A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)
Impaired ambulation not attributed to sensory impairment or motor weakness. FRONTAL LOBE disorders; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (e.g., PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS); DEMENTIA, MULTI-INFARCT; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and other conditions may be associated with gait apraxia.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Perception of shape and form of objects by TOUCH, via tactile stimuli.
Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.

Limb apraxias: higher-order disorders of sensorimotor integration. (1/32)

Limb apraxia comprises a wide spectrum of higher-order motor disorders that result from acquired brain disease affecting the performance of skilled, learned movements. At present, limb apraxia is primarily classified by the nature of the errors made by the patient and the pathways through which these errors are elicited, based on a two-system model for the organization of action: a conceptual system and a production system. Dysfunction of the former would cause ideational (or conceptual) apraxia, whereas impairment of the latter would induce ideomotor and limb-kinetic apraxia. Currently, it is possible to approach several types of limb apraxia within the framework of our knowledge of the modular organization of the brain. Multiple parallel parietofrontal circuits, devoted to specific sensorimotor transformations, have been described in monkeys: visual and somatosensory transformations for reaching; transformation of information about the location of body parts necessary for the control of movements; somatosensory transformation for posture; visual transformation for grasping; and internal representation of actions. Evidence from anatomical and functional brain imaging studies suggests that the organization of the cortical motor system in humans is based on the same principles. Imitation of postures and movements also seems to be subserved by dedicated neural systems, according to the content of the gesture (meaningful versus meaningless) to be imitated. Damage to these systems would produce different types of ideomotor and limb-kinetic praxic deficits depending on the context in which the movement is performed and the cognitive demands of the action. On the other hand, ideational (or conceptual) apraxia would reflect an inability to select and use objects due to the disruption of normal integration between systems subserving the functional knowledge of actions and those involved in object knowledge.  (+info)

Neural representations of skilled movement. (2/32)

The frontal and parietal cortex are intimately involved in the representation of goal-directed movements, but the crucial neuroanatomical sites are not well established in humans. In order to identify these sites more precisely, we studied stroke patients who had the classic syndrome of ideomotor limb apraxia, which disrupts goal-directed movements, such as writing or brushing teeth. Patients with and without limb apraxia were identified by assessing errors imitating gestures and specifying a cut-off for apraxia relative to a normal control group. We then used MRI or CT for lesion localization and compared areas of overlap in those patients with and without limb apraxia. Patients with ideomotor limb apraxia had damage lateralized to a left hemispheric network involving the middle frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus region. Thus, the results revealed that discrete areas in the left hemisphere of humans are critical for control of complex goal-directed movements.  (+info)

Multimodal EEG analysis in man suggests impairment-specific changes in movement-related electric brain activity after stroke. (3/32)

Movement-related slow cortical potentials and event-related desynchronization of alpha (alpha-ERD) and beta (beta-ERD) activity after self-paced voluntary triangular finger movements were studied in 13 ischaemic supratentorial stroke patients and 10 age-matched control subjects during movement preparation and actual performance. The stroke patients suffered from central arm paresis (n = 8), somatosensory deficits (n = 3) or ideomotor apraxia (n = 2). The multimodal EEG analysis suggested impairment-specific changes in the movement-related electrical activity of the brain. The readiness potential of paretic subjects was centred more anteriorly and laterally; during movement, they showed increased beta-ERD at left lateral frontal recording sites. Patients with somatosensory deficits showed reduced alpha-ERD and beta-ERD during both movement preparation and actual performance. Patients with ideomotor apraxia showed more lateralized frontal movement-related slow cortical potentials during both movement preparation and performance, and reduced left parietal beta-ERD during movement preparation. We conclude that (i) disturbed motor efference is associated with an increased need for excitatory drive of pyramidal cells in motor and premotor areas or an attempt to drive movements through projections from these areas to brainstem motor systems during movement preparation; (ii) an undisturbed somatosensory afference might contribute to the release of relevant cortical areas from their 'idling' state when movements are prepared and performed; and (iii) apraxic patients have a relative lack of activity of the mesial frontal motor system and the left parietal cortex, which is believed to be part of a network subserving ideomotor praxis.  (+info)

Cortical and subcortical contributions to ideomotor apraxia: analysis of task demands and error types. (4/32)

Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is often associated with damage of the dominant parietal cortex, but many other lesion sites have been implicated suggesting that the praxis system is mediated by a distributed modular network. Although IMA has been reported with subcortical lesions, the role of subcortical structures in the praxis neural network has not been fully addressed. To ascertain the role of subcortical structures in praxis, we compared praxis performance on a variety of tasks in patients with left hemisphere cortical and subcortical lesions. The cortical patients presented with deficits in the production of transitive and intransitive gestures-to-verbal command and imitation, as well as impaired gesture discrimination. In contrast, the subcortical group demonstrated mild production-execution deficits for transitive pantomimes, but normal imitation and discrimination. Qualitative error analysis of production deficits, revealed that both patient groups produced timing errors and the full range of spatial errors. Whereas the subcortical group made more postural errors than the cortical group, sequencing, unrecognizable and no-response errors were only produced by the cortical group. The different profiles of praxis deficits associated with cortical and subcortical lesions, suggests that these structures may have different roles in praxis.  (+info)

Ability to learn inhaler technique in relation to cognitive scores and tests of praxis in old age. (5/32)

Clinical observations have shown that some older patients are unable to learn to use a metered dose inhaler (MDI) despite having a normal abbreviated mental test (AMT) score, possibly because of dyspraxia or unrecognised cognitive impairment. Thirty inhaler-naive inpatients (age 76-94) with an AMT score of 8-10 (normal) were studied. Standard MDI training was given and the level of competence reached was scored (inhalation score). A separate observer performed the minimental test (MMT), Barthel index, geriatric depression score (GDS), ideational dyspraxia test (IDT), and ideomotor dyspraxia test (IMD). No correlative or threshold relationship was found between inhalation score and Barthel index, GDS, or IDT. However, a significant correlation was found between inhalation score and IMD (r = 0.45, p = 0.039) and MMT (r = 0.48, p = 0.032) and threshold effects emerged in that no subject with a MMT score of less than 23/30 had an inhalation score of 5/10 or more (adequate technique requires 6/10 or more), and all 17/18 with an inhalation score of 6/10 or more had an IMD of 14/20 or more. The three patients with a MMT >22 and inhalation score <6 had abnormal IMD scores. Inability to learn an adequate inhaler technique in subjects with a normal AMT score appears to be due to unrecognised cognitive impairment or dyspraxia. The MMT is probably a more useful screening test than the AMT score in this context.  (+info)

