A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.
The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).
Surgery performed on the heart.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Apparatus that provides mechanical circulatory support during open-heart surgery, by passing the heart to facilitate surgery on the organ. The basic function of the machine is to oxygenate the body's venous supply of blood and then pump it back into the arterial system. The machine also provides intracardiac suction, filtration, and temperature control. Some of the more important components of these machines include pumps, oxygenators, temperature regulators, and filters. (UMDNS, 1999)
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/706)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Activation of Xenopus eggs by proteases: possible involvement of a sperm protease in fertilization. (2/706)

Egg activation in cross-fertilization between Xenopus eggs and Cynops sperm may be caused by a protease activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA in the sperm acrosome. To determine the role of the sperm protease in fertilization, the protease was purified from Cynops sperm using several chromatographic techniques. We found that purified sperm protease readily hydrolyzes Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, that protease activity was inhibited by the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin and leupeptin, and that not only the purified protease, but also cathepsin B, induces activation in Xenopus eggs. We inseminated unfertilized Xenopus eggs with homologous sperm in the presence of various peptidyl MCA substrates or protease inhibitors and demonstrated that trypsin inhibitors or MCA substrates containing Arg-Arg-MCA reversibly inhibited fertilization of both fully jellied and denuded eggs. Sperm motility was not affected by the reagents. An extract obtained from Xenopus sperm showed hydrolytic activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA, Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, and Arg-MCA. These results suggest that the tryptic protease in Xenopus sperm is involved in fertilization, most likely by participating in egg activation.  (+info)

Allosteric modulation of BPTI interaction with human alpha- and zeta-thrombin. (3/706)

In this study, thrombin interaction with the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was investigated in the presence of different allosteric modulators of thrombin, that is the C-terminal hirudin peptide 54-65 (Hir54-65), a recombinant thrombomodulin form (TMEGF4-6) and Na+. BPTI binding to alpha-thrombin is positively linked to Na+. Under low sodium concentration (5 mM Na+) the BPTI affinity for alpha-thrombin was roughly threefold lower than in the presence of 150 mM sodium (Ki = 320 microM vs. 100 microM). The hirudin fragment, which binds to the fibrinogen recognition site (FRS) of thrombin, induced a progressive and saturable decrease (3.6-fold) of alpha-thrombin affinity for BPTI, whereas the thrombomodulin peptide, which binds to a more extended region of FRS, caused a 5.5-fold increase of the enzyme affinity for the inhibitor. The opposite effect exerted by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 was also observed for BPTI interaction with zeta-thrombin, in which the amidic bond between W148 and T149 is cleaved. However, in this case the effect by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, although qualitatively similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin, had a smaller magnitude. Thrombin hydrolysis of Protein C was also differently affected by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 peptides. While the latter enhanced the Protein C activation, the former caused a reduction of both alpha- and zeta-thrombin kcat/K(m)' for Protein C cleavage. These results showed that (a) Na+ facilitates BPTI interaction with thrombin; (b) Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, though sharing in part the same binding site at the thrombin FRS, can affect in opposite way thrombin's interaction with BPTI and Protein C; (c) such findings along with the results obtained with zeta-thrombin might be explained by admitting that the thermodynamic linkage between FRS and the critical W60-loop is also controlled by ligation and/or conformational state of the W148 insertion loop.  (+info)

Strategy for balancing anticoagulation and hemostasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery: blood conservation and graft patency. (4/706)

The minimal effective dose of aprotinin on hemostasis under normothermic perfusion, the influence of anticoagulant therapy on graft patency, and the thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events were investigated after aortocoronary bypass graft operation (CABG). One hundred CABG patients under normothermic perfusion were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) coumadin plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (n=32); no aprotinin used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (2) minimal-dose, 10(6) KIU during CPB, aprotinin used, followed by ASA and coumadin (n=36); and (3) very low-dose, total of 2x10(6) KIU before CPB and during CPB; aprotinin used; anticoagulation therapy with heparin early after surgery and followed by replacement with ASA and coumadin (n=32). The patency of arterial grafts was 100% in all groups. The patency of vein grafts was 95-98% and there was no difference among the groups. The blood loss was significantly reduced in both aprotinin groups (groups 2 and 3) compared to the coumadin plus ASA group, although no difference existed between the 2 aprotinin groups. Postoperative thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were not observed in any group. From this study, it was concluded that 10(6) KIU aprotinin in pump-prime-only followed by oral ASA and coumadin was the recommendation from the benefit/cost consideration.  (+info)

Comparison of anionic and cationic trypsinogens: the anionic activation domain is more flexible in solution and differs in its mode of BPTI binding in the crystal structure. (5/706)

Unlike bovine cationic trypsin, rat anionic trypsin retains activity at high pH. This alkaline stability has been attributed to stabilization of the salt bridge between the N-terminal Ile16 and Asp194 by the surface negative charge (Soman K, Yang A-S, Honig B, Fletterick R., 1989, Biochemistry 28:9918-9926). The formation of this salt bridge controls the conformation of the activation domain in trypsin. In this work we probe the structure of rat trypsinogen to determine the effects of the surface negative charge on the activation domain in the absence of the Ile16-Asp194 salt bridge. We determined the crystal structures of the rat trypsin-BPTI complex and the rat trypsinogen-BPTI complex at 1.8 and 2.2 A, respectively. The BPTI complex of rat trypsinogen resembles that of rat trypsin. Surprisingly, the side chain of Ile16 is found in a similar position in both the rat trypsin and trypsinogen complexes, although it is not the N-terminal residue and cannot form the salt bridge in trypsinogen. The resulting position of the activation peptide alters the conformation of the adjacent autolysis loop (residues 142-153). While bovine trypsinogen and trypsin have similar CD spectra, the CD spectrum of rat trypsinogen has only 60% of the intensity of rat trypsin. This lower intensity most likely results from increased flexibility around two conserved tryptophans, which are adjacent to the activation domain. The NMR spectrum of rat trypsinogen contains high field methyl signals as observed in bovine trypsinogen. It is concluded that the activation domain of rat trypsinogen is more flexible than that of bovine trypsinogen, but does not extend further into the protein core.  (+info)

Effect of glycerol on the interactions and solubility of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (6/706)

The effects of additives used to stabilize protein structure during crystallization on protein solution phase behavior are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effect of glycerol and ionic strength on the solubility and strength of interactions of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. These two variables are found to have opposite effects on the intermolecular forces; attractions increase with [NaCl], whereas repulsions increase with glycerol concentration. These changes are mirrored in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor solubility where the typical salting out behavior for NaCl is observed with higher solubility found in buffers containing glycerol. The increased repulsions induced by glycerol can be explained by a number of possible mechanisms, all of which require small changes in the protein or the solvent in its immediate vicinity. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor follows the same general phase behavior as other globular macromolecules where a robust correlation between protein solution second virial coefficient and solubility has been developed. This study extends previous reports of this correlation to solution conditions involving nonelectrolyte additives.  (+info)

Hydroiodic acid attachment kinetics as a chemical probe of gaseous protein ion structure: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (7/706)

The kinetics of attachment of hydroiodic acid (HI) to the (M + 6H)6+ ions of native and reduced forms of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in the quadrupole ion trap environment are reported. Distinctly nonlinear (pseudo first-order) reaction kinetics are observed for reaction of the native ions, indicating two or more noninterconverting structures in the parent ion population. The reduced form, on the other hand, shows very nearly linear reaction kinetics. Both forms of the parent ion attach a maximum of five molecules of hydroiodic acid. This number is expected based on the amino acid composition of the protein. There is a total of 11 strongly basic sites in the protein (i.e., six arginines, four lysines, and one N-terminus). An ion with protons occupying six of the basic sites has five available for hydroiodic acid attachment. The kinetics of successive attachment of HI to the native and reduced forms of BPTI also differ, particularly for the addition of the fourth and fifth HI molecules. A very simple kinetic model describes the behavior of the reduced form reasonably well, suggesting that all of the neutral basic sites in the reduced BPTI ions have roughly equal reactivity. However, the behavior of the native ion is not well-described by this simple model. The results are discussed within the context of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the ions that result from the presence or absence of the three disulfide linkages found in native BPTI. The HI reaction kinetics appears to have potential as a chemical probe of protein ion three-dimensional structure in the gas phase. Hydroiodic acid attachment chemistry is significantly different from other chemistries used to probe three-dimensional structure and hence, promises to yield complementary information.  (+info)

Urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a platelet receptor important for kinetics and TNF-induced endothelial adhesion in mice. (8/706)

BACKGROUND: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a widely distributed 55-kD, glycoprotein I-anchored surface receptor. On binding of its ligand uPA, it is known to increase leukocyte adhesion and traffic. Using genetically deficient mice, we explored the role of uPAR in platelet kinetics and TNF-induced platelet consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-uPAR antibody stained platelets from normal (+/+) but not from uPAR-/- mice, as seen by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. 51Cr-labeled platelets from uPAR-/- donors survived longer than those from +/+ donors when injected into a +/+ recipient. Intratracheal TNF injection induced thrombocytopenia and a platelet pulmonary localization, pronounced in +/+ but absent in uPAR-/- mice. Aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, decreased TNF-induced thrombocytopenia. TNF injection markedly reduced the survival and increased the pulmonary localization of 51Cr-labeled platelets from +/+ but not from uPAR-/- donors, indicating that it is the platelet uPAR that is critical for their response to TNF. As seen by electron microscopy, TNF injection increased the number of platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the alveolar capillaries of +/+ mice, whereas in uPAR-/- mice, platelet trapping was insignificant and PMN trapping was slightly reduced. Platelets within alveolar capillaries of TNF-injected mice were activated, as judged from their shape, and this was evident in +/+ but not in uPAR-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time the critical role of platelet uPAR for kinetics as well as for activation and endothelium adhesion associated with inflammation.  (+info)

UPDATE 5/14/2008]: Following publication of the Blood conservation using antifibrinolytics: A randomized trial in a cardiac surgery population (BART) study in the May 14, 2008 online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, Bayer Pharmaceuticals, the manufacturer of Trasylol (aprotinin), notified the FDA of their intent to remove all remaining supplies of Trasylol from hospital pharmacies and warehouses. [See FDA Statement]. Because Trasylol has been shown to decrease the need for red blood cell transfusions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, future supplies of Trasylol will continue to be available through the company as an investigational drug under a special treatment protocol. In November 2007, Bayer suspended the marketing of this drug until final results of the BART study became available. The BART study showed an increase in the risk of death with Trasylol compared with aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, consistent with findings from other recent studies. FDA ...
en] BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial examined the effects of both heparin-coated circuits and aprotinin on the inflammatory processes during CPB, with respect to cytokine release and neutrophil activation. METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized in four groups of 50 patients each: heparin-coated circuit with aprotinin (HCO-A) or without aprotinin (HCO) administration, and uncoated circuit with aprotinin (C-A) or without aprotinin administration (C). In groups receiving aprotinin, a high-dose regimen was given. In all groups, high initial doses of heparin were used (3 mg/kg intravenously). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, and myeloperoxidase and elastase levels were measured in plasma samples taken before, during, and after CPB. RESULTS: In all groups, the ...
Trasylol is a clotting drug usually given to patients after cardiac surgery. Two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine strongly suggest that Trasylol is dangerous. The first study looked at 10,000 patients who underwent bypasses at Duke University Medical Center from 1996 through 2005. It found that 6.4 percent of patients who were given Trasylol died within 30 days of the surgery, a rate nearly 2.5 times higher than patients who received a different drug, or who received no treatment for bleeding. The second study, financed by Bayer, looked at about 78,000 patients nationwide from 2003 to 2006. Researchers found that the risk of death was 64 percent higher in the Trasylol group than in those taking another medication. If you were given Trasylol during or after surgery and suffered kidney failure, or a family member was given Trasylol after surgery and then passed away unexpectedly, please contact us.. ...
Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is a 58-residue basic peptide that is a representative member of a widely distributed class of serine protease inhibitors known as Kunitz inhibitors. BPTI is also homologous to dendrotoxin peptides from mamba snake venom that have been characterized as inhibitors of various types of voltage-dependent K+ channels. In this study we compared the effect of DTX-I, a dendrotoxin peptide, and BPTI on large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels from rat skeletal muscle using planar bilayer methodology. As previously found for DTX-I (1990. Neuron. 2:141-148), BPTI induces the appearance of distinct subconductance events when present on the internal side of maxi K(Ca) channels. The single channel kinetics of substate formation follow the predictions of reversible binding of the peptide to a single site or class of sites with a Kd of 4.6 microM at 0 mV and 50 mM symmetrical KCl. The apparent association rate of BPTI binding decreases approximately 1,000-fold ...
The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use was to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; this was confirmed by follow-up studies. Trasylol sales were suspended in May 2008, except for very restricted research ...
The present study demonstrates the cardioprotective qualities of aprotinin. The mechanisms of these effects are likely to include reduced protease induced expression of stored proteins such as P-selectin. In addition, this study provides novel evidence that aprotinin reduces inflammatory gene expression and hence de novo inflammatory protein synthesis. These effects of aprotinin on myocardial protein expression are also associated with a profound reduction of leukocyte accumulation, myocardial necrosis and myocardial apoptosis.. The timing of aprotinin administration is important because myocardial injury and leukocyte accumulation were substantially greater when administration was delayed until after reperfusion. This finding lends weight to the notion that the earliest stages of tissue injury involve the expression of proimflammatory mediators whose release is activated by the action of triggering proteases17 such as complement, coagulation factors (eg, thrombin and plasmin) and kinins. The ...
Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (NB. Aprotinin is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.)
Aprotinin, also known as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI (Trasylol, Bayer) is a protein, that is used as medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use is to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; after this was confirmed by follow-up studies, Trasylol was entirely and permanently withdrawn in May 2008, except - at least for the time being - for very restricted research use. [Wikipedia]
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Trasylol, or an aprotinin injection, is used to minimize blood loss during heart surgery. It is a protein that, when injected into the patient, slows down blood clotting processes, reducing the need for blood transfusions during complicated heart and liver surgeries. When used properly, it can decrease the chances of organ damage likely to result from low blood pressure. The uses of Trasylol, however, far surpass surgical purposes. It is also used in blood transfusions for patients who are undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, slows down multiple intermediaries of inflammation, holds back proinflammatory cytokine release, which reduces complement activation, defective thrombin and plasmin-induced platelets. The stabilization of the platelet membranes and preservation of their functions rounds out the uses of this drug. Bayer Pharmaceuticals manufactured the product for those patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting to block the enzymes that dissolve blood clots.. In January of 2006, a ...
1. A. Mayer, G. Wagner, H. Uebelhack, H. Formanek, F. Parak, P. Schlecht and H. Eicher: Mössbauer studies on the electronic structure of ferrous iron in hemoglobin. Proc. of the 1st European Congress on Biophysics. Baden, Austria, Vol. VI, Y14 D9 (1971) (Abstract).. 2. A. Bundi, C. Grathwohl, J. Hochmann, R.M. Keller, G. Wagner and K. Wüthrich: Proton NMR of the Protected Tetrapeptides TFA-Gly-Gly-L-Ala-O-CH3, where X stands for one of the 20 common amino acids. J. Magn. Reson. 18, 191 (1975).. 3. K. Wüthrich and G. Wagner: NMR investigations of the dynamics of the aromatic amino acid residues in the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. FEBS Lett. 50, 265-268 (1975).. 4. K. Wüthrich, J. Hochmann, R.M. Keller, G. Wagner, M. Brunori and G. Giacometti: 1H NMR relaxation in high spin ferrous hemoproteins. J. Magn. Reson. 19, 111 (1975).. 5. G. Wagner and K. Wüthrich: Proton NMR studies of the aromatic residues in the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). J. Magn. Reson. 20, 435 ...
The serine esterase TL2 from human T4(+) lymphocytes is a binding component to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 and seems to play a role in the HIV-1 infection mechanism. Recombinant variants of the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor aprotinin were investigated for their ability to inhibit tryptase TL2 and the binding of gp120 to this enzyme, Furthermore, the viral replication of HIV-1 was investigated in H9 cell cultures under the influence of recombinant aprotinin and bikunin variants. In contrast to native aprotinin, the recombinant variant [Arg(15), Phe(17), Glu(52)]aprotinin with a reactive-site sequence homologous to the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120 showed a specific inhibition of tryptase TL2 (>80%). However, the [Leu(15), Phe(17), Glu(52)]aprotinin variant with hydrophobic subsites was the most potent inhibitor of the binding of gp120 to tryptase TL2 (68%). Our results show that the enzyme activity of purified tryptase TL2 is inhibited not only by variants with basic amino acids, but also those ...
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To the Editor:. I read with great interest the excellent article by Furnary and colleagues1 detailing an analysis of aprotinin and acute dialysis-dependent renal failure in cardiac surgery patients. Their multivariate analysis has demonstrated that increasing perioperative red blood cell transfusion, rather than aprotinin, is an independent risk factor for acute renal failure after cardiac surgery.. The data analysis as presented, however, does not account for angiotensin blockade in the presence of aprotinin, a described significant risk factor for perioperative renal injury.2 Consequently, if a significant percentage of the aprotinin cohort were exposed to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, it might confound the results of the multivariate analysis. If the data for this variable are readily available, it would be interesting see if this potential confounder could have had any significant statistical effect.. Furthermore, the authors state in their discussion that meta-analysis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aprotinin for coronary bypass operations. T2 - Efficacy, safety, and influence on early saphenous vein graft patency: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. AU - Lemmer, John H.. AU - Stanford, William. AU - Bonney, Sharon L.. AU - Breen, Jerome F.. AU - Chomka, Eva V.. AU - Eldredge, W. Jay. AU - Holt, William W.. AU - Karp, Robert B.. AU - Laub, Glenn W.. AU - Lipton, Martin J.. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V.. AU - Tatooles, Constantine J.. AU - Rumberger, John A.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aprotinin in a U.S. population of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Early vein graft patency rates were assessed by ultrafast computed tomography. A total of 216 patients at five centers were randomized to receive either high-dose aprotinin or placebo during the operation; 151 patients underwent primary operation, and 65 underwent repeat procedures. Total blood product ...
Recent studies of the tick saliva transcriptome have revealed the profound role of salivary proteins in blood feeding. Kunitz/BPTI proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, such as inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. However, Kunitz/BPTI proteins in soft and hard ticks have different functions and molecular mechanisms. How these differences emerged and whether they are associated with the evolution of long-term blood feeding in hard ticks remain unknown. In this study, the evolution, expansion and expression of Kunitz/BPTI family in Ixodes scapularis were investigated. Single- and multi-domain Kunitz/BPTI proteins have similar gene structures. Single-domain proteins were classified into three groups (groups I, II and III) based on their cysteine patterns. Group I represents the ancestral branch of the Kunitz/BPTI family, and members of this group function as serine protease inhibitors.
Significance:. Complex surgery of the ascending thoracic aorta and the aortic arch requires use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with moderate or profound total body hypothermia and circulatory arrest. As expected, coagulation disorder can be common and severe requiring multiple transfusions of blood product, which, in turn, is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Over the years, many techniques have been employed to ameliorate CPB- related bleeding with some agents such as aprotinin proving to be efficacious but centered in controversy either because of high cost or due to safety concerns.. Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor, intended to limit blood loss in patients undergoing surgery, was approved for use 13 years ago, and now administered in more than 250,000 surgery patients per year. Although its mechanism of action is not entirely known, it is shown to interfere with contact activation, preserve platelet function, inhibit fibrinolysis, and having some ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1BTI: Crevice-forming mutants in the rigid core of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor: crystal structures of F22A, Y23A, N43G, and F45A.
In contrast to molecular chaperones that couple protein folding to ATP hydrolysis, protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI) catalyzes protein folding coupled to formation of disulfide bonds (oxidative folding). However, we do not know how PDI distinguishes folded, partly-folded and unfolded protein substrates. As a model intermediate in an oxidative folding pathway, we prepared a two-disulfide mutant of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and showed by NMR that it is partly-folded and highly dynamic. NMR studies show that it binds to PDI at the same site that binds peptide ligands, with rapid binding and dissociation kinetics; surface plasmon resonance shows its interaction with PDI has a Kd of ca. 10−5 M. For comparison, we characterized the interactions of PDI with native BPTI and fully-unfolded BPTI. Interestingly, PDI does bind native BPTI, but binding is quantitatively weaker than with partly-folded and unfolded BPTI. Hence PDI recognizes and binds substrates via permanently or transiently
A new Trasylol study is shedding more light on possible reasons behind the drug’s higher-than normal death rate. According to British researchers, while use of the clotting drug aprotininâ€known as Trasylolâ€appears safe during on-pump cardiac surgeries, it appears that combining it with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorsâ€or ACE inhibitorsâ€during off-pump cardiac surgeries shows a significant risk of post-operative kidney dysfunction. Researchers analyzed 9,875 cardiac surgery patients, most of who (5,434) had on-pump cardiac surgery, meaning their hearts were stopped and they were hooked up to a heart-bypass machine during surgery. The other patients had off-pump cardiac surgery, in which surgeons operated on their beating hearts.. Trasylol is used to reduce perioperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in those patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass graft ...
PONTES, José Carlos D. V. et al. Comparative study of low-dose aprotinin x placebo during cardiopulmonary bypass. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc [online]. 2002, vol.17, n.1, pp.47-53. ISSN 0102-7638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382002000100008.. BACKGROUND: The use of aprotinin, a antifibrinolytic agent, has been shown to decrease damaging effects on cardiopulmonary bypass in fibrinolytic system, which may improve hemostasis. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of low dose aprotinin in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. METHOD: Seventeen patients, underwent cardiopulmonary bypass to mitral valve replacement, was ramdomized in two groups: I (control) ¾ 9 patients received placebo after anesthesia induction and each hour in the priming; II (aprotinin) ¾ 8 patients received after anesthesia induction 30,000 KIU/kg and 7.500 KIU/kg each hour in the priming during the perfusion. The blood loss was observed through the first 24 hours postoperatively. Arterial blood samples were taken after ...
Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss in difficult cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and more recently in liver transplantation. Over a 9-month period were compared the...
Aprotinin (Trasylol) caused twice as many deaths as two otherantifibrinolytics, despite a modest reduction in the risk of bleeding,according to a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. A co-author of the study told Cardiovascular Business News that the risks of the drug could have been known a decade ago.
Furthermore, The researchers also found that cheaper alternatives ($10 to $50 per patient) to Trasylol ($1000 per patient) were just as effective in limiting blood loss. The New York Times wrote, The [New England Journal of Medicine] article said that halting aprotinin use globally would prevent 10,000 to 11,000 cases of kidney failure a year and save more than $1 billion a year in dialysis costs as well as nearly $250 million spent on the drug itself. In addition, The study is significant because it was conducted without drug-industry funding at 69 medical centers, including many of the top U.S. hospitals. Naturally, Bayer, the manufacturer of Trasylol, a drug which in the first nine months [of 2005] had a world-wide sales of just less than $200 million and is used in 150,000 patients in the U.S., believes that Trasylol is a safe and effective treatment. Though the study was large, Bayer points out that it was observational and not a randomized trial. According to the New York ...
