A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.
The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).
Surgery performed on the heart.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/706)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Activation of Xenopus eggs by proteases: possible involvement of a sperm protease in fertilization. (2/706)

Egg activation in cross-fertilization between Xenopus eggs and Cynops sperm may be caused by a protease activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA in the sperm acrosome. To determine the role of the sperm protease in fertilization, the protease was purified from Cynops sperm using several chromatographic techniques. We found that purified sperm protease readily hydrolyzes Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, that protease activity was inhibited by the trypsin inhibitors aprotinin and leupeptin, and that not only the purified protease, but also cathepsin B, induces activation in Xenopus eggs. We inseminated unfertilized Xenopus eggs with homologous sperm in the presence of various peptidyl MCA substrates or protease inhibitors and demonstrated that trypsin inhibitors or MCA substrates containing Arg-Arg-MCA reversibly inhibited fertilization of both fully jellied and denuded eggs. Sperm motility was not affected by the reagents. An extract obtained from Xenopus sperm showed hydrolytic activity against Boc-Gly-Arg-Arg-MCA, Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, and Arg-MCA. These results suggest that the tryptic protease in Xenopus sperm is involved in fertilization, most likely by participating in egg activation.  (+info)

Allosteric modulation of BPTI interaction with human alpha- and zeta-thrombin. (3/706)

In this study, thrombin interaction with the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was investigated in the presence of different allosteric modulators of thrombin, that is the C-terminal hirudin peptide 54-65 (Hir54-65), a recombinant thrombomodulin form (TMEGF4-6) and Na+. BPTI binding to alpha-thrombin is positively linked to Na+. Under low sodium concentration (5 mM Na+) the BPTI affinity for alpha-thrombin was roughly threefold lower than in the presence of 150 mM sodium (Ki = 320 microM vs. 100 microM). The hirudin fragment, which binds to the fibrinogen recognition site (FRS) of thrombin, induced a progressive and saturable decrease (3.6-fold) of alpha-thrombin affinity for BPTI, whereas the thrombomodulin peptide, which binds to a more extended region of FRS, caused a 5.5-fold increase of the enzyme affinity for the inhibitor. The opposite effect exerted by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 was also observed for BPTI interaction with zeta-thrombin, in which the amidic bond between W148 and T149 is cleaved. However, in this case the effect by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, although qualitatively similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin, had a smaller magnitude. Thrombin hydrolysis of Protein C was also differently affected by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 peptides. While the latter enhanced the Protein C activation, the former caused a reduction of both alpha- and zeta-thrombin kcat/K(m)' for Protein C cleavage. These results showed that (a) Na+ facilitates BPTI interaction with thrombin; (b) Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, though sharing in part the same binding site at the thrombin FRS, can affect in opposite way thrombin's interaction with BPTI and Protein C; (c) such findings along with the results obtained with zeta-thrombin might be explained by admitting that the thermodynamic linkage between FRS and the critical W60-loop is also controlled by ligation and/or conformational state of the W148 insertion loop.  (+info)

Strategy for balancing anticoagulation and hemostasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery: blood conservation and graft patency. (4/706)

The minimal effective dose of aprotinin on hemostasis under normothermic perfusion, the influence of anticoagulant therapy on graft patency, and the thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events were investigated after aortocoronary bypass graft operation (CABG). One hundred CABG patients under normothermic perfusion were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) coumadin plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (n=32); no aprotinin used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (2) minimal-dose, 10(6) KIU during CPB, aprotinin used, followed by ASA and coumadin (n=36); and (3) very low-dose, total of 2x10(6) KIU before CPB and during CPB; aprotinin used; anticoagulation therapy with heparin early after surgery and followed by replacement with ASA and coumadin (n=32). The patency of arterial grafts was 100% in all groups. The patency of vein grafts was 95-98% and there was no difference among the groups. The blood loss was significantly reduced in both aprotinin groups (groups 2 and 3) compared to the coumadin plus ASA group, although no difference existed between the 2 aprotinin groups. Postoperative thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were not observed in any group. From this study, it was concluded that 10(6) KIU aprotinin in pump-prime-only followed by oral ASA and coumadin was the recommendation from the benefit/cost consideration.  (+info)

Comparison of anionic and cationic trypsinogens: the anionic activation domain is more flexible in solution and differs in its mode of BPTI binding in the crystal structure. (5/706)

Unlike bovine cationic trypsin, rat anionic trypsin retains activity at high pH. This alkaline stability has been attributed to stabilization of the salt bridge between the N-terminal Ile16 and Asp194 by the surface negative charge (Soman K, Yang A-S, Honig B, Fletterick R., 1989, Biochemistry 28:9918-9926). The formation of this salt bridge controls the conformation of the activation domain in trypsin. In this work we probe the structure of rat trypsinogen to determine the effects of the surface negative charge on the activation domain in the absence of the Ile16-Asp194 salt bridge. We determined the crystal structures of the rat trypsin-BPTI complex and the rat trypsinogen-BPTI complex at 1.8 and 2.2 A, respectively. The BPTI complex of rat trypsinogen resembles that of rat trypsin. Surprisingly, the side chain of Ile16 is found in a similar position in both the rat trypsin and trypsinogen complexes, although it is not the N-terminal residue and cannot form the salt bridge in trypsinogen. The resulting position of the activation peptide alters the conformation of the adjacent autolysis loop (residues 142-153). While bovine trypsinogen and trypsin have similar CD spectra, the CD spectrum of rat trypsinogen has only 60% of the intensity of rat trypsin. This lower intensity most likely results from increased flexibility around two conserved tryptophans, which are adjacent to the activation domain. The NMR spectrum of rat trypsinogen contains high field methyl signals as observed in bovine trypsinogen. It is concluded that the activation domain of rat trypsinogen is more flexible than that of bovine trypsinogen, but does not extend further into the protein core.  (+info)

Effect of glycerol on the interactions and solubility of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (6/706)

The effects of additives used to stabilize protein structure during crystallization on protein solution phase behavior are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effect of glycerol and ionic strength on the solubility and strength of interactions of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. These two variables are found to have opposite effects on the intermolecular forces; attractions increase with [NaCl], whereas repulsions increase with glycerol concentration. These changes are mirrored in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor solubility where the typical salting out behavior for NaCl is observed with higher solubility found in buffers containing glycerol. The increased repulsions induced by glycerol can be explained by a number of possible mechanisms, all of which require small changes in the protein or the solvent in its immediate vicinity. Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor follows the same general phase behavior as other globular macromolecules where a robust correlation between protein solution second virial coefficient and solubility has been developed. This study extends previous reports of this correlation to solution conditions involving nonelectrolyte additives.  (+info)

Hydroiodic acid attachment kinetics as a chemical probe of gaseous protein ion structure: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (7/706)

The kinetics of attachment of hydroiodic acid (HI) to the (M + 6H)6+ ions of native and reduced forms of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in the quadrupole ion trap environment are reported. Distinctly nonlinear (pseudo first-order) reaction kinetics are observed for reaction of the native ions, indicating two or more noninterconverting structures in the parent ion population. The reduced form, on the other hand, shows very nearly linear reaction kinetics. Both forms of the parent ion attach a maximum of five molecules of hydroiodic acid. This number is expected based on the amino acid composition of the protein. There is a total of 11 strongly basic sites in the protein (i.e., six arginines, four lysines, and one N-terminus). An ion with protons occupying six of the basic sites has five available for hydroiodic acid attachment. The kinetics of successive attachment of HI to the native and reduced forms of BPTI also differ, particularly for the addition of the fourth and fifth HI molecules. A very simple kinetic model describes the behavior of the reduced form reasonably well, suggesting that all of the neutral basic sites in the reduced BPTI ions have roughly equal reactivity. However, the behavior of the native ion is not well-described by this simple model. The results are discussed within the context of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the ions that result from the presence or absence of the three disulfide linkages found in native BPTI. The HI reaction kinetics appears to have potential as a chemical probe of protein ion three-dimensional structure in the gas phase. Hydroiodic acid attachment chemistry is significantly different from other chemistries used to probe three-dimensional structure and hence, promises to yield complementary information.  (+info)

Urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a platelet receptor important for kinetics and TNF-induced endothelial adhesion in mice. (8/706)

BACKGROUND: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a widely distributed 55-kD, glycoprotein I-anchored surface receptor. On binding of its ligand uPA, it is known to increase leukocyte adhesion and traffic. Using genetically deficient mice, we explored the role of uPAR in platelet kinetics and TNF-induced platelet consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-uPAR antibody stained platelets from normal (+/+) but not from uPAR-/- mice, as seen by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. 51Cr-labeled platelets from uPAR-/- donors survived longer than those from +/+ donors when injected into a +/+ recipient. Intratracheal TNF injection induced thrombocytopenia and a platelet pulmonary localization, pronounced in +/+ but absent in uPAR-/- mice. Aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, decreased TNF-induced thrombocytopenia. TNF injection markedly reduced the survival and increased the pulmonary localization of 51Cr-labeled platelets from +/+ but not from uPAR-/- donors, indicating that it is the platelet uPAR that is critical for their response to TNF. As seen by electron microscopy, TNF injection increased the number of platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the alveolar capillaries of +/+ mice, whereas in uPAR-/- mice, platelet trapping was insignificant and PMN trapping was slightly reduced. Platelets within alveolar capillaries of TNF-injected mice were activated, as judged from their shape, and this was evident in +/+ but not in uPAR-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time the critical role of platelet uPAR for kinetics as well as for activation and endothelium adhesion associated with inflammation.  (+info)

UPDATE 5/14/2008]: Following publication of the Blood conservation using antifibrinolytics: A randomized trial in a cardiac surgery population (BART) study in the May 14, 2008 online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, Bayer Pharmaceuticals, the manufacturer of Trasylol (aprotinin), notified the FDA of their intent to remove all remaining supplies of Trasylol from hospital pharmacies and warehouses. [See FDA Statement]. Because Trasylol has been shown to decrease the need for red blood cell transfusions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, future supplies of Trasylol will continue to be available through the company as an investigational drug under a special treatment protocol. In November 2007, Bayer suspended the marketing of this drug until final results of the BART study became available. The BART study showed an increase in the risk of death with Trasylol compared with aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, consistent with findings from other recent studies. FDA ...
en] BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial examined the effects of both heparin-coated circuits and aprotinin on the inflammatory processes during CPB, with respect to cytokine release and neutrophil activation. METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized in four groups of 50 patients each: heparin-coated circuit with aprotinin (HCO-A) or without aprotinin (HCO) administration, and uncoated circuit with aprotinin (C-A) or without aprotinin administration (C). In groups receiving aprotinin, a high-dose regimen was given. In all groups, high initial doses of heparin were used (3 mg/kg intravenously). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, and myeloperoxidase and elastase levels were measured in plasma samples taken before, during, and after CPB. RESULTS: In all groups, the ...
Trasylol is a clotting drug usually given to patients after cardiac surgery. Two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine strongly suggest that Trasylol is dangerous. The first study looked at 10,000 patients who underwent bypasses at Duke University Medical Center from 1996 through 2005. It found that 6.4 percent of patients who were given Trasylol died within 30 days of the surgery, a rate nearly 2.5 times higher than patients who received a different drug, or who received no treatment for bleeding. The second study, financed by Bayer, looked at about 78,000 patients nationwide from 2003 to 2006. Researchers found that the risk of death was 64 percent higher in the Trasylol group than in those taking another medication. If you were given Trasylol during or after surgery and suffered kidney failure, or a family member was given Trasylol after surgery and then passed away unexpectedly, please contact us.. ...
Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is a 58-residue basic peptide that is a representative member of a widely distributed class of serine protease inhibitors known as Kunitz inhibitors. BPTI is also homologous to dendrotoxin peptides from mamba snake venom that have been characterized as inhibitors of various types of voltage-dependent K+ channels. In this study we compared the effect of DTX-I, a dendrotoxin peptide, and BPTI on large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels from rat skeletal muscle using planar bilayer methodology. As previously found for DTX-I (1990. Neuron. 2:141-148), BPTI induces the appearance of distinct subconductance events when present on the internal side of maxi K(Ca) channels. The single channel kinetics of substate formation follow the predictions of reversible binding of the peptide to a single site or class of sites with a Kd of 4.6 microM at 0 mV and 50 mM symmetrical KCl. The apparent association rate of BPTI binding decreases approximately 1,000-fold ...
The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use was to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; this was confirmed by follow-up studies. Trasylol sales were suspended in May 2008, except for very restricted research ...
The present study demonstrates the cardioprotective qualities of aprotinin. The mechanisms of these effects are likely to include reduced protease induced expression of stored proteins such as P-selectin. In addition, this study provides novel evidence that aprotinin reduces inflammatory gene expression and hence de novo inflammatory protein synthesis. These effects of aprotinin on myocardial protein expression are also associated with a profound reduction of leukocyte accumulation, myocardial necrosis and myocardial apoptosis.. The timing of aprotinin administration is important because myocardial injury and leukocyte accumulation were substantially greater when administration was delayed until after reperfusion. This finding lends weight to the notion that the earliest stages of tissue injury involve the expression of proimflammatory mediators whose release is activated by the action of triggering proteases17 such as complement, coagulation factors (eg, thrombin and plasmin) and kinins. The ...
Trasylol injection/infusion contains the active ingredient aprotinin. (NB. Aprotinin is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.)
Aprotinin, also known as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI (Trasylol, Bayer) is a protein, that is used as medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use is to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; after this was confirmed by follow-up studies, Trasylol was entirely and permanently withdrawn in May 2008, except - at least for the time being - for very restricted research use. [Wikipedia]
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Trasylol, or an aprotinin injection, is used to minimize blood loss during heart surgery. It is a protein that, when injected into the patient, slows down blood clotting processes, reducing the need for blood transfusions during complicated heart and liver surgeries. When used properly, it can decrease the chances of organ damage likely to result from low blood pressure. The uses of Trasylol, however, far surpass surgical purposes. It is also used in blood transfusions for patients who are undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, slows down multiple intermediaries of inflammation, holds back proinflammatory cytokine release, which reduces complement activation, defective thrombin and plasmin-induced platelets. The stabilization of the platelet membranes and preservation of their functions rounds out the uses of this drug. Bayer Pharmaceuticals manufactured the product for those patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting to block the enzymes that dissolve blood clots.. In January of 2006, a ...
1. A. Mayer, G. Wagner, H. Uebelhack, H. Formanek, F. Parak, P. Schlecht and H. Eicher: Mössbauer studies on the electronic structure of ferrous iron in hemoglobin. Proc. of the 1st European Congress on Biophysics. Baden, Austria, Vol. VI, Y14 D9 (1971) (Abstract).. 2. A. Bundi, C. Grathwohl, J. Hochmann, R.M. Keller, G. Wagner and K. Wüthrich: Proton NMR of the Protected Tetrapeptides TFA-Gly-Gly-L-Ala-O-CH3, where X stands for one of the 20 common amino acids. J. Magn. Reson. 18, 191 (1975).. 3. K. Wüthrich and G. Wagner: NMR investigations of the dynamics of the aromatic amino acid residues in the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. FEBS Lett. 50, 265-268 (1975).. 4. K. Wüthrich, J. Hochmann, R.M. Keller, G. Wagner, M. Brunori and G. Giacometti: 1H NMR relaxation in high spin ferrous hemoproteins. J. Magn. Reson. 19, 111 (1975).. 5. G. Wagner and K. Wüthrich: Proton NMR studies of the aromatic residues in the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). J. Magn. Reson. 20, 435 ...
The serine esterase TL2 from human T4(+) lymphocytes is a binding component to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 and seems to play a role in the HIV-1 infection mechanism. Recombinant variants of the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor aprotinin were investigated for their ability to inhibit tryptase TL2 and the binding of gp120 to this enzyme, Furthermore, the viral replication of HIV-1 was investigated in H9 cell cultures under the influence of recombinant aprotinin and bikunin variants. In contrast to native aprotinin, the recombinant variant [Arg(15), Phe(17), Glu(52)]aprotinin with a reactive-site sequence homologous to the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120 showed a specific inhibition of tryptase TL2 (>80%). However, the [Leu(15), Phe(17), Glu(52)]aprotinin variant with hydrophobic subsites was the most potent inhibitor of the binding of gp120 to tryptase TL2 (68%). Our results show that the enzyme activity of purified tryptase TL2 is inhibited not only by variants with basic amino acids, but also those ...
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To the Editor:. I read with great interest the excellent article by Furnary and colleagues1 detailing an analysis of aprotinin and acute dialysis-dependent renal failure in cardiac surgery patients. Their multivariate analysis has demonstrated that increasing perioperative red blood cell transfusion, rather than aprotinin, is an independent risk factor for acute renal failure after cardiac surgery.. The data analysis as presented, however, does not account for angiotensin blockade in the presence of aprotinin, a described significant risk factor for perioperative renal injury.2 Consequently, if a significant percentage of the aprotinin cohort were exposed to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, it might confound the results of the multivariate analysis. If the data for this variable are readily available, it would be interesting see if this potential confounder could have had any significant statistical effect.. Furthermore, the authors state in their discussion that meta-analysis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aprotinin for coronary bypass operations. T2 - Efficacy, safety, and influence on early saphenous vein graft patency: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. AU - Lemmer, John H.. AU - Stanford, William. AU - Bonney, Sharon L.. AU - Breen, Jerome F.. AU - Chomka, Eva V.. AU - Eldredge, W. Jay. AU - Holt, William W.. AU - Karp, Robert B.. AU - Laub, Glenn W.. AU - Lipton, Martin J.. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V.. AU - Tatooles, Constantine J.. AU - Rumberger, John A.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aprotinin in a U.S. population of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Early vein graft patency rates were assessed by ultrafast computed tomography. A total of 216 patients at five centers were randomized to receive either high-dose aprotinin or placebo during the operation; 151 patients underwent primary operation, and 65 underwent repeat procedures. Total blood product ...