Pantomime to visual presentation of objects: left hand dyspraxia in patients with complete callosotomy. (6/32)

Investigations of left hand praxis in imitation and object use in patients with callosal disconnection have yielded divergent results, inducing a debate between two theoretical positions. Whereas Liepmann suggested that the left hemisphere is motor dominant, others maintain that both hemispheres have equal motor competences and propose that left hand apraxia in patients with callosal disconnection is secondary to left hemispheric specialization for language or other task modalities. The present study aims to gain further insight into the motor competence of the right hemisphere by investigating pantomime of object use in split-brain patients. Three patients with complete callosotomy and, as control groups, five patients with partial callosotomy and nine healthy subjects were examined for their ability to pantomime object use to visual object presentation and demonstrate object manipulation. In each condition, 11 objects were presented to the subjects who pantomimed or demonstrated the object use with either hand. In addition, six object pairs were presented to test bimanual coordination. Two independent raters evaluated the videotaped movement demonstrations. While object use demonstrations were perfect in all three groups, the split-brain patients displayed apraxic errors only with their left hands in the pantomime condition. The movement analysis of concept and execution errors included the examination of ipsilateral versus contralateral motor control. As the right hand/left hemisphere performances demonstrated retrieval of the correct movement concepts, concept errors by the left hand were taken as evidence for right hemisphere control. Several types of execution errors reflected a lack of distal motor control indicating the use of ipsilateral pathways. While one split-brain patient controlled his left hand predominantly by ipsilateral pathways in the pantomime condition, the error profile in the other two split-brain patients suggested that the right hemisphere controlled their left hands. In the object use condition, in all three split-brain patients fine-graded distal movements in the left hand indicated right hemispheric control. Our data show left hand apraxia in split-brain patients is not limited to verbal commands, but also occurs in pantomime to visual presentation of objects. As the demonstration with object in hand was unimpaired in either hand, both hemispheres must contain movement concepts for object use. However, the disconnected right hemisphere is impaired in retrieving the movement concept in response to visual object presentation, presumably because of a deficit in associating perceptual object representation with the movement concepts.  (+info)

A new classification of higher level gait disorders in patients with cerebral multi-infarct states. (7/32)

BACKGROUND: cerebral multi-infarct states may lead to gait disorders in the absence of cognitive impairment. Where these gait disorders occur in the absence of neurological signs they have been termed gait apraxia or more recently higher-level gait disorders. In this paper we hypothesise three main types based on presumptive sites of anatomical damage: (a) Ignition Apraxia, where damage is predominantly in the supplementary motor area and its connections, with good responses to external clues; (b) Equilibrium Apraxia, where damage is predominantly in the pre-motor area in its connections, with poor responses to external cues and (c) Mixed Gait Apraxia. SUBJECTS: the clinical features and measured gait parameters of 13 patients with cerebral multi-infarct states and higher-level gait disorder are described (7 with Ignition Apraxia and 6 with Equilibrium Apraxia) along with those of 6 healthy elderly control subjects. METHODS: baseline gait characteristics were assessed on a walkway, which measured the following: step lengths, width of base and velocity. RESULTS: measured baseline gait parameters support the above hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: it is suggested, though not proven, that patients with Ignition Apraxia could have problems with internal cueing due to lesions in the supplementary motor area or its connections whereas those with Equilibrium Apraxia could have dysfunction predominantly in the pre-motor area and its connections.  (+info)

Evaluation of ideomotor apraxia in patients with stroke: a study of reliability and validity. (8/32)

OBJECTIVE: This aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of an established ideomotor apraxia test when applied to a Turkish stroke patient population and to healthy controls. SUBJECTS: The study group comprised 50 patients with right hemiplegia and 36 with left hemiplegia, who had developed the condition as a result of a cerebrovascular accident, and 33 age-matched healthy subjects. METHODS: The subjects were evaluated for apraxia using an established ideomotor apraxia test. The cut-off value of the test and the reliability coefficient between observers were determined. RESULTS: Apraxia was found in 54% patients with right hemiplegia (most being severe) and in 25% of left hemiplegic patients (most being mild). The apraxia scores for patients with right hemiplegia were found to be significantly lower than for those with left hemiplegia and for healthy subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with left hemiplegia and healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: It was shown that the ideomotor apraxia test could distinguish apraxic from non-apraxic subjects. The reliability coefficient among observers in the study was high and a reliability study of the ideomotor apraxia test was therefore performed.  (+info)

Apraxia is a motor disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability and mental understanding to do so. It is not caused by weakness, paralysis, or sensory loss, and it is not due to poor comprehension or motivation.

There are several types of apraxias, including:

1. Limb-Kinematic Apraxia: This type affects the ability to make precise movements with the limbs, such as using tools or performing complex gestures.
2. Ideomotor Apraxia: In this form, individuals have difficulty executing learned motor actions in response to verbal commands or visual cues, but they can still perform the same action when given the actual object to use.
3. Ideational Apraxia: This type affects the ability to sequence and coordinate multiple steps of a complex action, such as dressing oneself or making coffee.
4. Oral Apraxia: Also known as verbal apraxia, this form affects the ability to plan and execute speech movements, leading to difficulties with articulation and speech production.
5. Constructional Apraxia: This type impairs the ability to draw, copy, or construct geometric forms and shapes, often due to visuospatial processing issues.

Apraxias can result from various neurological conditions, such as stroke, brain injury, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment typically involves rehabilitation and therapy focused on retraining the affected movements and compensating for any residual deficits.

Ideomotor apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to perform learned, purposeful movements in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis. It results from damage to specific areas of the brain that are responsible for motor planning and execution.

