Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Perianal GlandsOils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Ocimum basilicum: A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Androstenediols: Unsaturated androstane derivatives which are substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position in the ring system.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.EstersQuality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Arachidonic AcidsArachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Eucommiaceae: A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mazindol: Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Sugar AcidsWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.PolysaccharidesSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.HydrocarbonsIndicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.GlyoxalAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Mycolic AcidsBrain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 188.8.131.52.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Endocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Abrus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ABRIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Forensic Toxicology: The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Rats, Inbred F344
Urine organic acids
"Urine Organic Acid Analysis for Inherited Metabolic Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry". Clinical Applications ... The usual method of analysis is tandem mass spectrometry. Jones, P. M.; Bennett, M. J. (2010). " ... of Mass Spectrometry. Methods in Molecular Biology. 603. pp. 423-431. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-459-3_41. ISBN 978-1-60761-458-6 ...
Meier-Augenstein, W. (2002). "Stable Isotopic Analysis of Fatty Acids by Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry ... "Forensic Applications of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry", in Advances in Forensic Application of Mass Spectrometry by Jehuda ... Mass Spectrom. 28: 545-552. doi:10.1002/rcm.6811. Stable Isotope Forensics: An Introduction to the Forensic Application of ... From 2010 to 2014 he served as Director of the Forensic Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Network (FIRMS). while from 2009 to ...
Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
... application of infrared, Raman and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction; investigation of liquid phase ... theoretical studies in gas chromatography, investigation of the isomerization and cracking reactions of hydrocarbons, study of ... These topics include the preparation of organic compounds labeled with radioactive isotopes and their application in the ...
... library using liquid chromatography with photodiode array spectrophotometry detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... TAKAHASHI, M; NAGASHIMA, M; SUZUKI, J; SETO, T; YASUDA, I; YOSHIDA, T (15 February 2009). "Creation and application of ... Noorizadeh, Hadi; Farmany, Abbas; Noorizadeh, Mehrab (20 September 2011). "Application of GA-KPLS and L-M ANN calculations for ...
... such as a gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, where desorption of the analyte takes place and analysis is carried out. ... SPME also has great potential for field applications; on-site sampling can be done even by nonscientists without the need to ... have gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipment at each location. When properly stored, samples can be analyzed days later ... Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 39 (3): 233-254. Bibcode:2004JMSp...39..233V. doi:10.1002/jms.606. ISSN 1076-5174. Pawliszyn J.: ...
... and application of a method for analysis of phthalates in ham sausages by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass ... spectrometry". 84 (3). Meat Science. March 2010: 484-490. Retrieved June 7, 2017. Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu ... Ham sausage is a mass-produced food product. Ham sausage is mass-produced and consumed in China, and several varieties of the ... Ham sausage is a mass-produced food. The Tai Foong Canned Goods Co. in Shanghai, China, produced and purveyed canned corned ham ...
Glass syringes are also used to inject small samples for gas chromatography (1 μl) and mass spectrometry (10 μl). Syringe ... In these applications, the transfer of pathogens is usually not an issue. Used with a long needle or cannula, syringes are also ... Another application is to use the needle tip to add liquids to very confined spaces, such as washing out some scientific ... Common workshop applications include injecting glue into tight spots to repair joints where disassembly is impractical or ...
Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer
Matysik, Silke; Schmitz, Gerd (March 2013). "Application of gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to the ... de Hoffmann, E. (1996), "Tandem mass spectrometry: a Primer", Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 31 (2): 129, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096 ... Tandem Mass Spectrometry, in Fundamentals of Contemporary Mass Spectrometry. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 132- ... "Personal reminiscences of forty years of mass spectrometry in Australia", Organic Mass Spectrometry, 26 (4): 183, doi:10.1002/ ...
BRs can be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and bioassays. There are some bioassays that can detect BRs in the ... Application of brassinosteroids to cucumbers was demonstrated to increase the metabolism and removal of pesticides, which could ... by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after Detection Using a Dwarf Rice Lamina Inclination Bioassay". Plant Physiology. 94 ... Since it is a "plant strengthening substance" and it is natural, BR application would be more favorable than pesticides and ...
