A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
All boosted fission weapons use tritium, which decays with time, reducing the designed fission yield by approx 4.4% per year. ... As with all British thermonuclear weapons, the tritium gas used in the bomb core was purchased from the United States as part ... FOSM's proposal stated that a 10 kt nuclear detonation at the Mk.8 torpedo's running depth of approximately 40 feet (12 m) ... It was then recycled after removal of tritium decay products. ... tritium, and other specialised material uneconomical to produce ...
Approximately 10,000 cubic yards (7,600 m3) of soil were removed from the surrounding areas. Another 5,400 cubic yards (4,100 ... tritium, and transuranics. During the 1970s, the pond was backfilled with clay and shale, and finally capped with asphalt. In ... freezing the soil and groundwater to a depth of approximately 30 feet (9.1 m) around the pond, thereby forming a barrier to ...
Trigger travel is approximately 13 mm (0.5 in) with a trigger reset of 6 mm (0.2 in) and a trigger pull of approximately 32 N ( ... As an option the P99 RAD can also be fitted with self-luminous tritium night sights. The P99 RAD pistol is available with the ... The trigger travel is approximately 14 mm (0.55 in) with a trigger pull of approximately 38 N (8.5 lbf). The trigger pull is ... The trigger travel is approximately 8 mm (0.3 in) with a trigger pull of approximately 38 N (8.5 lbf). The trigger pull is ...
... with approx 800 bombs needed to orbit and a bomb rate of approx 1 per second. The following can be found in George Dyson's book ... Project Daedalus later proposed fusion explosives (deuterium or tritium pellets) detonated by electron beam inertial ... Robert Brownlee performed a highly approximate calculation that suggested that the low-yield nuclear explosive would accelerate ... the pusher plate's thickness would decrease by approximately a factor of 6 from the center to the edge. This ensures the change ...
Approximately 90% of the tritium in PWR coolants is produced by reactions of boron-10 with neutrons. Since tritium itself is a ... and then some become radioactive tritium. Water contaminated with tritium sometimes leaks to groundwater by accident or by ... "as the result of routine, approved releases;from google (why tritium leak) result 2". "Partial Meltdowns Led to Hydrogen ...
For the deuterium-tritium reaction, the physical value is at least n τ E ≥ 1.5 ⋅ 10 20 s m 3 {\displaystyle n\tau _{E}\geq 1.5\ ... The inertial confinement time τ E {\displaystyle \tau _{E}} can thus be approximated as τ E ≈ R v t h = R k B T m i = R ⋅ m i k ... in this temperature region can be approximated as ⟨ σ v ⟩ = 1.1 ⋅ 10 − 24 T 2 m 3 s , T i n k e V , {\displaystyle \left\langle ... For illustration, the Lawson criterion for the deuterium-tritium reaction will be derived here, but the same principle can be ...
The Copernicus device involves deuterium-tritium fusion and is expected to attain net energy gain. The approximate cost of the ... So unlike other nuclear fusion research involving deuterium and tritium, and unlike nuclear fission, no radioactive waste is ... 35 for deuterium and tritium Q = 3 for deuterium and helium-3 Q = 2.7 for hydrogen and boron-11 Q = 4.3 for polarized hydrogen ...
Likewise, removing an electron from a tritium atom produces a triton. Also in chemistry, the term "proton NMR" refers to the ... Protons have a positive charge distribution which decays approximately exponentially, with a mean square radius of about 0.8 fm ... The nuclei of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium contain one proton bound to one and two neutrons, respectively ... Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are collectively referred to as "nucleons" ( ...
Both SPARC and ARC plan to use deuterium-tritium fuel. The company's VIPER cable can sustain higher electric currents and ... As of October 2020, CFS had approximately 100 employees. In September 2020, the company reported significant progress in the ...
The SFP9-SF has a trigger travel of approximately 6 mm (0.2 in) with a relatively short trigger reset of 3 mm (0.1 in) and a ... Law enforcement variant that includes an additional magazine and tritium night sights. Tactical variant that includes a ... State Police of Lower Saxony - Approx. 22,000 pistols will consecutively replace the former P2000 pistols. State Police of ... Deliveries will take place from 2016 to 2018). State Police of Brandenburg - Approx. 8,000 SFP9 pistols replacing the P228. ...
The Watts Bar license amendment currently permits TVA to irradiate up to approximately 2,000 tritium-producing rods in the ... As the tritium is used for military purposes, Watts Bar unit 1 is fuelled by uranium which does not have peaceful only use non- ... TVA began irradiating tritium-producing rods at Watts Bar Unit 1 in the fall of 2003. TVA removed these rods from the reactor ... DOE reimburses TVA for the cost of providing the irradiation services, and also pays TVA a fee for each tritium-producing rod ...
The Ak 5B is the designated marksman version of the Ak 5. Modifications include fittings for a 4×25.5 SUSAT L9A1 tritium sight ... This version weighs 4.8 kg (without magazine) and 5.4 kg (with full magazine). Approximately 5200 of this version were made. It ... which took the company approximately four years to implement. Serial deliveries were scheduled to begin in June 2006 and the Ak ...
The S-unit was a tube filled with tritium gas while one end was titanium coated and loaded with deuterium. During function the ... Y5 - 1.45 megatonnes of TNT (6,100 TJ) A total of approximately 4,500 B28s were produced. The last weapons in use were retired ... In this configuration the weapon had a length of 93.25 inches (2,369 mm) and weighed approximately 1,975 pounds (896 kg). The ... Fall time at 500 feet (150 m) was approximately 10 seconds. Burst height in retarded airburst depended on release height. The ...
... or tritium was used. In addition, the vibrational motion was assumed to be approximated by a harmonic oscillator, so that u i X ... Moreover, the reduced mass is approximated by the mass of the light atom of the system, X = H or D. Because mD is approximately ... The following simple expressions relating deuterium and tritium kinetic isotope effects, which are also known as the Swain ... or tritium (200% increase in mass). Kinetic isotope effects from isotopic mass ratios can be as large as 36.4 using muons. They ...
Tritium is produced by neutron irradiation of 6Li 6Li + n → 4He + 3H Tritium has a half-life 4,500±8 days (approximately 12.32 ... Tritium is an example of a radioactive isotope. The principle behind the use of radioactive tracers is that an atom in a ... In metabolism research, Tritium and 14C-labeled glucose are commonly used in glucose clamps to measure rates of glucose uptake ... 99Mo → 99mTc + e− + ν e The molybdenum isotope has a half-life of approximately 66 hours (2.75 days), so the generator has a ...
... creating tritium. At the temperature created by fission in the core, tritium and deuterium can undergo thermonuclear fusion ... speeding up the late stages of the chain reaction and approximately doubling its efficiency[clarification needed]. Deuterium- ... The fusion of tritium and deuterium produces a neutron with an energy of 14 MeV-a much higher energy than the 1 MeV of the ... Tritium is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 12.355 years. Its main decay product is helium-3, which is among the ...