In ideomotor apraxia, the person has difficulty translating an intention or idea into the appropriate movement. For example, if asked to pantomime using a toothbrush, they may not be able to recall and execute the correct sequence of movements required for this task, even though they understand what is being asked of them and have no problem moving their arm or hand.

This disorder can manifest as awkward, poorly coordinated, or incomplete movements, often with inconsistent errors. Ideomotor apraxia is typically seen following lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, particularly in regions associated with language and motor function, such as Broca's area and the parietal lobe. Treatment usually involves occupational therapy and strategies to help compensate for the impaired motor skills.

Gait apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects an individual's ability to perform coordinated and complex movements required for walking, despite having the physical capability to do so. It is not caused by weakness or sensory loss, but rather by damage to the brain areas responsible for motor planning and execution, particularly in the frontal lobes.

Gait apraxia is characterized by a wide-based, hesitant, and unsteady gait pattern. Individuals with this condition may have difficulty initiating walking, changing direction, or adjusting their stride length and speed. They may also exhibit symptoms such as freezing of gait, where they are unable to move their feet forward despite intending to walk.

This disorder is often associated with various neurological conditions, including cerebrovascular accidents (strokes), degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injuries, and infections of the central nervous system. Treatment typically involves physical therapy, gait training, and the use of assistive devices to improve mobility and safety.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Aphasia is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to communicate. It is caused by damage to the language areas of the brain, most commonly as a result of a stroke or head injury. Aphasia can affect both spoken and written language, making it difficult for individuals to express their thoughts, understand speech, read, or write.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Expressive aphasia (also called Broca's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to speak and write clearly. Individuals with expressive aphasia know what they want to say but have difficulty forming the words or sentences to communicate their thoughts.
2. Receptive aphasia (also called Wernicke's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to understand spoken or written language. Individuals with receptive aphasia may struggle to follow conversations, comprehend written texts, or make sense of the words they hear or read.
3. Global aphasia: This is the most severe form of aphasia and results from extensive damage to the language areas of the brain. People with global aphasia have significant impairments in both their ability to express themselves and understand language.
4. Anomic aphasia: This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to recall the names of objects, people, or places. Individuals with anomic aphasia can speak in complete sentences but often struggle to find the right words to convey their thoughts.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which aims to help individuals regain as much communication ability as possible. The success of treatment depends on various factors, such as the severity and location of the brain injury, the individual's motivation and effort, and the availability of support from family members and caregivers.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can result from nerve damage, muscle dysfunction, or brain injuries. They can cause abnormal eye alignment, limited range of motion, and difficulty coordinating eye movements. Common symptoms include double vision, blurry vision, strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and difficulty tracking moving objects. Ocular motility disorders can be congenital or acquired and may require medical intervention to correct or manage the condition.

Agraphia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to write, either by hand or through mechanical means like typing. It is often caused by damage to specific areas of the brain involved in language and writing skills, such as the left parietal lobe. Agraphia can manifest as difficulty with spelling, forming letters or words, organizing thoughts on paper, or expressing ideas in writing. Depending on the severity and location of the brain injury, agraphia may occur in isolation or alongside other language or cognitive impairments.

In a medical context, "gestures" are not typically defined as they are a part of communication and behavior rather than specific medical terminology. However, in the field of physical therapy or rehabilitation, gestures may refer to purposeful movements made with the hands, arms, or body to express ideas or commands.

In neurology or neuropsychology, abnormal gestures may be a symptom of certain conditions such as apraxia, where patients have difficulty performing learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability to do so. In this context, "gestures" would refer to specific motor behaviors that are impaired due to brain damage or dysfunction.

Thalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the thalamus, which is a part of the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus plays a crucial role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Thalamic diseases can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific area of the thalamus that is affected. These symptoms may include sensory disturbances, motor impairment, cognitive changes, and altered levels of consciousness. Examples of thalamic diseases include stroke, tumors, multiple sclerosis, infections, and degenerative disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Treatment for thalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.

Ataxia is a medical term that refers to a group of disorders affecting coordination, balance, and speech. It is characterized by a lack of muscle control during voluntary movements, causing unsteady or awkward movements, and often accompanied by tremors. Ataxia can affect various parts of the body, such as the limbs, trunk, eyes, and speech muscles. The condition can be congenital or acquired, and it can result from damage to the cerebellum, spinal cord, or sensory nerves. There are several types of ataxia, including hereditary ataxias, degenerative ataxias, cerebellar ataxias, and acquired ataxias, each with its own specific causes, symptoms, and prognosis. Treatment for ataxia typically focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life, as there is no cure for most forms of the disorder.

Hypoalbuminemia is a medical condition characterized by having lower than normal levels of albumin in the blood. Albumin is a type of protein produced by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure (the force that keeps fluid inside blood vessels) and transporting various substances throughout the body.

A serum albumin level below 3.5 g/dL (grams per deciliter) is generally considered hypoalbuminemia, although some laboratories may define it as a level below 3.4 g/dL or even lower. This condition can be caused by various factors, including liver disease, malnutrition, kidney disease, inflammation, and protein-losing enteropathy (a disorder that causes excessive loss of protein in the gastrointestinal tract).

Hypoalbuminemia is often associated with poorer clinical outcomes in several medical conditions, such as increased risk of infection, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. It's essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hypoalbuminemia for appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Basal ganglia diseases are a group of neurological disorders that affect the function of the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. The basal ganglia play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination. When they are damaged or degenerate, it can result in various motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and difficulty with balance and walking.

Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:

1. Parkinson's disease - a progressive disorder that affects movement due to the death of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
2. Huntington's disease - an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and cognitive decline.
3. Dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
4. Wilson's disease - a rare genetic disorder that causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver and brain, leading to neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
5. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) - a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and balance, as well as speech and swallowing.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) - a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, leading to stiffness, rigidity, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Treatment for basal ganglia diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis and symptoms but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Articulation disorders are speech sound disorders that involve difficulties producing sounds correctly and forming clear, understandable speech. These disorders can affect the way sounds are produced, the order in which they're pronounced, or both. Articulation disorders can be developmental, occurring as a child learns to speak, or acquired, resulting from injury, illness, or disease.