Marjorie G. Horning
... in the application of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and gas and liquid-mass spectrometric analysis. They developed ... The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry Volume 9: Historical Perspectives, Part B: Notable People in Mass Spectrometry. Elsevier ... Franklin Award in Mass Spectrometry, American Chemical Society, shared with Evan C. Horning, 1990 Tswett Chromatography Medal, ... "Frank H. Field and Joe L. Franklin Award for Outstanding Achievement in Mass Spectrometry". ACS Chemistry for Life. Retrieved ...
This investigation used a new rapid and sensitive electron ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in selective ... According to this category most of the time applications can be found in time of flight (TOF) or orthogonal TOF mass ... and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-electron impact ionization selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-EI-SIM). Local anesthesia is ... For this study the pesticides were extracted with dichloromethane and further analyzed using gas chromatography-tandem mass ...
Gas Chromatography, Infrared Spectrometry or Mass Spectrometry is used in combination with the color test to identify the type ... ApplicationsEdit. Sometimes, manufacturers and film distributors may intentionally leave subtle forensic markings on their ... Lehrer, M. (1998). "The role of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Instrumental techniques in forensic urine drug testing". ... There are many different applications for wildlife forensics and below are only some of the procedures and processes used to ...
"Analysis of triacetone triperoxide by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry by ... Ketone peroxides, including acetone peroxide and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, find application as initiators for ... including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), and ... "Surface-sampling and analysis of TATP by swabbing and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Forensic Science International. ...
Pyrolysis gas chromatography. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which ... Hostettmann, K; Marston, A; Hostettmann, M (1998). Preparative Chromatography Techniques Applications in Natural Product ... Gas chromatography. Further information: Gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC), also sometimes known as gas-liquid ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...
In the field of chemical ecology, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is often used to characterize the ... A foresight study on emerging technologies: State of the art of omics technologies and potential applications in food and feed ... Ultrasensitive silicon nanowire for real-world gas sensing: noninvasive diagnosis of cancer from breath volatolome. Nano Lett. ...
... of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry". Environmental Pollution. ... "Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry: applications in environmental analytical chemistry". Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 8 ( ... "Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ... de Hoffmann, Edmond; Vincent Stroobant (2003). Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications (Second ed.). Toronto: John Wiley ...
Eiceman, G.A. (2000). Gas Chromatography. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory, and ... database Mass spectrometry imaging Mass spectrometry software Micro-arrays for mass spectrometry Nanoscale secondary ion mass ... thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS) and spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS). Certain applications of mass ... Similar to gas chromatography MS (GC/MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS or LC-MS) separates compounds ...
In gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the MS is coupled to a gas chromatograph to separate the compounds of the ... Applications in proteomicsEdit. In proteomics, the study of the full set of proteins expressed by a genome, identifying ... In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the GC is replaced with a liquid chromatograph. The main difference is ... Mass spectrometry detects the difference in an isotope's mass, while infrared spectroscopy detects the difference in the ...
... of gas phase triacetone triperoxide with aspiration ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry". ... 2010). Ion Mobility Spectrometry - Mass Spectrometry: Theory and Applications. Boca Raton, FL., USA: CRC Press. ISBN ... but are often coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography in order to achieve ... When IMS is used with mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry offers many advantages, including better ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry
"Developments in direct thermal extraction gas chromatography- mass spectrometry of fine aerosols". Mass Trends in Analytical ... Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as ... "Mass spectrometry of atmospheric aerosols-Recent developments and applications. Part I: Off-line mass spectrometry techniques ... "Mass spectrometry of atmospheric aerosols-Recent developments and applications. Part II: On-line mass spectrometry techniques ...
Resolution (mass spectrometry)
and ion microscopy (SIMS) but not gas chromatography. This definition also appears in some mass spectrometry texts. There are ... "resolving power in mass spectrometry". Biemann, Klaus (1962). Mass Spectrometry: Organic Chemical Applications. New York: ... In mass spectrometry, resolution measures of the ability to distinguish two peaks of slightly different mass-to-charge ratios ... ISBN 0-9742451-2-7. Stroobant, Vincent; Hoffmann, Edmond de (2007). Mass spectrometry: principles and applications. London: J. ...
Selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry (SIM-GC/MS) is a very sensitive version of gas chromatography, and ... "A colorimetric assay for 7-dehydrocholesterol with potential application to screening for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome". ... Kelley, Richard I. (1995). "Diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of 7- ... Other methods include time-of-flight mass spectrometry, particle-beam LC/MS, electrospray tandem MS, and ultraviolet absorbance ...
... may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of ... This extended-release application was registered by the EPA in 1991. A slightly yellow liquid at room temperature, it can be ... In its original form known as "bug juice", the application solution for DEET was composed of 75% DEET and ethanol. Later, a new ... and that preparations be washed off after they are no longer needed or between applications. DEET can act as an irritant; in ...
"Statistical evaluation of calibration curve nonlinearity in isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Anal. Chem ... M.J.T. Milton; J.A. Wang (2002). "High Accuracy Method for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry with Application to the ... It can also be used in mass spectrometry (commonly referred to as isotopic dilution mass spectrometry or IDMS), in which the ... Isotope dilution is almost exclusively employed with mass spectrometry in applications where high-accuracy is demanded. For ...
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Loo JA, Udseth HR, Smith RD (June 1989). "Peptide ... mass spectrometry: 15 years of developments and applications. Electrophoresis, 24, 3837-3867. Musyimi H.K.; Narcisse D. A.; ... bioinformatical and statistical aspects of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-mass ... Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies chemical species depending on their mass-to-charge ratio. During ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Eiceman, G.A. (2000). Gas Chromatography. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory, and ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... "Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 4 (5): 367-371. doi:10.1016 ... Amirav A, Gordin A, Poliak M, Fialkov AB (2008). "Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams". J Mass ...
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Applications
MS helps fragment the components and identify them on the basis of their mass. ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a hybrid analytical technique that couples the separation capabilities of GC ... www.thermofisher.com/ca/en/home/industrial/mass-spectrometry/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms.html ... 2019, February 26). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Applications. News-Medical. Retrieved on December 15, 2019 ...
Application of Gas Chromatography - Combustion - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Doping Control | USADA
Fatal Strychnine Poisoning: Application of Gas Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry : Journal of Analytical Toxicology -...
Confirmation of strychnine in blood and tissue was performed by GC with detection by tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS). GC ... Detection and quantitation of strychnine in body fluids and tissues was performed by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen- ... Detection and quantitation of strychnine in body fluids and tissues was performed by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen- ... The case demonstrates body tissue and fluid distribution of strychnine in a fatal poisoning and the application of tandem MS in ...
Tools and applications for one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics ...
Tools and applications for one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics ... Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-EI-TOFMS), gas ... Almstetter, Martin F. (2012) Tools and applications for one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass ... In this work, a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) method was ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - Wikipedia
Eiceman, G.A. (2000). Gas Chromatography. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory, and ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... "Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 4 (5): 367-371. doi:10.1016 ... Amirav A, Gordin A, Poliak M, Fialkov AB (2008). "Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams". J Mass ...
Altmetric - PyMS: a Python toolkit for processing of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. Application and...
PyMS: a Python toolkit for processing of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. Application and comparative study ... PyMS: a Python toolkit for processing of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. Application and comparative study ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a technique frequently used in targeted and non-targeted measurements of ... While interactive processing remains critically important in GC-MS applications, high-throughput studies increasingly dictate ...
Workshop on Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application
The main objective of the Faculty is to address the need for manpower in Science and Technology; to increase knowledgeable and competent human capital especially Research Scientists and Engineers (RSE) as well as technical support in the chemical, petrochemical, oleo-chemical and bioresources - based industries.
Application of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize intermediates in a joint solar...
Application of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize intermediates in a joint solar- ... Application of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize intermediates in a joint solar- ... Application of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize intermediates in a joint solar- ...
Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS-MS and GC-TOF-MS) for Environmental Chemistry, Volume 61 -...
Purchase Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS-MS and GC-TOF-MS) for Environmental Chemistry, ... Chapter 8. Applications and Strategies Based on Gas Chromatography-Low-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-LRMS) for the ... Environmental Applications. Chapter 1. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis in ... Principles and Applications of Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00210424 - Development and Testing of a Man-Portable Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry...
A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system based on the combination of an automated vapor sample inlet, a transfer l ... A portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system was developed for use in situations where site location, contamination, ... The completed system should be available for a broad spectrum of field applications ranging from hazardous waste sites and ... A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system based on the combination of an automated vapor sample inlet, a transfer line gas ...
Workshop on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application in collaboration with Shimadzu Malaysia
... ... Workshop on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application in collaboration with Shimadzu Malaysia ... Workshop on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application in collaboration with Shimadzu Malaysia ... November, 22 - Workshop on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application Workshop has been held on 21st ...
Validation of the Method for Determination of Pesticide Residues by Gas Chromatography - Triple-Stage Quadrupole Mass...
This application note reports on in-house validation results and assessment of performance parameters of a complete multi- ... Triple-Stage Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. 20 November 2015. This application note reports on in-house validation results and ... Application Note: Validation of the Method for Determination of Pesticide Residues by Gas Chromatography - ... Application Article: Sulfur in Jet Fuel by ASTM D4294. *Application Article: Discussing Pros and Cons in Super-Resolution ...
An application of data mining to fruit and vegetable sample identiﬁcation using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Frontiers | Production of Cold-Active Lipase by Free and Immobilized Marine Bacillus cereus HSS: Application in Wastewater...
... respectively which is a promising for future applications. ... to free fatty acids and glycerol and have various applications ... have potential for hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to free fatty acids and glycerol and are used in dissimilar applications. The ... Analysis of Residual Oil by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The residual oil was extracted by dichloromethane. ... The residual oil was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS; Agilent Technologies ...
Enantioselective determination of chlordane components using chiral high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with...
Enantioselective determination of chlordane components using chiral high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with ... determination of chlordane components using chiral high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with application to ... The use of mass spectrometry and chiral high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) is an effective method to determine chiral ... gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry with a novel chemical ionization reagent, PFBOH ...
APPLICATION OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING FOR GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY MACHINE IN CHEMICAL LABORATORY AT PT...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Analysis | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US
... or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), although static headspace is also used frequently. Five of the most common ... View gas chromatography application notes:. *Environmental Applications Featuring the Latest Developments in GC Technology ... identify and quantitate VOC is gas chromatography with flame ionization (FID), electron capture (ECD) or mass spectrometry (GC- ... US EPA 8260 - Volatile organic compounds by Gas Chromatography /Mass spec (GC-MS) ...
GCMS | Learn About Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis is one type of testing method used for drug testing. Learn all about how GC/MS ... Applications of GC/MS Testing. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis has numerous applications that benefit mankind. ... Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis has been used in the detection of illegal drugs and substances, as well as in ... Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) are two very powerful and sensitive instruments used to detect and study trace ...
Application of gas and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticides: Multiresidue analysis. ...
Application of gas and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticides: Multiresidue analysis. ... In this aspect mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been increasingly ... Application of gas and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticides: Multiresidue analysis. ... The increasing interest in application of high-resolution mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (TOF) and hybrid triple ...
Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the detection of acetone in healthy human and...
T1 - Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the detection of acetone in healthy human and ... Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the detection of acetone in healthy human and ... Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the detection of acetone in healthy human and ... Fan, GT, Yang, CL, Lin, C-H, Chen, CC & Shih, CH 2014, Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ...
Applications and Uncertainties Associated with Measurements Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography...
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Selective Ion Electrode Method in Fire Suppression Tests ... Applications and Uncertainties Associated with Measurements Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, ... Applications and Uncertainties Associated with Measurements Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography- ... Applications and Uncertainties Associated with Measurements Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography- ...