Urine samples are the standard way to measure tritium intake, while fecal samples are the standard way to measure transuranic ... In occupational or accident scenarios, approximate estimates can be based on measurements of the environment that people were ... it cannot detect beta emitters such as tritium; it provides no chemical information about any compound that the radioisotope ... within a limited range of 5-9 micrometers or approximately one cell diameter). Clinical trials, with promising results, are ...
For humans, the entire process of spermatogenesis is variously estimated as taking 74 days (according to tritium-labelled ... biopsies) and approximately 120 days (according to DNA clock measurements). Including the transport on ductal system, it takes ...
Mononeutron: An isolated neutron undergoes beta decay with a mean lifetime of approximately 15 minutes (half-life of ... but had been proposed as an extremely short-lived resonance state produced by nuclear reactions involving tritium. It has been ... approximately 10 minutes), becoming a proton (the nucleus of hydrogen), an electron and an antineutrino. Dineutron: The ...
The tritium burden around the Savannah River site is significantly higher than the measured burden in Germany; however, the ... It is situated on the southern (left) bank of the river Elbe, approx. 30 km southeast of Hamburg, and 20 km north of Lüneburg. ... Public health officials began to suspect that high levels of airborne tritium "might be involved either directly or as an ... Like Fallon, Nevada, the nearby population is quite small, including approximately 9,000 children within 10 km of the plant. ...
After approximately 34 test holes had been drilled, the site was deemed unsuitable, and the project was moved to the Nevada ... While there was no surface collapse,tritium and krypton were found at the surface following the test; this was not made public ... with an approximate yield of 1 to 1.2 megatons (4.2-5.0 PJ). The shockwave reached the surface with an acceleration of over 35 ... g (340 m/s2), causing a dome of the Earth's surface, approximately 3 km (2 mi) in radius, to rise about 5 meters (16 ft). The ...
In these systems, neutrons are produced by creating ions of deuterium, tritium, or deuterium and tritium and accelerating these ... Fusion of deuterium atoms (D + D) results in the formation of a He-3 ion and a neutron with a kinetic energy of approximately ... Using a deuterium-tritium gas mixture, self-replenishing D-T targets can be made. The neutron yield of such targets is lower ... Fusion of a deuterium and a tritium atom (D + T) results in the formation of a He-4 ion and a neutron with a kinetic energy of ...
... approximately 40% lithium-6) deuteride used in Bravo. Like the Bravo test, it produced far more than its predicted yield, and ... as the source of the tritium and deuterium fusion fuels, as opposed to the relative high enrichment level of lithium ( ...
... of the approximate size and weight of a bowling ball, with a channel for injection of tritium (in the case of boosted fission ... Deuterium and tritium also cause hydrogen embrittlement in many materials. Improper storage can promote corrosion of the pits. ... The efficiency of the hollow pits can be further increased by injecting a 50%/50% mixture of deuterium and tritium into the ... The higher degree of control of the initiation, both by the amount of deuterium-tritium mixture injection and by timing and ...
The ice was disrupted at the point of impact, temporarily exposing an area of seawater approximately 160 feet (50 m) in ... americium and tritium. Plutonium levels as high as 380 mg/m2 were registered in the area. American and Danish officials ...
... approximately 660 references to articles in journals covered by PubMed) to be mentioned is the characterization of the receptor ... of tritium-labeled MLA, by researchers at the University of Bath, in the UK. One relatively recent study which sheds light on ...
This required huge quantities of tritium, five times as much, and it had to be produced as rapidly as possible as the test ... Approximately 6,700 fire-damaged fuel elements and 1,700 fire-damaged isotope cartridges remain in the pile. The damaged ... To meet this deadline there was no chance of building a new reactor to produce the required tritium, so the Windscale Pile 1 ... In 2000 it was estimated that the core still contained 1470 TBq (4.1 g) of tritium (half-life 12 years), 213 TBq (69 g) of ...
... which is derived from approximately 0.02 AMUs. The amount of energy obtained is described by the mass-energy relation: E = m c ... will produce tritium. In deuterium-tritium fusion, one deuterium nucleus fuses with one tritium nucleus, yielding one helium ... This process is called tritium breeding. Deuterium-tritium fusion is planned to be used in ITER. It provides many advantages ... Deuterium-tritium fusion (sometimes abbreviated D+T) is a type of nuclear fusion in which one deuterium nucleus fuses with one ...
... so the Windscale Piles produced tritium through irradiation of lithium-magnesium, the latter of which would produce tritium ... Approximately 6,700 fire-damaged fuel elements and 1,700 fire-damaged isotope cartridges remain inside. The damaged core was ... In 2000 it was estimated that it still contained 1,470 TBq (4.1 g) of tritium (half-life 12 years), 213 TBq (69 g) of caesium- ... To meet this deadline there was no chance of building a new reactor to produce the required tritium (codenamed AM), ...
A second prototype fusion bomb Purple Granite was used in the third test, but only produced approximately 150 kt (630 TJ). A ... Also, by being bombarded with neutrons, each lithium-6 (Li6) atom splits into one tritium atom and one alpha particle. Then ... This dry fuel, when bombarded by neutrons, produces tritium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen which can undergo nuclear fusion, ... It used alternating layers of fissile material and lithium deuteride fusion fuel spiked with tritium (this was later dubbed ...
Potassium makes up approximately 1.5% of the Earth's crust and is the seventh most abundant element.[52] Sodium is found in ... analogous to the use of tritium.[97] Small amounts of caesium-134 and caesium-137 were released into the environment during ... The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98×1024 kg. It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), ... Rubidium is approximately as abundant as zinc and more abundant than copper. It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, ...
... as well as detection of tritium. The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would ... The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most ... xi, 207-209 "The ratio of the worldwide positive results on cold fusion to negative results peaked at approximately 50% (...) ... The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, ...
He found the ionization rate increased approximately fourfold over the rate at ground level.[19] Hess ruled out the Sun as the ... Tritium (12.3 years): 14N(n, 3H)12C (spallation). *Beryllium-7 (53.3 days) ... In 1948, observations with nuclear emulsions carried by balloons to near the top of the atmosphere showed that approximately 10 ...
The microspheres are approximately 30 µm in diameter (about one-third of a human hair) and are delivered directly into the ... occurs in approximately 1-5% of those receiving radiation therapy.[25][24]. Depending upon the irradiated zone, late effect ...
This results in the important concept of "quasineutrality", which says the density of negative charges is approximately equal ...
It has been estimated that there are approximately 30,000 accelerators worldwide. Of these, only about 1% are research machines ... although this method still requires a reactor to produce tritium. An example of this type of machine is LANSCE at Los Alamos. ...
The sight line elements are approximately 48.5 mm (1.9 in) over the bore axis. The "point-blank range" battle zero setting "П" ... The reticle is an inverted aiming post in the top half of the field of view and is tritium-illuminated for low-light condition ... The AK-74 and AKM share an approximate 50% parts commonality (interchangeable most often are pins, springs and screws).[8][14][ ... The sight height above the bore axis is also approximately 3 mm (0.1 in)higher than the AK-74, due to the combined front sight/ ...