People with articulation disorders may have trouble pronouncing specific sounds (e.g., lisping), omitting sounds, substituting one sound for another, or distorting sounds. These issues can make it difficult for others to understand their speech and can lead to frustration, social difficulties, and communication challenges in daily life.

Speech-language pathologists typically diagnose and treat articulation disorders using various techniques, including auditory discrimination exercises, phonetic placement activities, and oral-motor exercises to improve muscle strength and control. Early intervention is essential for optimal treatment outcomes and to minimize the potential impact on a child's academic, social, and emotional development.

Stereognosis is a medical term that refers to the ability to identify and recognize the form, size, and texture of an object by using tactile (touch) sensation without visual or auditory input. It's a component of sensory perception that allows us to understand the three-dimensional shape and nature of objects through touch alone.

Loss or impairment of stereognosis can be a sign of neurological disorders, such as damage to the sensory cortex in the parietal lobe of the brain. Testing stereognosis is often part of a neurological examination to assess the functioning of the nervous system and the sense of touch.

Gait ataxia is a type of ataxia, which refers to a lack of coordination or stability, specifically involving walking or gait. It is characterized by an unsteady, uncoordinated, and typically wide-based gait pattern. This occurs due to dysfunction in the cerebellum or its connecting pathways, responsible for maintaining balance and coordinating muscle movements.

In gait ataxia, individuals often have difficulty with controlling the rhythm and pace of their steps, tend to veer or stagger off course, and may display a reeling or stumbling motion while walking. They might also have trouble performing rapid alternating movements like quickly tapping their foot or heel. These symptoms are usually worse when the person is tired or attempting to walk in the dark.

Gait ataxia can be caused by various underlying conditions, including degenerative neurological disorders (e.g., cerebellar atrophy, multiple sclerosis), stroke, brain injury, infection (e.g., alcoholism, HIV), or exposure to certain toxins. Proper diagnosis and identification of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment and management of gait ataxia.

Cerebellar ataxia is a type of ataxia, which refers to a group of disorders that cause difficulties with coordination and movement. Cerebellar ataxia specifically involves the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain responsible for maintaining balance, coordinating muscle movements, and regulating speech and eye movements.

The symptoms of cerebellar ataxia may include:

* Unsteady gait or difficulty walking
* Poor coordination of limb movements
* Tremors or shakiness, especially in the hands
* Slurred or irregular speech
* Abnormal eye movements, such as nystagmus (rapid, involuntary movement of the eyes)
* Difficulty with fine motor tasks, such as writing or buttoning a shirt

Cerebellar ataxia can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including:

* Genetic disorders, such as spinocerebellar ataxia or Friedreich's ataxia
* Brain injury or trauma
* Stroke or brain hemorrhage
* Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Exposure to toxins, such as alcohol or certain medications
* Tumors or other growths in the brain

Treatment for cerebellar ataxia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, there may be no cure, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can help improve coordination, balance, and communication skills. Medications may also be used to treat specific symptoms, such as tremors or muscle spasticity. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove tumors or repair damage to the brain.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

Olivopontocerebellar atrophies (OPCA) are a group of rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect the cerebellum, olive (inferior olivary nucleus), and pons in the brainstem. The condition is characterized by degeneration and atrophy of these specific areas, leading to various neurological symptoms.

The term "olivopontocerebellar atrophies" encompasses several subtypes, including:

1. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia (SPG/ATA) - Autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance pattern.
2. Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) - Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.
3. Idiopathic OPCA - No known genetic cause, possibly related to environmental factors or spontaneous mutations.

Symptoms of olivopontocerebellar atrophies may include:

* Progressive cerebellar ataxia (gait and limb incoordination)
* Dysarthria (slurred speech)
* Oculomotor abnormalities (nystagmus, gaze palsy)
* Spasticity (stiffness and rigidity of muscles)
* Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
* Tremors or dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions)

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, neuroimaging studies (MRI), genetic testing, and exclusion of other possible causes. Currently, there is no cure for olivopontocerebellar atrophies, but supportive care can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Higher Nervous Activity (HNA) is a term used in neurology and psychology to refer to the complex functions of the nervous system that are associated with higher order cognitive processes, such as thinking, learning, memory, perception, and language. These functions are primarily mediated by the cerebral cortex and other associative areas of the brain, which are involved in integrating sensory information, planning and executing motor responses, and modulating emotional and social behavior.

HNA is often contrasted with lower nervous activity (LNA), which refers to more basic functions of the nervous system, such as reflexes and automatic responses that do not require conscious control or higher-order cognitive processing. HNA is thought to be unique to humans and some other animals, and is believed to have evolved to enable complex behaviors and adaptations to changing environments.

Disorders of HNA can result in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, depending on the specific areas of the brain that are affected. These may include cognitive impairments, memory loss, language disorders, perceptual disturbances, emotional dysregulation, and motor deficits.

Agnosia is a medical term that refers to the inability to recognize or comprehend the meaning or significance of sensory stimuli, even though the specific senses themselves are intact. It is a higher-level cognitive disorder, caused by damage to certain areas of the brain that are responsible for processing and interpreting information from our senses.

There are different types of agnosia, depending on which sense is affected:

* Visual agnosia: The inability to recognize or identify objects, faces, or shapes based on visual input.
* Auditory agnosia: The inability to understand spoken language or recognize sounds, even though hearing is intact.
* Tactile agnosia: The inability to recognize objects by touch, despite normal tactile sensation.
* Olfactory and gustatory agnosia: The inability to identify smells or tastes, respectively, even though the senses of smell and taste are functioning normally.

Agnosia can result from various causes, including stroke, brain injury, infection, degenerative diseases, or tumors that damage specific areas of the brain involved in sensory processing and interpretation. Treatment for agnosia typically focuses on rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help individuals adapt to their deficits and improve their quality of life.

