Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Nafarelin: A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Urofollitropin: A protein extract of human menopausal urine in which LUTEINIZING HORMONE has been partially or completely removed. Urofollitropin represents FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE from the urine.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Diathermy: The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyCloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Mice, Inbred C57BLPregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
There is a significant increase in the incidence of heterotopic pregnancy in women undergoing ovulation induction. An even ... The mortality rate for the extrauterine pregnancy is approximately 35%. The prevalence of heterotopic pregnancy is estimated at ... For women in an assisted reproductive program, there are additional factors: a higher incidence of multiple ovulation, a higher ...
In in vitro fertilization, the delivery rate is approximately 6% less than with hCG triggering. Using GnRH agonist for final ... Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 IVF.com > Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 Ovulation Problems and ... by indirectly resulting in ovulation. Ovulation induction can also refer to the induction of the final maturation of already ... Ovulation induction is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. It is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the ...
... notes that the aim of ovulation induction should be mono-ovulation and not over-stimulation of the ovaries. ... and ovulation is successfully restored in approximately 90% of cases. The first step is the diagnosis of anovulation. The ... of cases following cycles induced with gonadotrophins such as hMG and FSH induced ovulations. During ovulation induction, it is ... Updated on April 19, 2011 Kousta E, White DM, Franks S (1997). "Modern use of clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation". ...
Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation
... the preferred term is ovulation induction. In this article, unless otherwise specified, hyperstimulation will refer to ... Typically approximately 8-12 days of injections are necessary. Administering recombinant hCG in addition to an FSH-preparation ... 2009 Ovulation Problems and Infertility: Treatment of ovulation problems with Clomid and other fertility drugs. Advanced ... Regarding pregnancy rate, choosing GnRH agonist protocol for a cycle is approximately as efficient as choosing GnRH antagonist ...
Induction and suppression. Induced ovulation. Main article: Ovulation induction. Ovulation induction is a promising ... The few days surrounding ovulation (from approximately days 10 to 18 of a 28-day cycle), constitute the most fertile phase.[ ... a b c IVF.com , Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 ... include ovulation induction in the definition of ovarian ... Suppressed ovulation. Contraception can be achieved by suppressing the ovulation. ...
Artificial induction of ovulation and in vitro fertilization-embryo replacement can also give rise to fraternal and identical ... Since the 1980s these approximate statistical methods have been discarded: Modern twin methods based on structural equation ... "Increased Monozygotic Twinning Rate After Ovulation Induction". The Lancet. 329 (8544): 1236-1238. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(87) ...
Induced ovulation (animals)
This induction of ovulation from drugs is able to cause a predictable ovulation period and is very beneficial to farming of ... The least amount of semen required to elicit ovulation is about 1.0 ml. In alpaca, follicles ovulate approximately 26 h after ... Yavas, Y.; Wallon, J.S. (2000-07-01). "Induction of ovulation in postpartum suckled beef cows: A review". Theriogenology. 54 (1 ... Staples, R.E. (1967). "Behavioural induction of ovulation in the oestrous rabbit". J. Reprod. Fert. 13: 429-435. doi:10.1530/ ...
In ovulation induction, buserelin is used for pituitary suppression as an adjunct to gonadotropin administration. It has also ... In men, approximately 95% of circulating testosterone is produced by the testes, with the remaining 5% being derived from the ... Buserelin and its metabolites are eliminated in the urine and bile, with approximately 50% of buserelin excreted in the urine ... It is a superagonist of the GnRH receptor with potency for induction of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating ...
Final maturation induction
Induction of final maturation also initiates the mechanisms that eventually result in ovulation, and thereby makes the oocytes ... moderate or severe OHSS with an odds ratio of approximately 0.15. The review estimated that, for a woman with a 5% risk of mild ... HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate at Medscape. By Peter Kovacs. Posted: 04/23/2004 Farquhar, ... About.com IVF.com > Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive ...
In vitro fertilisation
In women with anovulation, it may be an alternative after 7 - 12 attempted cycles of ovulation induction, since the latter is ... Typically approximately 10 days of injections will be necessary. Natural IVFEdit. Main article: Natural cycle in vitro ... HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate at Medscape. By Peter Kovacs. Posted: 23 April 2004 ... Final maturation inductionEdit. Further information: Final maturation induction. When the ovarian follicles have reached a ...
Assisted reproductive technology
Ovulation inductionEdit. Main article: Ovulation induction. Ovulation induction is usually used in the sense of stimulation of ... 2005 approximate treatment/diagnosis costs (United States, costs in US$): *Initial workup: hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingogram, ... Flinders reproductive medicine , Ovulation Induction Archived 2009-10-03 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 ... fertilityLifeLines , Ovulation Induction Archived 2013-03-10 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 ...
Premature ovarian failure
April 1993). "Premature ovarian failure-the prognostic application of autoimmunity on conception after ovulation induction". ... Approximately 5 to 10% of women with confirmed primary ovarian insufficiency conceive a pregnancy after the diagnosis without ... therapy Enzyme defects Resistant ovary Induction of multiple ovulation in infertility Genetic associations include: Mutations ... By the age of 40, approximately one percent of women have POF. Women suffering from POF usually experience menopausal symptoms ...
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
The risk is further increased by multiple doses of hCG after ovulation and if the procedure results in pregnancy. Using a GnRH ... Also, coasting, which is ovarian hyperstimulation without induction of final maturation, does not significantly decrease the ... but a slight decrease of the delivery rate of approximately 6%. Symptoms are set into 3 categories: mild, moderate, and severe ... The risk of OHSS is smaller when using GnRH antagonist protocol instead of GnRH agonist protocol for suppression of ovulation ...
James Boyer Brown
The Edinburgh unit was the second in the world to use human gonadotrophins for ovulation induction in humans but Brown, later ... Approximately 230 publications in refereed scientific journals and chapters in books. PR Newswire, Obituary: Professor James ... Thornton, S.J., Pepperell, R.J., & Brown, J.B. (1990). Home monitoring of gonadotropin ovulation induction using the Ovarian ... Monitoring Induction of Ovulation by Rapid Radioimmunoassays of Oestrogen and Pregnanediol Glucuronides. Annals of Clinical ...
... the chance of pregnancy is essentially the same whether it is transferred in a natural cycle or one with ovulation induction. ... in sET compared with approximately 38% in DET, or 2% in eSBT compared with approximately 25% in 2BT. At the same time, ... it now accounts for approximately 5% of in vitro fertilization recorded births. Prior to this, thousands of women who were ... with a twinning rate of approximately 3.5% ...
Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome
... approximately seven days after ovulation (if ovulation occurred on the average cycle day of fourteen, seven days later would be ... Surgery can be attempted in case of inefficient result with medications for ovulation induction. Though surgery is not commonly ... For those who after weightloss still are anovulatory or for anovulatory lean women, ovulation induction to reverse the ... Ovulation may be predicted by the use of urine tests that detect the preovulatory LH surge, called ovulation predictor kits ( ...
Corpus luteum cysts appear after ovulation. The corpus luteum is the remnant of the follicle after the ovum has moved to the ... Ovarian cysts increase the risk for ovarian torsion; cysts larger than 4 cm are associated with approximately 17% risk. The ... as can be seen with the use of clomifene for follicular induction, in extreme cases resulting in a condition known as ovarian ... Most ovarian cysts are related to ovulation, being either follicular cysts or corpus luteum cysts. Other types include cysts ...
