Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Burns, ChemicalSodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLRetinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cautery: The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Endostatins: Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Mice, Inbred BALB CCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Retinal DiseasesCoronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
This difference between endothelial cells from the study in 2007 and the epithelial cell studied in these experiments is ... Ohji M, SundarRaj N, Hassell JR, Thoft RA (February 1994). "Basement membrane synthesis by human corneal epithelial cells in ... Under hypoxic conditions, this study found that perlecan expression by rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells was ... One study examined the in vitro effects of pressure on global gene transcription using a microarray approach and a cell ...
... delayed corneal epithelial healing in damaged cornea and reduced proliferation of corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells with ... Requirement for vascular endothelial growth factor in wound- and inflammation-related corneal neovascularization. Invest ... angiogenic capillary sprouts invade the fibrin/fibronectin-rich wound clot and organize into a microvascular network. 2 ... Therefore targeting tumor vasculature has become an appealing anticancer therapeutic approach. Recent advancements in the use ...
... epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; HMVEC, human microvascular endothelial cell; rh, ... This group also found that murine, not human, IL-18 suppressed FGF-2-induced corneal neovascularization in mice, although the ... could be an alternative therapeutic approach for RA. ... Although the endothelial cells were the target of the effect of ... Effect of IL-18 on endothelial cell proliferation. The effect of rhIL-18 on endothelial cell proliferation was assessed using ...
Human retinal endothelial cells (hRECs) were exposed to hyperglycemia (25mM) and normoglycemia (5.5mM). Gene silencing was done ... Antiangiogenic effects of catalpol on rat corneal neovascularization.. Yun Han, Mei Shen, Li-Yuan Tang, Gang Tan, Qi-Chen Yang ... While short-term effects of anti-VEGF agents on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells have been investigated, the effects of ... An ex vivo gene therapy approach based on transgenic overexpression of PEDF in the eye is assumed to rebalance the angiogenic- ...
... the corneal limbus, within which resides nascent endothelium and corneal epithelial stem cells (7), which have high potential ... Requirement for vascular endothelial growth factor in wound- and inflammation-related corneal neovascularization. Invest. ... Damaged RPE cells and associated atrophy are hallmarks of ARMD, and heroic surgical approaches involving retinal translocation ... intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, altered vascular permeability, and macular edema (22). As the hypoxia increases, ...
... morphology and signaling in endothelial cells. These approaches are also applicable for studying cellular adhesion dynamics in ... of bioengineering microvascular networks in vivo was first shown using human tissue-derived mature endothelial cells (ECs) 2-4 ... response to other matrix-modifying stimuli and in related adherent cells (e.g., epithelial cells). ... The mouse corneal micropocket assay is a robust and quantitative in vivo assay for evaluating angiogenesis. By using ...
However, for research focused on processes like angiogenesis, permeability or many others, microvascular endothelial cells (ECs ... Epithelial to mesenchymal transition, EMT, cancer, metastasis, cancer stem cell, cell, assay, immunohistochemistry ... Several approaches to isolate and culture microvascular ECs of different origin have been reported to date 3-7, but consistent ... The mouse corneal micropocket assay is a robust and quantitative in vivo assay for evaluating angiogenesis. By using ...
Modulatable DSCR1s promoter activity and protein expression in cultured microvascular endothelial cells. (A) HMVECs were ... Using siRNA or adenoviral miRNA approaches to downregulate transcription factor expression in endothelial cells and mice, ... corneal micropocket, and tumor xenograft assays (18). Dscr1-/- endothelial cells displayed hyperactivation of the calcineurin/ ... vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and renal epithelial cells. In contrast, DSCR-1s-lacZ activity was undetectable ...
This difference between endothelial cells from the study in 2007 and the epithelial cell studied in these experiments is ... Ohji M, SundarRaj N, Hassell JR, Thoft RA (February 1994). "Basement membrane synthesis by human corneal epithelial cells in ... Under hypoxic conditions, this study found that perlecan expression by rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells was ... One study examined the in vitro effects of pressure on global gene transcription using a microarray approach and a cell ...
Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were from Cascade Biologics (Portland, OR), rat endothelial cells were from Vec ... Bates RC (2005) Colorectal cancer progression; integrin alphavbeta6 and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cell Cycle ... Lipid-mediated delivery of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 gene reduces corneal neovascularization in an in vivo rabbit ... 2008) Suzuki-miyaura approach to JNJ-26076713, an orally active tetrahydroquinoline-containing αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin antagonist. ...
Leffler CW Mechanisms of hypercapnia-stimulated PG production in piglet cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. ... 7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 knockout confers resistance to corneal epi- thelial barrier disruption in experimental dry eye. ... This similar approach works well with the hospitalвs overall goal of providing world-class customer service. 2). does valtrex ... In many cases, the late ICG images reveal a hyperfluorescent area corresponding to an area of subretinal neovascularization ...
... ensuring the maintenance of phenotypic and functional characteristic of several populations of neurons as well as immune cells ... Complete resolution of the epithelial defect between 12 days and 6 weeks of treatment. Improvement of corneal sensitivity and ... especially in the microvascular fibrosis that characterizes SSc and could reduce NGF access to damaged cells[155]. ... In this case the described effects of NGF as a promoter of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and neo-vascularization[ ...
... and stalk cell proliferation. Our model reproduces corneal angiogenesis experiments and several anti-angiogenesis therapy ... migration and maturation of endothelial cells through their endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 and Tie2, ... We carefully examine the regulating mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) ... For capillary extension, we develop a visco-elastic model to couple tip cell protrusion, endothelium elasticity, ...
2006): Influence of N-acetylcysteine on ICAM-1 expression and IL-8 release from endothelial and epithelial cells. J Physiol ... Endothelial cell apoptosis, reduction in microvascular density and angiostatin accumulation in the tumor core were the result ... resulting in delayed corneal epithelial wound healing. In conclusions they noted that antioxidants in combination with EGFR ... The final stages of AMD involved choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). The role of NAC in the development of CNV was investigated ...
The exudative form of AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization and retinal pigment epithelial cell detachment. ... The mutational approaches include the techniques of random saturation mutagenesis coupled with selection of escape mutants, and ... transplanted corneal tissue and other tissues, and chronic inflammation. [0010] In the case of tumor growth, angiogenesis ... agents that promote microvascular coagulation in tumors, such as anti-protein C antibody, anti-protein S antibody, or C4b ...
... general Endothelium Neovascularization Physiological aspects Research Retinal diseases Care and treatment Development and ... microvascular endothelial growth and retinal neovascularisation," Journal of Cell Science, vol. 119, Part 15, pp. 3219-3226, ... by high glucose in retinal pigment epithelial cells and exhibits potent angiogenic activity on retinal endothelial cells," Acta ... This combined approach was practiced in two studies [29, 33]. 5. Ex Vivo Angiogenesis Models Besides cells, organs or parts of ...
We observed the biological characteristics of human corneal epithelial cells.The cell proliferation was analyzed using CCK-8 ... Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1/analysis , ... AIM:To verify the safety application of MIL60 in the treatment of corneal neovascularization both in vivo and in vitro.METHODS: ... The approach based on perihilar surgical technique can better expose the operative area and have the advantage of performing ...
"Endothelial cell coculture within tissue-engineered cardiomyocyte sheets enhances neovascularization and improves cardiac ... K. Nishida, M. Yamato, Y. Hayashida et al., "Functional bioengineered corneal epithellial sheet grafts from corneal stem cells ... networks on silk fibroin scaffolds generated in vitro with cocultures of human microvascular endothelial and osteoblast cells ... S. Baiguera and D. Ribatti, "Endothelialization approaches for viable engineered tissues," Angiogenesis, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1- ...
miRNA DFU Wound healing LNA AntimiR Angiogenesis Dermal microvascular endothelial cells Keratinocytes Dermal fibroblasts miRNA ... p53 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition through microRNAs targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2. J Exp Med. 2011;208(5):875-83. ... ZO-1: lamellipodial localization in a corneal fibroblast wound model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(1):96-103.CrossRef ... Zhou Q, Gallagher R, Ufret-Vincenty R, Li X, Olson EN, Wang S. Regulation of angiogenesis and choroidal neovascularization by ...