This test screens for ideational and ideomotor apraxia, with the second portion aimed specifically at ideomotor apraxia. One ... The speed and accuracy of grasping objects also appears unaffected by ideomotor apraxia. Patients with ideomotor apraxia appear ... There is no one definitive test for ideomotor apraxia; there are several that are used clinically to make an ideomotor apraxia ... seems to be unaffected by ideomotor apraxia. It has also been shown that individuals with ideomotor apraxia may have some ...
Ideomotor apraxia: Error pattern analysis. Aphasiology, 2, 381-388. Raymer A.M., Maher, L.M., Foundas, A.L, Heilman K.M., & ... Error types in ideomotor apraxia: A qualitative analysis. Brain and Cognition, 25, 250-270. Martin, P., Tewesmeier, M., Albers ... Apraxia is a neurological condition in which an individual loses the ability to execute movements that the individual is ... Studies of motor apraxia use BPO measures to better understand gestural impairment in apraxic patients, and often consider ...
Apraxic agraphia without ideomotor apraxia may be caused by damage to either of the parietal lobes, the dominant frontal lobe, ... Apraxic agraphia with ideomotor apraxia is typically caused by damage to the superior parietal lobe (where graphomotor plans ... Apraxic agraphia may present with or without ideomotor apraxia. Paralysis, chorea, Parkinson's disease (micrographia), and ... In global apraxia, spelling knowledge is lost to such a degree that the individual can only write very few meaningful words, or ...
The left hand also showed signs of severe ideomotor apraxia. It was able to mimic actions but only with the help of mirror ... "Alien hand syndrome of the dominant hand and ideomotor apraxia of the nondominant hand". European Neurology. 36 (1): 39-42. doi ... Goldstein developed a "doctrine of motor apraxia" in which he discussed the generation of voluntary action and proposed a brain ... Apraxia and Related Syndromes at eMedicine Kischka, U; Ettlin, TM; Lichtenstern, L; Riedo, C (1996). " ...
Also, apraxia possibly may be caused by lesions in other areas of the brain. Ideomotor apraxia is typically due to a decrease ... Ideomotor apraxia is having deficits in the ability to plan or complete motor actions that rely on semantic memory. These ... Hanna-Pladdy, B; Heilman, K.M.; Foundas, A.L. (Feb 2003). "Ecological implications of ideomotor apraxia: evidence from physical ... Some individuals with apraxia may benefit from the use of a communication aid. However, many people with apraxia are no longer ...
Comments on longitudinal ideomotor apraxia recovery." Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 75-83. Gueorguieva, R. & Krystal, ...
He was the one who coined the term "apraxia" and differentiated between ideational and ideomotor apraxia. It is in this basic ...
Callosal disconnection syndrome is characterized by left ideomotor apraxia and left-hand agraphia and/or tactile anomia, and is ... Callosal disconnection syndrome is characterized by left ideomotor apraxia and left-hand agraphia and/or tactile anomia, and is ... Movement - Apraxia and agraphia may occur where responding to any verbal instructions by movement or writing in the left hand ... Disconnection syndrome can also lead to aphasia, left-sided apraxia, and tactile aphasia, among other symptoms. Other types of ...
... which include but is not limited to ideomotor, ideation, limb-kinetic and ocular motor apraxias). The school's Montessori pre- ... apraxia. The program teaches to the students communication disabilities (oral-buccofacial apraxia) and encompasses each ... student's global dyspraxic apraxia disabilities that affect the student's fine and gross motor skills with their motor planning ...
Parkinsonism Alien hand syndrome Apraxia (ideomotor apraxia and limb-kinetic apraxia) Aphasia The presence of parkinsonism as a ... Ideomotor apraxia (IMA), although clearly present in CBD, often manifests atypically due to the additional presence of ... Some individuals with CBD exhibit limb-kinetic apraxia, which involves dysfunction of more fine motor movements often performed ... 71% had bradykinesia (slow movements), 64% showed apraxia, 43% reported limb dystonia, and although more cognitive 36% had ...
He conducted extensive research of a disorder he called apraxia, a term that he introduced in 1900.[citation needed] Apraxia is ... ideomotor: the inability to follow verbal commands or mimic an action, such as saluting or waving goodbye. kinetic: clumsiness ... The pathology of apraxia ("motor asymbolia") pursuant to a case of unilateral apraxia. Über Ideenflucht. Begriffsbestimmung und ... As a result of his studies, he divided apraxia into three types: ideational: object blindness, where the patient is incapable ...
... with the treatment approach being the same as that of ideomotor apraxia. Some recovery may occur in younger patients after ... The term apraxia was first created by Steinthal in 1871 and was then applied by Gogol, Kusmaul, Star, and Pick to patients who ... Ideational apraxia is difficult to diagnose. This is because the majority of patients who have this disorder also have some ... Ideational apraxia (IA) is a neurological disorder which explains the loss of ability to conceptualize, plan, and execute the ...
... apraxias MeSH C23.888.592.604.882.350.200 - apraxia, ideomotor MeSH C23.888.592.604.882.350.600 - gait apraxia MeSH C23.888. ... gait apraxia MeSH C23.888.592.413.450 - gait ataxia MeSH C23.888.592.544 - meningism MeSH C23.888.592.604 - neurobehavioral ... manifestations MeSH C23.888.592.604.080 - apraxias MeSH C23.888.592.604.115 - catatonia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150 - ...
... apraxias MeSH F01.700.875.350.200 - apraxia, ideomotor MeSH F01.700.875.700 - psychomotor agitation MeSH F01.752.049 - ... apraxias MeSH F01.700.080.500 - gait apraxia MeSH F01.700.165 - catatonia MeSH F01.700.250 - confusion MeSH F01.700.250.500 - ...
... apraxias MeSH C10.597.606.881.350.200 - apraxia, ideomotor MeSH C10.597.606.881.350.600 - gait apraxia MeSH C10.597.606.881.700 ... gait apraxia MeSH C10.597.404.450 - gait ataxia MeSH C10.597.606.115 - catatonia MeSH C10.597.606.150 - communication disorders ...
Ideomotor Apraxia manual Apraxia, ocular motor, Cogan type Apudoma Aqueductal stenosis Aqueductal stenosis, X linked ... Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency Apparent mineralocorticoid excess Appelt-Gerken-Lenz syndrome Appendicitis Apraxia Apraxia, ...
Australia Ideomotor apraxia, a neurological disorder Inferior mesenteric artery Thyroid ima artery Ima (BT album), 1995 Ima ( ...
The facilitator may believe they are not the source of the messages due to the ideomotor effect, which is the same effect that ... Proponents of FC claim that the reason people with autism cannot communicate effectively involves motor issues such as apraxia ... James Randi, a magician familiar with the ideomotor effect commonly attributed to dowsing and later linked to FC, was called in ... Instead, research indicates that the facilitator is the source of the messages obtained through FC (involving ideomotor effect ...
The facilitator may believe they are not the source of the messages due to the ideomotor effect, which is the same effect that ... Developmental verbal dyspraxia, also known as childhood apraxia of speech, is a developmental motor speech disorder involving ... Cumley, G.; Swanson, S. (1999). "Augmentative and Alternative Communication Options for Children with Developmental Apraxia of ... "The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: a ...