The slide spring is doubly captive, being inserted approximately an inch into the transfer block at one end and a receiving ... an Ameriglo high-visibility orange tritium front sight and black rear notch sights for fast target acquisition, and includes a ...
Operation of the MSRE provided insights into the problem of tritium in a molten-salt reactor. It was observed that about 6-10% ... the environment above the solidified salt was approximately one atmosphere of fluorine.[citation needed] The ensuing ... R.B. Briggs (Winter 1971-1972). "Tritium in Molten-Salt Reactors". Reactor Technology. 14: 335-342.. ... In the concluding months of operation, xenon stripping, deposition of fission products, and tritium behavior were investigated ...
The product of the activities, or approximately, the concentrations of H+. and OH−. is a constant, so their respective ... H or D), a hydrogen isotope with one neutron, and fewer than 20 parts per quintillion include tritium (3. H or T), which has ... Tritium is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of 4500 days; THO exists in nature only in minute quantities, being produced ... It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 18.2 MΩ·cm (182 kΩ·m) at 25 °C.[51] ...
... photons moving in approximately opposite directions. These are detected when they reach a scintillator in the scanning device, ... The technique depends on simultaneous or coincident detection of the pair of photons moving in approximately opposite ...
At full power, sodium at a temperature of approximately 500 °F (260 °C) passed through a plenum chamber beneath the reactor ... In August 2004 ground water under the former Sodium Reactor Experiment was sampled to determine the presence of tritium, which ... August 2004 sampling for tritium at the former Sodium Reactor Experiment facility site ... maintained at a pressure of approximately three pounds per square inch. Piping circulated 50,000 pounds (22,680 kg) of heated ...
... the nuclei of tritium). The ternary process is less common, but still ends up producing significant helium-4 and tritium gas ... NUCLEAR EVENTS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES by the Borden institute..."approximately 82% of the fission energy is released as kinetic ... have been discovered at which self-sustaining nuclear fission took place approximately 2 billion years ago. Unknown until 1972 ...
The P225 has tritium fixed sights; P6s had fixed sights only. Genuine P225s manufactured for the West German Police will have a ... Double-action trigger pressure is measured at approximately 12-14 pounds, with subsequent shots being fired in single-action ... mode with a lighter trigger pressure of approximately 6 pounds. There is no separate safety lever to manipulate; the hammer ...
tritium illumination: Tritium is used with phosphor in rifle sights to increase nighttime firing accuracy. Some runway markers ... Approximately half of the deaths from Hiroshima and Nagasaki died two to five years afterward from radiation exposure.[4][5] A ... Approximately half of the deaths from Hiroshima and Nagasaki died two to five years afterward from radiation exposure.[4][5] ... Currently nuclear power provides approximately 15.7% of the world's electricity (in 2004) and is used to propel aircraft ...
"his outstanding contributions to the development of the tritium-helium dating technique and its application to problems in ... 950 (approximate). Location. Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Website. WHOI.edu. Established in 1930 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, it ...
... due to the physical decay of bomb tritium in the Indian Ocean. As for water vapor, the tritium concentration was approximately ... Tritium is an. isotope of hydrogen. Heavier:. hydrogen-4. Decay product of:. hydrogen-4. Decay chain. of tritium. Decays to:. ... Tritium has an atomic mass of 3.0160492 u. Diatomic tritium ( T. 2 or 3. H. 2) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. ... Tritium (/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/; symbol T. or 3. H. , also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The ...
"Approximately how many atoms are in a grain of salt?". PhysLink.com: Physics & Astronomy.. ... in the same way as caesium or tritium (as T2O). ... which is approximately 0.2% of the abundance of radium. The ... the benefits of such plugs quickly diminished after approximately a month because of polonium's short half-life and because ...
The SLR served the British Armed Forces from 1954 until approximately 1994, being replaced by the L85A1 from 1985 onwards.[31] ... The aiming mark was an inverted, tapered perspex pillar ending in a point which could be illuminated by a tritium element for ... L2A1 production was approximately 10,000 rifles produced between 1962 and 1982. Lithgow exported a large number of L1A1 rifles ... The Australian L1A1/L2A1 rifles were produced by the Small Arms Factory - Lithgow, with approximately 220,000 L1A1 rifles ...
Approximately 90 micrograms of natural uranium, on average, exist in the human body as a result of normal intake of water, food ... Staballoys are approximately 1.67 times as dense as lead and are designed for use in kinetic energy penetrator armor-piercing ... Approximate area and major clashes in which DU bullets and rounds were used in the Gulf War ... DoD uses only DU that contains approximately 0.2% 235U.[17] ... days and for millions of years thereafter will be approximately ...
In 2010, globally, approximately 281,500 people died of leukemia.[59] In 2000, approximately 256,000 children and adults around ... nuclear reactor emit tritium) result 1, 2, 3". Archived from the original on 20 July 2017.. ... Approximately 30% of patients die from this procedure.[53] Hairy cell[edit]. Further information: Hairy cell leukemia § ... Rates from 1975 to 2011 have increased by 0.7% per year among children.[62] Approximately 44,270 new cases of leukemia were ...
In 2018, wind power provided approximately 6% of the global electricity supply.[7] However, it may be difficult to site wind ... lithium and tritium.[88] ... that are consistent with limiting warning to approximately 1.5 ...
Tritium is also used as a source of radiation in various products utilizing tritium illumination. ... Some newer white LEDs use a yellow and blue emitter in series, to approximate white; this technology is used in some Motorola ...
The best constraint on the absolute mass of the neutrinos comes from precision measurements of tritium decay, providing an ... Around 7006160217648700000♠1016 GeV these couplings become approximately equal. This has led to speculation that above this ...
One proposed method of direct detection of the CνB is to use capture of cosmic relic neutrinos on tritium i.e. 3. H. {\ ... Once the temperature dropped to approximately 2.5 MeV, the neutrinos decoupled from the rest of matter. Despite this decoupling ... One such proposed experiment is called PTOLEMY, which will be made up of 100g of tritium target.[9] The detector should be ... To find this ratio, we assume that the entropy of the universe was approximately conserved by the electron-positron ...
Tritium production[edit]. See also: Tritium § Deuterium. Tritium is the active substance in self-powered lighting and ... O is approximately as dense as D. 2O, H. 217. O is about halfway between H. 2O and D. 2O)-but is rarely called heavy water, ... deuterium and tritium for advanced compact warheads (i.e. thermonuclear weapons). Pakistan succeeded in acquiring a tritium ... and produces only small amounts of tritium, although enough to justify cleaning tritium from the moderator every few years to ...
displaystyle {\begin{smallmatrix}{\frac {1836}{1837}}\approx 0,9995\end{smallmatrix}}}. , atau 99,95% dari total massa atom. ... tritium), dll. Hidrogen-1 adalah bentuk isotop hidrogen yang paling umum. Kadang-kadang ia disebut sebagai protium.[51] Semua ...