KLF4 Plays an Essential Role in Corneal Epithelial Homeostasis by Promoting Epithelial Cell Fate and Suppressing Epithelial- ... Bim Expression in Endothelial Cells and Pericytes is Essential for Regression of the Fetal Ocular Vasculature. Wang S, Zaitoun ... Galectin-3 Inhibition by a Small-Molecule Inhibitor Reduces Both Pathological Corneal Neovascularization and Fibrosis. Wei- ... Retinal Microvascular Network and Microcirculation Assessments in High Myopia. Li, Min et al.. American Journal of ...
... corneal diseases (corneal erosion, persistent epithelial defect, or corneal ulcers).. The risk of cataract (and associated ... VEGF isoforms are specifically mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells and also increase permeability at blood-tissue barriers ... Neovascularization is most commonly observed at the borders of perfused and nonperfused retina, and most commonly occurs along ... Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities are usually found in the borders of the nonperfused retina and are evidenced by ...
Cytokines and signaling pathways regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in corneal epithelial cells. J Cell ... Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), LNCaP, C4-2, C81, and ... may allow us to develop a new therapeutic approach based on targeting these 2 molecules to block endothelial cell-promoted ... The intense neovascularization surrounding tumors suggest their roles not only in supplying nutrients for the continued tumor ...
... vessels of malignant astrocytic tumors in vivo and promotes capillary tube formation of brain microvascular endothelial cells. ... FAK also functions in tumor cell migration and invasion ( 11). However, there are a limited number of approaches currently ... ACAID induced by allogeneic corneal tissue promotes subsequent survival of orthotopic corneal grafts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ... Burger R, Sill M, Monk B, Greer B, Sorosky J. Phase II trial of bevacizumab in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian ...
... preferably the cells lining the lumen surface of the blood vessels, thereby obtaining a treated viable organ or tissue having ... comprising ablating the cells composing the blood vessels of said organ or tissue, ... Human corneal endothelial cells and methods of obtaining and culturing cells for corneal cell transplantation. ... "hematopoietic stem cells", "bone marrow stromal stem cells", "neural stem cells", "epithelial stem cells", and "skin stem cells ...
Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing ... which in turn mediated cell-cell adhesion in astrocytes. The mTOR-dependent, epithelial phenotype of TSC astrocytes suggests ... and 3 had retinal neovascularization. Following implantation, vitreous cells resolved in all eyes and neovascularization ... Shared signs and symptoms included corneal edema, anterior chamber and vitreous cell, conjunctival injection, ocular pain, and ...
HCT-116 human being digestive tract carcinoma xenografts and a decrease in the proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells ... mg per kg each day for 4 or 6 times by gavage showed a substantial decrease in corneal neovascularisation. As opposed to these ... of epithelial cells induces manifestation of mesenchymal markers and morphology having a concomitant lack of epithelial markers ... ligand-based approaches and structure-based approaches. To use a ligand-based strategy, information using one or even more ...