Recent studies of the tick saliva transcriptome have revealed the profound role of salivary proteins in blood feeding. Kunitz/BPTI proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, such as inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. However, Kunitz/BPTI proteins in soft and hard ticks have different functions and molecular mechanisms. How these differences emerged and whether they are associated with the evolution of long-term blood feeding in hard ticks remain unknown. In this study, the evolution, expansion and expression of Kunitz/BPTI family in Ixodes scapularis were investigated. Single- and multi-domain Kunitz/BPTI proteins have similar gene structures. Single-domain proteins were classified into three groups (groups I, II and III) based on their cysteine patterns. Group I represents the ancestral branch of the Kunitz/BPTI family, and members of this group function as serine protease inhibitors.
Significance:. Complex surgery of the ascending thoracic aorta and the aortic arch requires use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with moderate or profound total body hypothermia and circulatory arrest. As expected, coagulation disorder can be common and severe requiring multiple transfusions of blood product, which, in turn, is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Over the years, many techniques have been employed to ameliorate CPB- related bleeding with some agents such as aprotinin proving to be efficacious but centered in controversy either because of high cost or due to safety concerns.. Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor, intended to limit blood loss in patients undergoing surgery, was approved for use 13 years ago, and now administered in more than 250,000 surgery patients per year. Although its mechanism of action is not entirely known, it is shown to interfere with contact activation, preserve platelet function, inhibit fibrinolysis, and having some ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1BTI: Crevice-forming mutants in the rigid core of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor: crystal structures of F22A, Y23A, N43G, and F45A.
In contrast to molecular chaperones that couple protein folding to ATP hydrolysis, protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI) catalyzes protein folding coupled to formation of disulfide bonds (oxidative folding). However, we do not know how PDI distinguishes folded, partly-folded and unfolded protein substrates. As a model intermediate in an oxidative folding pathway, we prepared a two-disulfide mutant of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and showed by NMR that it is partly-folded and highly dynamic. NMR studies show that it binds to PDI at the same site that binds peptide ligands, with rapid binding and dissociation kinetics; surface plasmon resonance shows its interaction with PDI has a Kd of ca. 10−5 M. For comparison, we characterized the interactions of PDI with native BPTI and fully-unfolded BPTI. Interestingly, PDI does bind native BPTI, but binding is quantitatively weaker than with partly-folded and unfolded BPTI. Hence PDI recognizes and binds substrates via permanently or transiently
A new Trasylol study is shedding more light on possible reasons behind the drug’s higher-than normal death rate. According to British researchers, while use of the clotting drug aprotininâ€known as Trasylolâ€appears safe during on-pump cardiac surgeries, it appears that combining it with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorsâ€or ACE inhibitorsâ€during off-pump cardiac surgeries shows a significant risk of post-operative kidney dysfunction. Researchers analyzed 9,875 cardiac surgery patients, most of who (5,434) had on-pump cardiac surgery, meaning their hearts were stopped and they were hooked up to a heart-bypass machine during surgery. The other patients had off-pump cardiac surgery, in which surgeons operated on their beating hearts.. Trasylol is used to reduce perioperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in those patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass graft ...
PONTES, José Carlos D. V. et al. Comparative study of low-dose aprotinin x placebo during cardiopulmonary bypass. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc [online]. 2002, vol.17, n.1, pp.47-53. ISSN 0102-7638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382002000100008.. BACKGROUND: The use of aprotinin, a antifibrinolytic agent, has been shown to decrease damaging effects on cardiopulmonary bypass in fibrinolytic system, which may improve hemostasis. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of low dose aprotinin in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. METHOD: Seventeen patients, underwent cardiopulmonary bypass to mitral valve replacement, was ramdomized in two groups: I (control) ¾ 9 patients received placebo after anesthesia induction and each hour in the priming; II (aprotinin) ¾ 8 patients received after anesthesia induction 30,000 KIU/kg and 7.500 KIU/kg each hour in the priming during the perfusion. The blood loss was observed through the first 24 hours postoperatively. Arterial blood samples were taken after ...
Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss in difficult cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and more recently in liver transplantation. Over a 9-month period were compared the...
Aprotinin (Trasylol) caused twice as many deaths as two otherantifibrinolytics, despite a modest reduction in the risk of bleeding,according to a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. A co-author of the study told Cardiovascular Business News that the risks of the drug could have been known a decade ago.
Furthermore, The researchers also found that cheaper alternatives ($10 to $50 per patient) to Trasylol ($1000 per patient) were just as effective in limiting blood loss. The New York Times wrote, The [New England Journal of Medicine] article said that halting aprotinin use globally would prevent 10,000 to 11,000 cases of kidney failure a year and save more than $1 billion a year in dialysis costs as well as nearly $250 million spent on the drug itself. In addition, The study is significant because it was conducted without drug-industry funding at 69 medical centers, including many of the top U.S. hospitals. Naturally, Bayer, the manufacturer of Trasylol, a drug which in the first nine months [of 2005] had a world-wide sales of just less than $200 million and is used in 150,000 patients in the U.S., believes that Trasylol is a safe and effective treatment. Though the study was large, Bayer points out that it was observational and not a randomized trial. According to the New York ...
Background Aprotinin causes a prolongation of the celite-activated clotting time (CACT), but not of the kaolin-activated clotting time (KACT). Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the reliability of CACT to monitor anticoagulation in the presence of aprotinin. The current study was designed to test the efficacy of aprotinin to improve anticoagulation, and to investigate whether the prolongation of CACT reflects true anticoagulation or is an in vitro artifact. To elucidate this antithrombotic effect of aprotinin, this study was done in patients prone to reduced intraoperative heparin sensitivity. Methods In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 30 male patients scheduled for elective primary coronary revascularization and treated with heparin for at least 10 days preoperatively, received either high-dose aprotinin (group A) or placebo (group C). The CACT and KACT were determined, but only CACT was used to control anticoagulation with heparin. Parameters of coagulation ...
Research being published in the New England Journal of Medicine today concluded that use of Bayers Trasylol (aprontin), a standard treatment to limit blood loss during heart surgeries, were at an increased risk of kidney failure, heart attacks and strokes, compared with patients taking alternative drugs, aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, or no drugs at all.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, , , , New York, New York, November 6, 2007: In the wake of Bayer s announcement yesterday that it was pulling its controversial heart surgery drug Trasylol from the market after a...
Bayer pulled Trasylol, a drug used to limit bleeding in heart surgery, off the market in January 2008 after it was discovered that it may be linked to over 20,000 deaths over the past few years. We asked Frank Woodson, an Alabama attorney whose firm repr
The crystal structures of the inhibitor domain of Alzheimers amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) complexed to bovine chymotrypsin (C-APPI) and trypsin (T-APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) bound to chymotrypsin (C-BPTI) have been solved and analyzed at 2.1 A, 1.8 A, and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. APPI and BPTI belong to the Kunitz family of inhibitors, which is characterized by a distinctive tertiary fold with three conserved disulfide bonds. At the specificity-determining site of these inhibitors (P1), residue 15(I)4 is an arginine in APPI and a lysine in BPTI, residue types that are counter to the chymotryptic hydrophobic specificity. In the chymotrypsin complexes, the Arg and Lys P1 side chains of the inhibitors adopt conformations that bend away from the bottom of the binding pocket to interact productively with elements of the binding pocket other than those observed for specificity-matched P1 side chains. The stereochemistry of the nucleophilic hydroxyl of Ser 195 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Aprotinin and hemostasis in cardiopulmonary bypass. AU - Wildevuur, Ch.R.H.. AU - Eijsman, L.. AU - Hemker, H.C.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. M3 - Chapter. SN - 1560531517. SP - 1. EP - 11. BT - Blood Conversation with Aprotinin. A2 - Pifarre, Roque. PB - Hanley and Belfus Inc.. CY - Philadelphia. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leukocyte filtration and aprotinin. T2 - Synergistic anti-inflammatory protection. AU - Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H.. AU - Wallace, Neil. AU - Ford, Sheila. AU - Mallet, Robert T.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Cardiopulmonary bypass activates an array of cellular and humoral inflammatory mechanisms that culminate in diverse or organ-specific injury. A manifestation of inflammatory injury to the heart, atrial fibrillation ranks among the most frequent and potentially life-threatening postsurgical complications. Pulmonary manifestations of the inflammatory response are also of major concern. Neutrophils activated by passage through the extracorporeal circuit inflict local injury and provoke the inflammatory cascade by producing oxyradicals and proinflammatory factors. This study tested if a combination of leukocyte depletion and aprotinin suppression of neutrophils could minimize postbypass atrial fibrillation and pulmonary dysfunction. In part one, two randomized groups of 90 ...
The new observational study of 3876 patients from 62 medical centers was conducted between November 11, 1996, and December 7, 2006. Survival rates were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and annually for 5 years after CABG surgery. The results were rather alarming: During the five-year examination period, 223 deaths occurred among 1072 aprotinin-treated patients, equal to 20.8 percent of the group. That death rate was nearly two-thirds greater than that of control patients (12.7 percent). After controlling for various patient factors, the results showed that Trasylol patients faced a 48 percent greater risk of death within a five-year period than those not using any medication.. Patients treated with aminocaproic acid had a death rate of 15.8 percent and those treated with tranexamic acid patients had a death rate of 14.7 percent, meaning either of these two alternative therapies carries with it a significantly lower mortality risk than aprotinin. Significantly, the authors noted that ...