In 1908, Hugo Liepmann observed left-sided apraxia (a motor disorder of motor planning to perform tasks or movements) and ... Alien hand syndrome Society of Mind Parallel computing Laterality Mind-body problem Philosophy of mind Theory of mind Ideomotor ...
This test screens for ideational and ideomotor apraxia, with the second portion aimed specifically at ideomotor apraxia. One ... The speed and accuracy of grasping objects also appears unaffected by ideomotor apraxia. Patients with ideomotor apraxia appear ... There is no one definitive test for ideomotor apraxia; there are several that are used clinically to make an ideomotor apraxia ... seems to be unaffected by ideomotor apraxia. It has also been shown that individuals with ideomotor apraxia may have some ...
Therefore, patients with apraxia are unlikely to perform activities of daily living well. ... Apraxia, one of the most important and least understood major behavioral neurology syndromes, robs patients of the ability to ... Ideomotor apraxia. Testing for ideomotor apraxia can be performed at the bedside with simple tests for the ability to use tools ... Limb-kinetic apraxia. Limb-kinetic apraxia (as distinct from limb apraxia) means a clumsy hand. Typically, it refers to the ...
Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, ... Ideomotor apraxia. Inability to voluntarily perform a learned task when given the necessary objects. For instance, if given a ... Verbal apraxia; Dyspraxia; Speech disorder - apraxia; Childhood apraxia of speech; Apraxia of speech; Acquired apraxia ... Apraxia is caused by damage to the brain. When apraxia develops in a person who was previously able to perform the tasks or ...
... and particularly of apraxia of tool use (see below) - or whether loss of agency and apraxia of tool use are two independent ... Note that we will focus here mainly on apraxia of tool use, namely, difficulties in selecting appropriate everyday tools and/or ... This is only one of the manifestations of apraxia, which may also concern the production of symbolic, meaningful or meaningless ... neuropsychological models of apraxia. Historically, Liepmann (1908) proposed that tool use is supported by the generation of ...
... with moderate ideomotor apraxia. The MRI demonstrates predominantly frontal (A) and anterior temporal atrophy (B) suggestive of ...
Specific ideomotor apraxia - Rare, except in patients with language difficulty associated with corticobasal degeneration (see ... 59] reported that agrammatism and apraxia of speech were specifically useful in predicting the presence of a tau mutation and ... An overlap also exists with the syndrome of corticobasal degeneration, in which rigidity and apraxia of the upper limbs, ...
Specific ideomotor apraxia - Rare, except in patients with language difficulty associated with corticobasal degeneration (see ... 59] reported that agrammatism and apraxia of speech were specifically useful in predicting the presence of a tau mutation and ... An overlap also exists with the syndrome of corticobasal degeneration, in which rigidity and apraxia of the upper limbs, ...
Apraxia.. Severe spasticity: not common immediately post stroke (usually 3 mo-1 yr post stroke). ...
Supportive features include alexia, ideomotor apraxia, agraphia, acalculia, onset before the age of 65 years and neuroimaging ... Slowly Progressive Apraxia in Alzheimers-Disease. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 1995;59(3):312-315. ... De Renzi E. Slowly progressive visual agnosia or apraxia without dementia. Cortex. 1986;22(1):171-180. ... acalculia and apraxia (Mendez et al., 2002; Tang-Wai et al., 2004; Renner et al., 2004; Charles and Hillis, 2005; McMonagle et ...
Ataxia and apraxia are often confused for each other, but they are two very different neurological symptoms. Ataxia is a ... Difference between ataxia and apraxia Ataxia vs apraxia Neurological lesions have always been complicated as understanding the ... The types of apraxia are ideomotor apraxia, conceptual apraxia, speech apraxia and constructional apraxia. Ideomotor apraxia ... Childhood apraxia of speech, acquired apraxia of speech, and non-verbal oral apraxia (NVOA) are treated by speech therapy. ...
ideomotor apraxia in persons with AD at all stages of the disease ( Sheridan & Hausdorff, 2007 ). In particular, persons with ... ideomotor approach to action control: Implications for skilled performance . International Journal of Sport and Exercise ... unchecked in this way can directly influence overt behavior in so strong a manner is consistent with the tenets of ideomotor ...
In the case of corticobasal degeneration, ideomotor apraxia most likely occurs; this apraxia may affect both of the upper and ... Apraxia. Apraxia is a condition wherein an individual loses the ability to perform tasks that are normally familiar and are ... In addition, apraxia may also occur and affect fine motor movements normally performed by the hands as well as the digits. ... These signs and symptoms are apraxia, alien hand syndrome, aphasia and parkinsonism. Each of these four characteristics will be ...
Heilman, K. M., Gonzalez Rothi, L. J. & Valenstein, E. (1982). Two forms of ideomotor apraxia. American Academy of Neurology, ...
Apraxia, Ideomotor (2005-2009). Ataxia (1986-2009). Public MeSH Note:. 2023; see AILIEN HAND SYNDROME 2010-2022. ... An apraxia characterized by the affected limb having involuntary, autonomous, and purposeful behaviors that are perceived as ... An apraxia characterized by the affected limb having involuntary, autonomous, and purposeful behaviors that are perceived as ... An apraxia characterized by the affected limb having involuntary, autonomous, and purposeful behaviors that are perceived as ...
STIMA: A short screening test for ideo-motor apraxia, selective for action meaning and bodily district. Neurol Sci. 2015; 36: ...
Neuroimaging when patients have atypical features (eg, early falls, early cognitive impairment, ideomotor apraxia [inability to ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA APRAXIA IDEOMOTORA ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARCOBACTER ARSENIC POISONING ENVENENAMIENTO POR ...
Ideomotor apraxia. *Inability to make the proper movement in response to a verbal command ... Apraxia (or dyspraxia if it is mild) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to carry out purposeful ... Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia *Inability to carry out facial movements on command, such as licking lips, whistling, coughing ... Ideational apraxia. *Inability to coordinate activities with multiple, sequential movements (e.g., dressing, eating, bathing, ...
Orofacial apraxia is accompanied by nonfluent aphasia and ideomotor limb apraxia. Callosal disconnection signs result from an ... Three main subtypes of apraxia disorders described are limb gestures, orofacial gestures, and wholebody gestures, each with ...
Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex». Brain, 2014, awu343. ...
  • Conceptual apraxia is defined as a loss of knowledge about tools and the movements associated with their use. (medscape.com)
  • The types of apraxia are ideomotor apraxia, conceptual apraxia, speech apraxia and constructional apraxia. (differencebetween.net)
  • Conceptual apraxia is seen as not having the ability to think over the steps required to perform some action. (differencebetween.net)