2008 discovery of tritium leak[edit]. The NRC and Ohio EPA were notified of a tritium leak accidentally discovered during an ... On June 6, 2012, an approximately 0.1 gpm pinhole spray leakage was identified from a weld in a seal of the reactor coolant ... approximately 25 miles east of the city of Toledo. It has a single pressurized water reactor. As of 2011, it is operated by the ...
... used options and get the best deals for Nite Tritium Glowring Military Marker Key Ring Gadget GTLS Trigalight at the best ... GBP 9.00 (approx. C $15.44) Royal Mail International Tracked. , See details International shipment of items may be subject to ... Details about Nite Tritium Glowring Military Marker Key Ring Gadget GTLS Trigalight. ...
Entergy owns and operates power plants with approximately 30,000 megawatts of electric generating capacity, including nearly ... Entergys Investigation into Elevated Tritium Concentrations Entergy, assisted by outside third-party experts, continues to ... Entergy Update on Tritium at Indian Point: Fluctuations No Threat to Public Health or Safety ... Tritium is a weak radioactive isotope of hydrogen. To learn more about tritium, click on the following link: http://www.nrc.gov ...
... commercial demand for tritium is 400 grams per year and the cost is approximately US$30,000 per gram. Tritium is an important ... is usually measured in Tritium Units where 1 TU is defined as the ratio of 1 tritium atom to 1018 hydrogen atoms, approximately ... due to the physical decay of bomb tritium in the Indian Ocean. As for water vapor, the tritium concentration was approximately ... Tritium has an atomic mass of 3.0160492 u. Diatomic tritium ( T 2 or 3 H 2) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. ...
Dresden Generating Stations technical experts identified water containing tritium in on-site monitoring points through the ... www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/tritium.html.. Dresden Generating Station is approximately 60 miles southwest of Chicago. ... Tritium occurs naturally in the environment in very low concentrations. Most tritium in the environment is in the form of ... Tritium is used in life science research, and in studies investigating the metabolism of potential new drugs. A tritium fact ...
Hydrogen-3 or Tritium. Tritium was approximately 99% of the total activity at White Oak Creek. The half-lives, decay types and ... Blaylock indicated that tritium was no problem. If tritium is released over White Oak Dam, it is at about 500 picocuries per ... Cobalt has approximately a five-year half-life, but some can still be detected with certain instruments after three, four, or ... One inch was approximately 50 miles.. Dr. Paul Charp, Presentation Continued. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ...
Tritium Detection - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Tirtium ... is approximately 6 at 25°C; hence the formation of tritiated water is favored. Because of the predominance of this reaction, ... W. M. Jones, Thermodynamic Functions for Tritium and Tritium Hydride. The EquiLibrium of Tritium and Hydrogen with Tritium ... Tritium is one of the three radionuclides, along with "Ni and Fe, which have a maximum permissible body burden of 1 mc, the ...
Tritium Glowring Nite Keyring EDC Gadget , Sporting Goods, Camping & Hiking, Other Camping & Hiking , eBay! ... 2.99 (approx. EUR 3.44) Royal Mail International Standard. , See details See details about international postage here. help ... FIREFLY MILITARY SUPER KIT MARKER - Tritium... FIREFLY MILITARY SUPER KIT MARKER - Tritium... ... Details about FIREFLY MILITARY SUPER KIT MARKER - Tritium Glowring Nite Keyring EDC Gadget. ...
Radium was used to make self-luminous paint from the early years of the 20th century until approximately 1970. Promethium ... Tritium radioluminescence is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium ... since the tritium undergoes beta decay). The tritium in a gaseous tritium light source undergoes beta decay, releasing ... Tritium lights or beta lights were formerly[when?] used in fishing lures. Some flashlights have slots for tritium vials so that ...
Approx. 100 t of sardines washed ashore in Pacific coastal area of Hokkaido again - Photos ... Tritium density rose up 10 × since July in seaside of Reactor 1 ... seismic SFP Strontium-90 tank tepco thyroid tokyo tritium tweet ...
Tritium night sights •Wooden laminate E. series grips •O.A.L.: 7.95. •Wt.: approx. 29.9 oz. Read More ...
Ultra-bright T100 Tritium Movement: Swiss Ronda 715Li Quartz Battery: 10-year lithium battery Crystal: Anti-reflective scratch ... Case Diameter: 47mm (approximately 1 7\/8 inches). *Case Thickness: 12mm (approximately 1\/2 inches) ... ArmourLite Isobrite Eclipse Series - Blue & Orange Tritium - Black Rubber - T100. ArmourLite ISO201 , Retail Price: $ 499.00 ...
Ultra-bright T100 Tritium Movement: Swiss Ronda 715Li Quartz Battery: 10-year lithium battery Crystal: Anti-reflective scratch ... Case Diameter: 47mm (approximately 1 7/8 inches). *Case Thickness:12mm (approximately 1/2 inches) ... ArmourLite IsoBrite Valor Series - Orange Dial & T100 Tritium - Silicone Strap. ArmourLite ISO302 , Retail Price: $ 499.00 ...
And just as deuterium has approximately twice the mass of protium, tritium has about three times the mass, 3.016 amu. As is ... TRITIUM.. Whereas deuterium has a single neutron, tritium-as its mass number of 3 indicates-has two. ... Again, the melting and boiling points are higher: thus tritium heavy water (T2O) melts at 40°F (4.5°C), as compared with 32°F ( ... Deuterium and Tritium. Only three isotopes are considered significant enough to have names of their own, as opposed to being ...
Dresden Generating Station plant workers performing monthly environmental monitoring late last week identified tritium in a ... Dresden Station is located on 1,782 acres approximately 60 miles southwest of Chicago in Grundy County. When both of the ... Station experts are working to determine the tritium source, performing additional sampling to verify that the tritium is ... The monitoring well sample showed tritium levels of 3.2 million picocuries per liter of water. Tritium concentrations are ...
Tritium Tritium, (T, or 3H), the isotope of hydrogen with atomic weight of approximately 3. Its nucleus, consisting of one ... Tritium is a radioactive species having a half-life of 12.32 years; it occurs in natural water with an... ... Triton Triton, nucleus of the heaviest hydrogen isotope, tritium, or hydrogen-3. Tritons, which consist of one proton and two ... the atomic weight of one of which is approximately equal to the mean of the atomic weights of the other two. Such triads- ...
And just as deuterium has approximately twice the mass of protium, tritium has about three times the mass, or 3.016 amu. Its ... The tritium nucleus, or ion, is called the triton; it consists of a proton plus two neutrons. Tritium oxide (T2O) has a melting ... Deuterium and Tritium. Designated as 2H, deuterium is a stable isotope, whereas tritium-3H-is unstable, or radioactive. Not ... An atom of tritium contains one proton, one electron, and two neutrons. There are only very small traces of tritium in nature. ...