Background Aprotinin causes a prolongation of the celite-activated clotting time (CACT), but not of the kaolin-activated clotting time (KACT). Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the reliability of CACT to monitor anticoagulation in the presence of aprotinin. The current study was designed to test the efficacy of aprotinin to improve anticoagulation, and to investigate whether the prolongation of CACT reflects true anticoagulation or is an in vitro artifact. To elucidate this antithrombotic effect of aprotinin, this study was done in patients prone to reduced intraoperative heparin sensitivity. Methods In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 30 male patients scheduled for elective primary coronary revascularization and treated with heparin for at least 10 days preoperatively, received either high-dose aprotinin (group A) or placebo (group C). The CACT and KACT were determined, but only CACT was used to control anticoagulation with heparin. Parameters of coagulation ...
Research being published in the New England Journal of Medicine today concluded that use of Bayers Trasylol (aprontin), a standard treatment to limit blood loss during heart surgeries, were at an increased risk of kidney failure, heart attacks and strokes, compared with patients taking alternative drugs, aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, or no drugs at all.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, , , , New York, New York, November 6, 2007: In the wake of Bayer s announcement yesterday that it was pulling its controversial heart surgery drug Trasylol from the market after a...
Bayer pulled Trasylol, a drug used to limit bleeding in heart surgery, off the market in January 2008 after it was discovered that it may be linked to over 20,000 deaths over the past few years. We asked Frank Woodson, an Alabama attorney whose firm repr
The crystal structures of the inhibitor domain of Alzheimers amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) complexed to bovine chymotrypsin (C-APPI) and trypsin (T-APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) bound to chymotrypsin (C-BPTI) have been solved and analyzed at 2.1 A, 1.8 A, and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. APPI and BPTI belong to the Kunitz family of inhibitors, which is characterized by a distinctive tertiary fold with three conserved disulfide bonds. At the specificity-determining site of these inhibitors (P1), residue 15(I)4 is an arginine in APPI and a lysine in BPTI, residue types that are counter to the chymotryptic hydrophobic specificity. In the chymotrypsin complexes, the Arg and Lys P1 side chains of the inhibitors adopt conformations that bend away from the bottom of the binding pocket to interact productively with elements of the binding pocket other than those observed for specificity-matched P1 side chains. The stereochemistry of the nucleophilic hydroxyl of Ser 195 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Aprotinin and hemostasis in cardiopulmonary bypass. AU - Wildevuur, Ch.R.H.. AU - Eijsman, L.. AU - Hemker, H.C.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. M3 - Chapter. SN - 1560531517. SP - 1. EP - 11. BT - Blood Conversation with Aprotinin. A2 - Pifarre, Roque. PB - Hanley and Belfus Inc.. CY - Philadelphia. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leukocyte filtration and aprotinin. T2 - Synergistic anti-inflammatory protection. AU - Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H.. AU - Wallace, Neil. AU - Ford, Sheila. AU - Mallet, Robert T.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Cardiopulmonary bypass activates an array of cellular and humoral inflammatory mechanisms that culminate in diverse or organ-specific injury. A manifestation of inflammatory injury to the heart, atrial fibrillation ranks among the most frequent and potentially life-threatening postsurgical complications. Pulmonary manifestations of the inflammatory response are also of major concern. Neutrophils activated by passage through the extracorporeal circuit inflict local injury and provoke the inflammatory cascade by producing oxyradicals and proinflammatory factors. This study tested if a combination of leukocyte depletion and aprotinin suppression of neutrophils could minimize postbypass atrial fibrillation and pulmonary dysfunction. In part one, two randomized groups of 90 ...
The new observational study of 3876 patients from 62 medical centers was conducted between November 11, 1996, and December 7, 2006. Survival rates were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and annually for 5 years after CABG surgery. The results were rather alarming: During the five-year examination period, 223 deaths occurred among 1072 aprotinin-treated patients, equal to 20.8 percent of the group. That death rate was nearly two-thirds greater than that of control patients (12.7 percent). After controlling for various patient factors, the results showed that Trasylol patients faced a 48 percent greater risk of death within a five-year period than those not using any medication.. Patients treated with aminocaproic acid had a death rate of 15.8 percent and those treated with tranexamic acid patients had a death rate of 14.7 percent, meaning either of these two alternative therapies carries with it a significantly lower mortality risk than aprotinin. Significantly, the authors noted that ...
[139 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 is a professional and...
New York Times article about Bayer AGs decision to stop selling aprotinin (Trasylol) after a study suggested that it increases death rates. (November 06, 2007) ...
TAP is a reversible, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of solution-phase Xa with a Ki of 0.18 nM.34 Assembly of Xa into the prothrombinase (Va/Xa) complex on an anionic membrane surface results in a 30-fold enhanced binding of TAP (Ki = 5.3 pM) and a modest 3-fold increase in the rate of inhibition.50 Despite an extremely high affinity for prothrombinase, TAP possesses only moderate anticoagulant activities in both TF-initiated coagulation and aPTT assays (Table 2 and Figure 4). The modest anticoagulant activity of TAP was thought to be due to its relatively slow rate of prothrombinase inhibition.51 The aprotinin mutant 6L15 binds membrane-associated TF/VIIa with very high affinity (Ki = 0.2 nM),27 yet, consistent with a previous report,52 it is a very poor inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation (Table 2). In comparison, TAP-ANV and ANV-6L15 are close to 2 and 3 orders of magnitude, respectively, more potent than their Kunitz domains alone in TF-initiated plasma clotting. The greatly enhanced ...
REFINED 2.5 ANGSTROMS X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX FORMED BY PORCINE KALLIKREIN A AND THE BOVINE PANCREATIC TRYPSIN INHIBITOR. CRYSTALLIZATION, PATTERSON SEARCH, STRUCTURE DETERMINATION, REFINEMENT, STRUCTURE AND COMPARISON WITH ITS COMPONENTS AND WITH THE BOVINE TRYPSIN-PANCREATIC TRYPSIN INHIBITOR COMPLEX ...
The high-resolution X-ray structures have been determined for ten complexes formed between bovine beta-trypsin and P1 variants (Gly, Asp, Glu, Gln, Thr, Met, Lys, His, Phe, Trp) of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). All the complexes were crystallised from the same conditions. The structures of the P1 variants Asp, Glu, Gln and Thr, are reported here for the first time in complex with any serine proteinase. The resolution of the structures ranged from 1.75 to 2.05 A and the R-factors were about 19-20 %. The association constants of the mutants ranged from 1.5x10(4) to 1.7x10(13) M-1. All the structures could be fitted into well-defined electron density, and all had very similar global conformations. All the P1 mutant side-chains could be accomodated at the primary binding site, but relative to the P1 Lys, there were small local changes within the P1-S1 interaction site. These comprised: (1) changes in the number and dynamics of water molecules inside the pocket; (2) multiple ...
(2002) Hayward, Smith. Biophysical Journal. The temperature dependence of the internal dynamics of an isolated protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, is examined using normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the protein exhibits marked anharmonic dynam...
Unfortunately, dialysis does not cure kidney failure. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are treatments that help replace the work your kidneys did. These treatments help you feel better and live longer. Although patients with kidney failure are now living longer than ever, over the years kidney disease can cause problems such as heart disease, bone disease, arthritis, nerve damage, infertility, and malnutri- tion. These problems wont go away with dialysis. Guide to Causes of Renal Failure and Strokes Following Coronary Surgery by Anapol Schwartz Law Firm. 2007 All Rights Reserved. Anapol Schwartz Attorneys at Law WHAT ARE IF YOUR KIDNEY FAILURE IS CAUSED BY TRASYLOL (APROTININ)? If you or a loved one has kidney failure as the result of being injected with Trasylol during cardiac bypass surgery, you may want to contact your options. According to an independent study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine over 11,000 cases of dialysis complications occurred after being injected with ...
Information on drugs commonly used to treat cardiac operation : aprotinin vs. heparin sodium. Compare user review scores, and side effect occurrence rates for similar drugs side-by-side.
Aprotinin Bovine Recombinant is approximately 6,512 Dalton highly purified and designed specifically for cell culture applications, protein purification, diagnostic testing and pharmaceuticals. It is produced without the use of animal- or human-derived materials and is therefore free from risk of contaminating human or animal-derived viruses or prions. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of aprotinin. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Nephrology Now is an editorially independent and free service to help you stay up to date with new developments in Nephrology ...
Two Illinois citizens have filed suit against Bayer, seeking more than $2 million and claiming a drug the company produced caused acute renal failure and led to the death of one of the complainants spouses.
Journal Article: Sequence and Conformational Specificity in Substrate Recognition Several Human Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Domains are Specific Substrates of Mesotrypsin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aprotinin for coronary artery bypass grafting. T2 - Effect on postoperative renal function. AU - Lemmer, John H.. AU - Stanford, William. AU - Bonney, Sharon L.. AU - Chomka, Eva V.. AU - Karp, Robert B.. AU - Laub, Glenn W.. AU - Rumberger, John A.. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Two hundred sixteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft procedures were randomized to receive either high-dose aprotinin or placebo. Clinically important postoperative renal insufficiency was infrequent, with a single patient (0.9%) from each group requiring dialysis. Although increases in the serum creatinine level occurred postoperatively in more patients who received aprotinin (20/108) than in those given placebo (13/108), the difference between the two group was not statistically significant (p = 0.186), and the increases were generally small and transient. Likewise, there was no difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of abnormal serum electrolyte ...
Despite the approval for limited use, Trasylol has been used off-label with many patients undergoing other types of surgery. In fact, the rate of off-label use far exceeds the rate of on-label use. The FDAs Adverse Event Reporting System shows that the majority of adverse events reported, or about 75%, occurred in patients who received Trasylol for an unapproved use, with heart valve replacement being the most frequent ...
Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins PDF By author Keith Leonard March last download was at 2017-03-04 43:48:17. This book is good alternative for Electrostatic Hazards in the Petroleum Industry. Download now for free or you can read online Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins book ...
Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins PDF By author Keith Leonard March last download was at 2017-08-17 36:49:17. This book is good alternative for Electrostatic Hazards in the Petroleum Industry. Download now for free or you can read online Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins book ...
Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy is used for in situ monitoring of supersaturation during the hanging-drop crystallization of aprotinin. Schwartz and Berglund (1999) previously demonstrated this technique for lysozyme crystallization and showed it combines two critical elements for protein crystallization studies: real-time monitoring/ control of supersaturation and small amounts of sample. Experiments were carried out using 10 muL of protein solution. A partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration based on Raman spectra of standard solutions allowed an accurate measurement of aprotinin in a range of 2-100 mg/mL with a standard error of 0.54 mg/mL determined by a leave-one-out cross validation. A 10x microscope attached to a Raman fiber optic probe allowed the monitoring of the hanging-drop liquid phase in a noninvasive and real-time mode. Aprotinin solubility determined by measuring the protein concentration of drop solution at equilibrium decreased with increase in NaCl concentration. By continuously ...
Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy is used for in situ monitoring of supersaturation during the hanging-drop crystallization of aprotinin. Schwartz and Berglund (1999) previously demonstrated this technique for lysozyme crystallization and showed it combines two critical elements for protein crystallization studies: real-time monitoring/ control of supersaturation and small amounts of sample. Experiments were carried out using 10 muL of protein solution. A partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration based on Raman spectra of standard solutions allowed an accurate measurement of aprotinin in a range of 2-100 mg/mL with a standard error of 0.54 mg/mL determined by a leave-one-out cross validation. A 10x microscope attached to a Raman fiber optic probe allowed the monitoring of the hanging-drop liquid phase in a noninvasive and real-time mode. Aprotinin solubility determined by measuring the protein concentration of drop solution at equilibrium decreased with increase in NaCl concentration. By continuously ...