مرکز منطقه ای اطلاع رساني علوم و فناوري - Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to online...
subject:1513291 title:Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to online detection of exhaled ... Applications of Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to online detection of exhaled breath after drinking or ... A Hadamard transform-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HT-GC/MS) technique was employed for the online detection of ethanol ...
Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry | GCMS Failure Analysis | GCMS Material Analysis
... mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is the marriage of two analytical methods into a versatile technique for the identification of ... Typical Applications. *Identification of foreign material contamination. *Analysis of outgassing products for disk drive ... Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). HomeHAMMGas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) ... Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). HomeHAMMGas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) ...
Use of solid-phase microextraction for the detection of acetic acid by ion-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and...
Correction: Application of a novel electromembrane extraction and microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass...
biogenic amines, canned fish, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microextraction. Abstract:. Correction for Application of ... Application of a novel electromembrane extraction and microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... a novel electromembrane extraction and microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine ...
Application of Selected Ion Monitoring-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) for Quantification of Poly Aromatic...
Application of Selected Ion Monitoring-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) for Quantification of Poly Aromatic ... Umaru, I., Samling, B., & Umaru, H. (2019). Application of Selected Ion Monitoring-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM- ... Conclusion: The Selected Ion Monitoring -Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) can be considered as sensitive and ... Aromatic Hydro carbons in surface water using Selected Ion Monitoring with optimization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus therefor having a capture...
Patent application title: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus ... 1. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method comprising the steps of: (1) installing a sample injector; (2) installing a ... 0002] The invention relates to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument and more particularly to a GC-MS method ... 0004] A conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) apparatus is shown in FIG. 1 and comprises a sample injector ...
Application of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to determine...
High concentration capacity sample preparation techniques to improve the informative potential of two-dimensional comprehensive...
Two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Sample preparation; Sensomics; Milk aroma; solid phase ... mass spectrometry application to sensomics .pdf POSTPRINT (VERSIONE FINALE DELLAUTORE). Accesso aperto. Open Access Visualizza ... treated as a further dimension of a two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical platform for ... treated as a further dimension of a two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical platform for ...
SpectrometricDetectionCharacterizationAnalysisTime-of-flight maHigh-resolution gas chromatographyDeterminationMethodsHeadspaceSolid-phase extrQuadrupoleThin-layer-chromatoInstrumentationPurge-and-trapSamplesEnvironmental2018FragmentationCompoundsAbstractCapillaryPermeationIonsIonizationIdentificationElectronSensitivityDetectorsPurityHeliumBiomedicalMarketsAnalysesChromatographicSampleDischargesQuantificationSpectrometersAtomicQuantitativeExtraction
- We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. (copernicus.org)
- Based on the overall characterization results, the GC-TOFMS instrument was found to be very well suited for the task of quantitative halocarbon trace gas observation and a big step forward compared to scanning, quadrupole MS with low mass resolving power and a TOFMS technique reported to be non-linear and restricted by a small dynamical range. (copernicus.org)
- We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument, with focus on quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. (copernicus.org)
- We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass. (copernicus.org)
- In this work, a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) method was designed and validated that assembles the entire available analytical information from each sample in one data matrix for subsequent statistical evaluation. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Application of gas and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticides: Multiresidue analysis. (edu.sd)
- The secrets of Palaeolithic glues will be unearthed more readily using a new method that combines 2D GC with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and allows lower headspace SPME temperatures to be used, preserving artefact integrity. (spectroscopynow.com)
- by HS-SPME and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
High-resolution gas chromatography1
- Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule . (wikibooks.org)