  • In this study, we measured the direct toxicity of bevacizumab and determined its modulation by growth factors in cultured human corneal fibroblasts. (
  • To measure the toxicity of bevacizumab and ranibizumab on corneal fibroblasts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses, and Ki-67 staining were performed. (
  • In the CNS, of which the retina is a part, such wound-healing responses and associated fibrosis are mediated by glial cells, which perform functions in the CNS similar to those performed by fibroblasts in the rest of the body. (
  • To test whether IL-18 induced endothelial cell tube formation in vitro, we quantitated the degree of tube formation on Matrigel matrix. (
  • This study investigated the in vitro effects of the pro-angiogenic factors, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and/or chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), on endothelial cells. (
  • Finally, in vitro studies have the advantage of allowing genetic manipulation of cells as well as the utilization of cells and tissues from transgenic species . (
  • The rapid anastomosis between prevascularized networks on silk fibroin scaffolds generated in vitro with cocultures of human microvascular endothelial and osteoblast cells and the host vasculature," Biomaterials , vol. 31, no. 27, pp. 6959-6967, 2010. (
  • Fabrication of functional three-dimensional tissues by stacking cell sheets in vitro ," Nature Protocols , vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 850-858, 2012. (
  • Taxane-sensitive (SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8) and taxane-resistant (HeyA8-MDR) cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo therapy experiments using TAE226 alone and in combination with docetaxel. (
  • In vitro , TAE226 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK at both Y397 and Y861 sites, inhibited cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and enhanced docetaxel-mediated growth inhibition by 10- and 20-fold in the taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cell lines, respectively. (
  • A novel temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate exhibits superior activity against breast cancer cells in vitro and intracranial triple-negative tumor growth in vivo Mol Cancer Ther. (
  • Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. (
  • Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. (
  • In complementary in vitro experiments, murine peritoneal macrophages expressed lymphatic endothelial markers and formed vessel-like protrusions. (
  • A correspond to cell-based cure could be developed in humans past generating DCVIP in vitro from blood monocytes, loading them with predetermined antigens and The using software is whack version. (
  • Here we provide direct neurochemical proof that olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), both in vitro and in vivo, express smooth muscle alpha-actin. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor immobilized on mussel-inspired three-dimensional bilayered scaffold for artificial vascular graft application: In vitro and in vivo evaluations. (
  • Cell-matrix adhesion plays a key role in controlling cell morphology and signaling. (
  • Stimuli that disrupt cell-matrix adhesion ( e.g. , myeloperoxidase and other matrix-modifying oxidants/enzymes released during inflammation) are implicated in triggering pathological changes in cellular function, phenotype and viability in a number of diseases. (
  • Here, we describe how cell-substrate impedance and live cell imaging approaches can be readily employed to accurately quantify real-time changes in cell adhesion and de-adhesion induced by matrix modification (using endothelial cells and myeloperoxidase as a pathophysiological matrix-modifying stimulus) with high temporal resolution and in a non-invasive manner. (
  • The xCELLigence cell-substrate impedance system continuously quantifies the area of cell-matrix adhesion by measuring the electrical impedance at the cell-substrate interface in cells grown on gold microelectrode arrays. (
  • These complementary approaches provide valuable new insights into how myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidative modification of subcellular extracellular matrix components triggers rapid changes in cell adhesion, morphology and signaling in endothelial cells. (
  • These approaches are also applicable for studying cellular adhesion dynamics in response to other matrix-modifying stimuli and in related adherent cells ( e.g., epithelial cells). (
  • This compound inhibits α V β 3 and α V β 5 binding to vitronectin in the low nanomolar range, it has excellent selectivity over integrins α IIb β 3 and α 5 β 1 , and it prevents adhesion to human, rat, and mouse endothelial cells. (
  • Towards understanding the mode of action of the multifaceted cell adhesion receptor CD146," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Reviews on Cancer , vol. 1795, no. 2, pp. 130-136, 2009. (
  • Integrins are one of key family proteins for cell adhesion regulation through binding to a large number of ECM molecules and cell membrane proteins. (