[139 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Global Aprotinin Sales Market Report 2016 is a professional and...
New York Times article about Bayer AGs decision to stop selling aprotinin (Trasylol) after a study suggested that it increases death rates. (November 06, 2007) ...
TAP is a reversible, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of solution-phase Xa with a Ki of 0.18 nM.34 Assembly of Xa into the prothrombinase (Va/Xa) complex on an anionic membrane surface results in a 30-fold enhanced binding of TAP (Ki = 5.3 pM) and a modest 3-fold increase in the rate of inhibition.50 Despite an extremely high affinity for prothrombinase, TAP possesses only moderate anticoagulant activities in both TF-initiated coagulation and aPTT assays (Table 2 and Figure 4). The modest anticoagulant activity of TAP was thought to be due to its relatively slow rate of prothrombinase inhibition.51 The aprotinin mutant 6L15 binds membrane-associated TF/VIIa with very high affinity (Ki = 0.2 nM),27 yet, consistent with a previous report,52 it is a very poor inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation (Table 2). In comparison, TAP-ANV and ANV-6L15 are close to 2 and 3 orders of magnitude, respectively, more potent than their Kunitz domains alone in TF-initiated plasma clotting. The greatly enhanced ...
REFINED 2.5 ANGSTROMS X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX FORMED BY PORCINE KALLIKREIN A AND THE BOVINE PANCREATIC TRYPSIN INHIBITOR. CRYSTALLIZATION, PATTERSON SEARCH, STRUCTURE DETERMINATION, REFINEMENT, STRUCTURE AND COMPARISON WITH ITS COMPONENTS AND WITH THE BOVINE TRYPSIN-PANCREATIC TRYPSIN INHIBITOR COMPLEX ...
The high-resolution X-ray structures have been determined for ten complexes formed between bovine beta-trypsin and P1 variants (Gly, Asp, Glu, Gln, Thr, Met, Lys, His, Phe, Trp) of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). All the complexes were crystallised from the same conditions. The structures of the P1 variants Asp, Glu, Gln and Thr, are reported here for the first time in complex with any serine proteinase. The resolution of the structures ranged from 1.75 to 2.05 A and the R-factors were about 19-20 %. The association constants of the mutants ranged from 1.5x10(4) to 1.7x10(13) M-1. All the structures could be fitted into well-defined electron density, and all had very similar global conformations. All the P1 mutant side-chains could be accomodated at the primary binding site, but relative to the P1 Lys, there were small local changes within the P1-S1 interaction site. These comprised: (1) changes in the number and dynamics of water molecules inside the pocket; (2) multiple ...
The most important processes in a cell are regulated by proteins essentially, by interacting with other proteins or other molecules. Protein dynamic plays an important part in various disciplines like biology, chemistry, synthesis, computational modeling. It includes processes from fast movements that may cause protein collapse due to high friction, but such challenges can be tackled with molecular simulations and dynamics... As per the history, the first molecular dynamics simulation (1950s) was performed to study the interactions of hard spheres, followed by various dynamic simulations including the one on a realistic system. The first simulation on protein (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor) was done in 1977 and then the advancements are never ending.. Molecular dynamics open up the information on fluctuations, conformational changes of proteins (folding) and Nucleic Acid, thermodynamics of biological molecules and complexes along with examination of structural stability of proteins, DNA, ...
(2002) Hayward, Smith. Biophysical Journal. The temperature dependence of the internal dynamics of an isolated protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, is examined using normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the protein exhibits marked anharmonic dynam...
Unfortunately, dialysis does not cure kidney failure. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are treatments that help replace the work your kidneys did. These treatments help you feel better and live longer. Although patients with kidney failure are now living longer than ever, over the years kidney disease can cause problems such as heart disease, bone disease, arthritis, nerve damage, infertility, and malnutri- tion. These problems wont go away with dialysis. Guide to Causes of Renal Failure and Strokes Following Coronary Surgery by Anapol Schwartz Law Firm. 2007 All Rights Reserved. Anapol Schwartz Attorneys at Law WHAT ARE IF YOUR KIDNEY FAILURE IS CAUSED BY TRASYLOL (APROTININ)? If you or a loved one has kidney failure as the result of being injected with Trasylol during cardiac bypass surgery, you may want to contact your options. According to an independent study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine over 11,000 cases of dialysis complications occurred after being injected with ...
Information on drugs commonly used to treat cardiac operation : aprotinin vs. heparin sodium. Compare user review scores, and side effect occurrence rates for similar drugs side-by-side.
Aprotinin Bovine Recombinant is approximately 6,512 Dalton highly purified and designed specifically for cell culture applications, protein purification, diagnostic testing and pharmaceuticals. It is produced without the use of animal- or human-derived materials and is therefore free from risk of contaminating human or animal-derived viruses or prions. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of aprotinin. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Nephrology Now is an editorially independent and free service to help you stay up to date with new developments in Nephrology ...
Journal Article: Sequence and Conformational Specificity in Substrate Recognition Several Human Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Domains are Specific Substrates of Mesotrypsin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aprotinin for coronary artery bypass grafting. T2 - Effect on postoperative renal function. AU - Lemmer, John H.. AU - Stanford, William. AU - Bonney, Sharon L.. AU - Chomka, Eva V.. AU - Karp, Robert B.. AU - Laub, Glenn W.. AU - Rumberger, John A.. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Two hundred sixteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft procedures were randomized to receive either high-dose aprotinin or placebo. Clinically important postoperative renal insufficiency was infrequent, with a single patient (0.9%) from each group requiring dialysis. Although increases in the serum creatinine level occurred postoperatively in more patients who received aprotinin (20/108) than in those given placebo (13/108), the difference between the two group was not statistically significant (p = 0.186), and the increases were generally small and transient. Likewise, there was no difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of abnormal serum electrolyte ...
Despite the approval for limited use, Trasylol has been used off-label with many patients undergoing other types of surgery. In fact, the rate of off-label use far exceeds the rate of on-label use. The FDAs Adverse Event Reporting System shows that the majority of adverse events reported, or about 75%, occurred in patients who received Trasylol for an unapproved use, with heart valve replacement being the most frequent ...
Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins PDF By author Keith Leonard March last download was at 2017-03-04 43:48:17. This book is good alternative for Electrostatic Hazards in the Petroleum Industry. Download now for free or you can read online Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins book ...
Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins PDF By author Keith Leonard March last download was at 2017-08-17 36:49:17. This book is good alternative for Electrostatic Hazards in the Petroleum Industry. Download now for free or you can read online Electrostatic Interactions and Ion Binding in Trypsin, Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor, and Other Proteins book ...
Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy is used for in situ monitoring of supersaturation during the hanging-drop crystallization of aprotinin. Schwartz and Berglund (1999) previously demonstrated this technique for lysozyme crystallization and showed it combines two critical elements for protein crystallization studies: real-time monitoring/ control of supersaturation and small amounts of sample. Experiments were carried out using 10 muL of protein solution. A partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration based on Raman spectra of standard solutions allowed an accurate measurement of aprotinin in a range of 2-100 mg/mL with a standard error of 0.54 mg/mL determined by a leave-one-out cross validation. A 10x microscope attached to a Raman fiber optic probe allowed the monitoring of the hanging-drop liquid phase in a noninvasive and real-time mode. Aprotinin solubility determined by measuring the protein concentration of drop solution at equilibrium decreased with increase in NaCl concentration. By continuously ...
Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy is used for in situ monitoring of supersaturation during the hanging-drop crystallization of aprotinin. Schwartz and Berglund (1999) previously demonstrated this technique for lysozyme crystallization and showed it combines two critical elements for protein crystallization studies: real-time monitoring/ control of supersaturation and small amounts of sample. Experiments were carried out using 10 muL of protein solution. A partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration based on Raman spectra of standard solutions allowed an accurate measurement of aprotinin in a range of 2-100 mg/mL with a standard error of 0.54 mg/mL determined by a leave-one-out cross validation. A 10x microscope attached to a Raman fiber optic probe allowed the monitoring of the hanging-drop liquid phase in a noninvasive and real-time mode. Aprotinin solubility determined by measuring the protein concentration of drop solution at equilibrium decreased with increase in NaCl concentration. By continuously ...
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the late distal aldosterone-sensitive tubule and is of essential importance for the sodium homeostasis. Among the various regulatory mechanisms of ENaC, activation after proteolytic cleavage by intra- and extracellular serine proteases is a specific feature of ENaC. Nephrotic syndrome leads to sodium retention and edema formation and is mediated by increased ENaC activity due to aberrantly filtered serine proteases from the plasma which activate ENaC by proteolysis. The relevance of this mechanism was demonstrated in vivo by the applicant whereby the unselective serine protease inhibitor aprotinin protected nephrotic mice from sodium retention and edema formation. Since this pivotal finding, the applicant´s group - supported by DFG grants AR 1092/1 and AR 1092/2 - focuses on the identification of the essential serine protease(s) from urine samples of mice and humans that might be involved in proteolytic ENaC activation. Using a proteomic ...