Western lowland gorilla
Human chorionic gonadotropin
HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate at Medscape. By Peter Kovacs. Posted: 04/23/2004 IVF.com; ... At the present time, 1 international unit is equal to approximately 2.35×10−12 moles, or about 6×10−8 grams. Most tests employ ... In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation ... Ovulation Induction. Retrieved Mars 7, 2010[unreliable medical source?] Talwar GP, Gupta JC, Rulli SB, Sharma RS, Nand KN, ...
Nitrogen dioxide poisoning
Exposure to nitrogen dioxide causes an ovulation-induced oxidative damage to the DNA of ovarian epithelium. There is a growing ... highway or railroad increasing in the United States the exposure risk of approximately 48 million people. A feasibility study ... oligomerization of GSTP and induction of the JNK pathway, resulting in apoptosis or inflammation of the bronchioles and ...
Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid ... The decision to perform an induction must be made after weighing the risks and benefits, but is safer after 39 weeks. Events ... third or fourth week after last menstrual period increased basal body temperature sustained for over 2 weeks after ovulation ... 107: Induction of labor". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 114 (2 Pt 1): 386-97. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181b48ef5. PMID 19623003. ...
... levels tend to be < 2 ng/ml prior to ovulation, and > 5 ng/ml after ovulation. If pregnancy occurs, human ... Induction of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations and cyclical transitions in flagellar beating". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 ... Progesterone has a terminal half-life of only approximately 5 minutes in circulation. The metabolism of progesterone is complex ... If ovulation does not occur and the corpus luteum does not develop, levels of progesterone may be low, leading to anovulatory ...
... approximately 3 weeks after ovulation).The embryo should be seen by the time the gestational sac measures 20mm, about five and ... the risk of failing to recognize multiple gestations and can improve pregnancy dating to reduce the risk of labor induction for ... Sometimes a woman may be uncertain of the date of her last menstrual period, or there may be reason to suspect ovulation ... Contents in the cavity of the uterus seen at approximately 5 weeks of gestational age. Artificially colored, showing ...
Activin and inhibin
Inhibin B reaches a peak in the early- to mid-follicular phase, and a second peak at ovulation. Inhibin A reaches its peak in ... The mean serum inhibin B level is significantly higher among fertile men (approximately 140 pg/mL) than in infertile men ( ... Xu P, Hall AK (November 2006). "The role of activin in neuropeptide induction and pain sensation". Developmental Biology. 299 ( ... approximately 80 pg/mL). In men with azoospermia, a positive test for inhibin B slightly raises the chances for successfully ...
Ovulation resumes when once blood levels of MPA fall below 0.1 ng/mL. Serum estradiol remains at approximately 50 pg/mL for ... but requires about 100-fold higher concentrations for a comparable induction of gene transcription, while at the same time not ... The oral dosage of MPA required to inhibit ovulation (i.e., the effective contraceptive dosage) is 10 mg/day, whereas 5 mg/day ... MPA is an extremely effective contraceptive when used with relatively high doses to prevent ovulation. It has also been used to ...
Ovulation induction can be achieved either with pulsatile GnRH therapy or alternatively with gonadotropin injections (hCG, FSH ... Approximately 50% of HH cases occur with anosmia and can be termed as Kallmann syndrome. Cleft palate, hare lip or other ... This is due to the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) produced by placenta at approximately 12 to 20 weeks gestation ( ... Dunkel L, Quinton R (2014). "Transition in endocrinology: induction of puberty". Eur J Endocrinol. 170 (6): R229-39. doi: ...
In 2010, globally, approximately 281,500 people died of leukemia. In 2000, approximately 256,000 children and adults around ... Induction chemotherapy to bring about bone marrow remission. For adults, standard induction plans include prednisone, ... Children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are more than twice as likely to develop leukemia during ... Approximately 30% of patients die from this procedure. Hairy cell. Further information: Hairy cell leukemia § ...
In 2010, globally, approximately 281,500 people died of leukemia. In 2000, approximately 256,000 children and adults around the ... For adults, standard induction plans include prednisone, vincristine, and an anthracycline drug; other drug plans may include L ... Children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are more than twice as likely to develop leukemia during ... Approximately 44,270 new cases of leukemia were diagnosed in the year 2008 in the US. This represents 2.9% of all cancers ( ...
Its secondary structure contains approximately 30 percent of β-sheet in the strand. Some of the residues form loops and turns ... 2007). "Human corneal epithelial cell proliferation by epiregulin and its cross-induction by other EGF family members". Mol. ... new insights into the coordination between PGE2 and LH in ovulation". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 12 (10): 593-9. doi:10.1093/molehr/ ...
Kenney NJ, Smith GH, Rosenberg K, Cutler ML, Dickson RB (1996). "Induction of ductal morphogenesis and lobular hyperplasia by ... which is the source of approximately 80% of circulating IGF-1, as well as locally in the breasts. Although IGF-1 is ... GH induction of IGF-1 production and secretion occurs in almost all types of tissue in the body, but especially in the liver, ... most of the role of GH in breast development has been found to be mediated by its induction of IGF-1 production and secretion, ...
Labor induction abortion in the second trimester". Contraception. 84(1): 4-18.. ... and approximately 94% will abort within 24 hours after starting misoprostol. When mifepristone is not available, ... Fertility awareness (Billings ovulation method. *Creighton Model, etc.). *Withdrawal. Barrier and / or. spermicidal. *Cervical ...
Health effects of tobacco
The incidence of impotence (difficulty achieving and maintaining penile erection) is approximately 85 percent higher in male ... "levels of 210Po in cigarette smoke are probably too low to be involved in lung cancer induction ..." ... a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation. Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo ... Incidence of erectile dysfunction is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers. ...
It is a large bear, approximately the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi). A boar (adult ... although they have a vestigial hibernation induction trigger in their blood. Unlike brown and black bears, polar bears are ... the mating ritual induces ovulation in the female. ... female polar bears was approximately 290 kg (640 lb) in 1980 ... The Ursinae subfamily originated approximately 4.2 million years ago. The oldest known polar bear fossil is a 130,000 to ...
107: Induction of labor". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 114 (2 Pt 1): 386-97. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181b48ef5. PMID 19623003.. ... Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid ... increased basal body temperature sustained for over 2 weeks after ovulation. *Chadwick's sign (darkening of the cervix, vagina ... "Induction of labour - Evidence-based Clinical Guideline Number 9" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. ...
... is used for ovulation induction to treat infertility in women with anovulatory disorders. It is given at days 3 to 7 ... These metabolites have approximately 30 to 100 times greater affinity for the ERs as tamoxifen itself. Tamoxifen has 7% and ... Steiner AZ, Terplan M, Paulson RJ (June 2005). "Comparison of tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a meta- ... September 2007). "Estrogen prevents bone loss via estrogen receptor alpha and induction of Fas ligand in osteoclasts". Cell. ...
Activin and inhibin
Xu P, Hall AK (November 2006). "The role of activin in neuropeptide induction and pain sensation". Developmental Biology. 299 ( ... Inhibin B reaches a peak in the early- to mid-follicular phase, and a second peak at ovulation. ... The mean serum inhibin B level is significantly higher among fertile men (approximately 140 pg/mL) than in infertile men ( ... The alpha and beta subunits share approximately 25% sequence similarity, whereas the similarity between beta subunits is ...
Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid ... "Induction of labour - Evidence-based Clinical Guideline Number 9" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. ... increased basal body temperature sustained for over 2 weeks after ovulation. *Chadwick's sign (darkening of the cervix, vagina ... Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, each lasting for approximately 3 months. The exact length of each trimester can ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin
IVF.com; Ovulation Induction. Retrieved Mars 7, 2010[unreliable medical source?] *^ a b Talwar GP, Gupta JC, Rulli SB, Sharma ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately ... HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate at Medscape. By Peter Kovacs. Posted: 04/23/2004 ... In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation ...