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the late distal aldosterone-sensitive tubule and is of essential importance for the sodium homeostasis. Among the various regulatory mechanisms of ENaC, activation after proteolytic cleavage by intra- and extracellular serine proteases is a specific feature of ENaC. Nephrotic syndrome leads to sodium retention and edema formation and is mediated by increased ENaC activity due to aberrantly filtered serine proteases from the plasma which activate ENaC by proteolysis. The relevance of this mechanism was demonstrated in vivo by the applicant whereby the unselective serine protease inhibitor aprotinin protected nephrotic mice from sodium retention and edema formation. Since this pivotal finding, the applicant´s group - supported by DFG grants AR 1092/1 and AR 1092/2 - focuses on the identification of the essential serine protease(s) from urine samples of mice and humans that might be involved in proteolytic ENaC activation. Using a proteomic ...
The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI
The single-parameter Gamma matrix of force constants proposed by the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) is iteratively modified to yield native state fluctuations that agree exactly with experimentally observed values. The resulting optimized Gamma matrix contains residue-specific force constants that may be used for an accurate analysis of ligand binding to single or multiple sites on proteins. Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) is used as an example. The calculated off-diagonal elements of the Gamma matrix, i.e., the optimized spring constants, obey a Lorentzian distribution. The mean value of the spring constants is approximately -0.1, a value much weaker than -1 of the GNM. Few of the spring constants are positive, indicating repulsion between residues. Residue pairs with large number of neighbors have spring constants around the mean, -0.1. Large negative spring constants are between highly correlated pairs of residues. The fluctuations of the distance between anticorrelated pairs of residues are
A radiolabeled human neutrophil elastase inhibitor (EPI-HNE-2) may represent an improved nuclear medicine imaging agent for inflammation and infection. This peptide displays rapid pharmacokinetics due to its low molecular weight and localizes specifically on neutrophil elastase released in inflammatory sites by activated neutrophils. METHODS: In this investigation, the peptide was radiolabeled with 99mTc using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycline (NHS-MAG3) as a bifunctional chelator and was administered on 18 occasions to 5 rhesus monkeys with inflammation/infection. RESULTS: Plasma clearance was rapid, with liver and kidneys representing the major organs of accumulation. No evidence of toxicity, dosage effects, or circulating antiMAG3-EPI-HNE-2 antibodies was observed. Specificity of localization was established using radiolabeled bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (a non-hNE-binding peptide of similar size) as a nonspecific negative control peptide and by predosing with unlabeled
Authors: van Mierlo, Carlo; Darby, Nigel; Keeler, James; Neuhaus, David; Creighton, Thomas. Citation: van Mierlo, Carlo; Darby, Nigel; Keeler, James; Neuhaus, David; Creighton, Thomas. Partially folded conformation of the (30-51) intermediate in the disulphide folding pathway of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. 1H and 15N resonance assignments and determination of backbone dynamics from 15N relaxation measurements. J. Mol. Biol. 229, 1125-1146 (1993).. Assembly members: ...
Schneeweiss, S., Seeger, J.D., Landon, J. and Walker, A.M. (2008) Aprotinin during Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting and Risk of Death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 771-783.
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Background: PYY is a gut hormone that physiologically inhibits appetite. Currently only radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques are available for its estimation. The aim of the study was to evaluate our in-house assay for precision, detection limit, interference of haemolysis, suitability of serum versus plasma and biological variation within one subject.. Method: All samples were obtained from one subject on two occasions following an over night fast and the consumption of 1000 and 3000 kcal meals on the respective days. Plasma was aliquoted in multiple samples. Coefficient of variation (CV) was measured at three concentrations (13.4, 16.4, 31.7pmol/L). The influence of haemolysis was evaluated by diluting severely haemolysed blood with non haemolysed blood obtained at the same venepuncture. All plasma samples were obtained in lithium heparin and trasylol tubes. Serum samples were obtained in a tube with trasylol and a clot activator. Carry over and the detection limit of the assay were also ...
Sequence and Conformational Specificity in Substrate Recognition: Several Human Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Domains are Specific Substrates of Mezotrypsin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(47), pp.32783-32797, 2014 ...
A- A-Beta incubated with TTR (A-Beta+TTR) shows a weaker A-Beta monomer band as compared to A-Beta alone (A-Beta), indicative of proteolysis, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blot. Pre-incubation of TTR with pefabloc (A-Beta+(TTR+pefabloc)) and with an αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) inhibits TTR proteolytic activity, whereas the αAPP peptide without the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) facilitates proteolysis. B- % of inhibition of TTR proteolysis by quantification of band intensity in A. C- Ultrastructural analysis by TEM of preparations incubated for 15 hours, as described in Materials and Methods. TTR inhibited A-Beta aggregation as compared with A-Beta incubated alone (upper panels). Pre-incubation of TTR with αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) abrogated TTR ability to avoid A-Beta aggregation, whereas αAPP lacking the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) did not affected TTR activity ...
APP is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely present in various tissues, containing a longer fragment of the extracellular amino-terminal (N-terminal) and short segments of the intracellular carboxy-terminal (C-terminal), and its encoding gene is located on the first human 21 chromosome 21q21.2, the transcription, translation and processing mainly expressed in the formation of three kinds with different length of the peptide chain isoforms, APP695, APP751 and APP770. Compared with the other two isoforms, APP695 lacks the Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) region outside the cell. Neurons expressing APP695 subtypes in the cerebral cortex of APP695, APP751 and APP770 mRNA ratio of 20:10:1. The function of APP may be: (1) G protein-coupled receptor-like role to participate in transmembrane signal transduction process. (2) to promote cell adhesion, cell shape remodeling and neural development. (3) to promote the occurrence of synaptic structure, and enhance synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission. ...
Although it was long suspected that VHS is an RNase (11, 12, 22, 32, 52), unambiguous evidence that VHS is an endoribonuclease with a substrate specificity of RNase A emerged from studies of a protein purified to homogeneity (46, 47). ARV combinations that contain HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) may be superior to those without PIs for treatment of patients with KS (2, 21, 30, 45). ApoE4 is a risk factor for ocular herpes, in part, through increased replication of virus in the eye, an earlier onset in clinical opacity, significantly higher neovascularization, and increased HSV-1 DNA load in TG and brain than that of apoE3. Recreation Gift Cards are not redeemable/refundable for cash. In the past several years, this laboratory reported two sets of antisense genes. Were loaded with money, he said and the mayors focus on preparing middle-school students for the future workforce is a perfect match for the tech companys philanthropic foundation. Such a dual-purpose Ad could provide anticancer gene ...
Brazzein is a natural high-intensity sweet protein, from the tropical fruit of Pentadiplandra brazzeana, expressed in maize [1]. The brazzein protein is 500 to 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose and is highly stable. It is a natural sweetener that can be used alone or blended in food or beverages with other sweeteners such as sucrose.. Aprotinin is an animal-free source of recombinant bovine aprotinin expressed in maize [2]. The recombinant product is chemically and functionally equivalent to the native product and can be used in cell culture, research and other non-clinically regulated industries.. ...
Vesicle Transport Studies. Membrane vesicles were prepared from HEK293 cells, which were infected with human BCRP-, MRP2-, and MRP4-recombinant adenoviruses, as described previously (Hasegawa et al., 2007; Imaoka et al., 2007). In brief, HEK293 cells were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing human MRP4 [10 multiplicity of infection (MOI)] and BCRP (2 MOI). As negative controls, cells were infected with a virus containing green fluorescence protein cDNA (10 MOI). Cells were harvested 48 h after infection, and membrane vesicles were isolated by the hypotonic method (Hasegawa et al., 2007; Imaoka et al., 2007). Cells were diluted 40-fold with hypotonic buffer (1 mM Tris-HCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, at 4°C) and stirred gently for 1 h on ice in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 5 μg/ml leupeptin, 1 μg/ml pepstatin, and 5 μg/ml aprotinin. The cell lysate was centrifuged at 100,000g for 30 min at 4°C, and the resulting pellet was suspended in 10 ml of isotonic TS buffer ...
Subsequently, cells have been lysed in 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM NaF, two mM EDTA, 10% Glycerol, 1% NP-40, 0.25% Sodium deoxycholate, 1 mM NaVO4, 1 mM PMSF, 0.three mM aprotinin, 130 mM bestiatin, 1 mM leupeptin and 1 mM pepstatin. Cell lysates had been subjected to denaturing SDS/PAGE, and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. The…[Read more]. ...
Ties reprodukta habitato estas la norda parto de centra Kanado (ĉefe la Nordokcidentaj Teritorioj kaj Nunavuto, kun teritorioj iome al norda Manitobo kaj Saskaĉevano). Fakte tiu birdospecio estas la ununura kanada endemia reproduktanto. Vintre ili migras al la usonaj subŝtatoj de la Nordamerikaj Grandaj Ebenaĵoj, el malsupra Suda Dakoto al supra Teksaso. La plej rimarkinda karaktero de tiu specio diference de la samgenranoj estas nigra kapozono kiu nomigas ĝin laŭ la komuna nomo kiu konsistas el nigraj krono, ampleksa bridareo, gorĝareo kaj disiĝe al supra brusto kiel horizontala strio plu brustocentra makulo. La resto de la kapo estas helgriza (al sablokolora) kun iomete pli malhelgriza orelareo kun pli markata malantaŭa bordo preskaŭ nigreca. La fortika beko kaj la kruroj estas rozkoloraj. La supra dorso montras nigrecan vertikalan striecon super helbruna al helgriza fono kiu pluas al suba dorso kaj pugo senstriaj; la vosto estas iomete pli malhela. La subaj partoj estas helgrizaj ...
The official site for the Jennifer Connelly starring Japanese horror remake DARK WATER is online and from what I can tell, its your standard flas...
La dependeco en medicino signifas, ke iu ne povas malhavi iun materialon aŭ konduton periode, per kiuj li/ŝi travivas por mallonga tempo kontentigajn travivaĵojn. La plenumo de la travivaĵo kaŭzas ĝojon, kontentiĝon. Dependeco estas malsano kiu estas karakterizita per sindeviga engaĝiĝo en rekompensado de stimuloj, malgraŭ malbonaj sekvoj.[1][2][3][4][5] Ĝi povas esti konsiderita kiel malsano aŭ biologia proceso kaŭzanta tiajn kondutojn.[1][6] La du trajtoj kiuj karakterizas ĉiujn kutimigajn stimulojn estas ke ili plifortikigas (t.e., ili pliigas la verŝajnecon ke persono serĉos ripetan eksponiĝon al ili) kaj interne rekompensantaj (t.e., io perceptis kiel esti pozitiva aŭ dezirinda).[1][7][5] Dependeco estas malsano de la kompensa sistemo de la cerbo kiu ekestas tra transskribaj kaj epigenezaj mekanismoj kaj okazas dum tempo de kronike altaj niveloj de malkovro ĝis kutimiga stimulo (ekz., morfino, kokaino, amoro, hazardludo, ktp.).[1][8][9] δFosB, gena transkripcifaktoro, ...
New function: Find articles by their topic. On the main articles page, just click on a topic in the TOPICS area on the left to see all related articles or, click on the new Show all link to show a page with all existing topics. Discuss this feature in the forums.. ...
Find the best KPI Software for your organization. Read user reviews of leading KPI systems. Free comparisons, demos and price quotes.