Have you been exposed to the drug Trasylol during a bypass surgery? You may be eligible for compensation. Contact Phillips Law Group today.
The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI
The single-parameter Gamma matrix of force constants proposed by the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) is iteratively modified to yield native state fluctuations that agree exactly with experimentally observed values. The resulting optimized Gamma matrix contains residue-specific force constants that may be used for an accurate analysis of ligand binding to single or multiple sites on proteins. Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) is used as an example. The calculated off-diagonal elements of the Gamma matrix, i.e., the optimized spring constants, obey a Lorentzian distribution. The mean value of the spring constants is approximately -0.1, a value much weaker than -1 of the GNM. Few of the spring constants are positive, indicating repulsion between residues. Residue pairs with large number of neighbors have spring constants around the mean, -0.1. Large negative spring constants are between highly correlated pairs of residues. The fluctuations of the distance between anticorrelated pairs of residues are
A radiolabeled human neutrophil elastase inhibitor (EPI-HNE-2) may represent an improved nuclear medicine imaging agent for inflammation and infection. This peptide displays rapid pharmacokinetics due to its low molecular weight and localizes specifically on neutrophil elastase released in inflammatory sites by activated neutrophils. METHODS: In this investigation, the peptide was radiolabeled with 99mTc using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycline (NHS-MAG3) as a bifunctional chelator and was administered on 18 occasions to 5 rhesus monkeys with inflammation/infection. RESULTS: Plasma clearance was rapid, with liver and kidneys representing the major organs of accumulation. No evidence of toxicity, dosage effects, or circulating antiMAG3-EPI-HNE-2 antibodies was observed. Specificity of localization was established using radiolabeled bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (a non-hNE-binding peptide of similar size) as a nonspecific negative control peptide and by predosing with unlabeled
Authors: van Mierlo, Carlo; Darby, Nigel; Keeler, James; Neuhaus, David; Creighton, Thomas. Citation: van Mierlo, Carlo; Darby, Nigel; Keeler, James; Neuhaus, David; Creighton, Thomas. Partially folded conformation of the (30-51) intermediate in the disulphide folding pathway of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. 1H and 15N resonance assignments and determination of backbone dynamics from 15N relaxation measurements. J. Mol. Biol. 229, 1125-1146 (1993).. Assembly members: ...
Schneeweiss, S., Seeger, J.D., Landon, J. and Walker, A.M. (2008) Aprotinin during Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting and Risk of Death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 771-783.
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Background: PYY is a gut hormone that physiologically inhibits appetite. Currently only radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques are available for its estimation. The aim of the study was to evaluate our in-house assay for precision, detection limit, interference of haemolysis, suitability of serum versus plasma and biological variation within one subject.. Method: All samples were obtained from one subject on two occasions following an over night fast and the consumption of 1000 and 3000 kcal meals on the respective days. Plasma was aliquoted in multiple samples. Coefficient of variation (CV) was measured at three concentrations (13.4, 16.4, 31.7pmol/L). The influence of haemolysis was evaluated by diluting severely haemolysed blood with non haemolysed blood obtained at the same venepuncture. All plasma samples were obtained in lithium heparin and trasylol tubes. Serum samples were obtained in a tube with trasylol and a clot activator. Carry over and the detection limit of the assay were also ...
BACKGROUND: It has been previously shown that donor treatment with aprotinin or inhaled nitric MK-2206 price oxide reduces reperfusion. injury after lung transplantation in animals. These studies used living donors with normal lungs. However, the main source of lungs for transplantation is brain-dead donors. Brain death causes systemic inflammatory response and lung injury, rendering the organ susceptible to reperfusion injury after transplantation. We hypothesized that treatment with aprotinin or inhaled nitric oxide after brain death would improve the donor inflammatory response and reduce lung reperfusion injury after transplantation.. METHODS: Brain death was induced in 24 rats by intracranial balloon inflation. Subsequently, the animals received intravenous aprotinin (n = 8), inhaled nitric oxide (n = 7), or no treatment (n = 9) for 5 hours. The lungs were retrieved and reperfused for 2 hours using recipient rats.. RESULTS: After brain death, oxygenation deteriorated earlier and ...
Sequence and Conformational Specificity in Substrate Recognition: Several Human Kunitz Protease Inhibitor Domains are Specific Substrates of Mezotrypsin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(47), pp.32783-32797, 2014 ...
A- A-Beta incubated with TTR (A-Beta+TTR) shows a weaker A-Beta monomer band as compared to A-Beta alone (A-Beta), indicative of proteolysis, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blot. Pre-incubation of TTR with pefabloc (A-Beta+(TTR+pefabloc)) and with an αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) inhibits TTR proteolytic activity, whereas the αAPP peptide without the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) facilitates proteolysis. B- % of inhibition of TTR proteolysis by quantification of band intensity in A. C- Ultrastructural analysis by TEM of preparations incubated for 15 hours, as described in Materials and Methods. TTR inhibited A-Beta aggregation as compared with A-Beta incubated alone (upper panels). Pre-incubation of TTR with αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) abrogated TTR ability to avoid A-Beta aggregation, whereas αAPP lacking the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) did not affected TTR activity ...
APP is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely present in various tissues, containing a longer fragment of the extracellular amino-terminal (N-terminal) and short segments of the intracellular carboxy-terminal (C-terminal), and its encoding gene is located on the first human 21 chromosome 21q21.2, the transcription, translation and processing mainly expressed in the formation of three kinds with different length of the peptide chain isoforms, APP695, APP751 and APP770. Compared with the other two isoforms, APP695 lacks the Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) region outside the cell. Neurons expressing APP695 subtypes in the cerebral cortex of APP695, APP751 and APP770 mRNA ratio of 20:10:1. The function of APP may be: (1) G protein-coupled receptor-like role to participate in transmembrane signal transduction process. (2) to promote cell adhesion, cell shape remodeling and neural development. (3) to promote the occurrence of synaptic structure, and enhance synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission. ...
Although it was long suspected that VHS is an RNase (11, 12, 22, 32, 52), unambiguous evidence that VHS is an endoribonuclease with a substrate specificity of RNase A emerged from studies of a protein purified to homogeneity (46, 47). ARV combinations that contain HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) may be superior to those without PIs for treatment of patients with KS (2, 21, 30, 45). ApoE4 is a risk factor for ocular herpes, in part, through increased replication of virus in the eye, an earlier onset in clinical opacity, significantly higher neovascularization, and increased HSV-1 DNA load in TG and brain than that of apoE3. Recreation Gift Cards are not redeemable/refundable for cash. In the past several years, this laboratory reported two sets of antisense genes. Were loaded with money, he said and the mayors focus on preparing middle-school students for the future workforce is a perfect match for the tech companys philanthropic foundation. Such a dual-purpose Ad could provide anticancer gene ...
Brazzein is a natural high-intensity sweet protein, from the tropical fruit of Pentadiplandra brazzeana, expressed in maize [1]. The brazzein protein is 500 to 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose and is highly stable. It is a natural sweetener that can be used alone or blended in food or beverages with other sweeteners such as sucrose.. Aprotinin is an animal-free source of recombinant bovine aprotinin expressed in maize [2]. The recombinant product is chemically and functionally equivalent to the native product and can be used in cell culture, research and other non-clinically regulated industries.. ...
ISHAKA- The Kampala International University (KIU) teaching hospital has been ranked among the best health teaching schools in the country by the Ministry of Health. The Ministry carried out the ranking of the best and worst hospitals at the Office of the President on Tuesday. Kampala International University (KIU) teaching hospital Western Campus, found in…
Vesicle Transport Studies. Membrane vesicles were prepared from HEK293 cells, which were infected with human BCRP-, MRP2-, and MRP4-recombinant adenoviruses, as described previously (Hasegawa et al., 2007; Imaoka et al., 2007). In brief, HEK293 cells were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing human MRP4 [10 multiplicity of infection (MOI)] and BCRP (2 MOI). As negative controls, cells were infected with a virus containing green fluorescence protein cDNA (10 MOI). Cells were harvested 48 h after infection, and membrane vesicles were isolated by the hypotonic method (Hasegawa et al., 2007; Imaoka et al., 2007). Cells were diluted 40-fold with hypotonic buffer (1 mM Tris-HCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, at 4°C) and stirred gently for 1 h on ice in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 5 μg/ml leupeptin, 1 μg/ml pepstatin, and 5 μg/ml aprotinin. The cell lysate was centrifuged at 100,000g for 30 min at 4°C, and the resulting pellet was suspended in 10 ml of isotonic TS buffer ...
Subsequently, cells have been lysed in 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM NaF, two mM EDTA, 10% Glycerol, 1% NP-40, 0.25% Sodium deoxycholate, 1 mM NaVO4, 1 mM PMSF, 0.three mM aprotinin, 130 mM bestiatin, 1 mM leupeptin and 1 mM pepstatin. Cell lysates had been subjected to denaturing SDS/PAGE, and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. The…[Read more]. ...