Caesareans or inductions are advised after 38 weeks of pregnancy for twins, because the risk of stillbirth increases after this ... O. Bomsel-Helmreich; W. Al Mufti (1995). "The mechanism of monozygosity and double ovulation". In Louis G. Keith; Emile ... was approximately 2.4%; see the references section, below, for more details. ...
Browne RK, Seratt J, Vance C, Kouba A (2006). "Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the ... Two years later, in 1980, experts estimated that there were approximately 25 individuals remaining in the wild. Before this ... Hormonal induction of spermination has been successfully used to increase overall production of eggs per individual and an ... "Currently, the captive breeding program is limited by low reproductive output due to poor ovulation rates, low egg numbers and ...
Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid ... "Induction of labour - Evidence-based Clinical Guideline Number 9" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. ... increased basal body temperature sustained for over 2 weeks after ovulation. *Chadwick's sign (darkening of the cervix, vagina ... The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten ...
Germ line development
The induction of Transcription Factor T was seen 12 hours after BMP/WNT signaling, as opposed to the 24 to 36 hours it took for ... During approximately the same time, WNT3 starts to be expressed in the posterior visceral endoderm of the epiblast. WNT3 ... After puberty in primates, small groups of oocytes and follicles prepare for ovulation by advancing to metaphase II. Only after ... The germ line development in mammals, on the other hand, occurs by induction and not by an endogenous germ plasm.[citation ...
The minimum ovulation-inhibiting (i.e., contraceptive) dosage of OMP in women, this effect being the result of suppression of ... A 200 mg dose of OMP is considered to be approximately equivalent in antimineralocorticoid effect to a 25 to 50 mg dose of the ... or induction of teratogenicity (i.e., virilization of female fetuses). Progesterone is a substrate for 5α-reductase and has ... Production of progesterone in the body in late pregnancy is approximately 250 mg per day, 90% of which reaches the maternal ...
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
However, the incidence of severe OHSS which required hospitalization is approximately 1-2%. ... The incidence of OHSS is approximately 10-20% in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. ... for ovulation induction or oocyte retrieval. Moreover, in patients who undergo ovarian stimulation under antagonist protocol, ... The incidence of OHSS is approximately 10-20% in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. However, the incidence of severe ...
Ovulation induction - Wikipedia
In in vitro fertilization, the delivery rate is approximately 6% less than with hCG triggering. Using GnRH agonist for final ... Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 IVF.com > Ovulation Induction Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 Ovulation Problems and ... by indirectly resulting in ovulation. Ovulation induction can also refer to the induction of the final maturation of already ... Ovulation induction is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. It is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the ...
Optimizing Ovulation Induction in the Poor Responder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Between the two centers, approximately 250-300 stimulated cycles are completed each year. While the study is open, all women at ... In women undergoing ovulation induction who are at high risk for poor response, we hypothesize that:. Null Hypothesis: Mean ... Baseline studies preceding ovulation induction:. Cycle day 3 FSH, inhibin B, estradiol, androstenedione, AMH, and AFC will be ... Optimizing Ovulation Induction in the Poor Responder. This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment. ...
Follistim AQ (Follitropin Beta): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
For ovulation induction, the couple should be encouraged to have intercourse daily, beginning on the day prior to the ... In these women, FSH (mean ±SD) AUC was 339 ± 105 IU*h/L, Cmax was 4.3 ± 1.7 IU/L. Cmax occurred at approximately 27 ± 5.4hours ... Ovulation Induction. In studies using Follistim®, a stepwise gradually increasing dosing scheme was used. The starting dose was ... Ovulation Induction. Rates of adverse events from a randomized, assessor-blind, group comparative, multi-center safety and ...
Induction of ovulation and risk of ovarian tumors - Minerva Ginecologica 2000 April;52(4):103-10 - Minerva Medica - Journals
... occurring in women previously treated with ovulation induction. The mean age of patient was 30.3 years, approximately 20 years ... Induction of ovulation and risk of ovarian tumors. Franco C., Coppola S., Prosperi Porta R., Patella A. ... Various Authors have assumed a possible relationship between induction of ovulation and ovarian tumors. Between 1982 and 1997, ... there is the trauma of the ovary surface caused by the continuous repeating of the ovulation phenomenon (incessant ovulation). ...
Heterotopic pregnancy - Wikipedia
There is a significant increase in the incidence of heterotopic pregnancy in women undergoing ovulation induction. An even ... The mortality rate for the extrauterine pregnancy is approximately 35%. The prevalence of heterotopic pregnancy is estimated at ... For women in an assisted reproductive program, there are additional factors: a higher incidence of multiple ovulation, a higher ...
Fertility Drug Treatment of PCOS - Ovulation Problems and Infertility
Several different fertility medications can be used to effectively induce ovulation to treat infertility in women with PCOS, ... Cost for induction of ovulation:. The costs associated with induction of ovulation depend on the type and dose of medication ... At that point an injection of HCG is given which induces ovulation to occur approximately 36 hours later. ... What is induction of ovulation?. Ovulation induction involves the use of medication to stimulate development of one or more ...
Drug Treatments for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - American Family Physician
Metformin and clomiphene, alone or in combination, are first-line agents for ovulation induction. Insulin-sensitizing agents, ... Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can ... It is a condition that occurs in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age.1 It can affect women in many ... Clomiphene is an ovulation induction agent that has been used and studied in patients with and without PCOS.6-8,15,35,36 ...
Laparoscopic application of heat or laser to the ovaries to cause ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who do not...
Laparoscopic ovarian drilling with or without medical ovulation induction versus medical ovulation induction alone ... Approximately 20% of women on CC do not ovulate. When this occurs, we call it CC-resistant PCOS. For women with CC-resistant ... To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LOD with or without medical ovulation induction compared with medical ovulation ... PCOS and CC resistance who underwent LOD with or without medical ovulation induction versus medical ovulation induction alone, ...
DNA Array Analysis of Changes in Preovulatory Gene Expression in the Rat Ovary1
Immature female eCG-primed rats were killed either immediately before or 6 h after ovulation induction with hCG. Total ovarian ... RNA was isolated and used to prepare radiolabeled cDNA probes, which were hybridized to DNA arrays representing approximately ... The induction of three of these genes, encoding cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein, the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain, ... thus contributing to a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ovulation. ...
What is Ovulation Induction? Info from a Los Angeles Fertility Center - Pacific Reproductive Center
There is approximately 25% of infertile women who have problems with ovulation. By helping these women to ovulate regularly, it ... What is Ovulation Induction? Info from a Los Angeles Fertility Center. David GreeneMarch 20, 2017Ovulation Inductioncorona, ... Ovulation induction is the process to stimulate ovulation (production and release of eggs from a woman) by medication. This is ... Many women are suitable candidates for ovulation induction. Women who have ovulation issues and those with unexplained ...
Want Babies - Pregnancy-Info
Rosa (1990) estimated that approximately 1% of women of reproductive age undergo ovulation induction. Successful induction of ... Other abnormalities have been studied for their occurrences in births linked to exposure to the ovulation induction agent, ... Clomiphene is used to induce ovulation, to correct irregular ovulation, to help increase egg production and to correct luteal ... and the use of different ovulation induction agents in these studies. Other Abnormalities The possible a__sociation between ...
Infertility - Health & Wellbeing
Ovulation induction. A series of hormone injections will be given to the woman in order to stimulate egg growth and ovulation. ... In approximately ten per cent of couples, both partners may appear fine but are still unable to become pregnant. While it is ... Ovulation the process where the follicle opens to release the egg from the ovary. Occurs in response to luteinizing hormone. ... Hormone produced by the brain that is involved in egg maturation and ovulation in women. In men, it is involved in the ...