Tritium contained in contaminated water is increasing by approx. 230 Trillion Bq per year, from the data Tepco submitted to ... Nuclear power plants discharge Tritium in normal operation, but its supposed to be approx 3.7 Trillion Bq per year from one ... Total Tritium in contaminated water increasing by 330 Trillion Bq per year / Beyond discharge-able amount. ... NRA "Tritium is unremovable. Discharge is necessary." 7.1 thousand trillion Bq of Cs-134/137 and 1.1 ten quadrillion Bq of ...
Approximately 4lb 3oz. *Product Number: VC22SN‑PG‑HVT‑BN‑VZ‑C. *UPC: 810162017323 ... Scorpion 22 WMR, Black Stainless, Hi-Viz Front/Tritium Rear, Predator Green VZ Grips, Compensator. ...
The sample must contain detectable tritium (greater than approximately 0.5 TU). * If the sample contains terrigenic He (helium ... Tritium (3H, half-life of 12.43 years (Unterweger and others, 1980)) has provided an excellent tracer of young waters. Tritium ... Finally, 3H/3He age and reconstructed initial tritium (3H+3Hetri), after correction for dilution with old (low tritium) water, ... Radioactive decay of 3H produces the noble gas helium-3 (3He). Tritium measurements alone can be used to locate the depth of ...
... due to the physical decay of bomb tritium in the Indian Ocean. As for water vapor, the tritium concentration was approximately ... Tritium is an. isotope of hydrogen. Heavier:. hydrogen-4. Decay product of:. hydrogen-4. Decay chain. of tritium. Decays to:. ... Tritium has an atomic mass of 3.0160492 u. Diatomic tritium ( T. 2 or 3. H. 2) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. ... Tritium (/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/; symbol T. or 3. H. , also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The ...
Last week, levels of radioactive tritium in samples collected near reactor #1 spiked sharply, measuring 34,000 Bq/liter-far ... Currently, officials estimate that the trench is holding approximately 210 tons of extremely contaminated water, which contains ... and 8.7 million Bq/liter of tritium. Cesium and strontium have both been linked to cancer. Workers hope to remove 70 tons of ...
santa fe new mexican: contaminants found in los alamos well. tritium, nitrate, perchlorate. after approx. 60 years of operation ...
No tritium exchange was detected, thus the tritium labelling was suitable for the purpose of the study. 99.5% or more of the ... Approximately 90% of the administered radioactivity was excreted within 96 hours with comparable quantities excreted in the ... Analysis of the urine from dosed animals indicated that 4% of the tritium was volatile by lyophilization. Thus tritium exchange ... Meuldermans al., 1977b). Tritium labelled imazalil sulphate was incubated with rat liver homogenates to study the in vitro ...
Id like the tritium night sights even more if the entire rear sight were serrated instead of only the bottom third or so. Not ... Height: 4.03 inches without a magazine inserted, approx 4.62 inches with a magazine.. Barrel Length: 3.16 inches. Sights: ... TRUGLO Tritium PRO sights adorn the EVO SP front and rear. They make for a perfect sight picture balance between fast and ... TRUGLO Tritium PRO. MSRP: $925 (TLE as-tested. EVO SPs range from $856 to $1,047) ...
There were approximately 3000 such subjects among atomic bomb survivors. Doses received by employees of nuclear industry ... Very few studies have attempted to reconstruct individual doses from nuclides other than tritium. One exception is the study of ... The exposure level was highest for those (approximately 200,000 liquidators) who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987. ... aDoses are for 1986-1995; over the longer term (1996-2056) the collective dose will increase by approximately 50%. ...
The tritium data were provided graciously by Dr. Allen Mason of Los Alamos Laboratory and Dr. H. G. Oslund of the Tritium ... More than 20,000 filters were collected during this periodmore » and analyzed for approximately 40 different radionuclides. All ... The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered ... Serving users worldwide, the ARM Data Center collects and archives approximately 20 terabytes of data per month. Datastreams ...
Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1-2 mg/cm 2, this indicates the stagnationmore » plasma was ... In these experiments, up to 5 ×10 10 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. ... and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel ... significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control ...
  • The reticle on the SA80's optical SUSAT sight as well as the LPS 4x6° TIP2 telescopic sight of a PSL rifle, contains a small amount of tritium for the same effect as an example of tritium use on a rifle sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2014 it was made public that a total of 875 TBq (2.45 g) of tritium are on the site of Fukushima Daiichi , [9] and the amount of tritium contained in the contaminated water is increasing by approximately 230 TBq (0.64 g) per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T rating measures the amount of tritium in a watch. (timestyles.de)
  • The Isobrite T100 watches contain approximately four times the amount of tritium gas as the T25 watches do (i.e. (timestyles.de)
  • The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of the common isotope hydrogen-1 (protium) contains just one proton, and that of hydrogen-2 (deuterium) contains one proton and one neutron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of tritium from lithium-6 in such breeder ceramics is possible with neutrons of any energy, and is an exothermic reaction yielding 4.8 MeV. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-energy neutrons can also produce tritium from lithium-7 in an endothermic (net heat consuming) reaction, consuming 2.466 MeV. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-energy neutrons irradiating boron-10 will also occasionally produce tritium: A more common result of boron-10 neutron capture is 7 Li and a single alpha particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton ) contains one proton and two neutrons , whereas the nucleus of protium (by far the most abundant hydrogen isotope) contains one proton and no neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these experiments, up to 5 ×10 10 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. (osti.gov)
  • A tritium nucleus is formed by combining two neutrons and a proton. (jiskha.com)
  • The deuterium nucleus has one proton and one neutron , while tritium has one proton and two neutrons. (britannica.com)
  • The shot produced approximately 3 x 10 14 (300 trillion) neutrons, the highest neutron yield to date by an inertial confinement fusion facility. (llnl.gov)
  • Neutrons are produced when the nuclei of deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) fuse, creating a helium nucleus and releasing a high-energy neutron. (llnl.gov)
  • These generators are capable of producing approximately 2 x 10(8) neutrons/s with a DT fusion energy spectrum. (epfl.ch)
  • Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a nucleus containing one proton and two neutrons. (wikipremed.com)
  • In fact, the heavy isotopes of hydrogen- deuterium (D) and tritium (T)-react more efficiently with each other, and, when they do undergo fusion, they yield more energy per reaction than do two hydrogen nuclei. (britannica.com)
  • There are three isotopes of hydrogen (protium, deuterium, and tritium), having atomic weights of approx. (tabers.com)
  • citation needed] During manufacture, a length of borosilicate glass tube that has had the internal surface coated with a phosphor-containing material is filled with radioactive tritium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium was first detected in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck after bombarding deuterium with deuterons (a proton and neutron, comprising a deuterium nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium is most often produced in nuclear reactors by neutron activation of lithium-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium is also produced in heavy water-moderated reactors whenever a deuterium nucleus captures a neutron. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction has a quite small absorption cross section, making heavy water a good neutron moderator, and relatively little tritium is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. (osti.gov)
  • The neutron yield record was set on Sunday, Oct. 31, when the NIF team fired 121 kilojoules of ultraviolet laser light into a glass target filled with deuterium and tritium (DT) gas. (llnl.gov)