  • Adhesion of cells to the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and to other cells is essential for tissue integrity, which have been crucial for the evolution from protozoans to metazoans. (
  • Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to ECM plays a central role in the formation and remodeling of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms [ 1 - 2 ]. (
  • The composition and morphology of integrin-dependent adhesions (focal complexes/ podosomes, focal adhesions and fibrillar adhesions) vary with the cell type, matrix and integrin, and may switch from one adhesion contact to another, contributing to cell advancement, tissue remodeling and repair [ 7 ]. (
  • Identification of laminin α 1 and β 1 chain peptides active for endothelial cell adhesion, tube formation, and aortic sprouting," FASEB Journal , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 53-62, 1999. (
  • Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional human mammary epithelial tissue architecture reveals a role for tenascin-C in regulating c-met function. (
  • Initially, nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (BM) where they formed three-dimensional (3-D) polarized, growth-attenuated, multicellular acini, enveloped by a continuous endogenous BM. (
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of ablating the cells comprises subjecting said organ or transplant to at least one cycle of perfusion with an ablating substance solution comprising at least one substance capable of destroying or neutralizing said cells. (
  • Transplant-derived astrocytes (PHAL-GFAP positive cells) migrated from the transplantation site in both rostral and caudal directions and were observed within the host dorsal column ipsilateral to the transplantation site. (
  • An interdisciplinary approach to the older transplant patient: strategies for improving clinical outcomes Purpose of review Describe the lat. (
  • This photograph demonstrates severe corneal clouding which would justify a penetrating corneal transplant in at least one eye of a bilaterally affected infant even though the prognosis for a successful corneal transplant in infants is poor. (
  • Heterocellular Contacts with Mouse Brain Endothelial Cells Via Laminin and a6ß1 Integrin Sustain Subventricular Zone (SVZ) Stem/Progenitor Cells Properties Front Cell Neurosci. (
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the temporal and spatial distribution of the α5, α6 and β1 integrin subunits, the extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin and laminin, and the endothelial cell marker, thrombomucin, in the chicken embryo from stages 8 through 14. (
  • The recent development of progenitor and/or stem cell technologies holds promise for the treatment of currently incurable ocular diseases. (
  • Functional bioengineered corneal epithellial sheet grafts from corneal stem cells expanded ex vivo on a temperature-responsive cell culture surface," Transplantation , vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 379-385, 2004. (
  • A novel drug conjugate, NEO212, targeting proneural and mesenchymal subtypes of patient-derived glioma cancer stem cells Cancer Lett. (
  • Stem Cells Dev N/A:N/A (2018). (
  • A novel and attractive approach to the cure of ischemic heart disease is the use of stem cells (9-13). (
  • Pluripotent stem cells are cells that have not taken on the identity of any specific cell type and are not yet committed to any dedicated function they can divide indefinitely and may be induced to give rise to one or more specialized cell types. (
  • 15) recently reported that hematopoietic stem cells failed to transdifferentiate into cardiac myocytes in myocardial infarcts. (
  • The stem cells, however, developed into different blood cell types, despite being in the heart. (
  • Thus, for physicians, the use of stem cell therapy in treating cardiac-muscle diseases remains a worthy, but. (
  • GLI2 Modulated by SUFU and SPOP Induces Intestinal Stem Cell Niche Signals in Development and Tumorigenesis. (
  • Combined treatment with systemic resveratrol and resveratrol preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells, maximizes antifibrotic action in diabetic cardiomyopathy. (
  • Professor Paolo Madeddu said, Although bone marrow cell therapies dominate today, continued research on other types of stem cells is mandatory to achieve optimal treatment of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Bevacizumab is considered as a novel and effective modality in the treatment of various ocular diseases such as retinal neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, macular edema, and other ocular complications. (
  • Conversely, the localization of the β1 subunit along cell-cell contacts of angioblasts suggests that the ligand may be a cell membrane-bound molecule rather than an ECM component. (
  • Open up in another window Body 1 Cyclooxygenase-2 appearance and PGE2 focus in breasts tumours of mice after 13 times of treatment (or 2 weeks after tumour cell shot) with morphine and co-administration buy Nocodazole with celecoxib. (