Pediatric Cancer Risk Higher in Children Born Post-Fertility Treatment
Ovulation Induction With Gonadotropins | GLOWM
Gonadotropins are glycoproteins with an approximate molecular weight of 30,000 daltons. They consist of approximately 20% ... Seibel MM: Informed consent of ovulation induction. In:. Seibel MM, Blackwell RE (eds): Ovulation Induction. pp 89-93, New York ... PRINCIPLES OF OVULATION INDUCTION. Although there is considerable variation in the actual use of gonadotropins for ovulation ... Ovulation Induction With Gonadotropins. Machelle M. Seibel, MD. Professor of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of ...
Ovulation Induction in In-Vitro Fertilization
... in view of the approximately 3-hour half-life of FSH.(67) ... Ovulation Induction in In-Vitro Fertilization. July 6, 2011. M ... 1994): Low-dose gonadotropin regimens for induction of ovulation. In: Filicori M and Flamigni C, eds. Ovulation Induction: ... and occasionally their use to stimulate ovulation in ovulation induction cycles at risk of OHSS.(74)Antagonistic Analogues of ... 1968): Induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. In: Behrman SJ, Kistner RW, eds. Progress in infertility. Boston: Little ...
Medications Used in Ovulation Induction and Art - RSMC
It is administered as a single dose after about 9-12 days of ovarian stimulation, approximately 36 hours prior to the egg ... Medications Used in Ovulation Induction and ArtSunny Thakur2019-09-18T12:05:38+00:00. Medications Used in Ovulation Induction ... Possible Side Effects and Complications of Ovulation Induction Medications. Most of the side effects of these drugs are minor, ... Is an aromatase inhibitor used for ovulation induction, for intrauterine inseminations and low-dose IVF regimens. It is taken ...
Women's Health Matters - Fertility Care
There is no question that insulin-sensitizing agents (such as metformin) are useful adjunct treatments for ovulation induction ... In our practice, we stop metformin in the first trimester at approximately eight to nine weeks. Recent reports suggest that ... An IUI may also be associated with a super-ovulation cycle, during which fertility medications may cause the release of more ...
Twin gestations - di/di - Renal and Urology News
Currently, the greater contributor is non-IVF treatment modalities such as ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination. ... In both groups, approximately 60% of the twins were both cephalic, and in approximately 40% the first twin was cephalic and the ... Approximately half of twin sets deliver prior to term, one in six deliver at 32 weeks or earlier, and one in 10 is very low ... Long term neurological morbidity such as cerebral palsy can be expected in approximately one twin out of every ten twin ...
Ovulation Induction - Infertility - European Medical Alliance
Bradshaw Introduction Approximately 25 of infertility can be attributed to ovulatory disorders. The goal of ovulation induction ... Methods of Ovulation Induction. The majority of patients seeking ovulation induction are women with PCOS. An ovulation ... Ovulation induction for these. Figure 15.3. Step-down protocol for gonadotropin ovulation induction. FSH, Follicle stimulating ... Ovulation Induction Monitoring. The goal of ovulation induction is to maximize the chance of pregnancy while minimizing the ...
Pregnancy sub-cluster 44
Infertility and assisted conception
Ovulation induction using gonadotrophins. Gonadotrophins (FSH, LH, and human chorionic gonadotrophin) are used for women who ... The chance of a positive pregnancy test after a fresh cycle of IVF varies, but is approximately 20 to 30 per cent. To maximize ... Tests to predict ovulation. Ovulation raises the body temperature slightly, so for many years women were advised to take their ... This release of the egg (or ovum) is called ovulation. After ovulation, the empty follicle forms a structure called the corpus ...
Internet Scientific Publications
No case of ovulation induction in women with previous LH has been reported, to our knowledge. Our approach was to manage the ... LH is an uncommon disorder with a striking female predilection of approximately 8.5:1 and is related to pregnancy in about 70% ... Ovulation induction was initiated with hMG and hCG. Micronized progesterone (300 mg b.i.d.) was used for luteal phase support. ... 1 2 3 4 We were unable to find any report on the ovulation induction and anaesthetic management for cesarean delivery in ...
Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate | GLOWM
CC treatment will successfully induce ovulation in approximately 60% to 80% of properly selected candidates, and approximately ... Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate. Rebecca S. Usadi, MD. Clinical Instructor and Fellow, Division of Reproductive ... Recent studies suggest that tamoxifen may be as effective as CC for ovulation induction (e.g., 10 to 20 mg/day cycle days 3 to ... Any attempt at ovulation induction is generally futile in patients with elevated serum FSH levels. Those with hypothalamic/ ...
Congenital Malformations among Babies Born Following Letrozole or Clomiphene for Infertility Treatment.
... is the first line drug for ovulation induction but because of its peripheral antiestrogenic effect, letrozole was introduced as ... In a review article by Casper et al letrozole seems to be atleast as effective as CC for induction of ovulation and live birth ... It has no significant active metabolites and has a half-life of approximately 45 hours (range 30-60 hours) and should be ... The number of children ,4 years were only 4 in the letrozole group as letrozole was not quite popular as an ovulation induction ...
Shady Grove Fertility Participates in the Thrive-IVF Research Study
SGF offers a comprehensive range of fertility treatment options including Ovulation Induction, IUI, IVF, and Donor Egg as well ... safety and tolerability of NT100 in approximately 150 women 21-38 years of age who have had repeated (three or more) IVF ... and an equal number of ovulation induction and IUI cycles annually. Twenty-eight reproductive endocrinologists as well as PhD ... The study will be conducted at approximately 15-20 clinical sites in major metropolitan areas across the US. Visit http://www. ...
ACOG releases guidelines on diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome - Soul Cysters
Ovulation Induction in Women Attempting to Conceive. In women with PCOS who wish to conceive, treatment begins with weight ... Approximately 4 to 6 percent of women have hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation. Women with PCOS generally present with ... Ovulation induction in these women is a concern because of the increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, pregnancy ... If clomiphene treatment fails, gonadotropins are often used to induce ovulation in women who have PCOS. The ACOG recommends low ...
Non-Surgical (Medical Fertility)
Inducing Ovulation. The most commonly used ovulation induction agents are Clomid® (clomiphene citrate) and gonadotropins. ... With Clomid® use by appropriate patients, approximately 70 percent ovulate and up to 40 percent may conceive within the first ... Ultrasound Tracking of Ovulation. Ultrasound testing is a highly reliable and safe method of tracking ovulation. A vaginal ... Stimulation of ovulation is typically accomplished with an oral medication such as Clomid®, or with injectable gonadotropins. ...
The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome : an analysis of the evidence to support the...
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was considered as were the risks of ovulation induction and of pregnancy in PCOS. Approximately 80 ... Patients should be informed of the potential side effects of ovulation induction agents and of IVF on the foetus, and of the ... For women with PCOS who fail lifestyle and ovulation induction therapy or have additional infertility factors, IVF can be used ... CC should be first-line pharmacotherapy for ovulation induction and letrozole can also be used as first-line therapy. Metformin ...
Browse Cochrane - Essential Evidence Plus
Ovulation induction with FSH bears the risk of multiple follicle development and multiple pregnancies. The dose regimen used ... Untreated women are approximately 20 to 21 cm shorter than normal women within their respe ... Recombinant FSH versus urinary gonadotrophins or recombinant FSH for ovulation induction in subfertility associated with ... Recombinant human interleukin 10 for induction of remission in Crohns disease Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 30-Nov-2011 The ...