  • A calibration of the JET neutron detectors was carried out prior to the upcoming deuterium-tritium experimental campaign. (epfl.ch)
  • Tritium is used to illuminate the iron sights of some small arms. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRUGLO Tritium PRO sights adorn the EVO SP front and rear. (thetruthaboutguns.com)
  • I'd like the tritium night sights even more if the entire rear sight were serrated instead of only the bottom third or so. (thetruthaboutguns.com)
  • The pistols come with a load of other aspects certain to pique discriminating arm citizens' interest, including TruGlo Tritium Pro night sights, 7-pound trigger, match-grade crowned barrel and G10 grips and backstraps. (gundigest.com)
  • To transition to the XTI sights simply cant your rifle outboard by approximately 15 degrees and the sights will be visible. (gunsamerica.com)
  • Tritium is also used as a nuclear fusion fuel, along with more abundant deuterium, in tokamak reactors and in hydrogen bombs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For applications in proposed fusion energy reactors, such as ITER, pebbles consisting of lithium bearing ceramics including Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4, are being developed for tritium breeding within a helium cooled pebble bed, also known as a breeder blanket. (wikipedia.org)
  • The release or recovery of tritium needs to be considered in the operation of nuclear reactors, especially in the reprocessing of nuclear fuels and in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, manmade sources of tritium include commercial and research reactors. (exeloncorp.com)
  • For applications in proposed fusion energy reactors, such as ITER , pebbles consisting of lithium bearing ceramics including Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 , are being developed for tritium breeding within a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), also known as a breeder blanket. (wikipedia.org)
  • While ITER will never breed tritium for its own consumption, it will test breeding blanket concepts-the tools and techniques that designers of future DEMO reactors will need to achieve tritium self-sufficiency. (iter.org)
  • There are also text statements from Carson Mark and Paul Leventhal for submission to the House Armed Services Committee Panel on Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities, Hearing on New Production Reactors and the Current Halt in Tritium Production. (utexas.edu)
  • The industrial process of removing tritium from water has historically focused on cleaning highly contaminated "heavy water" for recycling back into nuclear reactors, such as the process used for CANDU reactors. (businesswire.com)
  • Among those contaminants is tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced by nuclear reactors most often found as a groundwater contaminant at nuclear plants. (atomicinsights.com)
  • An individual deuterium-tritium fusion reaction liberates about 17.6 MeV of energy. (physicsforums.com)
  • The results of all of these experiments are extremely encouraging," said NIF Director Ed Moses, "and they give us great confidence that we will be able to achieve ignition conditions in deuterium-tritium fusion targets. (llnl.gov)
  • Tritium concentrations are measured in picocuries per liter of water. (exeloncorp.com)
  • The monitoring well sample showed tritium levels of 3.2 million picocuries per liter of water. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Tritium radioluminescence is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a tube is known as a "gaseous tritium light source" (GTLS), or beta light (since the tritium undergoes beta decay). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tritium in a gaseous tritium light source undergoes beta decay, releasing electrons that cause the phosphor layer to phosphoresce. (wikipedia.org)
  • All gaseous tritium luminous timepieces entering the United States must pass stringent testing in accordance with guidelines set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (broadarrow.net)
  • At present, only Marathon Watch Company holds the contract to supply gaseous tritium luminous timepieces to the United States Government. (broadarrow.net)
  • Tritium is a weak radioactive isotope of hydrogen. (prnewswire.com)
  • Tritium (/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/, from Ancient Greek τρίτος (trítos) 'third') or hydrogen-3 (symbol T or 3H) is a rare and radioactive isotope of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. (wikipremed.com)
  • The release and diffusion of tritium and helium produced by the fission of lithium can take place within ceramics referred to as breeder ceramics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This package consists of global oceanic database of tritium and helium isotope measurements made by numerous researchers and laboratories over a period exceeding 60 years: from 1952-10-21 to 2016-01-22 in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea. (awi.de)
  • Tritium and helium isotope data provide key information on ocean circulation, ventilation, and mixing, as well as the rates of biogeochemical processes, and deep-ocean hydrothermal processes. (awi.de)
  • A tritium vial is 4-5 orders of magnitude less "current" (electrons per second) though (~1 GBq tritium vs. ~10 uA CRT beam current). (hackaday.com)
  • I have not run the numbers, but I'm sure a short stroll outdoors in daylight is yields a higher dose of damaging radiation to your skin than a tritium vial in your pocket would. (hackaday.com)
  • Each vial contains approximately 5.82 mEq sodium. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of solid tritium light sources, the tritium replaces some of the hydrogen atoms in the paint, which also contains a phosphor such as zinc sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entergy, assisted by outside third-party experts, continues to investigate the source of the elevated tritium concentrations - with the likely cause related to the processing of water in preparation for a regularly scheduled refueling outage at the plant's Unit 2 reactor. (prnewswire.com)
  • Tritium occurs naturally in the environment in very low concentrations. (exeloncorp.com)
  • The 1D and 2D EPM models were fitted to monitoring data from the first five years of the experiment and then used to predict future tritium concentrations. (unt.edu)
  • An individual fission of a U235 nucleus liberates approximately 215 MeV of energy. (physicsforums.com)
  • Tritium emits electrons through beta decay and, when they interact with a phosphor material, light is emitted through the process of phosphorescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium emits relatively low energy beta particles that bombard the phosphorus coated glass tubes, this action generates light. (exitsignwarehouse.com)
  • Some flashlights have slots for tritium vials so that the flashlight can be easily located in the dark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both frames have holes which are designed as a friction fit for off-the-shelf tritium vials. (hackaday.com)
  • These vials use the radioactive decay of tritium with a phosphor coating to create a dim glow which lasts approximately a decade. (hackaday.com)
  • In comparison, the fusion of deuterium with tritium releases about 17.6 MeV of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process, which requires temperatures of approximately 39 million degrees Celsius, produces 17.6 million electron volts of energy. (weforum.org)
  • It occurs in ordinary water, but only in portions of one atom for every 10 18 atoms of 1 H. Tritium is more effectively produced by nuclear reactions than by separations from water by electrolysis. (bcit.ca)
  • and 8.7 million Bq/liter of tritium. (greenpeace.org)
  • For example, one gram (approximately the weight of a quarter of a teaspoon of salt) of tritium in tritiated water will contaminate almost 500 billion gallons of water up to the current drinking water limit of 20,000 picocuries per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (ieer.org)
  • Exelon Nuclear officials notified state and federal authorities over the weekend after tritium in water samples was confirmed. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Exelon, which owns the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant in Lacey, has posted maps showing the plumes of radioactive tritium contamination from pipe leaks in 2009. (app.com)