- The Determination of Anticonvulsants in Biological Samples by use of High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography 6. (routledge.com)
- 1980. Determination of the kinetic constants for metabolism of inhaled toxicants in vivo using gas uptake measurements. (cdc.gov)
- Dimethyl diselenide is a volatile selenium species and its determination in biological samples by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry was reported. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been extensively applied for determination of volatile, nonpolar, compounds in many applied fields like food safety, environment, or toxicology. (wur.nl)
- In this work, the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), a softer form of ionization, combined with GC and a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was investigated, taking pyrethroids as a case study and their determination in fruit and vegetables as example application. (wur.nl)
- Also, these methods were used to determinethe halogen acid gases generated during the fire suppression process. (gc.ca)
- This report describes the application of these three analytical methods for a series of tests conducted with HCFC Blend A.. The results for the measurements of gaseous agent and halogen acid gas concentrations using these three methods are provided. (gc.ca)
- Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is the marriage of two analytical methods into a versatile technique for the identification of complex volatile materials. (mee-inc.com)
- It covers electrophoretic-mass spectrometry methods and applications, which are considered planar chromatographic techniques and are increasingly being exploited in proteomic and molecular biology studies as well as for medical diagnostic purposes. (routledge.com)
- Aiming to improve power and efficiency when other analytical methods are inadequate, Planar Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry encourages separation science practitioners in academia and industry to combine the two methods for enhanced results. (routledge.com)
- This review deals with overview of methods of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC), the classical meaning- conventional heart-cut MDGC, and the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). (degruyter.com)
- Using static headspace, sealed vials containing sample are gently heated to drive VOC compounds out of the sample matrix into equilibrium with the gas phase. (thermofisher.com)
- As with static headspace heat is sometimes applied to drive VOCs out of liquid phase and into the gas phase. (thermofisher.com)
- Solid-Phase Extraction followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry was used to extract and identify volatile organic compounds in honey from various regions in Kenya. (iiste.org)
- Pesticide concentrations were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (usgs.gov)
- By 1966 Finnigan and collaborator Mike Uthe's EAI division had sold over 500 quadrupole residual gas-analyzer instruments. (wikipedia.org)
- A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system based on the combination of an automated vapor sample inlet, a transfer line gas chromatography module, and a modified Hewlett Packard model 5971A quadrupole MS system were used. (cdc.gov)
- Simplify a wide range of applications with our robust and easy-to-use single quadrupole GC-MS systems. (thermofisher.com)
- SCION SQ GC-MS single quadrupole and SCION TQ GC-MS triple quadrupole systems provide analysts with a GC-MS platform especially designed for the Gas Chromatographer. (environmental-expert.com)
- Across a wide variety of applications that require superior sensitivity, we have exceptional instrumentation that is easy-to-use and flexible. (perkinelmer.com)
- It is the first book to systemically cover the theoretical background, techniques, instrumentation, and practical applications of planar chromatography-mass spectrometry as a hyphenated tool of analytical chemistry. (routledge.com)
- GC-MS provides enhanced sample identification, higher sensitivity, an increased range of analyzable samples, and faster results, which enable a whole new range of applications for GC-MS in several areas. (news-medical.net)
- Due to its structurally significant mass spectral peaks, extended range of analyzable low volatility samples, enhanced molecular ions, and valuable isotope ratio information, GC-MS is a powerful tool for geochemical applications. (news-medical.net)
- The gas samples, without any pretreatment, were simultaneously injected into a GC column through a Hadamard-injector based on Hadamard codes. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- The samples for GC/MS can be gases, liquids, or solids. (mee-inc.com)
- Samples are separated before being detected and identified, and therefore this has many different application potentials. (elgalabwater.com)
- The Selected Ion Monitoring -Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) can be considered as sensitive and robust method to analyse PAHs contamination in environmental samples. (journalajacr.com)
- Besides the usage of dedicated pyrolyzers, pyrolysis GC of solid and liquid samples can be performed directly inside programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injectors that provide quick heating (up to 60 °C/s) and high maximum temperatures of 600-650 °C. This is sufficient for many pyrolysis applications. (wikipedia.org)
- Pyrolysis gas chromatography is also used for environmental samples, including fossils. (wikipedia.org)
- Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