ProSpecs Natural Proteins include: Actin, Aprotinin, Avidin, Bivalirudin, Calpastatin, Cystatin, Filamin, Ferritin, HDL, LDL, LLC, Tubulin, Other Natural Proteins
Ties reprodukta habitato estas la norda parto de centra Kanado (ĉefe la Nordokcidentaj Teritorioj kaj Nunavuto, kun teritorioj iome al norda Manitobo kaj Saskaĉevano). Fakte tiu birdospecio estas la ununura kanada endemia reproduktanto. Vintre ili migras al la usonaj subŝtatoj de la Nordamerikaj Grandaj Ebenaĵoj, el malsupra Suda Dakoto al supra Teksaso. La plej rimarkinda karaktero de tiu specio diference de la samgenranoj estas nigra kapozono kiu nomigas ĝin laŭ la komuna nomo kiu konsistas el nigraj krono, ampleksa bridareo, gorĝareo kaj disiĝe al supra brusto kiel horizontala strio plu brustocentra makulo. La resto de la kapo estas helgriza (al sablokolora) kun iomete pli malhelgriza orelareo kun pli markata malantaŭa bordo preskaŭ nigreca. La fortika beko kaj la kruroj estas rozkoloraj. La supra dorso montras nigrecan vertikalan striecon super helbruna al helgriza fono kiu pluas al suba dorso kaj pugo senstriaj; la vosto estas iomete pli malhela. La subaj partoj estas helgrizaj ...
The official site for the Jennifer Connelly starring Japanese horror remake DARK WATER is online and from what I can tell, its your standard flas...
La dependeco en medicino signifas, ke iu ne povas malhavi iun materialon aŭ konduton periode, per kiuj li/ŝi travivas por mallonga tempo kontentigajn travivaĵojn. La plenumo de la travivaĵo kaŭzas ĝojon, kontentiĝon. Dependeco estas malsano kiu estas karakterizita per sindeviga engaĝiĝo en rekompensado de stimuloj, malgraŭ malbonaj sekvoj.[1][2][3][4][5] Ĝi povas esti konsiderita kiel malsano aŭ biologia proceso kaŭzanta tiajn kondutojn.[1][6] La du trajtoj kiuj karakterizas ĉiujn kutimigajn stimulojn estas ke ili plifortikigas (t.e., ili pliigas la verŝajnecon ke persono serĉos ripetan eksponiĝon al ili) kaj interne rekompensantaj (t.e., io perceptis kiel esti pozitiva aŭ dezirinda).[1][7][5] Dependeco estas malsano de la kompensa sistemo de la cerbo kiu ekestas tra transskribaj kaj epigenezaj mekanismoj kaj okazas dum tempo de kronike altaj niveloj de malkovro ĝis kutimiga stimulo (ekz., morfino, kokaino, amoro, hazardludo, ktp.).[1][8][9] δFosB, gena transkripcifaktoro, ...
New function: Find articles by their topic. On the main articles page, just click on a topic in the TOPICS area on the left to see all related articles or, click on the new Show all link to show a page with all existing topics. Discuss this feature in the forums.. ...
Find the best KPI Software for your organization. Read user reviews of leading KPI systems. Free comparisons, demos and price quotes.
Global Sucrose Polyester Market 2019. Sucrose Polyester Market Size by Types, Applications, Major Regions and Major Manufacturers including the capacity, production, price, revenue, cost, gross margin, sales volume, sales revenue, consumption, growth rate, import, export, supply, future strategies.
Ok so heres a Tom Hardy post for all you people with taste! The post contains a interview with tom from the Foreword to the Men of Warrior book, another still from warrior and also a small audio clip of bane! Tom Hardys Foreword to The Men of Warrior…
... improve coronary endothelial function similarly to aprotinin. Unlike aprotinin, at high doses, their anti- ... CU-2010 and CU-2020 have the ability to inhibit plasmin to a similar extent as aprotinin, but they are 100,000 times better at ... CU-2010 and CU-2020 were developed to avoid many issues associated with the use of aprotinin, including the risk of an allergic ... Since the isolation of aprotinin is expensive, a drug with a simpler synthesis was desired. CU-2010 has a molecular weight of ...
Aprotinin and cardiac surgery: a sorry tale of evidence misused". Br J Anaesth. 110 (5): 675-8. doi:10.1093/bja/aet008. PMID ... Trasylol (Aprotinin) Trasylol is a trypsin inhibitor used to control bleeding during major surgery. In a 2006 meeting called by ... Trasylol (aprotinin), used to control bleeding during major surgery, was withdrawn from the market worldwide in 2007 when ... "FDA Revises Labeling for Trasylol (Aprotinin Injection) to Strengthen Safety Warnings and Limit Usage of Drug to Specific ...
"Efficacy of Aprotinin, Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid, or Combination in Cyanotic Heart Disease". Annals of Thoracic Surgery. ...
Paul Hebert discovered that aprotinin is associated with an increased risk of death compared to other drugs routinely used to ... "A comparison of aprotinin and lysine analogues in high-risk cardiac surgery". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (22): ...
Formulations from different manufacturers may also contain aprotinin, fibronectin, plasminogen, and factor XIII. Factors that ...
... eglin c and aprotinin". The Biochemical Journal. 313 (2): 555-60. doi:10.1042/bj3130555. PMC 1216943. PMID 8573092. Kikuchi T, ...
Prekallikrein Kinin-kallikrein system Kinin Aprotinin List of cutaneous conditions Raspi G (September 1996). "Kallikrein and ...
"Tissue kallikrein in severe acute pancreatitis in patients treated with high-dose intraperitoneal aprotinin". Pancreas. 19 (4 ...
In 2004, LSBC announced an agreement with Sigma-Aldritch under which LSB would produce recombinant aprotinin in plants of the ... ProdiGene - was developing several proteins, including aprotinin, trypsin and a veterinary TGE vaccine in corn. Was in process ... Biomanufacturing Press Release Sigma catalog Aprotinin History of bankrupt biotech companies Cordis entry on Novoplant APHIS ... aprotinin, interferon Alpha 2a and 2b, G-CSF, and Hepatitis B vaccine antigens in tobacco. ...
Fergusson, Dean; Glass, Kathleen Cranley; Hutton, Brian; Shapiro, Stan (2016). "Randomized controlled trials of aprotinin in ...
Pandey, R; Deshpande, SB (August 2004). "Protective effects of aprotinin on respiratory and cardiac abnormalities induced by ...
June 2010). "Production of pharmaceutical-grade recombinant aprotinin and a monoclonal antibody product using plant-based ...
APTEM test is an EXTEM based assay in which fibrinolysis is inhibited by aprotinin in the reagent. A significant improvement of ...
0.5 cc of distilled water is then added to thrombin vial whereas aprotinin is mixed with fibrinogen. Both the components are ... aprotinin solution (1,500 KIU in 0.5 ml), one ampoule of sterile water, four 21-gauge needles, two 20-gauge blunt application ...
... fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
Before its withdrawal, aprotinin was used in some forms of major surgery to decrease bleeding risk and the need for blood ...
1-78 Repeatable measurement of local and zonal GFR in the rat kidney with aprotinin (sm.m. O. Tenstad og H. E. Williamson), i ...
... aprotinin, captopril, imidazole or lidocaine.[citation needed] Myocardial+Depressant+Factor at the US National Library of ...
Examples of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are aprotinin (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, BPTI), Alzheimer's amyloid ...
Clotting time measurements can be affected by drugs such as warfarin, aprotinin, and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors, and physiologic ...
... salivary proteins and aprotinin type protease inhibitors". The EMBO Journal. 9 (2): 385-93. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1990. ...
... aprotinin, polysulphated glycosaminoglycan, skin derived fibroblasts etc.) for treating Achilles tendinopathy. As of 2014 there ...
B02AA01 Aminocaproic acid B02AA02 Tranexamic acid B02AA03 Aminomethylbenzoic acid B02AB01 Aprotinin B02AB02 Alfa1 antitrypsin ...
... has been shown to interact with: A2-Macroglobulin, β-amyloid precursor protein, APBB1, APOE, Aprotinin, C1S/C1q inhibitor ...
... aprotinin (INN) aptazapine (INN) aptiganel (INN) aptocaine (INN) (Articles with short description, Short description is ...
Aprotinin Bestatin Calpain inhibitor I and II Chymostatin E-64 Leupeptin (N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-argininal) alpha-2- ...
... such as aprotinin SDS is ionic denaturing detergent. Hot SDS buffer is often used when the proteins need to be completely ...
The Importance of Aprotinin and Pentoxifylline in Preventing the Leucocyte Sequestration and Lung İnjury Caused By Protamine at ...
... aprotinin, pepstatin, 1-5 mM EDTA, 0.5-1 mM EGTA, 5 mM aminocaproic acid) or commercial protease inhibitor cocktail (use ...
Since the use of aprotinin has been abandoned due to major side effects, the treatment or prophylaxis of hyperfibrinolysis is ... The APTEM test, a tissue factor activated, heparin insensitive test performed in the presence of aprotinin (fibrinolysis ... but without aprotinin). A normalization or improvement of the TEMogram in APTEM versus EXTEM confirms hyperfibrinolysis. This ...