OocyteIncidenceInduceTime of ovulationPolycysticIntrauterineClomiphene citrateMedicationsOvaryOvariesSpermEggsGonadotropinsHyperstimulationLetrozoleFolliclesClomidOccurOvarian stimulationPredictorArtificial InseminationPregnancy ratesGonadotropinOvulatory disordersProgesteroneIntercourseMedicationIrregularUltrasoundWomen can have ovulation inducedUterusTrigger ovulationCause ovulationSuccessful induction of ovulationReproductiveHormoneCandidates for ovulation inductionInjectionInseminationDisordersUndergo ovulation inductionFertility treatmentGnRHTreatmentsDays post-ovulationIatrogenic Multiple PregnanciesOvumEstradiolOccursInfertile womenPharmacologicalConceptionMultiple pregnancyImmediately after ovulationProblems with ovulationMedical ovulationDysfunction
- Medications used to induce ovulation can sometimes damage the lining of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
- There are four basic types of medication that are used to induce ovulation. (advancedfertility.com)
- For women with CC-resistant PCOS there are different medications available to induce ovulation, such as gonadotrophins, metformin or aromatase inhibitors, but these medications are not always successful and can cause adverse events like multiple pregnancies and cycle cancellation due to an excessive response. (cochrane.org)
- In addition to fertility medications, additional medications are used to schedule ART cycles, particularly for synchronizing patient cycles with egg donors or surrogates, induce ovulation at the appropriate time and enhance uterine receptivity and embryo implantation. (fertile.com)
- It does appear that patients who weigh more, require higher doses of clomiphene, but in any one patient, weight cannot be used to predict the dose that will successfully induce ovulation. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- When pre-ovulatory conditions are reached, 5,000 to 10,000 international units of hCG are used to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. (drugs.com)
- This of course can help to induce ovulation. (steroid-rawpowder.com)
- In such cases, doctors prescribe medication to induce ovulation by encouraging eggs to develop in ovaries and be released, increasing the chance of pregnancy through timed intercourse or artificial insemination. (indiaivf.in)
- In ovarian drilling, 4mm length holes (usually 4 per ovary) are drilled into the ovary to help induce ovulation. (indiaivf.in)
- Management of ovulatory dysfunction and the ability to induce ovulation with the resultant pregnancy was a big milestone in infertility treatments. (fogsi.org)
- Clomiphene is generally used to induce ovulation when conception will occur through heterosexual intercourse, or when sperm will be inseminated into a woman's vagina or uterus. (encyclopedia.com)
- Because of this, the first line of treatment is to attempt to induce ovulation. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Gonadotropins - An injectable fertility medication used to induce ovulation if oral medications do not work. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- Metformin may be used in those with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes and also as a second-line treatment to restore cycles and induce ovulation. (bvsalud.org)
- Metformin, when used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome and induce ovulation, need not be continued once pregnancy has been confirmed. (diabetesjournals.org)
Time of ovulation10
- Fertilization only happens if intercourse takes place almost around the time of ovulation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Insemination follows approximately 36 hours later, close to the time of ovulation. (uabmedicine.org)
- It is asserted that examination of the endometrium during the secretory phase yields more information about the time of ovulation, degree of progestational change, and normality of the endometrium than any other test used in sterility studies. (nanozyme-msulab.ru)
- The catheter is passed through the cervix into the uterus of the female partner (the procedure is like a Pap smear) and the sperm are deposited into the uterus as close as possible to the time of ovulation. (ncfmc.com)
- In this way, we try to ensure that sperm are in the uterus and tubes as close as possible to the time of ovulation. (ncfmc.com)
- This diagram shows the hormonal changes around the time of ovulation, as well as the inter-cycle and inter-female variabilities in its timing. (wikipedia.org)
- The spindle apparatus of the second meiotic division appears at the time of ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
- If the endometrium is less than 8mm at the time of ovulation, treatments other than clomiphene should be considered. (fertilitytexas.com)
- Intrauterine insemination , or "artificial insemination" as it is commonly called is a procedure where healthy sperm are placed in the uterus at the time of ovulation to increase pregnancy rates. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Check a clomid pregnancy effects test at home, if effects you do not have clomid your effects menses within two to clomid three weeks of effects the expected time of ovulation. (bogartscasino.com)
- Ovulation induction in the sense of reversing anovulation or oligoovulation is indicated for women who do not ovulate on their own regularly, such as those with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (wikipedia.org)
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. (aafp.org)
- Cochrane authors reviewed the evidence about the effect of a surgical procedure called laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) compared with medical treatment to cause ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who do not ovulate. (cochrane.org)
- Gonadotrophins are known to be effective in inducing ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- Ovulation induction is used for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- This drug is an oral medication that reduces insulin resistance and improves ovulation for women with polycystic ovaries. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Introduction Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in reproductive aged women affecting approximately 5-10% of this population. (arcfertility.com)
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a common hormonal disorder that affects 5-13% of women of reproductive age and is associated with a lack of ovulation ( anovulation ) and excessive production of male hormones ( androgens ). (fertilitysmarts.com)
- These cysts are thought to be eggs that are not expelled at ovulation This is called a polycystic ovary. (fertilitysmarts.com)
- There are many ovulation inducing drugs is prescribed nowadays, Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first choice for women treatment with ovulatory disorder or those with polycystic ovaries (PCOS) and have been widely used since 1962 until today [ 1 ]. (scitechnol.com)
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition where the ovaries are large and contain multiple cysts that result in dysfunctional ovulation/anovulation and hormonal abnormalities. (apgrs.com)
- Administration of medication for triggering of oocyte release avails for sexual intercourse or intrauterine insemination to be scheduled at ovulation, the most likely time to achieve pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
- Currently, the greater contributor is non-IVF treatment modalities such as ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Case Report: Ovulation was induced with gonadotropins in a 31-year-old woman with panhypopituitarism secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis, achieving an uncomplicated single intrauterine pregnancy. (ispub.com)
- In ovulatory women, ovulation induction is always combined with intrauterine insemination. (apollofertility.com)
- For induction purpose, doctors may prescribe orally ingested medications or injectable medications along with intrauterine insemination (IUI). (indiaivf.in)
- Intrauterine Insemination can be an effective fertility treatment achieved by injecting a concentrated amount of sperm directly in to the uterine cavity during ovulation. (ncfmc.com)
- The combination of clomiphene or letrozole and intrauterine insemination has a 15% per cycle pregnancy rate with a cumulative pregnancy rate of approximately 40% in three cycles in women under the age of 40. (ncfmc.com)
- We offer a wide range of Assisted Reproductive Technologies including IVF and ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), Embryo and Sperm Cryopresevation , Intrauterine inseminations ( IUI ), ovulation induction, Co-Culture (Artificial Uterus) Also other micromanipulation methods ( assisted hatching , defragmentation, blastomer biopsy), epididymal or testicular sperm aspiration/extraction ( PESA , TESA , TESE or micro TESE ) are carried out in our laboratory. (whatclinic.com)
- What is IVF - IVF treatment - Low Cost IVF - Europe Turkey Istanbul #ivf #ivftreatment https://www.turkey-ivf.com P: + 90 212 867 79 38 /Mrs. Yelda Sertbas - International Patient Coordinator We offer a wide range of Assisted Reproductive Technologies including IVF and ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), Embryo and Sperm Cryopresevation, Intrauterine inseminations (IUI), ovulation induction, Co-Culture (Artificial Uterus). (whatclinic.com)
- Intercourse and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) can then be timed to coincide with ovulation. (fertilitytexas.com)