  • In this article I am not going to deal with the question of the apraxia using the traditional classification that distinguishes the apraxia in ideational/conceptual apraxia, ideomotor apraxia, and constructional apraxia, but rather through a practical vision for the understanding of the problem. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • Patients who have aphasia but who do not have coexisting apraxia can live independently, take the bus or subway, and lead a relatively normal life, while a patient with significant limb apraxia is likely to remain dependent. (medscape.com)
  • Limb-kinetic apraxia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A last aspect concerns the deficit of motor innervation (i.e., motor apraxia initially called limb-kinetic apraxia), an aspect we will discuss later in this paper. (frontiersin.org)
  • An apraxia characterized by the affected limb having involuntary, autonomous, and purposeful behaviors that are perceived as being controlled by an external force. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three main subtypes of apraxia disorders described are limb gestures, orofacial gestures, and wholebody gestures, each with different degrees of difficulties. (cambridge.org)
  • Orofacial apraxia is accompanied by nonfluent aphasia and ideomotor limb apraxia. (cambridge.org)
  • Ideational apraxia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is the classical description of ideational apraxia: Patients do not know what to do. (frontiersin.org)
  • most current, cognitive neuropsychological models are in line with the idea that apraxia of tool use can concern not only the ideational component (i.e., knowing what to do), but also the ability to select the appropriate motor action (i.e., knowing what to do, but not how to do it). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ideomotor Apraxia, often IMA, is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to correctly imitate hand gestures and voluntarily mime tool use, e.g. pretend to brush one's hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the defining symptoms of ideomotor apraxia is the inability to pantomime tool use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apraxia, on the other hand, is the inability to execute complex, purposeful movements which have already been learnt by the person. (differencebetween.net)
  • Apraxia is an acquired disorder of motor nerves due to inability to understand commands. (differencebetween.net)
  • Apraxia can also be explained as inability to construct appropriate (voluntary) actions. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ideomotor apraxia manifests as an inability to plan or complete voluntary actions like closing the buttons of the shirt, etc. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ataxia is loss of controlled and coordinated muscle movements due to muscle weakness whereas apraxia is inability to carry out purposeful movements despite proper coordination and muscle power. (differencebetween.net)
  • In ataxia, a person has inability due to defect in the nervous pathways crossing over at cerebellum, but in apraxia all the complex integrated movements are difficult to be performed. (differencebetween.net)
  • Apraxia of speech is now recognized as an articulation disorder distinct from dysarthria and aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Apraxia is one of the best localizing signs of the mental status examination and, unlike aphasia, also predicts disability in patients with stroke or dementia. (medscape.com)
  • Apraxia of speech is often present along with another speech disorder called aphasia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These signs and symptoms are apraxia, alien hand syndrome, aphasia and parkinsonism. (allhealthsite.com)
  • The problem of the apraxia, next to the aphasia can often expose the right hemiplegic patient to a treatment that is not always the correct one, due to the difficulty of communication and interaction that we have. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • In fact, when I was called for a training course, I always request the possibility of conducting practical demonstrations in a patient with severe aphasia and apraxia, to demonstrate that also in this case a good neuro cognitive rehabilitation can be performed also through memory exercises with the patient that did not receive the required treatment. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • It has also been shown that individuals with ideomotor apraxia may have some deficits in general spontaneous movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with ideomotor apraxia appear to be much more reliant on visual input when conducting movements then nonapraxic individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with apraxia is unable to put together the correct order of muscle movements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surprisingly, this aspect has been largely overlooked in the literature on apraxia, a disorder affecting skilled and volitional movements ( De Renzi, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • While ataxia is loss of sensory and motor functions, apraxia is lack of just the motor functions i.e. muscular movements. (differencebetween.net)
  • In addition, apraxia may also occur and affect fine motor movements normally performed by the hands as well as the digits. (allhealthsite.com)
  • Apraxia (or dyspraxia if it is mild) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to carry out purposeful movements and gestures, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform them. (mmclt.org)
  • Interestingly, callosal apraxia is rare after callosotomy and is much more common with anterior cerebral artery strokes or tumors. (medscape.com)
  • By contrast, a disconnection between movement formulae and motor innervation leads to ideomotor apraxia: Patients know what to do but not how to do it. (frontiersin.org)
  • and ideomotor apraxia is a disconnection syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • however it is also sometimes referred to as articulatory dyspraxia and in the USA the usual term is apraxia of speech [2] . (wikidoc.org)
  • Apraxia patients appear to be unable to tap their fingers as quickly as a control group, with a lower maximum tapping rate correlated with more severe apraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ataxia and apraxia are often confused for each other, but they are two very different neurological symptoms. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ataxia is due to lesions in the cerebellum but apraxia is due to lesions in the cerebrum. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ataxia is seen as 'muscles giving way' but apraxia is the result of a lack of a motor impulse in spite of having intact muscular power and the ability to do it. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ataxia is a sign of some cerebellar condition, it is the result of a lesion in the cerebellum but apraxia is a clinical condition itself. (differencebetween.net)
  • Apraxia, one of the most important and least understood major behavioral neurology syndromes, robs patients of the ability to use tools. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, patients with apraxia are unlikely to perform activities of daily living well. (medscape.com)
  • Is There Really a Loss of Agency in Patients With Apraxia of Tool Use? (frontiersin.org)
