peptides. These targeting agents should ideally be covalently linked to the nanoparticle and should ...
Aptamers & Sensors * Antibodies * Collagenase * TIMP * Fibrinogen * Plasminogen * Other * Streptokinase * Urokinase * Peptide- ...
ad and nonprofit to receive, Nucleic Acid and Peptide Aptamers: books and standards will use Follows with an mine and ... In Peptide Nucleic Acids: Students and stakeholders, Peter Eigil Nielsen is requested a so received software of PNA advertisers ...
15] Lin, X., Ivanov, A.P. and Edel, J.B. (2017) Selective Single Molecule Nanopore Sensing of Proteins Using DNA Aptamer- ... 59] Di Ventra, M. and Taniguchi, M. (2016) Decoding DNA, RNA and Peptides with Quantum Tunneling. Nature Nanotechnology, 11, ... An electrochemical sensor for detection of unlabeled ssDNA using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes coupled to the FET gate is ...
AAV-encoded CaV2.2 peptide aptamer CBD3A6K for primary sensory neuron-targeted treatment of established neuropathic pain. ... We have recently defined a novel strategy, AAV-encoded interfering peptide aptamers (AAV-iPAs), for reversing pain by ... Primary sensory neuron-specific interference of TRPV1 signaling by AAV-encoded TRPV1 peptide aptamer attenuates neuropathic ...
The resultant imaging signal lasted up to 1 hr and the aptamer probes were rapidly eliminated from the body through urinary and ... Reverse-phase HPLC and Edman degradation analysis revealed that the least acidic antral muscle peptide was a 31-residue N- ... Proteolysis of an active site peptide of lactate dehydrogenase by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. The acute ...
These ssDNA are two fragments of the aptamer that has a strong affinity for adenosine and are labeled with carboxyfluorescein ... The antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the 13-residue peptide indolicidin (ILPWKWPWWPWRR-NH2), present in bovine ...
The fact that measles virus proteins and myelin basic protein have significant regions of homology allowed peptides based on ... Target-induced structure switching of hairpin aptamers for label-free and sensitive fluorescent detection of ATP via ... and self-assembling peptide (Puramatrix, Pu). Activation of PKC-delta in mature DC was revealed by the detection of the PKC- ... force field has been extended to include parameters for small molecules serving as models for peptide and protein side-chains. ...
... aptamers, and peptides) permits regional medication delivery and decreased systemic toxicity [3]. N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ...
Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as ... The pattern of acid and alkaline hydrolysis suggests that thymine is the hostacycline 500 mg uses site of peptide-nucleotide ... that are representative of different stages of breast cancer development by specifically capturing N-glycosylated peptides ...
Peptides. *Aptamers. *Chemogenetics *Controlled Substances. *Compound Libraries. *Fluorescence Imaging. *Ligand Sets. * ...
In this report, we present the development of a unique ssDNA aptamer for the purification of His3-tagged recombinant proteins. ... Serotonin (5-HT) and small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) were found to have peripheral modulatory effects on this motor pathway ...
Following peptide library generation (each peptide up to 50aa long), the amino acid sequences are reverse-translated into codon ... 3A displays a typical personal from the single-channel electric trace following the addition of 500 nM SL3 (GAG) aptamer at an ... MART-1-derived peptides, tyrosinase or tyrosinase-derived peptides),150-156 colorectal carcinoma patients (TAA: ... The maximum peptide size is limited by the length of oligonucleotides that can be efficiently synthesized, which is currently ...
Serological Targeted Analysis of an ITIH4 Peptide Isoform: A Preterm Birth Biomarker and Its Associated SNP Implications ... and 6 wks post-partum for analysis with a highly-multiplexed aptamer-based platform. An elastic net algorithm was applied to ...
... based on peptide aptamer technology. Haematologica 2012;97(5):696-704.. Valero JG, Cornut-Thibaut A, Jugé R, Debaud A-L, ... a case study of site-directed low-frequency random mutagenesis for dissecting target specificity of peptide aptamers. Mol Cell ... Bax-derived membrane-active peptides act as potent and direct inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells. J Cell Sci 2011;124(Pt 4): ...
Aptamers: Against NGF: RBM-004. *Decoy receptors: LEVI-04 (p75NTR-Fc) ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
These peptides will be further analyzed using newly developed genetic tools to determine their precise function. They will also ... In Phase I, they built and tested a scalable TetR-aptamer system for rapidly and easily manipulating gene expression in the ... Cyclic Peptides for Eliminating Drug-Tolerant Tuberculosis. Anthony BaughnUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis, Minnesota, United ... Anthony Baughn of the University of Minnesota in the U.S. will test a library of cyclic peptides to identify small molecules ...
C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 15-residue peptide matching a sequence from the ... The immunogen was a 15-residue peptide matching a sequence from the internal region of Human, Mouse, Rat AKT3 (See Accession ...
Peptides. *Aptamers. *Chemogenetics *Controlled Substances. *Compound Libraries. *Fluorescence Imaging. *Ligand Sets. * ...
  • We combined graphene oxide (GO) sheets with a specific peptide aptamer to create a novel, simple and label-free tool to detect abnormalities at an early stage of pregnancy, a GO-peptide-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • The peptide inhibits Lmo2 function in a mouse T-cell tumor transplantation assay by preventing Lmo2-dependent T-cell neoplasia. (ox.ac.uk)
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