  • Biotechnology Progress 22 Baba, S., H. Iwai, M. Inaba, K. Kawamoto, M. Omae, T. Yamashita, S. Ikehara 2006 Transfer of accelerated presbycusis by transplantation of bone marrow cells from senescence-accelerated mice. (
  • It shows that one man s trash could be another s treasure using cells from leftover vein normally binned after heart bypass surgery, to try to repair heart damage in mice. (
  • 2003.). Emphysema is also characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in bronchioles and alveolar structures (Petty, 2003). (
  • Thus, macrophages support lymphangiogenesis in 2 different ways, either by transdifferentiating and directly incorporating into the endothelial layer or by stimulating division of preexistent local lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • The application of a mixture of 0.1% SH and 0.2% CMC showed more favorable effects on the corneal and conjunctival damage and the stabilization of the ocular surface than SH or CMC alone. (
  • Ocular examination and fluorescein angiographic findings for recovery of vision and presence of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage and neovascularization in the two groups were compared to determine the effectiveness of adjunct cryotherapy in PDR. (
  • Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pathological processes such as the metastatic spread of carcinoma cells and organization of immunologically active lymphocytic infiltrates following organ transplantation. (
  • WE have uncovered why previous attempts for neuroprotection have failed and we are utilizing this information in regenerative approaches and photoreceptor transplantation. (
  • Transplantation 84( Fujioka, K., I. Kozone, M. Saito and H. Matsuoka 2006 Rapid evaluation of the efficacy of microbial cell removal from fabrics. (
  • Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. (
  • Inside-out signaling originates from non-integrin cell surface receptors or cytoplasmic molecules and it activates signaling pathways inside the cells, ultimately resulting in the activation/deactivation of integrins. (
  • Another approach consists of targeting EGFR or COX-2 with selective inhibitors of these molecules. (
  • First identified as the primary organelles of cell motility by Abercrombie in 1971, lamellipodia are sites of active actin polymerization, and their formation requires the local recruitment of a whole array of molecular components to mediate cytoskeletal reorganization. (
  • Actin is largely responsible for cell motility and is only sparsely found in normal epithelial cells. (
  • They serve as critical second messengers in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways mediating a lot of important processes e.g. activation of transcriptions factors (NF-B, AP-1), regulation of protein phosphorylation and regulation of calcium level inside the cells as well as phagocytosis process. (
  • Tamoxifen mechanically deactivates hepatic stellate cells via the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor. (
  • The manifestation of PDCD10 was correlated to the tumor cell survival signaling protein p-Akt, to microvascular denseness and peritumour edema in GBM. (
  • In fact, although great attention has been mainly focus on their antioxidant activity, these compounds and their metabolites show promising and hidden aspects, which can be utilize to promote cell survival or death. (
  • Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) alone can substitute for serum and induce cell survival and tubular network formation. (
  • A perillyl alcohol-conjugated analog of 3-bromopyruvate without cellular uptake dependency on monocarboxylate transporter 1 and with activity in 3-BP-resistant tumor cells Cancer Lett. (
  • Great magnification view from the white container in d indicated that PDCD10 immunoreactivity had not been discovered in infiltrating tumor cells faraway from necrotic region but was solely within peripheral mobile pseudopalisading (e). (
  • Despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the resistance of cancer cells to traditional cytotoxic agents is a major obstacle in clinical cancer therapy, and most patients eventually succumb to their disease ( 2 ). (
  • Moreover, we showed that all these TGF-β1-mediated signaling events, including tubular network formation, were suppressed by incubating TGF-β1-stimulated endothelial cells with a soluble form of an EGF receptor (ErbB-1) or tyrphostin AG1478, a specific blocker of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase. (
  • the mural cell markers desmin and smooth muscle alpha actin exhibit differential staining patterns during vessel formation. (
  • Homeostasis of the eye, as in tissues elsewhere in the body, depends on the presence of normal vasculature, ECM, and various cell types. (
  • Once it is understood why these cells are resistant to standard of care drugs, they will identify agents which specifically disrupt the tumor vasculature, resulting in eliminating tumor growth. (
  • Endothelial Cell-Specific Inactivation of TSPAN12 (Tetraspanin 12) Reveals Pathological Consequences of Barrier Defects in an Otherwise Intact Vasculature. (