  • The rationale underlying the idea that apraxic patients could experience loss of agency is grounded in classical, neuropsychological models of apraxia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stroke patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA) have difficulties controlling voluntary motor actions, as clearly seen when asked to imitate simple gestures performed by the examiner. (nfshost.com)
  • Before addressing the issue of the apraxia I invite you to watch this video where along with one of my patients, I did a test (De Renzi), which allows me to highlight some of the characteristics of the apraxic problem, after seeing it, and the apraxia will be a clearer problem then. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • The most common cause of ideomotor apraxia is a unilateral ischemic lesion to the brain, which is damage to one hemisphere of the brain due to a disruption of the blood supply, as in a stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of apraxia is a lesion in the cerebrum. (differencebetween.net)
  • The general concept of apraxia and the classification of ideomotor apraxia were developed in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by the work of Hugo Liepmann, Adolph Kussmaul, Arnold Pick, Paul Flechsig, Hermann Munk, Carl Nothnagel, Theodor Meynert, and linguist Heymann Steinthal, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ideomotor apraxia was classified as "ideo-kinetic apraxia" by Liepmann due to the apparent dissociation of the idea of the action with its execution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system is thought to be related to the areas of the brain most often seen to be damaged when ideomotor apraxia is present: the left parietal lobe and the premotor cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apraxia has a neurologic cause that localizes fairly well to the left inferior parietal lobule, the frontal lobes (especially the premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and convexity), or the corpus callosum. (medscape.com)
  • Childhood apraxia of speech, acquired apraxia of speech, and non-verbal oral apraxia (NVOA) are treated by speech therapy. (differencebetween.net)
  • Apraxia is a condition wherein an individual loses the ability to perform tasks that are normally familiar and are previously done without difficulty. (allhealthsite.com)
  • Any disease of these areas can cause apraxia, although stroke and dementia are the most common causes. (medscape.com)
  • Persistence of apraxia of speech after 12 months is associated with larger volume of the left-hemispheric stroke involving the Broca area. (medscape.com)
  • Note that we will mainly focus here on apraxia of tool use, namely, difficulties in selecting appropriate everyday tools and/or in performing the mechanical action needed to complete a task. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apraxia results from impaired function of the brain hemispheres, especially the parietal lobe. (mmclt.org)
  • Heilman defined apraxia in negative terms, characterizing it as "a disorder of skilled movement not caused by weakness, akinesia, deafferentation, abnormal tone or posture, movement disorders such as tremors or chorea, intellectual deterioration, poor comprehension, or uncooperativeness. (medscape.com)
  • Occupational and speech therapists play an important role in helping both people with apraxia and their caregivers learn ways to deal with the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Initially it was believed that damage to the subcortical white matter tracts, the axons that extend down from the cells bodies in the cerebral cortex, was the main area responsible for this form of apraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little can be done at present to reverse the motor deficit seen in ideomotor apraxia, although the extent of dysfunction it induces is not entirely clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the suppression correlated with De Renzi's apraxia test scores not only in central but also in occipital sites, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism for IMA, with a possible impact for deranged visual attention (alpha suppression) beyond the effect of MNS damage (mu suppression). (nfshost.com)
  • Many believe that the problem of the apraxia is a problem only related to the hand, but we have seen the parapraxis also in the movement of the left hand or when the apraxic patient walks, then it is possible to individualize some important characteristics, recognizing a few of them in this short video. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • In this context, an outstanding issue is whether loss of agency is an ignored dimension of apraxia-and particularly of apraxia of tool use (see below)-or whether loss of agency and apraxia of tool use are two independent syndromes based on distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gait apraxia is commonly seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ideomotor apraxia is hypothesized to result from a disruption of the system that relates stored tool use and gesture information with the state of the body to produce the proper motor output. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] To simplify matters, apraxia can be considered a form of a motor agnosia. (medscape.com)
  • And ideo-motor apraxia due to the statements and a host of upbraiding herself " constitutional basis of alienists. (voicesfromkrypton.net)
  • Treatment for apraxia is only physical therapy, physiotherapy and occupational therapy. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) impinges on one's ability to carry out common, familiar actions on command, such as waving goodbye. (wikipedia.org)
  • When apraxia develops in a person who was previously able to perform the tasks or abilities, it is called acquired apraxia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The speed and accuracy of grasping objects also appears unaffected by ideomotor apraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apraxia is lack of performance of the task despite having the desire and the capability to bring about the movement. (differencebetween.net)
  • in fact we have to consider the apraxia as a term that encompasses some peculiarities in the organization of the movement. (stroke-therapy-revolution.com)
  • Con frecuencia, el miembro afectado interfiere en las acciones del miembro normal. (bvsalud.org)
  • People with apraxia can benefit from treatment by a health care team. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recognition and treatment of depression is important for people with apraxia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An example of this type of apraxia is that a person puts vegetables in the pot first and then the oil needed for cooking. (differencebetween.net)
  • People with ideomotor apraxia will know what they are supposed to do, e.g. they will know to wave goodbye and what their arm and hand should do to accomplish it, but will be unable to execute the motion correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people with apraxia are no longer able to be independent and may have trouble performing everyday tasks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are a variety of brain areas where lesions have been correlated to ideomotor apraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apraxia is caused by damage to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take time to show someone with apraxia how to do a task, and allow enough time for them to do so. (medlineplus.gov)