Global Sucrose Polyester Market 2019. Sucrose Polyester Market Size by Types, Applications, Major Regions and Major Manufacturers including the capacity, production, price, revenue, cost, gross margin, sales volume, sales revenue, consumption, growth rate, import, export, supply, future strategies.
Ok so heres a Tom Hardy post for all you people with taste! The post contains a interview with tom from the Foreword to the Men of Warrior book, another still from warrior and also a small audio clip of bane! Tom Hardys Foreword to The Men of Warrior…
... improve coronary endothelial function similarly to aprotinin. Unlike aprotinin, at high doses, their anti- ... CU-2010 and CU-2020 have the ability to inhibit plasmin to a similar extent as aprotinin, but they are 100,000 times better at ... CU-2010 and CU-2020 were developed to avoid many issues associated with the use of aprotinin, including the risk of an allergic ... Since the isolation of aprotinin is expensive, a drug with a simpler synthesis was desired. CU-2010 has a molecular weight of ...
Aprotinin 6.5 kDa 2.5 times weight Also known as BPTI (basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor) and Kunitz inhibitor. Best-known ...
Aprotinin and cardiac surgery: a sorry tale of evidence misused". Br J Anaesth. 110 (5): 675-8. doi:10.1093/bja/aet008. PMID ... Trasylol (Aprotinin) Trasylol is a trypsin inhibitor used to control bleeding during major surgery. In a 2006 meeting called by ... Trasylol (aprotinin), used to control bleeding during major surgery, was withdrawn from the market worldwide in 2007 when ... "FDA Revises Labeling for Trasylol (Aprotinin Injection) to Strengthen Safety Warnings and Limit Usage of Drug to Specific ...
APROTININ 35. ORGANIC COMPOUND OF ARSENIC 36. ARTEETHER 37. ARTEMETHER 38. ARTESUNATE ...
"Efficacy of Aprotinin, Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid, or Combination in Cyanotic Heart Disease". Annals of Thoracic Surgery. ...
Formulations from different manufacturers may also contain aprotinin, fibronectin, plasminogen, and factor XIII. Factors that ...
... eglin c and aprotinin". The Biochemical Journal. 313 (2): 555-60. doi:10.1042/bj3130555. PMC 1216943. PMID 8573092. Kikuchi T, ...
Prekallikrein Kinin-kallikrein system Kinin Aprotinin List of cutaneous conditions Raspi G (September 1996). "Kallikrein and ...
"Tissue kallikrein in severe acute pancreatitis in patients treated with high-dose intraperitoneal aprotinin". Pancreas. 19 (4 ...
The antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin was abandoned after identification of major side effects, especially on kidney. ... fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
In 2004, LSBC announced an agreement with Sigma-Aldritch under which LSB would produce recombinant aprotinin in plants of the ... ProdiGene - was developing several proteins, including aprotinin, trypsin and a veterinary TGE vaccine in corn. Was in process ... Biomanufacturing Press Release Sigma catalog Aprotinin History of bankrupt biotech companies Cordis entry on Novoplant APHIS ... aprotinin, interferon Alpha 2a and 2b, G-CSF, and Hepatitis B vaccine antigens in tobacco. ...
Fergusson, Dean; Glass, Kathleen Cranley; Hutton, Brian; Shapiro, Stan (2016). "Randomized controlled trials of aprotinin in ...
100 U/ml protease inhibitor, such as aprotinin. SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) lysis buffer[edit]. SDS is ionic denaturing ...
The antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin was abandoned after identification of major side effects, especially on the kidney.[ ... compares the TEM in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. In severe cases of activated fibrinolysis ...
Aprotinin and cardiac surgery: a sorry tale of evidence misused". Br J Anaesth. 110 (5): 675-8. doi:10.1093/bja/aet008. PMID ... Trasylol (Aprotinin) Trasylol is a trypsin inhibitor used to control bleeding during major surgery. In a 2006 meeting called by ... "MedEffect - Health Canada's Response to the Final Report of the Expert Advisory Panel on Trasylol (aprotinin)".. ... "FDA Revises Labeling for Trasylol (Aprotinin Injection) to Strengthen Safety Warnings and Limit Usage of Drug to Specific ...
Pandey, R; Deshpande, SB (August 2004). "Protective effects of aprotinin on respiratory and cardiac abnormalities induced by ...
June 2010). "Production of pharmaceutical-grade recombinant aprotinin and a monoclonal antibody product using plant-based ...
APTEM test is an EXTEM based assay in which fibrinolysis is inhibited by aprotinin in the reagent. A significant improvement of ...
Before its withdrawal, aprotinin was used in some forms of major surgery to decrease bleeding risk and need for blood products ...
1-78 Repeatable measurement of local and zonal GFR in the rat kidney with aprotinin (sm.m. O. Tenstad og H. E. Williamson), i ...
Examples of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are aprotinin (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI), Alzheimer's amyloid ...
Clotting time measurements can be affected by drugs such as warfarin, aprotinin, and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors, and physiologic ...
... salivary proteins and aprotinin type protease inhibitors". The EMBO Journal. 9 (2): 385-93. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1990. ...
... aprotinin, polysulphated glycosaminoglycan, skin derived fibroblasts etc.) for treating Achilles tendinopathy. As of 2014 there ...
B02AA01 Aminocaproic acid B02AA02 Tranexamic acid B02AA03 Aminomethylbenzoic acid B02AB01 Aprotinin B02AB02 Alfa1 antitrypsin ...
... has been shown to interact with: A2-Macroglobulin, β-amyloid precursor protein, APBB1, APOE, Aprotinin, C1S/C1q inhibitor ...
... aprotinin (INN) aptazapine (INN) aptiganel (INN) aptocaine (INN). ...
Aprotinin Bestatin Calpain inhibitor I and II Chymostatin E-64 Leupeptin (N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-argininal) alpha-2- ...
The Importance of Aprotinin and Pentoxifylline in Preventing the Leucocyte Sequestration and Lung İnjury Caused By Protamine at ...
FDA Revises Labeling for Trasylol (Aprotinin Injection) to Strengthen Safety Warnings and Limit Usage of Drug to Specific ... Information for Healthcare Professionals Aprotinin Injection (marketed as Trasylol) text version. *Information for Healthcare ... Early Communication about an Ongoing Safety Review on Aprotinin Injection (marketed as Trasylol) ... aprotinin), notified the FDA of their intent to remove all remaining supplies of Trasylol from hospital pharmacies and ...
Read the side effects of Aprotinin as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult your doctor or ... Side effect(s) of Aprotinin Read the side effects of Aprotinin as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt ... Aprotinin - Information. This product is derived from bovine lung tissue, which inhibits certain enzymes that increase the risk ... Aprotinin is a protease inhibitor, prescribed for reducing blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing ...
Enzyme Reagent Aprotinin: Recombinant Animal-Free Alternative available through Sigma-Aldrich online. ... only thermolysin has been found capable of degrading aprotinin after heating to 60-80°C). The high basicity of aprotinin causes ... Our recombinant aprotinin avoids the issue of bovine pathogens altogether.. This protein is available. in the BioUltra Grade.. ... Aprotinin is freely soluble in water (,10 mg/mL) and in aqueous buffers of low ionic strengths. Dilute solutions are generally ...
Aprotinin is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.) ... Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (NB. ... Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (NB. Aprotinin is also available without a brand name, ie ... Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (NB. Aprotinin is also available without a brand name, ie ...
Aprotinin, also known as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI (Trasylol, Bayer) is a protein, that is used as medication ... Aprotinin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spirapril.. Approved. St. Johns Wort. The metabolism of Aprotinin ... Aprotinin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Captopril.. Approved. Carbamazepine. The metabolism of Aprotinin can ... Aprotinin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Fosinopril.. Approved. Garlic. The serum concentration of Aprotinin ...
Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss in difficult cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and more recently ... Aprotinin profoundly inhibits fibrinolysis and this is likely to be the major effect by which blood loss is reduced. ... Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss in difficult cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and more recently ... Royston D, Taylor KM, Bidstrup BP, Sapsford RN (1987) Effect of Aprotinin on the need for blood transfusions after repeat open ...
Aprotinin is largely used as an inhibitor of trypsin. Biochemical Physiological Actions Aprotinin is a competitive serine ... This binding is reversible, and most aprotinin-protease complexes will dissociate at extreme pH levels ,10 or ,3. Structurally ... Aprotinin is a monomeric globular protein derived from bovine lung that consists of 58 amino acids, arranged in a single ...
Beckerman Z, Shopen Y, Alon H, Cohen O, Nir RR, Adler Z, Bolotin G. Coronary artery bypass grafting after aprotinin: are we ... "Aprotinin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Goobie S. Should aprotinin be reconsidered for use in pediatric surgery? Paediatr Anaesth. 2014 Feb; 24(2):137-40. ... Differential effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid on outcomes and cytokine profiles in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery ...
Injectable; Injection; Aprotinin Bovine 1,000,000 IU / ml*Injectable; Injection; Aprotinin Bovine 10,000 IU / ml*Injectable; ... Injectable; Injection; Aprotinin Bovine 20,000 IU / ml*Injectable; Injection; Aprotinin Bovine 500,000 IU / ml. ...
The results of the investigation showed that aprotinine failed to modify ... Considering the immunodepressive properties of aprotinine, the influence of this protease inhibitor on the induction of ... Aprotinin / pharmacology*. Immunosuppression. Methylcholanthrene*. Rats. Sarcoma, Experimental / chemically induced*, ... The results of the investigation showed that aprotinine failed to modify the experimental tumour induction process. This ...
Aprotinin injection). Youll find links to articles and related resources in ... Trasylol (Aprotinin injection) was a highly controversial blood-clotting medication. It was designed to work by inhibiting ...
Xin, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, B.; Zhang, L.; Tong, Y. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung. J. Sep. Sci. 2015, 38 (9 ... A potent protease inhibitor.Aprotinin acts as a reversible serine protease blocking and a binding agent. It is widely employed ... It is involved in the purification of urokinase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin on immobilized aprotinin. Further, it is used in the ... Inhibition of Outer Membrane Proteases of the Omptin Family by Aprotinin. Infect. Immun. 2015, 83 (6), 2300-2311. ...
Effects of Aprotinin During Cardiac Surgery/Long Term Death Rates. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The current viewpoint is that Aprotinin is more harmful than Amicard. In an effort to see what the long term outcomes were for ... Aprotinin. Aminocaproic Acid. Hemostatics. Coagulants. Trypsin Inhibitors. Serine Proteinase Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. ... of Anesthesiology currently has a database of subjects whom had surgery and received either Aprotinin or Amicar in the OR. ...
INTERVENTIONS--Aprotinin group patients (n = 9) received aprotinin (1 x 10(6) kallikrein inactivator units (KIU)) as an ... Aprotinin may be a substrate for the N-carboxypeptidase that destroys protamine, thus indirectly enhancing and prolonging the ... aprotinin compared with a control group. DESIGN--Randomised, placebo controlled study. SETTING--Regional cardiothoracic unit ... Heparin requirements were nearly doubled in patients treated with aprotinin, who required reheparinisation for up to one hour ...
Aprotinin (Injection). Aprotinin. Prevents blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusions during and after heart bypass ... You should not receive this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to aprotinin, or if you have received aprotinin ... Products containing aprotinin (Trasylol®) were withdrawn from the U.S. market by Bayer Pharmaceuticals on November 5, 2007. ...
PET/CT in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis compared with 99mTc-aprotinin scintigraphy. ... Preliminary experience of 99mTc-Aprotinin scintigraphy in amyloidosis. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:494-500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Participants were scheduled to undergo a series of 11C-PIB PET/CT and 99mTc-aprotinin within a 2-month period. Finally, we ... Schaadt BK, Hendel HW, Gimsing P, Jønsson V, Pedersen H, Hesse B. 99mTc-aprotinin scintigraphy in amyloidosis. J Nucl Med. 2003 ...