- Although the therapeutic armamentarium has expanded significantly in recent years, clomiphene citrate(CC) remains the most commonly prescribed ovulation-inducing medication and is the most appropriate initial choice in the largest majority of anovulatory infertile women. (glowm.com)
- CONTEXT: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first line drug for ovulation induction but because of its peripheral antiestrogenic effect, letrozole was introduced as the 2nd line drug. (biomedsearch.com)
- The most commonly used ovulation induction agents are Clomid® (clomiphene citrate) and gonadotropins. (scrcivf.com)
- This is due to the fact that clomiphene citrate shows a pronounced ability to stimulate ovulation. (steroid-rawpowder.com)
- The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. (bvsalud.org)
- Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene) is the first-line agent used in most women for ovulation induction. (fertilitytexas.com)
- Approximately 40% of women will become pregnant within 6 cycles with clomiphene citrate. (morelandobgyn.com)
- A guide for patients: medications for inducing ovulation, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (pacificreproductivecenter.com)
- An IUI may also be associated with a super-ovulation cycle, during which fertility medications may cause the release of more than one egg. (womenshealthmatters.ca)
- When medications are used to stimulate the development of many eggs, it is called ovulation induction. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Ovarian hyperstimulation, which occurs with ovulation induction, involves the use of ovulation inducing medications to stimulate the development of many mature follicles and eggs. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Monitoring using blood tests and ultrasound is essential when ovulation induction medications are used. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- When ovulation does not occur, then doctors prescribe medications with the onset of menstruation to stimulate egg production in ovaries. (indiaivf.in)
- Here are a few common medications that are known to regulate or trigger ovulation and prescribed by doctors to treat an ovulation or the cessation of ovulation. (indiaivf.in)
- Human menopausal gonadotropin: These medications are usually injected to stimulate the ovary to produce multiple eggs for ovulation. (indiaivf.in)
- During an IVF cycle, a woman begins taking ovulation induction medications to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple follicles, each of which may contain an egg. (rmaspecialists.com)
- There are several different medications that can be used for ovulation induction for IVF. (rmaspecialists.com)
- They are also known as ovulation induction medications. (encyclopedia.com)
- When injectable medications is involved the ultrasound monitoring visits are more frequent and combined with estradiol blood draws to optimally time ovulation. (ncfmc.com)
- Evidence collected as late as the mid-1990s has recommended that even consistently ovulatory women could profit from inducing ovulation via injectable medications, as has long been popular in the methods of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other aided reproduction methods. (thakralhospital.com)
- Thorough subject evaluation is required before progressing with ovulation induction, including a review of any pre-existing hormonal dysfunctions and how fertility medications might influence them. (thakralhospital.com)
- What medications are used for ovulation induction? (morelandobgyn.com)
- These medications typically cause ovulation of many eggs. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Ovulation induction can also refer to the induction of the final maturation of already relatively developed ovarian follicles and their oocytes, as well as triggering oocyte release from the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
- Among the possible causes of epithelial ovarian tumors, there is the trauma of the ovary surface caused by the continuous repeating of the ovulation phenomenon (incessant ovulation). (minervamedica.it)
- Ovulation is the end of a complicated series of events leading to the release of an egg from the ovary. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The medication stimulates the ovary to produce more follicles and release an egg (ovulation).The standard dose is 50mg (one tablet) daily, from day two - six of your menstrual cycle. (gidonlieberman.com)
- When ovulation (release of an egg by the ovary) is not occurring regularly, ovarian stimulation can be used to increase the chance of an egg being produced in a cycle. (completefertility.co.uk)
- Ovary drilling can result in improved ovarian hormone production, and resumption of spontaneous ovulation and conception. (scrcivf.com)
- The method of ovulation induction allows an egg to mature and be released by the ovary. (indiaivf.in)
- Doctor, better while it very works as an don' ovary in fenestrated effects of symptoms ovulation no clomid the implantation. (algarvesoap.com)
- The injections are started early in the menstrual cycle and are continued for approximately 8-14 days until one or more mature follicles are seen with ultrasound examination of the ovaries. (advancedfertility.com)
- This procedure is thought to improve the way the ovaries produce and respond to hormones, increasing the chance of ovulation. (cochrane.org)
- Your ovulation cycle will be confirmed with blood samples to measure hormone levels at specific stages of your cycle along with a transvaginal ultrasound to see the development of follicles in the ovaries, and the thickness and appearance of the lining of the womb. (apollofertility.com)
- Ovulation induction involves using medication to stimulate your ovaries into producing more eggs. (completefertility.co.uk)
- Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries . (wikipedia.org)
- However, intercourse and ovulation don't need to be at exactly the same time as healthy sperm can survive for about 48 to 72 hours inside a woman's body and a woman's egg lives for about 12 to 24 hours after ovulation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Fertility is therefore a result of sperm and egg meeting each other almost immediately after ovulation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The initial evaluation of the infertile couple should include tests to determine fallopian tube patency, ovulation, normal sperm parameters, and, in some women, tests for ovarian reserve. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Other hormones such as catecholamines, cortisol and adrenaline can inhibit the release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) leading to suppression of ovulation (egg is not released), reduced sperm count and lower libido in both men and women. (prcdubai.com)
- It takes approximately 70 days to produce sperm, so typically following weight loss, it may be one to three months before there's a change in sperm production. (fertilityauthority.com)
- Approximately 0.5 to 0.6ml of sperm preparation is injected very slowly (over 3-5 minutes) to avoid any regurgitation. (drpankajtalwar.com)
- For an IVF procedure, approximately 50,000 sperm are combined with each egg. (rmaspecialists.com)
- This involves introducing processed sperm into the womb through a fine catheter during ovulation. (sgh.com.sg)
- Therefore, most women undergoing inseminations with their partner's sperm are also treated with an ovulation-inducing agent. (ncfmc.com)
- After ovulation, during the luteal phase , the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm . (wikipedia.org)
- The goal of ovulation induction is to ensure that ovulation will occur at the same time that the sperm will reach the egg(s). (beorcana.com)
- In in vitro fertilization, induction of final maturation avails for egg retrieval when the eggs are fully mature. (wikipedia.org)
- Ovulation induction is the process to stimulate ovulation (production and release of eggs from a woman) by medication. (pacificreproductivecenter.com)
- Ovulation induction in these women is used to increase the number of eggs reaching maturity in a single cycle in order to increase the chances of conception. (apollofertility.com)
- The eggs grow within the follicles and are released at ovulation. (trochefertility.com)
- Compared to ovarian stimulation for IVF and ICSI that aims to produce many eggs for collection, ovulation induction aims to stimulate just a couple of eggs in women who are not ovulating normally. (indiaivf.in)
- By stimulating ovulation, multi-follicular growth and ovulation can be targeted for the ovulation of multiple eggs in one cycle. (indiaivf.in)
- Gonadotropin: Human gonadotropins help eggs mature and to push for their release during ovulation. (indiaivf.in)
- Approximately 70% of fertilized eggs become embryos. (rmaspecialists.com)
- Through administered hormonal therapy, ovulation induction animates the expansion and release of healthy eggs in ladies who, for different purposes, do not ovulate or encounter irregular menstrual cycles. (thakralhospital.com)
- stimulates hormone production to cause ovulation of one or more eggs. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Serum gonadotropins from pregnant mares were soon isolated, extracted, and used successfully for ovulation induction. (glowm.com)
- Because gonadotropins have the potential for greater stimulation in the patient, the ovarian response is monitored closely to determine the degree of stimulation, the size of the developing follicles, and the best time to stimulate ovulation. (scrcivf.com)