  • Tritium is used as a radioactive tracer , in radioluminescent light sources for watches and instruments, and, along with deuterium , as a fuel for nuclear fusion reactions with applications in energy generation and weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusually low energy released in the tritium beta decay makes the decay (along with that of rhenium-187) appropriate for absolute neutrino mass measurements in the laboratory (the most recent experiment being KATRIN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium is a weak radiation emitter that is used commercially to make luminous dials and instruments, as a source of light for exit and safety signs, as a tracer for biochemical research and in ground water transport measurements, among other uses. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Tritium measurements alone can be used to locate the depth of the mid-1960s bomb peak, but, because of radioactive decay, many samples may need to be collected and analyzed today to locate its position. (usgs.gov)
  • While the KMPS and ALPS remove contaminants in the water, they do not remove tritium. (businesswire.com)
  • Tritium lighting is made using glass tubes with a phosphor layer in them and tritium gas inside the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, phosphor degradation will cause the brightness of a tritium tube to drop by more than half in that period. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrons emitted by the radioactive decay of the tritium cause phosphor to glow, thus providing a long-lasting (several years) and non-battery-powered firearms sight that is visible in dim lighting conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the tritium tubes and a black & white CRT generate light from smacking a phosphor with 10 to 15 keV electrons. (hackaday.com)
  • The most recent samples from onsite groundwater monitoring wells show elevated levels of tritium from the first readings - with the highest concentration rising by about 80 percent, fluctuations that can be expected as the material migrates. (prnewswire.com)
  • RANDAB offers gas samples characterizing the tritium, radon and 14CO2 concentration in stratospheric air. (osti.gov)
  • Kurion has performed extensive tests on our Modular Detritiation System using a simulant of the contaminated water at the same tritium concentration levels found at the Fukushima site," said Dr. Gaëtan Bonhomme, Kurion's Chief Technology Officer, who led the demonstration of the detritiation technology. (businesswire.com)
  • The LB 110 is a special measuring device for monitoring the activity concentration of tritium in room air and exhaust air. (berthold.com)
  • The author reviews published information on tritium production and the pertinent factors that affect the behavior of tritium in the environment. (scribd.com)
  • The new model approximately represents the phase behavior of pseudoquaternary mixtures containing surfactant, cosurfactant, oil, and brine. (onepetro.org)
  • Analytical equations based on the stage model are set up for simulation of the transient behavior of tritium ( T ) separation from wastewater. (scirp.org)
  • Isobrite the first T100 lightweight polycarbon watch with 10 year battery life, sapphire crystal, two tritium markers on the unidirectional bezel, 200m water resistant watch on the market. (timestyles.de)
  • Willard F. Libby recognized that tritium could be used for radiometric dating of water and wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,800 short tons) of heavy water a year, and it separates out about 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) of tritium, making it available for other uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dresden Generating Station's technical experts identified water containing tritium in on-site monitoring points through the station's environmental monitoring program. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Samples taken from the station's on-site waste water treatment facility also showed low levels of tritium. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Most tritium in the environment is in the form of tritiated water, which easily disperses in the atmosphere, bodies of water, soil and rock. (exeloncorp.com)
  • The plant maintains an extensive environmental monitoring program, including routine water sampling from 71 on-site dedicated monitoring points designed to detect unusual levels of tritium in the environment. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Tritium contained in contaminated water is increasing by approx. (fukushima-diary.com)
  • Tritium input to ground water has occurred in a series of spikes following periods of atmospheric testing of nuclear devices that began in 1952 and reached a maximum in 1963-1964. (usgs.gov)
  • In both these studies, up to approximately 2% of the administered radioactivity was identified as tritiated water indicating exchange of the tritium label. (inchem.org)
  • Submissions for the tritium-removal project required the ability to treat 800,000 tons of tritiated water. (businesswire.com)
  • That is because the decontamination of tritium (T) is particularly problematic: it is a special form of hydrogen that forms tritiated water (HTO vs. H 2 O), which does not lend itself to removal by conventional technologies. (businesswire.com)
  • Tritium ( 3 H) in air is usually present as water vapour (H 1 H 3 O) or gaseous hydrogen (H 1 H 3 ). (berthold.com)
  • Radioactive tritium has been documented in both surface and groundwater outside the Turkey Point nuclear complex and studies confirm a growing plume of hyper-saline water and other pollutants in all directions including into the Biscayne Aquifer. (atomicinsights.com)
  • Additionally, FPL has violated its NPDES Permit by discharges of hyper-saline water contaminated with radioactive tritium into ground water, threatening the water supply for Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys. (atomicinsights.com)
  • Approximately 100,000 gallons of water have to be carefully electrolyzed to produce a single gallon of pure heavy water. (bcit.ca)
  • Pick your own poison, but I would volunteer to drink water containing all of the tritium that the leaks at VY put into the ground under the plant. (atomicinsights.com)
  • However, I would have to ask for the water to be really concentrated - the tritium that leaked out was so diluted that I would have to drink 138,000 liters. (atomicinsights.com)
  • The low energy of tritium's radiation makes it difficult to detect tritium-labeled compounds except by using liquid scintillation counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium was found to be an ideal energy source for self-luminous compounds in 1953 and the idea was patented by Edward Shapiro on 29 October 1953 in the US (2749251 - Source of Luminosity). (wikipedia.org)
  • The NRMA's electric vehicle network rollout is expected to be completed in 2019 and aims to install approximately 40 DC Fast Chargers across NSW and the ACT. (itwire.com)
  • and analyzed for approximately 40 different radionuclides. (osti.gov)
  • As tritium illumination requires no electrical energy, it has found wide use in applications such as emergency exit signs, illumination of wristwatches, and portable yet very reliable sources of low intensity light which won't degrade human night vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher volume of tritium gas results in a much brighter visible illumination combined with a much longer life span of illumination. (timestyles.de)
  • The use of internally sealed tritium gas as the illumination source reduces general maintenance issues and operational costs. (exitsignwarehouse.com)
  • Tritium source illumination provides constant emergency illumination ranging from ten (10) to twenty (20) years. (exitsignwarehouse.com)
  • Tritium is the only radiation source used in radioluminescent light sources today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are you aware that the tritium in those tubes is bathing you in soft x-rays from Bremsstrahlung radiation that you can only detect with scintillation counter? (hackaday.com)
  • Genetic damage from radiation is a stochastic phenomenon and the only reason that tritium is allowed for use in safety signals is an arbitrary contrasting of received radiation vs. fire danger and typically these radiation sources are NOT NEAR people because they're in exit signs that people don't stay next to for extended periods. (hackaday.com)
  • There is no dangerous radiation emitted by these tritium tubes. (hackaday.com)