Detailed drug Information for fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride Topical application, Route Not Applicable. ... Uses For fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride. Aprotinin, calcium chloride, fibrinogen, and thrombin combination ... It is very important that your doctor check you or your child closely while you are receiving fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin ... Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride should not be given as an injection. ...
TOPICAL EFFECT OF APROTININ ON THE SURGICAL-WOUND IN CARDIAC-SURGERY. TABUCHI, N., DEHAAN, J. & VANOEVEREN, W., Feb-1995, In : ...
Plasma aprotinin levels were determined by modified functional assays. Aprotinin levels in the control group were significantly ... aprotinin levels were higher in HCA and LF groups than FF group (p < .05). ThroughoutCPB, aprotinin levels in the HCA group ... Although aprotinin is partially excreted unchanged in the urine, its primary site of metabolism is in the renal lysosomes ... Aprotinin infusion was terminated at the end of CPB and stopped during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Piglets were ...
Ultra low dose aprotinin decreases blood loss and transfusion requirements in high risk two valve replacement surgery: 075. ... Group I received aprotinin in a dose of 1 million KIU (after anaesthetic induction prior to initiation of cardiopulmonary ... Ultra-low dose aprotinin decreases transfusion requirements and is cost effective in coronary operations. Ann Thorac Surg 2001 ... Ultra low dose aprotinin decreases blood loss and transfusion requirements in high risk two valve replacement surgery: 075 ...
Abstract 3347: Does Aprotinin Increase the Risk of Renal Failure in Cardiac Surgery Patients?. Anthony P Furnary, Loren F ... Findings: Aprotinin was utilized in 24.6%(2,757/11,198). The overall incidence of RF was 1.6% (180/11,198) and was higher in ... Background: Aprotinin is frequently used in high-risk cardiac surgery patients to decrease bleeding complications and ... Aprotinin use does not independently increase the risk of renal failure in cardiac surgery patients. ...
This report studies the global market size of Aprotinin in... ... 111 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Aprotinin Market ... There are three kinds of Aprotinin, which are Aprotinin (From bovine lung) and Recombinant Aprotinin. Aprotinin (From bovine ... 4.1 Global Aprotinin Sales by Type. 4.2 Global Aprotinin Revenue by Type. 4.3 Aprotinin Price by Type. 5 Breakdown Data by ... 7.2 Europe Aprotinin by Type. 7.3 Europe Aprotinin by Application. 7.4 Europe Aprotinin by Company. 8 Asia Pacific. 8.1 Asia ...
Figure 4. Effect of aprotinin on TNFα expression. Serum TNFα levels in vehicle- and aprotinin-treated rats subjected to MI and ... This change was significantly attenuated by aprotinin. The effect was more pronounced the earlier the aprotinin was given in ... Figure 2. Effect of aprotinin on myocardial gene expression. Relative myocardial gene expression in LVFW tissue from aprotinin- ... When animals were treated with 20 000 IU/kg aprotinin, depletion of CK decreased significantly. Interestingly, when aprotinin ...
Aprotinin Use and Renal Outcome in Hypothermic Bypass and Circulatory Arrest for Surgical Repair of Thoracic Aorta.. This study ... Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor, intended to limit blood loss in patients undergoing surgery, was approved for use 13 ... Aprotinin Use and Renal Outcome in Hypothermic Bypass and Circulatory Arrest for Surgical Repair of Thoracic Aorta. A ... That is, aprotinin competes with creatinine for elimination by the kidneys such that the apparent renal dysfunction is ...
Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 is a professional and... ... 139 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. ... 1.1.1 Definition of Aprotinin 1. 1.1.2 Specifications of Aprotinin 2. 1.2 Classification of Aprotinin 2. 1.2.1 Aprotinin (From ... 5 India Aprotinin (Volume, Value and Sales Price) 37. 5.1 India Aprotinin Sales and Value (2011-2016) 37. 5.1.1 India Aprotinin ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2019 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
Aprotinin group 44.1%. Non-aprotinin group 26.3%. p=0.029. Laub et al,. 1994,. USA. 47 patients undergoing CABG entered into ... 92.0% in aprotinin group vs 95.1% in placebo group. Lass et al,. 1995,. Germany. 55 patients assigned to receive aprotinin (2 ... 49% reduction in aprotinin group (p<.0001). Havel et al,. 1994,. Austria. 15 patients assigned to receive high dose aprotinin ( ... Medline: [exp Aprotinin/ OR Aprotinin.mp/ OR Trasylol mp] AND [exp vascular patency/ OR graft patency.mp OR exp Graft occlusion ...
Effect of Aprotinin on Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of ... Sedrakyan, A., Treasure, T. and Elefteriades, J.A. (2004) Effect of Aprotinin on Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Bypass ...
Aprotinin during Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting and Risk of Death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 771-783. ... Schneeweiss, S., Seeger, J.D., Landon, J. and Walker, A.M. (2008) Aprotinin during Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting and Risk of ...
Aprotinin forms stable complexes with and blocks the act ... Aprotinin is a competitive serine protease inhibitor that ... Aprotinin forms stable complexes with and blocks the active sites of enzymes. Binding is reversible with most aprotinin- ... A conversion factor for Aprotinin is: 1 EPU= 1 USP Aprotinin Unit = 1800 KIU. ... Recombinant aprotinin should be stored under -20°C or below in sealed container. It is stable within 24 months. ...
  • Trasylol (Aprotinin injection) was a highly controversial blood-clotting medication. (findlaw.com)
  • UPDATE 5/14/2008]: Following publication of the Blood conservation using antifibrinolytics: A randomized trial in a cardiac surgery population (BART) study in the May 14, 2008 online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine , Bayer Pharmaceuticals, the manufacturer of Trasylol (aprotinin), notified the FDA of their intent to remove all remaining supplies of Trasylol from hospital pharmacies and warehouses. (fda.gov)
  • Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Aprotinin, also known as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI (Trasylol, Bayer) is a protein, that is used as medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. (drugbank.ca)
  • Products containing aprotinin (Trasylol®) were withdrawn from the U.S. market by Bayer Pharmaceuticals on November 5, 2007. (limamemorial.org)
  • Taggart DP, Djapardy V, Naik M, Davies A. A randomized trial of aprotinin (Trasylol) on blood loss, blood product requirement and myocardial injury in total arterial grafting. (springer.com)
  • Aprotinin, also known as bovine pancreatic Aprotinin inhibitor, BPTI (Trasylol, Bayer) is a protein that is used as medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Aprotinin (Trasylol) is a serine protease inhibitor derived from bovine lung that inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, and kallikrein. (ispub.com)
  • Because bradykinin constitutes a possible candidate for mediation of topical 8-methoxypsoralen-UVA-(PUVA)-induced erythema, aprotinin (Trasylol), inhibitor of kallikrein and interrupter of the cascade leading to kinin production was assessed in guinea pigs. (northwestern.edu)
  • Neuhaus P, Bechstein WO, Lefebre O, Blumhardt G, Slama K (1989) Effect of Aprotinin on intraoperative bleeding and fibrinolysis in liver transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Royston D, Taylor KM, Bidstrup BP, Sapsford RN (1987) Effect of Aprotinin on the need for blood transfusions after repeat open heart surgery. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we determined the effect of aprotinin on myocardial gene and protein expression in a well established 12 rat model of myocardial ischemia and long-term reperfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sedrakyan, A., Treasure, T. and Elefteriades, J.A. (2004) Effect of Aprotinin on Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. (scirp.org)
  • Nephrology Now » Blog Archive » The effect of aprotinin on outcome after coronary-artery bypass grafting. (nephrologynow.com)
  • Background: To investigate the dose dependent effect of aprotinin on aggravated pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). (nus.edu.sg)
  • In a subsequent study of 80 patients undergoing primary coronary bypass surgery, patients receiving aprotinin bled 46% less than controls, receiving fewer units of packed RBC's (13 units vs. 75 units, aprotinin vs. placebo), and had no significant prolongation of their bleeding times, suggesting a platelet preserving effect of aprotinin independent of its antifibrinolytic properties 9 . (ispub.com)
  • Aprotinin is a competitive serine protease inhibitor which forms stable complexes with and blocks the active sites of enzymes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aprotinin is a broad spectrum protease inhibitor which modulates the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. (drugbank.ca)
  • Aprotinin is a competitive serine protease inhibitor that forms stable complexes with and blocks the active sites of enzyme. (mpbio.com)
  • Considering the immunodepressive properties of aprotinine, the influence of this protease inhibitor on the induction of methylcholanthrene sarcoma in rats has been investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A potent protease inhibitor.Aprotinin acts as a reversible serine protease blocking and a binding agent. (alfa.com)
  • Serine protease inhibition with aprotinin is cardioprotective, but the mechanism is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Strategies to limit reperfusion injury have been directed at many points in this complex cascade, but the use of serine protease inhibitors such as aprotinin is particularly promising. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aprotinin is a naturally occurring broad spectrum protease inhibitor obtained from bovine lung. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor, intended to limit blood loss in patients undergoing surgery, was approved for use 13 years ago, and now administered in more than 250,000 surgery patients per year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aprotinin is a competitive serine protease inhibitor that inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein and plasmin. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor, commonly used during cardiopulmonary bypass to reduce blood loss, has been demonstrated to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory effects during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. (portlandpress.com)
  • Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor isolated from bovine lung which inhibits trypsin and chymotrypsin with K i values of 0.06 pM and 9 nM, respectively. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Effects of protease inhibitor PIC, a serine protease inhibitor AEBSF and trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors Aprotinin (Aprot, 0.1 mM) on PRR cleavage induced by BSA in HK-2 cells. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from bovine lung, is a complex protease inhibitor that is an antifibrinolytic, inhibits contact activation, and decreases the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass [2] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aprotinin, a naturally occurring protease inhibitor was assessed for its effectiveness in plummeting postsurgical pain and swelling, after surgical removal of impacted 3rd molars. (jcdr.net)
  • Different pharmacologic agents have been reported, however the currently accepted pharmacologic interventions are based on using a protease inhibitor, aprotinin, or lysine analogs to inhibit fibrinolysis. (ispub.com)
  • Aprotinin, a naturally occurring serine protease inhibitor, saves lives and decreases the risk of stroke and repeat surgery for massive bleeding 1, 2, 3 . (apexbt.com)
  • Competitive Serine Protease Inhibitor, Aprotinin, 9000KIU/mg Pro. (recombinanttrypsin.com)
  • Aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor, has been demonstrated to exhibit significant antiinflammatory effects. (elsevier.com)
  • One trypsin inhibitor unit (EPU) will decrease the activity of 2 trypsin units by 50% where one trypsin unit will hydrolyze 1.0 μmol of N-benzoyl-L-arginineethyl ether(BAEE) per sec at pH 7.6 at 25 °C.A conversion factor for Aprotinin is: 1 EPU= 1 USP Aprotinin Unit = 1800 KIU. (recombinanttrypsin.com)
  • Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss in difficult cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and more recently in liver transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Reheparinisation requirements after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients treated with aprotinin. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To determine reheparinisation requirements following protamine neutralisation after the discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass in a group of patients receiving "low dose" aprotinin compared with a control group. (bmj.com)
  • This study tested the hypothesis that plasma aprotinin concentration varies with cardiopulmonary bypass conditions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Thirtytwo piglets (weight 13.2 ± 1.9 kg) received an aprotinin initial dose of 30,000 KIU/kg, a maintenance infusion of 10,000 KIU/kg/h, with a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime of 30,000 KIU/kg. (ebscohost.com)
  • Aprotinin protects the cerebral microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass. (ebscohost.com)
  • 2. Airway nitric oxide was measured during cardiopulmonary bypass in 10 controls (Group 1), 10 subjects receiving half-dose aprotinin (Group 2) and 10 patients receiving full-dose aprotinin (Group 3). (portlandpress.com)
  • Since increased airway nitric oxide is found in inflammatory lung diseases, like asthma, and anti-inflammatory therapy reduces the concentration of airway nitric oxide, these data support the concept that aprotinin is anti-inflammatory during cardiopulmonary bypass. (portlandpress.com)
  • en] BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. (ac.be)