Nordic became distributor of aprotinin in 2012. Aprotinin is a monomeric (single-chain) globular polypeptide derived from ... aprotinin may increase the risk of death. On October 29, 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that aprotinin ... 30,000 of whom received aprotinin and the rest other anti-fibrinolytics. The study concluded aprotinin carried greater risks. ... Small amounts of aprotinin can be added to tubes of drawn blood to enable laboratory measurement of certain rapidly degraded ...
Start your 30 day free trial. Cancel at any time. Trusted and used in more than 1,700 hospitals, large clinics, and medical schools across the globe.. Start Trial Subscriber Sign In ...
"Aprotinin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aprotinin" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Long-term mortality associated with aprotinin following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JAMA. 2007 Jun 13; 297(22):2476-7 ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Aprotinin" by people in Profiles. ...
David Royston, Andrea Nadel, Jerrold Levy, Jane Fitch, Bruce Spiess; Room B, 10/17/2000 2: 00 PM - 4: 00 PM (PS) Aprotinin Use ... Room B, 10/17/2000 2: 00 PM - 4: 00 PM (PS) Aprotinin Use in Patients Taking Inhibitors of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACEI) ...
These include aprotinin, epsilon amino caproic acid (epsilon-ACA), and tranexamic acid. [53] Recently, aprotinin has incited ... Aprotinin. Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor that prevents the lysis of fibrinogen by inhibiting plasmin, kallikrein, ... However, other studies have not reported a benefit with aprotinin use. Therefore, the precise role of aprotinin remains ... A comparison of aprotinin and lysine analogues in high-risk cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 29. 358(22):2319-31. [QxMD ...
These include aprotinin, epsilon amino caproic acid (epsilon-ACA), and tranexamic acid. [53] Recently, aprotinin has incited ... Aprotinin. Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor that prevents the lysis of fibrinogen by inhibiting plasmin, kallikrein, ... However, other studies have not reported a benefit with aprotinin use. Therefore, the precise role of aprotinin remains ... A comparison of aprotinin and lysine analogues in high-risk cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 29. 358(22):2319-31. [QxMD ...
Aprotinin This product is derived from bovine lung tissue, which inhibits certain enzymes that increase the risk for bleeding. ...
Aprotinin dosage regimen of 40,000 KIU/kg at induction, in CPB prime and postoperatively for three hours was most effective in ... Group I (n = 8) patients received aprotinin in a dose of 20,000 kallikrein inhibiting units (KIU)/kg after induction of ... To determine the most effective dose regimen of aprotinin for infants undergoing arterial switch operation for transposition of ... Comparison of three dose regimens of aprotinin in infants undergoing the arterial switch operation. ...
Aprotinin in lung transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of primary graft dysfunction. ... Dive into the research topics of Aprotinin in lung transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of primary graft ...
Alternative perioperative anticoagulation monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass in aprotinin-treated patients. J ...
Aprotinin, Avidin, Bivalirudin, Calpastatin, Cystatin, Filamin, Ferritin, HDL, LDL, LLC, Tubulin, Other Natural Proteins . ... Aprotinin Catalog No. AP2512. Quick View .category-products .products-list .btn-quickcart { background: white; border-color: # ...
Chemical MSDS and Data Sheets
Dive into the research topics of Aprotinin reduces operative closure time and blood product use after pediatric bypass. ... Aprotinin reduces operative closure time and blood product use after pediatric bypass. ...
Aprotinin Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication. Bojkova D, Bechtel M, McLaughlin KM, McGreig JE, Klann K, Bellinghausen C, Rohde G, ...
2. Aprotinin (0.5 or 5.0 mg) was labelled with either 99mTc (40 MBq) or 131I (1 MBq) and injected intravenously in 19 renal ... A new method to measure renal tubular degradation of small filtered proteins in man using radiolabelled aprotinin (Trasylol) R ... Chromatography showed all plasma activity as undegraded aprotinin and urine activity only as the free labels (99mTcO-4 or 131I- ... 6. Fractional renal tubular degradation of 99mTc-aprotinin (in h−1) is a measure of its turnover value over a given interval ...
2 and pure aprotinin demonstrated that the causative agent was likely aprotinin. We diagnosed aprotinin-induced anaphylaxis ... 2, whose main component is aprotinin. Subsequently, basophil activation tests using fibrin sealant vial no. ... From: Intraoperative anaphylaxis due to aprotinin after local application of fibrin sealant diagnosed by skin tests and ...
Trasylol (Aprotinin). *Vytorin (Ezetimibe/Simvastatin). *SNRI (serotonin-norephinephrine reuptake inhibitor) or SSRI (selective ...
Since aprotinin reduces TNF release during CPB, the effects of aprotinin on BALF IL-8 concentrations and neutrophil levels were ... Since aprotinin reduces TNF release during CPB, the effects of aprotinin on BALF IL-8 concentrations and neutrophil levels were ... Since aprotinin reduces TNF release during CPB, the effects of aprotinin on BALF IL-8 concentrations and neutrophil levels were ... Since aprotinin reduces TNF release during CPB, the effects of aprotinin on BALF IL-8 concentrations and neutrophil levels were ...
Aprotinin Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication. Cells 2020, 9, 2377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
aprotinin. Minor (1)aprotinin increases effects of heparin by unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. ... aprotinin. aprotinin increases effects of heparin by unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. ...
Crystal Structure of Aprotinin in Complex with Sucrose Octasulfate: Unusual Interactions and Implication For Heparin Binding ... I.S.Yang, T.G.Kim, B.S.Park, K.J.Cho, J.-H.Lee, Y.Park, K.H.Kim. Crystal Structures of Aprotinin and Its Complex with Sucrose ... A full contact list of Mercury with other atoms in the Hg binding site number 1 of Crystal Structure of Aprotinin in Complex ... A full contact list of Mercury with other atoms in the Hg binding site number 2 of Crystal Structure of Aprotinin in Complex ...
Urinary aprotinin as a predictor of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children receiving aprotinin therapy. In: ... Urinary aprotinin as a predictor of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children receiving aprotinin therapy. / Nguyen ... Urinary aprotinin as a predictor of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children receiving aprotinin therapy. ... Urinary aprotinin as a predictor of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children receiving aprotinin therapy. ...
Aprotinin Virkestoff: Aprotinin ATC-koder: B02B C30 Legemidler som inneholder dette virkestoffet:. Artiss «Baxter» væske til ...
Aprotinin Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication. Bojkova D, Bechtel M, McLaughlin KM, McGreig JE, Klann K, Bellinghausen C, Rohde G, ...
Bayer Vital Pharma Trasylol (Aprotinin) bei Hämorrhagien http://www.trasylol.de Vitamin Information: Dietary Supplements, ...
Aprotinin hypersensitivity. Fibrin sealant, human is contraindicated in patients known to have anaphylactic or severe systemic ... Artiss and Tisseel also contain aprotinin, which has been shown to increase resistance of the fibrin sealant clot to ... if systemic aprotinin has been previously administered. Even if the first treatment was well tolerated, a subsequent ... Artiss and Tisseel are contraindicated in patients with known aprotinin hypersensitivity.[41169] [41172] Hypersensitivity or ...
... and aprotinin were less so. There was only 1 comparative study on the use of fibrin glue and drain re-infusion, with no studies ... and aprotinin; fibrin sealants or fibrin glue; and post-operative drain re-infusion. All comparative studies with a treatment ...