- The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). (scribd.com)
- One- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry provides an enormous amount of quantitative data describing the chemical composition of complex samples. (washington.edu)
- Healthcare and lab solutions provider, Perkin Elmer's GC-MS systems offer accurate data and greater insights into a wide range of identification and quantitation needs in environmental, food, forensic, and industrial applications. (news-medical.net)
- GC-MS systems from scientific solution provider, Thermo Fischer Scientific are coupled with software that helps streamline GC-MS workflows and data and can be seamlessly integrated with food, environmental, forensic and clinical applications. (news-medical.net)
- National Environmental Technology Applications Corp. (cdc.gov)
- This is ideal for rapid screening of chemicals, including environmental volatiles and semivolatiles (VOCs/SVOCs), explosives, chemical warfare agents, hazardous substances, and for use in food safety and industrial applications. (perkinelmer.com)
- I specialise in Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry and related techniques, having gained over twenty three years experience within high throughput Environmental and Food contract laboratories. (rsc.org)
- Our GC MS systems are suited for most any applications for food, environmental, industrial and forensics analyses among others. (perkinelmer.com)
- This book summarizes the major advances and relevant applications of GC-MS techniques over the last 10 years, with chapters by leading authors in the field of environmental chemistry. (waterstones.com)
- Part I covers applications of basic GC-MS to solve environmental-related problems. (waterstones.com)
- This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Gas Chromatography Systems in US$ Million/Thousand by the following End-use Segments: Chemical & Pharmaceutical, Clinical Labs, Environmental Labs, Petrochemicals, Agriculture & Food & Beverage, Research, and Others. (marketpublishers.com)
- November, 22 - Workshop on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Fundamental and Application Workshop has been held on 21st November 2018 at Dewan Tun Fatimah, Gambang in collaboration with Shimadzu Malaysia. (ump.edu.my)
- The Nitrogen Gas Generators held the largest market share of 43.5% in 2018. (medgadget.com)
- Compounds are identified from the mass spectrum by their unique ion fragmentation patterns. (mee-inc.com)
- The technique has both qualitative and quantitative uses, such as identifying unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a compound, determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation, quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample, studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum), and determining other physical, chemical, or biological properties of compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Gas chromatography (GC) is employed in analytical chemistry for analyzing and separating compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. (confirmbiosciences.com)
- Pyrolysis gas chromatography is useful for the identification of involatile compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios . (wikibooks.org)
- The Use of Microparticulate Reversed-Phase Packing in High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Compounds of Biological Interest 7. (routledge.com)
- 1984. Kinetics and mechanisms of gas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions. (cdc.gov)
- 1.4 The instrument range should be sufficient to measure the listed volatile organic compounds from 150 ppb(v) to 100 ppm(v), using a full scan operation (between 45 and 300 atomic mass units). (astm.org)
- The gas chromatograph utilizes a capillary column which depends on the column's dimensions (length, diameter, film thickness) as well as the phase properties (e.g. 5% phenyl polysiloxane). (wikipedia.org)
- Although it was built for portability and speed, the low thermal mass (LTM) capillary GC provides equivalent chromatographic resolution and performance to a benchtop system. (perkinelmer.com)
- Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that analytically categorizes the ions based on their mass to charge ratio, and ionizes atoms, molecules, ions, molecular fragments and other chemical species. (confirmbiosciences.com)
- The positive ions are separated according to their mass by a mass analyzer. (mee-inc.com)
- The mass analyzer most commonly used in GC/MS is the quadrapole filter, in which the ions pass by four hyperbolic magnetic poles created by a radio frequency field. (mee-inc.com)
- The magnetic poles separate the ions by their mass/charge ratio, successively focusing ions with increasing mass onto a detector for counting. (mee-inc.com)
- The analyzer scans step-wise through a set range of mass values to evaluate the relative abundance of ions at each mass value. (mee-inc.com)
- This is done by ionizing the sample and then using mass spectrometry to separate and measure the ions. (elgalabwater.com)
- In fact, early spectrometry devices that measured the mass-to-charge ratio of ions were called mass spectrographs because they were instruments that recorded a spectrum of mass values on a photographic plate. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- A mass spectroscope is similar to a mass spectrograph except that the beam of ions is directed onto a phosphor screen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In the ion source, the sample is vaporized (turned into gas ) and ionized (transformed into electrically charged particles) into sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) ions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium atoms and ions are monoisotopic , with a mass of about 23 amu. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Other uses include quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample or studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum). (wikibooks.org)