  • Aprotinin and heparin monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BACKGROUND When high-dose aprotinin is used during cardiopulmonary bypass, there is a prolongation of the activated coagulation time (ACT), which is used to monitor heparinization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this study was to provide guidelines for monitoring heparin levels by the ACT if aprotinin is used during cardiopulmonary bypass. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effect of temperature and aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass on three different methods of activated clotting time measurement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), low-dose aprotinin has been shown not to influence the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a finished dosage form, Aprotinin is used to reduce perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients during and following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the course of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (pentapharm.com)
  • In part two, the cardiopulmonary bypass group receiving aprotinin+leukofiltration was retrospectively compared with 45 patients undergoing off-pump coronary revascularization. (unthsc.edu)
  • Aprotinin decreases the incidence of cognitive deficit following CABG and cardiopulmonary bypass: a pilot randomized controlled study. (lenus.ie)
  • CONCLUSION: In this prospective pilot study, the incidence of cognitive deficit after CABG and cardiopulmonary bypass is decreased by the administration of high-dose aprotinin. (lenus.ie)
  • These were developed in 2010 to replace the use of aprotinin during and after cardiac surgery, including surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass which cause blood loss and hemorrhagic complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, Aprotinin is a monomeric globular protein derived from bovine lung that consists of 58 amino acids, arranged in a single polypeptide chain with three crosslinking disulfide bridges. (mpbio.com)
  • Tong, Y. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung. (alfa.com)
  • There are three kinds of Aprotinin, which are Aprotinin (From bovine lung) and Recombinant Aprotinin. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Aprotinin (From bovine lung) is wildly used in the Aprotinin, with a revenue market share nearly 81.11% in 2015. (reportsnreports.com)
  • This is a recombinant form of bovine lung aprotinin, which is traditionally isolated from bovine lung by methods involving fractional precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. (recombinanttrypsin.com)
  • Objective: Aprotinin has been widely used to reduce bleeding and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in lung transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • A recent study found a significant reduction in severe (grade III) primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in lung transplantation where aprotinin had been used. (elsevier.com)
  • We decided to review our lung transplant caseload to investigate the impact of aprotinin on PGD and mortality and to guide our future clinical use of this antifibrinolytic. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: In conclusion, although the benefits of aprotinin on blood loss are well established, this study does not provide support for the use of aprotinin to reduce PGD in lung transplantation and indicates that aprotinin may in fact have a detrimental effect. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro, aprotinin was added to cultures of a murine lung epithelial cell line and was stimulated with cytomix, a combination of TNF, interleukin-1, and interferon-χ. (elsevier.com)
  • To overcome the mentioned limitations, and to better characterize to postoperative renal outcomes, we propose to investigate the safety of aprotinin in a single institution, single surgeon, and very large homogenous surgical cohort who underwent surgical repair of the ascending and aortic arch with use of hypothermic CPB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Efficacy and safety of aprotinin in cardiac surgery. (medchemexpress.com)
  • BACKGROUND: There is still uncertainty about the safety of aprotinin for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, recently, concerns regarding the safety of aprotinin have been raised, and the future use of aprotinin is uncertain. (elsevier.com)
  • Read the side effects of Aprotinin as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • The effects of aprotinin use in CPB involves a reduction in inflammatory response which translates into a decreased need for allogeneic blood transfusions, reduced bleeding, and decreased mediastinal re-exploration for bleeding. (drugbank.ca)
  • Differential effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid on outcomes and cytokine profiles in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. (harvard.edu)
  • Primary Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Aprotinin (an antifibrinolytic drug used to reduce bleeding during cardiac surgery) on renal function in patients undergoing surgery with use of hypothermic bypass and circulatory arrest for repair of the thoracic aorta. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Secondary Objective: To compare the effects of Aprotinin and Amicar on major vascular outcomes following thoracic aorta surgery with use of hypothermic bypass and circulatory arrest. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The in vitro effects of aprotinin on twelve different ACT tests. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of aprotinin use in CPB involves a reduction in inflammatory response, through its inhibition of multiple mediators (e.g., kallikrein, plasmin), which translates into a decreased need for allogeneic blood transfusions, reduced bleeding, and decreased mediastinal re-exploration for bleeding. (pentapharm.com)
  • Evaluation of aprotinin and tranexamic acid in different in vitro and in vivo models of fibrinolysis, coagulation and thrombus formation. (medchemexpress.com)
  • We expect that aprotinin will be better in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements compared with tranexamic acid. (isrctn.com)
  • However, tranexamic acid will be more cost effective and avoid the risk of anaphylactic shock at reexposure seen with aprotinin. (isrctn.com)
  • Tranexamic acid and aprotinin in primary cardiac operations: an analysis of 220 cardiac surgical patients treated with tranexamic acid or aprotinin. (lenus.ie)
  • The routine use of aprotinin 1 million KIU in coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal mammary artery has been recommended to reduce cost and transfusion requirements [ 1 ]. (lww.com)
  • Ultra-low dose aprotinin decreases transfusion requirements and is cost effective in coronary operations. (lww.com)
  • High dose aprotinin can reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements associated with primary cardiac procedures such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart valve replacement surgery [5] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Two hundred sixteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft procedures were randomized to receive either high-dose aprotinin or placebo. (elsevier.com)
  • Safety of Perioperative Aprotinin Administration During Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Insights From the ART (Arterial Revascularization Trial). (ox.ac.uk)
  • In part one, two randomized groups of 90 patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting received full Hammersmith aprotinin alone (control group) or combined with leukofiltration (study group) and were prospectively examined. (unthsc.edu)
  • Full-dose aprotinin use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: an analysis of perioperative pharmacotherapy and patient outcomes. (lenus.ie)
  • CU-2010 and CU-2020 improve coronary endothelial function similarly to aprotinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aprotinin inactivates plasmin and so stops it from breaking down blood clots. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Aprotinin, through its inhibition of multiple mediators [e.g., kallikrein, plasmin] results in the attenuation of inflammatory responses, fibrinolysis, and thrombin generation. (drugbank.ca)
  • Aprotinin inhibits several serine proteases, specifically trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasmin at a concentration of about 125,000 IU/ml, and kallikrein at 300,000 IU/ml. (drugbank.ca)
  • Aprotinin inhibits trypsin (bovine, K i = 0.06 pM), chymotrypsin (bovine, K i = 9 nM), plasmin (human, 0.23 nM) [1] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aprotinin is a monomeric globular protein which inhibits several serine proteases including trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin and kallikrein. (thomassci.com)
  • Aprotinin inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization could be recovered by removing aprotinin from culture or stimulating cells with bone morphogenetic protein-2 or plasmin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CU-2010 and CU-2020 have the ability to inhibit plasmin to a similar extent as aprotinin, but they are 100,000 times better at inhibiting factor Xa and factor Xia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aprotinin is largely used as an inhibitor of trypsin. (mpbio.com)
  • 1. Aprotinin, a potent kallikrein inhibitor, was given to conscious rats with and without expansion of the extracellular fluid volume with isotonic saline. (portlandpress.com)
  • Aprotinin is also a competitive protein inhibitor of NOS activity. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Biochemistry and applications of aprotinin, the kallikrein inhibitor from bovine organs. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aprotinin, the first competitive protein inhibitor of NOS activity. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aprotinin is a natural proteinase inhibitor polypeptide consisting of fifty-eight amino acids {C 284 H 432 N 84 O 79 S 7} arranged in a single polypeptide chain, cross-linked by three disulfide bridges and having a molecular mass of 6512. (neobiolab.com)
  • Aprotinin is a polyvalent reversible inhibitor of serine proteinases. (pentapharm.com)
  • A Fibrinolysis Inhibitor, Aprotinin (Synthetic) is included in the Sealer Protein (Human) component to delay fibrinolysis. (rxlist.com)
  • Background and objective: We have previously reported that administration of aprotinin at a single dose protects the cerebral microcirculation. (ebscohost.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: CPB is associated with cytokine release and neutrophil activation, which are not attenuated by the use of heparin-coated circuits or by the administration of aprotinin. (ac.be)
  • Thromboelastography and Activated Clotting Time as Guides to Prediction of Postoperative Bleeding in Cardiac Patients with Administration of Aprotinin. (ekja.org)
  • Aprotinin is used to prevent excessive, life-threatening blood loss and the need for a blood transfusion during open heart surgery in people who are at increased risk of bleeding. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Over a 9-month period were compared the effects of an intra-operative infusion of aprotinin on transfusion requirements and coagulation profiles in 12 patients undergoing liver transplantation for end-stage cirrhosis with an equal number of consecutive transplants in patients with similar pathology who did not receive aprotinin. (springer.com)
  • Transfusion of blood and blood products was reduced to one-third in the aprotinin-treated group. (springer.com)
  • There was significant reduction in mediastinal drainage and blood or blood products transfusion requirements with the use of low dose aprotinin ( Table 1 ). (lww.com)
  • A multicenter, multinational study reported an increase in the risk of graft closure (p=0.035) in patients undergoing primary CABG surgery treated with aprotinin versus placebo. (drugs.com)
  • In 1987 Van Oeveren reported a 47% reduction in blood loss in patients receiving aprotinin during CABG surgery. (ispub.com)
  • Dietrich found decreased blood loss in patients receiving aprotinin as compared to those receiving placebo (738 ml vs. 1431 ml) for primary CABG 10 . (ispub.com)
  • Meta-analysis of clinical trials demonstrates a decreased incidence of stroke after CABG when aprotinin is administrated perioperatively. (lenus.ie)
  • We hypothesized that aprotinin administration would decrease the incidence of cognitive deficit after CABG. (lenus.ie)
  • We hypothesized that aprotinin administration during CPB would significantly reduce endogenous airway NO production. (elsevier.com)
  • Aprotinin, calcium chloride, fibrinogen, and thrombin combination is used to help control bleeding during surgery when other procedures to close a wound or incision, such as stitches, bands, and heat cannot be used. (drugs.com)
  • Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride is a fibrin sealant. (drugs.com)
  • Artiss™ and Tisseel™ contain man-made proteins (aprotinin, fibrinogen, and thrombin) that are used to stop bleeding by helping the blood to clot. (drugs.com)
  • Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride is to be given only by or under the supervision of your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • A doctor or other trained health professional will give you fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride. (drugs.com)
  • Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride is applied only to your skin or incision during surgery. (drugs.com)
  • It is very important that your doctor check you or your child closely while you are receiving fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride to make sure it is working properly. (drugs.com)
  • Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride may cause a serious type of allergic reaction, including anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. (drugs.com)
  • Tell your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hives, chest pain, dizziness or lightheadedness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth after receiving fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride. (drugs.com)
  • Fibrinogen/aprotinin and thrombin/calcium chloride is made from donated human blood. (drugs.com)
  • You should not receive this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to aprotinin, calcium chloride, fibrinogen, thrombin, or bovine proteins (from animals such as oxen or cows). (stlukes-stl.com)
  • He also reported less formation of thrombin, fibrin, split products, and D-dimers in patients receiving aprotinin. (ispub.com)