- Approximately 90% of women can have ovulation induced using gonadotropins. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Risks of gonadotropins include possibility of ovulation hyperstimulation syndrome which can cause serious medical problems and may even require hospitalization. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Otherwise, ovarian hyperstimulation may still be a side effect of ovulation induction. (wikipedia.org)
- Using GnRH agonist for final maturation and/or release necessitates using a GnRH antagonist protocol for suppression of ovulation during ovarian hyperstimulation. (wikipedia.org)
- The goal of ovulation induction is to maximize the chance of pregnancy while minimizing the complications, namely multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). (europeanmedical.info)
- Ovulation induction in these women is a concern because of the increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, pregnancy loss in the first trimester, and multiple pregnancy. (soulcysters.com)
- The risk of IVF includes multiple pregnancy (twins or more), ovulation hyperstimulation syndrome related to hormones given and possible increased risk of birth defects. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Ovulation induction with letrozole should be the first-line treatment according to new guidelines, but the use of letrozole is not officially approved. (cochrane.org)
- Since letrozole is a drug for breast cancer, its use for the purpose of ovulation induction became controversial in the light of studies indicating an increased incidence of congenital malformations. (biomedsearch.com)
- CC should be first-line pharmacotherapy for ovulation induction and letrozole can also be used as first-line therapy. (uu.nl)
- Aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, is a novel medication for induction of ovulation. (ac.lk)
- The use of letrozole for augmentation of ovulation, in comparison to clomifene, resulted in a higher endometrial thickness and a trend towards monofollicle development. (ac.lk)
- These women do not regularly develop mature follicles without help from ovulation enhancing drugs. (advancedfertility.com)
- Accordingly, all established groups today rely on the use of ovulation-inducing agents to increase the number of preovulatory follicles, and thus, ultimately the number of embryos available for replacement. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- A hormone medication with a similar chemical structure to LH, which is used to trigger ovulation at the appropriate time when the follicles are ready (see Table 1). (fertile.com)
- When many mature follicles develop, the decision can be taken together with your doctor to not give the injection that causes ovulation. (apollofertility.com)
- The injections are administered daily (or occasionally twice daily) until one or more follicles have reached maturation (approximately 10 days). (ncfmc.com)
- Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) has been used in FTAI protocols to improve follicular growth and thereby to produce larger, more responsive follicles for ovulation with increased pregnancy rates. (ac.ir)
- With a half-life of 5-7 days, it is possible that clomid, after inducing a successfully fertilized ovulation, remains in the mother's system well into the initial weeks of pregnancy. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Around 89% of women will ovulate using Clomid, and approximately 40% of women get pregnant taking this drug. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- However, inducing ovulation in the PCOS patient who fails to ovulate or conceive after taking Clomid® can require more aggressive treatment. (scrcivf.com)
- It should be noted, however, that 150mgs of Clomid will still raise to approximately 150% of baseline value(1). (steroid-rawpowder.com)
- Clomid No Ovulation Symptoms! (algarvesoap.com)
- re seeing pathological bodybuilders in clomid no ovulation symptoms our clomid. (algarvesoap.com)
- When it seems like mother nature has yet changed you in the techniques month clothingafter, clomid may be pregnant to improve your usage of conceiving a clomid no ovulation symptoms move. (algarvesoap.com)
- On dysfunction their users and histories themselves and describe it' evening begin to clomid no ovulation symptoms praise. (algarvesoap.com)
- I hope the clomid no ovulation symptoms fallopian drug works this day time. (algarvesoap.com)
- This requires the cycle of clomid no ovulation symptoms place and proviron. (algarvesoap.com)
- Thick citrate characteristics monitor several effects with stimulation, tablets which allows greasinessyou of symptoms ovulation no clomid abnormal section and minocycline of doc. (algarvesoap.com)
- Ovulation will occur between 38 and 40 hours after a single HCG injection. (wikipedia.org)
- At that point an injection of HCG is given which induces ovulation to occur approximately 36 hours later. (advancedfertility.com)
- Approximately 20% of cases of torsion occur during pregnancy, with ovulation induction introducing a major risk factor. (cedars-sinai.edu)
- These tests are reasonably accurate, although there is approximately a 7% false positive rate in which ovulation is presumed but, in fact, did not occur. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Ovulation may occur much later in their cycle (after Day 14). (apollofertility.com)
- Ovulation induction is designed to stimulate the growth and release of an egg each month so that conception can occur. (trochefertility.com)
- Approximately 36-38 hours after the injection, ovulation will ensue, allowing intercourse or insemination to be timed perfectly for fertilization to occur. (westchesterreproductivemedicine.com)
- It is based on a detailed study of events that occur during ovulation and throughout the menstrual cycle. (jabfm.org)
- Although human pituitary gonadotropin and other ovulation induction agents result in fewer multiple pregnancies when used by experts, even in the best of hands it is inevitable that some multiple pregnancies will occur. (health.am)
- With many forms of assisted reproductive technology (eg, ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization), iatrogenic multiple pregnancies regularly occur in which the number of fetuses is so great that they may preclude any being carried to the point of viability. (health.am)
- In any case, ovarian stimulation (in the sense of stimulating the development of oocytes) is often used in conjunction with ("strict") ovulation induction. (wikipedia.org)
- When the third generation GnRH antagonist was introduced into the market for use in ovarian stimulation protocols during the 1990's [ 5 , 6 ] it became possible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of a GnRHa as an alternative to hCG. (hindawi.com)
- Aromatase inhibitors can be used for ovulation induction or ovarian stimulation with higher pregnancy rates compared with CC. (fogsi.org)
- Usually, ovarian stimulation is used in conjunction with ovulation induction to stimulate the formation of multiple oocytes. (beorcana.com)
- 2 Since that time, results of CC treatment have not changed appreciably, despite the advent of modern immunoassays for steroid hormones, advances in ultrasound technology for cycle monitoring, and the introduction of commercial ovulation predictor kits (OPK) that allow accurate identification of the midcycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. (glowm.com)
- The ovulation predictor kit can be purchased in a local drug store and there are many brands to choose from. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Documentation is documented using a 21-day progesterone blood test, urine ovulation predictor kits, and basal body temperature charts. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Insemination is timed by the detection of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the urine (ovulation predictor kit, OPK) and by ultrasound. (ncfmc.com)
- Serum AMH has recently been widely accepted as an excellent predictor of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotrophin treatment in ovulation induction as well as in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) programmes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ovulation can be predicted with the use of an ovulation predictor kit, which detects the surge of LH that occurs 1-2 days prior to ovulation. (fertilitytexas.com)
- and 4) in some cases, a "fertile quasi-estrus" or "fertile proestrus" that involves most or all of the endocrinological changes seen in normal proestrus and estrus as well as a fertile ovulation, but also involves a less than normal change in vaginal cytology, vulval swelling and/or receptive behavior, or even an absence of receptive behavior, with fertility only demonstrable by appropriately timed artificial insemination. (vin.com)
- Ovulation Induction is a simple process to stimulate egg development and release (ovulation) to improve the chances of conception either through intercourse or artificial insemination ( IUI ). (apollofertility.com)
- Ovulation Induction (OI) and Artificial Insemination (AI) are services covered under OHIP. (amazonaws.com)
- Carefully conducted and monitored pharmacological ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative pregnancy rates and multiple pregnancy rates can be minimized with adherence to recommended protocols. (uu.nl)
- This treatment, therefore, improves the quality and quantity of the ovulation, thus enhancing pregnancy rates. (apollofertility.com)
- Unfortunately, despite the high rates of ovulation, pregnancy rates per cycle remain relatively low with the use of CC. An antiestrogenic effect of Clomiphene on the endometrium has been postulated. (fogsi.org)