  • five mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1uM leupeptin, 1uM aprotinin. (pkc-inhibitors.com)
  • 12. Protease inhibitors: Leupeptin(10mg/ml stock), Aprotinin(10mg/ml stock), Pepstatin A (1mg/ml stock), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 35mg/ml stock). (researchsquare.com)
  • Immunoblotting analysis Cell lysates were prepared using RIPA buffer [50?mm Tris, 0.15?m NaCl, 1% Triton X\100, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), 1?mm EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), Ibodutant (MEN 15596) 1?mm Na orthovanadate, 1?mm PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), 25?gmL?1 leupeptin, and 25?gmL?1 aprotinin]. (recob-tlse.org)
  • The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method has been developed to measure the renal tubular degradation of small filtered proteins in man using radiolabelled aprotinin (Trasylol), a 6500 Da cationic polypeptide. (silverchair.com)
  • There was one blot on the sales sheet, however, with the performance of Trasylol (aprotinin), which is used to reduce blood loss during heart surgery. (pharmatimes.com)
  • The FDA has approved revised labeling for Trasylol (aprotinin injection), from Bayer Pharmaceuticals, West Haven, Conn., (800) 468-0894. (drugtopics.com)
  • Bayer announced new guidance to physicians and health care providers regarding the use of Trasylol® (aprotinin injection) in patients at an increased risk of blood loss and blood transfusion undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). (worldpharmanews.com)
  • Leverkusen, Germany and West Haven, CT (Nov. 5)- Following consultation with the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), the US Food and Drug Administration, Health Canada, and other health authorities, Bayer has elected to temporarily suspend worldwide marketing of "Trasylol" (aprotinin injection) until final results from the Canadian BART trial can be compiled, received and evaluated. (pharmtech.com)
  • In cardiac surgery with a high risk of significant blood loss, aprotinin significantly reduced bleeding, mortality and hospital stay. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparison of aprotinin and lysine analogues in high-risk cardiac surgery. (ohri.ca)
  • Antibody formation after drug administration during cardiac surgery: parameters for aprotinin use. (pneumotox.com)
  • Next, we examined whether this uncommon effect could possibly be obstructed by addition of a number of protease inhibitors (2% fetal leg serum, 125 M Quizartinib inhibitor database aprotinin, 1 mM AEBSF, 1 mM PMSF, 5 mg/mL 6-aminohexanoic acidity, 100 M antipain, 4 mM benzamidine HCl, 10 M E-64, 1 mM isn't enough to stabilize HoxA9. (shahmnil-mgh-harvard.org)
  • The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride , and antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin. (dictionary.net)
  • Lower concentrations of thrombin resulted in equivalent neuroprotection as the antifibrinolytic, aprotinin, and the direct thrombin inhibitor, argatroban. (emory.edu)
  • AEBSF E-64 Aprotinin EDTA Leupeptine Store -20°C Lyophillzed blend of five protease inhibitors for applications that require animal free reagents. (thomassci.com)
  • One trial on Aprotinin (1982) and two trials on Tranexamic acid (2010 and 2013) were included. (sabm.org)
  • These include aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA), and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, trade name Amicar). (ijssurgery.com)
  • Loss of epidermal cohesion in normal skin explants incubated with pemphigus foliaceous IgG was dependent upon the addition of plasminogen and was inhibited by aprotinin or lima bean trypsin inhibitor, which indicated that plasmin is the active enzyme in producing acantholysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The protease inhibitors aprotinin and ilomastat and the antioxidant trolox were evaluated for efficacy in ameliorating SM-induced lung injury. (dtic.mil)
  • Aprotinin dosage regimen of 40,000 KIU/kg at induction, in CPB prime and postoperatively for three hours was most effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and PRBC transfusion requirements. (who.int)
  • Effects of Aprotinin and Insulin on Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase m-RNA in the Mouse Macrophage. (ekja.org)
  • We determined that aprotinin and D-arginine-based 9-12-mer peptides are potent inhibitors of WNV NS3 with K i values of 26 nM and 1 nM respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • citation needed] Aprotinin is a competitive inhibitor of several serine proteases, specifically trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasmin at a concentration of about 125,000 IU/ml, and kallikrein at 300,000 IU/ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was identified as aprotinin. (wustl.edu)
  • The dose is lowered protein synthesis the MMP-inhibitor aprotinin. (thesalarmy.com)
  • A low protein C activity is expected in aprotinin treated patients because aprotinin is an inhibitor of activated protein C. Oral anticoagulant therapy interferes with the formation of g-carboxyglutamic acid moiety of the protein C molecules during biosynthesis in the liver, which results in a loss of anticoagulant activity. (diapharma.com)
  • Aprotinin is a monomeric (single-chain) globular polypeptide derived from bovine lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15. Aprotinin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat hind limb model. (kursatbozkurt.com)
  • Aprotinin does not have any adverse effect on renal function. (who.int)
  • 2. Aprotinin (0.5 or 5.0 mg) was labelled with either 99m Tc (40 MBq) or 131 I (1 MBq) and injected intravenously in 19 renal patients (10 with normal renal function and nine on haemodialysis). (silverchair.com)
  • Activity in plasma and urine was measured over 48 h, and chromatography with Sephadex-G-25-M was used to separate labelled aprotinin from free 99m TcO - 4 or 131 I - . Renal uptake was measured for 99m Tc-labelled aprotinin only. (silverchair.com)
  • 6. Serine protease inhibitor aprotinin ameliorates renal injury in a rat model of ischemia-perfusion injury. (kursatbozkurt.com)
  • 2) the supernatant of a human bronchial epithelial cell culture line, A549, after 24 h of TNF stimulation with or without aprotinin or N-α-tosyl- L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) (a potent protease inhibitor), and 3) BALF. (elsevier.com)
  • Long-term mortality associated with aprotinin following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (umassmed.edu)
  • In contrast, aprotinin and extended-release metoprolol might increase mortality. (elsevier.com)
  • To protect rhIGF-I from degradation in the small-intestinal contents, the effect of some adjuvants was examined and their degradation was markedly inhibited by the presence of aprotinin or casein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that aprotinin blunts IL-8 production and reduces neutrophil lung accumulation post-CPB. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of Aprotinin on Acute Lung Injury by Endotoxin in Rabbits. (ekja.org)
  • Venous blood samples were collected mined by commercially available radio- using plain tubes for routine tests and chilled immunoassay kits for met-enkephalin, polyethylene tubes containing aprotinin -endorphin and leu-enkephalin (Penin- and/or ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid sula Laboratories Inc, Division of Bachem, (EDTA). (who.int)
  • In September 2006, Bayer A.G. was faulted by the FDA for not revealing during testimony the existence of a commissioned retrospective study of 67,000 patients, 30,000 of whom received aprotinin and the rest other anti-fibrinolytics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kallikrein-like enzyme has been purified from homogenates of the kidney and aorta by a DEAE-Sepharose and aprotinin affinity columnn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since aprotinin reduces TNF release during CPB, the effects of aprotinin on BALF IL-8 concentrations and neutrophil levels were determined after CPB in adult humans. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine the most effective dose regimen of aprotinin for infants undergoing arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries in reducing blood loss and postoperative packed red blood cell (PRBC) requirements. (who.int)
  • Reduction of blood loss using high-dose aprotinin in major orthopaedic surgery: a prospective, double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled study. (jeserschek.at)
  • In AP-test fibrinolysis is inhibited in-vitro using aprotinin, a potent direct antagonist of plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis. (avant-medical.com)
  • Study patients were equally divided into a control group (n = 8, Group 1) and an aprotinin-treated group (n = 8, Group 2). (elsevier.com)
  • The most popular drug, aprotinin, was widely assumed to be the best, but to everyone s surprise, BART revealed that patients who received aprotinin were actually 50 per cent more likely to die than patients who received either of the other two drugs. (ohri.ca)
  • The research showed of 108 patients who died, the proportion who were believed to have died of cardiogenic shock, right ventricular failure, congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction (heart attack) was higher in the aprotinin group than in the other two groups. (irwinmitchell.com)
  • The Aprotinin trial included 77 patients, one TXA study had 240 traumatic brain injury patients, the other 20,211 trauma patients from 274 hospitals in 40 countries. (sabm.org)
  • To exclude that aprotinin as possible anti-inflammatory agent was the eliciting factor in endogenous alkaline phosphatase release we performed a small study in patients undergoing CABG with the use of CPB, but without the use of aprotinin. (uu.nl)
  • Traysol, also known by its generic name aprotinin, has been widely used since the 1990s during heart bypass surgery to reduce bleeding. (irwinmitchell.com)
  • Treatment with aprotinin or ilomastat eliminated these PF changes, yielding results comparable with controls for each of these parameters. (dtic.mil)
  • The 2 h urinary aprotinin level correlated with serum creatinine, duration of AKI, and length of hospital stay. (wustl.edu)
  • 0.3 μM aprotinin) and homogenized using a turrax tissue homogenizer (Marconi, Piracicaba, Brazil). (sirtsignaling.com)
  • At 60 min after the infusion of galanin or vehicle, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected in plastic tubes containing 1000 IU aprotinin (inhibitor of protease) per each ml of blood. (nel.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Comparison of three dose regimens of aprotinin in infants undergoing the arterial switch operation. (who.int)
  • Verma Yashwant S, Chauhan Sandeep, Bisoi Akshay K, Gharde Parag, Kiran Usha, Das Sambhu N. Comparison of three dose regimens of aprotinin in infants undergoing the arterial switch operation. (who.int)
  • At 1 min before the exposure rats were treated with one of the following intravenous aprotinin, 4.4 mgkg intraperitoneal ip ilomastat, 25 mgkg or ip trolox, 500 microgramskg. (dtic.mil)
  • When the results were announced, the manufacturer suspended marketing of aprotinin and heart surgery changed, virtually overnight. (ohri.ca)
  • The study has saved thousands of lives and likely millions of dollars, as aprotinin was actually the most expensive drug by far. (ohri.ca)
  • In this study it is demonstrated that the release of endogenous alkaline phosphatase is not induced by aprotinin, and that it is only induced by bolus bIAP followed by continuous infusion. (uu.nl)
  • Samples were taken from the people involved in the study to the tube containing aprotinin. (fusabil.org)
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aprotinin is combined with Carbamoylcholine. (drugbank.com)
  • The use of injectable substances such as platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood, polidocanol, corticosteroids and aprotinin in and around tendons is popular for Achilles tendinopathy, but evidence to support their role is minimal [ 3 ]. (springer.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aprotinin" by people in this website by year, and whether "Aprotinin" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • The quality of evidence from the TXA trials were considered very high, that from the Aprotinin trial moderate. (sabm.org)
  • Urinary aprotinin levels 2 h after initiation of CPB were predictive of AKI (for functional assay: 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, area under the curve of 0.98). (wustl.edu)
  • We concluded that urinary aprotinin levels 2 h after initiation of CPB predict the development of AKI and adverse clinical outcomes. (wustl.edu)