  • Aprotinin profoundly inhibits fibrinolysis and this is likely to be the major effect by which blood loss is reduced. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, only 1 patient of 12 in the aprotinin-treated group showed fibrinolytic activity in the anhepatic period, and none showed evidence of fibrinolysis following reperfusion of the new graft. (springer.com)
  • Aprotinin significantly inhibits fibrinolysis with an IC 50 of 0.16±0.05 μM [4] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Moual, H. L. Inhibition of Outer Membrane Proteases of the Omptin Family by Aprotinin. (alfa.com)
  • Further, when CU-2010 and CU-2020 are continuously infused, the greater inhibition of factors Xa and XIa compared to that by aprotinin prevent early thrombosis, providing an anti-coagulatory effect in patients, and prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in the purification of urokinase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin on immobilized aprotinin. (alfa.com)
  • Conclusions- We demonstrated myocardial ischemia plus reperfusion induced leukocyte accumulation, inflammation, gene expression, protein expression and finally tissue injury and showed aprotinin limiting reperfusion injury through each of these stages, even after 24 hours of reperfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions: High dose aprotinin can suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α, and enhance the release of IL-10 in patients with PH after CPB. (nus.edu.sg)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present post hoc ART analysis, aprotinin was associated with a significantly increased risk of early and late mortality. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Abstract 3347: Does Aprotinin Increase the Risk of Renal Failure in Cardiac Surgery Patients? (ahajournals.org)
  • The use of aprotinin did not significantly increase the risk of renal failure or the need for postoperative renal replacement despite an increase in the proportion of patients who had a doubling of serum creatinine levels. (apexbt.com)
  • These data demonstrate that aprotinin reduces NO production in vivo and reduces cytokine-induced iNOS expression in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • In general, aprotinin was generally well tolerated in clinical studies with 76% of patients receiving aprotinin reporting an adverse effect vs. 77% of patients receiving placebo therapy. (drugs.com)
  • Myocardial infarction is reported to have an incidence of 5.9% in patients treated with aprotinin versus 4.7% in patients treated with placebo. (drugs.com)
  • However, when the study was repeated in U.S. centers only, there was no statistically significant difference in graft closure rates of aprotinin treated patients versus patients treated with placebo. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, severe diffuse venous thromboembolism has been associated with aprotinin administration in patients positive for factor V Leiden . (drugs.com)
  • INTERVENTIONS--Aprotinin group patients (n = 9) received aprotinin (1 x 10(6) kallikrein inactivator units (KIU)) as an intravenous bolus after the induction of anaesthesia, and 1 x 10(6) KIU was added to the pump prime. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION--Heparin requirements were nearly doubled in patients treated with aprotinin, who required reheparinisation for up to one hour after protamine. (bmj.com)
  • This study was to investigate the significance of 11 C-Pittsburgh B (PIB) PET/CT in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis compared with 99m Tc-aprotinin scintigraphy. (springer.com)
  • Six of 8 patients with positive uptake on 99m Tc-aprotinin presented with amyloid deposition in the left ventricle wall, but symptoms remained stable if results of 11 C-PIB were not positive. (springer.com)
  • This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of ultra low dose aprotinin in reducing postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing 'high-risk' two valve replacements. (lww.com)
  • Prophylactic administration of ultra low dose aprotinin reduced transfusions in patients undergoing repeat operations or complex procedures [ 2 ]. (lww.com)
  • Aprotinin is frequently used in high-risk cardiac surgery patients to decrease bleeding complications and transfusions of packed red blood cells (tPRBC). (ahajournals.org)
  • After adding tPRBC data 11,198 patients remained for risk-adjusted assessment of RF in relation to Aprotinin use. (ahajournals.org)
  • The increase in renal failure seen in patients who were administered Aprotinin was directly related to increased transfusions seen in that high-risk patient population. (ahajournals.org)
  • METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized in four groups of 50 patients each: heparin-coated circuit with aprotinin (HCO-A) or without aprotinin (HCO) administration, and uncoated circuit with aprotinin (C-A) or without aprotinin administration (C). In groups receiving aprotinin, a high-dose regimen was given. (ac.be)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to rule out the effect of high-dose aprotinin in respect to SIRS and clinical parameters in adult patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Group A patients ( n = 10), high-dose aprotinin was administered (2 Mio KIU pre-bypass, 2 Mio KIU in prime, 0.5 Mio KIU/h during CPB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Group C patients ( n = 10) no aprotinin was used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-inflammatory reaction was significantly enhanced in these patients, which suggests that the physiological reaction of the organism to reduce deleterious effects to CPB is strengthened by using high-dose aprotinin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In future, further studies with use of aprotinin in a large number of patients and comparative studies with other drugs are required. (jcdr.net)
  • Although increases in the serum creatinine level occurred postoperatively in more patients who received aprotinin (20/108) than in those given placebo (13/108), the difference between the two group was not statistically significant (p = 0.186), and the increases were generally small and transient. (elsevier.com)
  • For patients having PH, there exists a simple and potential way to reduce the inflammatory response by applying high dose aprotinin. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In 22 patients having reoperations with bubble oxygenators, Royston developed a pharmacologic approach to inhibit inflammatory responses during CPB administering a loading dose of 2 million units of aprotinin following intubation, and a continuous infusion of 500,00 units/hour with a CPB pump prime dose of 2 million units. (ispub.com)
  • In patients receiving aprotinin, chest tube drainage was 286 ml as compared to 1509 ml in the controls 8 . (ispub.com)
  • Aprotinin did not appear to prevent massive bleeding or save the life of patients who had massive bleeding. (apexbt.com)
  • The adverse effects on mortality associated with aprotinin may also have been present among healthier patients, those under the age of 65 years, and those without coexisting illnesses at the time of surgery. (apexbt.com)
  • Despite the possibility of a modest reduction in the risk of massive bleeding, the strong and consistent negative mortality trend associated with aprotinin as compared with lysine analogues precludes its use in patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery 5 . (apexbt.com)
  • Many of the ART patients (≈30%) received perioperative aprotinin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Among patients enrolled in the ART (n=3102) from 2004 to 2007, we excluded those who did not undergo surgery (n=18) and those with no information about use of perioperative aprotinin (n=9). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, 836 of 3076 patients (27%) received aprotinin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ninety-nine patients, who received aprotinin, were compared with 114 patients who did not. (elsevier.com)
  • Eighteen patients received aprotinin 2 x 10(6) KIU (loading dose), 2 x 10(6) KIU (added to circuit prime) and a continuous infusion of 5 x 10(5) KIU.hr(-1). (lenus.ie)
  • We performed this study to see if the determination of ACT and TEG can provide a basis for the assessment of coagulation and the prediction of postoperative hemorrhage in cardiac surgical patients treated with aprotinin. (ekja.org)
  • The results indicate that neither ACT nor TEG predict the amount of postperative hemorrhage in aprotinin-treated patients having cardiac surgery. (ekja.org)
  • Airway NO was measured during CPB in 10 patients receiving aprotinin and in 10 control subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Exactly how aprotinin and the other serine proteases mediate antiinflammatory effects is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aprotinin dose-dependently inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not E-selectin. (apexbt.com)
  • RESULTS: Therapeutic concentrations of aprotinin dose-dependently inhibited plasmin's proteolytic activity, stimulated osteoblast proliferation, and inhibited osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although aprotinin is partially excreted unchanged in the urine, its primary site of metabolism is in the renal lysosomes following proximal tubule resorption. (ebscohost.com)
  • Recently reported renal and neurological complications with aprotinin use during CPB may reflect excessive dosing and point to the need for real-time monitoring. (ebscohost.com)
  • A recent highly publicized report in the New England Journal of Medicine implicated Aprotinin as an independent causal factor for postoperative renal failure, but ignored the potential confounding affect of tPRBC on RF. (ahajournals.org)
  • Notwithstanding recent debate over its use sparked by 2 recent articles reporting an association with renal failure and other complications, 2,3 aprotinin has found widespread use in cardiac surgery for its benefits in reducing perioperative bleeding, 4 myocardial ischemia, 5 and cerebral events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aprotinin Use and Renal Outcome in Hypothermic Bypass and Circulatory Arrest for Surgical Repair of Thoracic Aorta. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • That is, aprotinin competes with creatinine for elimination by the kidneys such that the apparent renal dysfunction is transient and a false marker of renal injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Under the conditions described, aprotinin use does not appear to be associated with a significant risk of serious renal toxicity. (elsevier.com)
  • The adjudication of death did not identify renal failure as contributing to or causing death associated with aprotinin use. (apexbt.com)
  • A Meta analysis by Brown and colleagues showed a nonsignificant relative risk of renal failure with high-dose aprotinin 4 . (apexbt.com)
  • In vitro , a murine bronchial epithelial cell line (LA-4) was cultured with cytomix (a combination of tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and (γ-interferon) with and without aprotinin in increasing concentrations. (portlandpress.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: As the direct effect of antifibrinolytics on bone formation is unknown, we examined whether antifibrinolytics routinely used in spine surgery, namely, aprotinin and aminocaproic acid, affect osteoblast function in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Unlike aprotinin, at high doses, their anti-inflammatory properties allow for the improvement in the recovery of contractility in the left ventricle after ischemic conditions, and increase the protection of the myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40). Bypass conditions affect plasma aprotinin concentration. (ebscohost.com)
  • 2010 Young Investigator Award winner: Therapeutic aprotinin stimulates osteoblast proliferation but inhibits differentiation and bone matrix mineralization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Osteoblast progenitor cells were cultured with therapeutic doses of aprotinin and aminocaproic acid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Conversely, aminocaproic acid inhibited plasmin's proteolytic activity significantly less than aprotinin and had no effect on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, or matrix mineralization in its therapeutic range. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our data support routine use of ultra low dose aprotinin in "high risk" two-valve replacement surgery to reduce postoperative blood loss and to decrease the number of blood or blood product transfusions. (lww.com)
  • 1-4 The possibility of death and/or serious morbidity in the postoperative period from vascular thrombosis associated with aprotinin has recently been raised. (asahq.org)
  • It is well established that aprotinin has beneficial influence on postoperative blood loss during cardiac surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High-dose aprotinin treatment caused significantly less SIRS and reduced postoperative blood loss after CPB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other side effects for aprotinin in relation to placebo therapy have included fever (15% vs. 14%), infection (6% vs. 7%), and chest pain (2% each). (drugs.com)
  • Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of an ultra low dose aprotinin regimen in reoperative and/or complex cardiac operations. (lww.com)
  • Anesthesia Central , anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109359/all/aprotinin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In platelets, aprotinin reduces glycoprotein loss (e.g. (drugbank.ca)
  • Aprotinin infusion was terminated at the end of CPB and stopped during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). (ebscohost.com)
  • Aprotinin at a dose of 1.5 mg kg -1 (bolus) and 3 mg kg -1 h -1 infusion (maintenance infusion) causes a tendency towards a reduction in bleeding time. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Aprotinin market. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In this report, the global Aprotinin market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (comunicati.net)
  • We investigated the association between perioperative aprotinin administration and short-term (in-hospital) and long-term outcomes by performing a post hoc analysis of the ART. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 0.05) but not in the aprotinin group (21 ± 6 versus 15 ± 3 parts per billion). (elsevier.com)
  • 3. In volume-expanded rats aprotinin significantly reduced GFR, hippuran clearance, urine volume ( V ) U Na V, U K V and C water /GFR without effect on systemic arterial pressure. (portlandpress.com)