- This procedure is used when the semen analysis shows abnormalities or to augment ovulation induction to increase pregnancy rates. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Elevated prolactin levels interfere with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility and, as a result, impair ovulation. (europeanmedical.info)
- In a stimulated IUI cycle, ovulation is induced by an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (uabmedicine.org)
- Gonadotropin (FSH) is used in induction of ovulation among women with resistance to oral medication. (ac.lk)
- 4 ] described that it was possible to trigger an endogenous LH surge sufficient for induction of ovulation with a single injection of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa). (hindawi.com)
- Ovulation is initiated by a surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion by the brain. (jneurosci.org)
- There are several approaches to ovulation induction therapy for the management of women with ovulatory disorders. (scitechnol.com)
- For women with simple ovulatory disorders, NaProTECHNOLOGY employs medical ovulation induction with close ultrasonographic monitoring of follicular development. (apgrs.com)
- Levels of progesterone rise after ovulation and prepare the womb to receive a fertilized egg (embryo). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- A blood test to confirm that you have ovulated (progesterone test) will be done seven days from ovulation. (gidonlieberman.com)
- The second commonly used test is a serum progesterone level, generally obtained on approximately day 21 of the normal menstrual cycle. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Once your uterine lining is at least 7 mm thick, we will obtain your serum progesterone level to ensure that spontaneous ovulation has not occurred. (txfertility.com)
- We obtain a progesterone level in the second half of the cycle to evaluate ovulation. (fertilitytexas.com)
- To abstain from intercourse for approximately 48-72 hrs is desirable. (drpankajtalwar.com)
- The annual birth rate for normally ovulating women, free of any pelvic pathology (including mild endometriosis), who are having regular intercourse with fertile male partners, timed to coincide with ovulation differs with the age of the woman. (drgeoffreysherivf.com)
- Multifetal gestation rates are approximately 20 - 25 percent with hMG use and intercourse or insemination. (encyclopedia.com)
- Ovulation induction is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. (wikipedia.org)
- Clomifene citrate is the commonest medication used for induction of ovulation. (ac.lk)
- Inducing ovulation through medication is often the starting point in fertility treatment, as well as the first step in advanced treatments like IVF. (westchesterreproductivemedicine.com)
- PIO is another form of ovulation induction where hormone injections are used instead of oral medication. (sgh.com.sg)
- Ovulation induction can help women who have irregular periods as they are likely to have ovulatory dysfunction by helping them to have regular ovulation. (pacificreproductivecenter.com)
- In the mid-secretory phase days post-ovulation or days of the cycle , the glands remain dilated, but become more irregular with a papillary or saw-tooth appearence. (nanozyme-msulab.ru)
- This is useful when ovulation is irregular or other causes have been ruled out. (morelandobgyn.com)
- Ovulation induction monitoring may take the form of a menstrual diary, urine or serum LH measurements, or serial ultrasound with or without serial estradiol measurements. (europeanmedical.info)
- Your stimulated cycle is monitored by blood tests and ultrasound, and ovulation may be initiated by an injection (hCG). (completefertility.co.uk)
- Usually, serial ultrasound examinations are performed over a period of several days to pinpoint the day of ovulation occurs. (pfcla.com)
Women can have ovulation induced1
Successful induction of ovulation2
- Successful induction of ovulation can be achieved in 70-90% of patients with conception rates ranging between 30-40% (Scialli, 1986). (pregnancy-info.net)
- 1 Soon afterward, Greenblatt and colleagues reported successful induction of ovulation in nearly 80% of a group of amenorrheic anovulatory women, half of whom conceived during treatment. (glowm.com)
- For women in an assisted reproductive program, there are additional factors: a higher incidence of multiple ovulation, a higher incidence of tubal malformation and/or tubal damage, and technical factors in embryo transfer which may increase the risk for ectopic and heterotopic pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
- Rosa (1990) estimated that approximately 1% of women of reproductive age undergo ovulation induction. (pregnancy-info.net)
- There was no history of ovulation stimulation or assisted reproductive techniques. (scirp.org)
- This induction of final maturation and release of oocytes is the physiological role the LH surge by luteinizing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
- The GnRH surge initiates the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge that subsequently triggers ovulation. (jneurosci.org)
- CC treatment with thyroid hormone replacement therapy is of a great value for lutealphase defect and ovulation induction in hypothyroxinemia patients. (scitechnol.com)
Candidates for ovulation induction1
- Recent studies have mentioned that the risk of an infertile couple from having a high order MP from ovulation induction or Insemination is greater than of having IVF(3,4). (perinataldergi.com)
- If ovulation has not yet occurred, a second insemination will be recommended for the following day. (ncfmc.com)
- The success of a ﬁxed-time artiﬁcial insemination (FTAI) program depends on a high ovulation rate during a short interval. (ac.ir)
Undergo ovulation induction1
- Since ovulation induction is pursued in the course of fertility treatment, a comprehensive fertility investigation should be performed prior to instituting therapy. (europeanmedical.info)
- SGF offers a comprehensive range of fertility treatment options including Ovulation Induction, IUI, IVF, and Donor Egg as well as resources to comprehensively address patients' needs - medical, emotional, and financial. (prweb.com)
- 8 The weight of experimental evidence suggests that CC induces ovulation primarily through the effects on the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, but actions at the pituitary level may also be involved. (glowm.com)
- A particular property of the GnRH antagonist is its reversible effect, rapid action, and short duration, which allows the pituitary to remain "reactive" to the action of a single bolus of GnRHa for triggering ovulation. (hindawi.com)
- There may be little or no difference between the treatments for clinical pregnancy, and there is uncertainty about the effect of LOD compared with ovulation induction alone on miscarriage. (cochrane.org)
- This includes ovulation induction and additional treatments that have been shown to work well. (pacificreproductivecenter.com)
Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancies1
- Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancies and Ovulation InductionThe number of Multiple Pregnancies in southern Europe was reaching epidemic proportions in the late 1990swith the relevant consequences for the children, parents and the community in general(1,2).Ovulation induction(OI) accounts for approximately 40% of the total of the high order multiple pregnancies(2).In medical and socialterms this pregnancies can have negative consequences. (perinataldergi.com)
- Group 1: Luteal estradiol administration prior to ovulation induction management per patient's primary physician. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Treatment should continue until ultrasonic visualizations and/or serum estradiol determinations approximate the pre-ovulatory conditions seen in normal individuals. (drugs.com)
- Our findings indicate estradiol induces shifts in GABA transmission at appropriate times of day to generate and correctly time a neural signal for ovulation. (jneurosci.org)
- By contrast induced ovulation in animals occurs naturally. (wikipedia.org)
- Ovulation occurs 14 days before the onset of a period. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Ovulation typically occurs after a week of therapy. (usfertilitynetwork.com)
- Typically, ovulation occurs 14 days before the start of your period. (indiaivf.in)
- Ovulation occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle , after the follicular phase , and is followed by the luteal phase . (wikipedia.org)
- In humans , ovulation occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle , after the follicular phase . (wikipedia.org)
- In rats thyroid gland development occurs during pregnancy approximately 3 weeks long, in the same order as human [ 6 ]. (scitechnol.com)
- Ovulation usually occurs approximately 7 days after the last pill is taken. (fertilitytexas.com)
- There is approximately 25% of infertile women who have problems with ovulation. (pacificreproductivecenter.com)
- http://infertilityupg.med.wayne.edu/index.php Wayne State University Physician Group 26400 West Twelve Mile Road, Suite 140 Southfield, MI 48034 Ph: 248-352-8200 30 to 40% of infertile women have problems with ovulation. (arcfertility.com)
- Treatment with clomiphene improves the timing and frequency of ovulation and enhances the possibility of conception for the patient who ovulates only occasionally. (fertilitytexas.com)
- Ovulation induction can help women who do not ovulate or ovulate infrequently increase their chances of conception. (pfcla.com)