- Mass spectrometry ( MS ) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions . (wikipedia.org)
- These ions are then separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio, for example by accelerating them and subjecting them to an electric or magnetic field: ions of the same mass-to-charge ratio will undergo the same amount of deflection. (wikipedia.org)
- Results are displayed as spectra of the signal intensity of detected ions as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. (wikipedia.org)
- Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. (wikipedia.org)
- An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are then targeted through the mass analyzer and onto the detector. (wikipedia.org)
- The differences in masses of the fragments allows the mass analyzer to sort the ions by their mass-to-charge ratio. (wikipedia.org)
- 1.5.1 The specific instrument response for each target analyte and the number of mass spectral quantification ions available. (astm.org)
- It is not possible to make an accurate identification of a particular molecule by gas chromatography or mass spectrometry alone. (wikipedia.org)
- Material Identification - The first result from the compiled data is a total-ion chromatogram (TIC), which is a plot of the total mass eluting from the GC and detected by MS as a function of time. (mee-inc.com)
- More specific identification of the compound(s) for each band can then be made from the mass spectrum corresponding to the band. (mee-inc.com)
- Since his retirement, he has focused on long-range detectors and application of DNA sequencing to species identification, especially relict hominoid candidates. (blogtalkradio.com)
- Mass spectrometry often requires a very pure sample, and gas chromatography employ detectors that cannot separate varied molecules that travel at the same retention time through the GC column. (confirmbiosciences.com)
- Photonis' AP-TOF detectors provide superior temporal and spatial resolution as well as increased mass efficiency. (photonis.com)
- These time of flight detectors have been optimized for portable mass spectrometers with an active area of 8mm. (photonis.com)
- Our BiPolar TOF detectors are designed to maximize mass resolution while conforming to a variety of unique configurations. (photonis.com)
- The U.S. and Europe are mature mass spectrometry markets. (pitchengine.com)
- New applications in the diagnostics field and applied markets as well as technological advancements are expected to propel the demand in these regions. (pitchengine.com)
- Sensirion's sensors are used in a wide range of markets and different applications. (sensirion.com)
- While GC can separate volatile components in a sample, MS helps fragment the components and identify them on the basis of their mass. (news-medical.net)
- The mass spectrometry process normally requires a very pure sample while gas chromatography using a traditional detector (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
- Once liberated from the sample VOC's in the gas phase are transferred to an adsorbent trap where they will transiently bind. (thermofisher.com)
- The sample is carried through the column by the mobile phase, typically an inert gas. (mee-inc.com)
- The instrument also includes a heated injection port to vaporize all volatile constituents of the sample and an oven to keep the constituents in gas form as they pass through the column. (mee-inc.com)
- Gases and liquids can be injected directly into the sample injector. (mee-inc.com)
- The sample is put into direct contact with a platinum wire, or placed in a quartz sample tube, and rapidly heated to 600-1000 °C. Depending on the application even higher temperatures are used. (wikipedia.org)
- At the moment, however, the routinely usage of MS-based proteomics is prevented and complicated by the very complex work flow comprising sample preparation, chromatography , MS measurement followed by data processing and evaluation. (omicsonline.org)
- In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. (wikipedia.org)
- The study presented here carried out the ultra-trace Quantification of Poly Aromatic Hydro carbons in surface water using Selected Ion Monitoring with optimization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry parameter. (journalajacr.com)
- Mass spectrometry (MS) - based proteomics allows the sensitive and accurate quantification of almost complete proteomes of complex biological fluids and tissues. (omicsonline.org)
- Calutron mass spectrometers were used in the Manhattan Project for uranium enrichment. (wikipedia.org)
- Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project . (wikipedia.org)
- Calutron mass spectrometers were used for uranium enrichment at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant established during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective of this paper is to review the applications of 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the quantitative profiling of plant natural products extracts and the theoretical parameters that should be considered, if it is to become a more useful tool. (intechopen.com)
- Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. (nist.gov)