  • In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz. (statemaster.com)
  • Selon les données transmises par Tepco au ministère de l'Économie, du Commerce et de l'Industrie, le tritium des eaux extrêmement radioactives augmente d'environ 230 trillions (mille milliards) de Bq par an. (fukushima-diary.com)
  • While the specified completion date for the project is March 2016, it is our goal to accelerate the demonstration project and provide the necessary data by the end of 2015 to enable the METI, TEPCO and the Japanese people to make an informed decision about the tritium contamination at Fukushima. (businesswire.com)
  • The Kurion approach for treating tritium at Fukushima offers TEPCO an unlikely option and benefit: it creates a significant Hydrogen feedstock for Japan's 'hydrogen economy' and supports the METI 2015 Hydrogen Initiative to establish hydrogen as an energy source for cars. (businesswire.com)
  • IRVINE, Calif. & TOKYO & HOUSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Kurion, Inc., an innovator in nuclear and hazardous waste management, announced that it received a grant of one billion Japanese Yen (approximately 10 million USD) from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry ( METI ) to demonstrate the company's cost-effective tritium-removal technology for possible deployment at Fukushima. (businesswire.com)
  • Tritium was founded in 2001 to sell the company's Gold Controller motor inverter for solar-powered vehicles and the business continues to develop and manufacture solar racing products. (pv-magazine.com)
  • Beta particles from tritium can penetrate only about 6.0 mm of air, and they are incapable of passing through the dead outermost layer of human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the range of the beta particles emitted by the Tritium is very small (only a few millimetres in air), windowless counting tubes must be used, i.e. the air to be measured must be mixed with the counting gas. (berthold.com)
  • Tritium is used as the energy source in radioluminescent lights for watches, numerous instruments and tools, and even novelty items such as self-illuminating key chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium is an uncommon product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235, plutonium-239, and uranium-233, with a production of about one atom per 10,000 fissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most promising combination for power on Earth today is the fusion of a deuterium atom with a tritium one. (weforum.org)
  • Melting range: Imazalil nitrate = 80 - 90 C Imazalil sulphate 118 - 130 C Stability: Imazalil nitrate and imazalil sulphate are thermally stable up to approximately 150 C and 270 C, respectively. (inchem.org)
  • tritium, nitrate, perchlorate. (dangerousmeta.com)
  • The night sight has tritium inserts with high visibility white outlines. (edbrown.com)
  • Radium was used to make self-luminous paint from the early years of the 20th century until approximately 1970. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1960s and 1970s, radium was replaced by tritium, which is less radiotoxic. (irsn.fr)
  • BUCHANAN, N.Y. , Feb. 10, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Entergy today released updated findings from follow up groundwater tests at the Indian Point nuclear power plant that confirm anticipated fluctuations in tritium levels. (prnewswire.com)
  • The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. (epa.gov)
  • Each animal was injected subcutaneously with tritium-labelled test material at a dose of 5 mg/kg (calculated as free base). (europa.eu)
  • Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays . (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases where the interacting nuclei belong to elements with low atomic numbers (e.g., hydrogen [atomic number 1] or its isotopes deuterium and tritium ), substantial amounts of energy are released. (britannica.com)
  • 3 H, or T, also known as tritium , are found only in trace amounts. (bcit.ca)
  • it then separates Tritium (T) for stabilization, enabling the safe disposition of the clean H 2 and O 2 gas streams (e.g., resold as chemical feedstock, flared to atmosphere, or recombined as H 2 O). (businesswire.com)
  • Sean] notes that while the tritium glow is disappointingly dim, the device does make a good nightlight. (hackaday.com)
  • On the other hand, the T100 watch will continue to glow for approximately 50 years. (timestyles.de)
  • The station has not detected any unusual levels of tritium offsite. (exeloncorp.com)
  • These sample points are part of the station's extensive environmental monitoring program designed to detect unusual levels of tritium in the environment and are tested on a monthly basis. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Tritium exit signs usually come in three brightness levels guaranteed for 10, 15, or 20 year useful life expectancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the sampling done last week, none of the wells contained higher than normal background levels of tritium. (exeloncorp.com)
  • Simulated tritium levels in all of the cases were larger than observed values by a factor of approximately 100. (unt.edu)
  • The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. (epa.gov)
  • It has been determined experimentally that the binding energy per nucleon is a maximum of about 1.4 10 −12 joule at an atomic mass number of approximately 60-that is, approximately the atomic mass number of iron . (britannica.com)
  • Tritium is used in life science research, and in studies investigating the metabolism of potential new drugs. (exeloncorp.com)
  • The investigation was undertaken to determine the metabolism and excretion of the tritium-labelled test material by rats. (europa.eu)
  • Although this is partly due to input of too much tritium mass by the models it appears that dilution in the wells, which were not purged prior to sampling, is also a significant factor. (unt.edu)
  • The experiments followed closely on the heels of NIF's first integrated ignition experiment on Sept. 29, which demonstrated the integration of the complex systems required for an ignition campaign including a target physics design, the laser, target fabrication, cryogenic fuel layering and target positioning, target diagnostics, control and data systems, and tritium handling and personnel and environmental protection systems. (llnl.gov)
  • The xray spectrum coming off these tritium tubes is very similar to that from old-skool black & white CRTs, but far less in intensity. (hackaday.com)
  • SELF-LUMINOUS: standard self-luminous versions are internally illuminated by maintenance free sealed tritium tubes. (exitsignwarehouse.com)
  • Station experts are working to determine the tritium source, performing additional sampling to verify that the tritium is contained to the areas where it was found and taking steps to minimize overall impact to the area. (exeloncorp.com)
  • The ingots were in the form of cylinders 18 to 20 inches in diameter, approximately 18 inches long, and weighing up to 3000 pounds. (cdc.gov)
  • The slag reportedly contained approximately one pound of uranium per 500 pounds of slag (Ref ID 16323, pg 29-30). (cdc.gov)
  • However, their experiment could not isolate tritium, which was later accomplished by Luis Alvarez and Robert Cornog, who also realized tritium's radioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost 90% of the administered radioactivity was excreted within 96 hours, with approximately equal quantities detected in the urine and faeces. (inchem.org)
  • After the distributive phase, more than 80 percent of plasma radioactivity can be accounted for by the inactive metabolite 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U). Within 24 hours about 80 percent of the administered radioactivity can be recovered in the urine, approximately 90 percent of which is excreted as ara-U. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear power plants discharge Tritium in normal operation, but it's supposed to be approx 3.7 Trillion Bq per year from one reactor. (fukushima-diary.com)
  • Tritium ( 3 H, half-life of 12.43 years (Unterweger and others, 1980)) has provided an excellent tracer of young waters. (usgs.gov)
  • FPL has violated and is violating its NPDES Permit by unauthorized discharges of the pollutants, including, but not limited to, excess salinity, phosphorus, ammonia, TKN, total nitrogen, and radioactive tritium, into waters of the United States in Biscayne Bay. (atomicinsights.com)
  • Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth. (wikipedia.org)