Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.EthersEthyl EthersHalogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether: A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vinyl Compoundstert-Butyl AlcoholHydrocarbons, BrominatedSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.AcetalsSolvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.EstersInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.PropaneMembrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)KetonesAlkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dihematoporphyrin Ether: The purified component of HEMATOPORPHYRIN DERIVATIVE, it consists of a mixture of oligomeric porphyrins. It is used in photodynamic therapy (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION); to treat malignant lesions with visible light and experimentally as an antiviral agent. It is the first drug to be approved in the use of PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY in the United States.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Pyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.ButanesSpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.CyclopropanesAnesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Allyl CompoundsModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondral bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
"Applications for Methocel cellulose ethers from Dow Chemical". Retrieved 2007-10-12.. ... Applications[edit]. The sulfite process is acidic and one of the drawbacks is that the acidic conditions hydrolyze some of the ... E. Sjöström (1993). Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-647480-X.. ... Methylcellulose and other cellulose ether derivatives are used in a wide range of everyday products from adhesives to baked ...
"Photocleavage of o-nitrobenzyl ether derivatives for rapid biomedical release applications". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ... Household applications[edit]. There are instances in which silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver are used in consumer goods ... They also show promising application as water treatment method to form clean potable water.[85] This doesn't sound like much, ... Ahamed M; Alsalhi MS; Siddiqui MK (December 2010). "Silver nanoparticle applications and human health". Clin. Chim. Acta. 411 ( ...
Poly(aryl ether sulfone)s are composed of aromatic groups, ether groups and sulfonyl groups. For a comparison of the properties ... Applications[edit]. Polysulfone has one of the highest service temperatures among all melt-processable thermoplastics. Its ... Therefore, flexible elements must be incorporated into the chains, this is done in the form of ether groups. Ether groups allow ... The ether bond provides (as opposed to esters) hydrolysis resistance as well as some flexibility, which leads to impact ...
Applications[edit]. Tannins are used in the tanning industry. Some natural phenols can be used as biopesticides. ... Methylations can occur by the formation of an ether bond on hydroxyl groups forming O-methylated polyphenols. In the case of ... The application of pressurized-liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis ...
Alkenes and alkynes give alkyl and vinyl silanes; aldehydes and ketones give silyl ethers. The process was first reported in ... Hydrosilylation has been called the "most important application of platinum in homogeneous catalysis." The catalytic ... applications, developments. Boy Cornils; W A Herrmann. Publisher: Weinheim ; New York : Wiley-VCH, ©2000. Comprehensive ... relevant to various device applications. "Hydrosilylation A Comprehensive Review on Recent Advances" B. Marciniec (ed.), ...
The alkoxysilanes (silyl ethers) of the type R3Si(OR') are slow to hydrolyze. Compared to the silyl ethers, silyl acetates are ... For this reason silyl acetates are sometimes recommended for applications.[3] By oxidation of silyl hydrides[edit]. An ... The conversions of silyl halides, acetates, and ethers to siloxanes proceed via silanols. The sol-gel process, which entails ...
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring. This ring approximates an equilateral triangle, which makes it strained, ... and hence highly reactive, more so than other ethers. They are produced on a large scale for many applications. In general, low ... In specialized applications, other peroxide-containing reagents are employed, such as dimethyldioxirane. Depending on the ... It is a variant of the Williamson ether synthesis. In this case, an alkoxide ion intramolecularly displaces chloride. The ...
Anhydrous BaI2 can be prepared by treating Ba metal with 1,2-diiodoethane in ether. BaI2 reacts with alkyl potassium compounds ... Chem., 1963, volume 67, 2132 - 2135 Duval, E.; Zoltobroda, G.; Langlois, Y.; A new preparation of BaI2: application to (Z)-enol ... ether synthesis. Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 337-339 Walter, M. D.; Wolmershauser, G.; Sitzmann, H.; Calcium, Strontium, ...
Michigan State University Extension recommends a preemergence application followed by one or more postemergence applications. ... Resistance to acifluorfen and other diphenyl ether herbicides has been reported. Even more alarming is the emergence of ... Because of the long germination window for tall waterhemp, a single herbicide application is unlikely to be an effective ... allowing the weed to evade typical weed control strategies such as herbicide application and tillage. One study observed 80% ...
However, other perfluorinated ether isomers will also result. H(CH2)7COCl + HF → H(CH2)7COF + C7H16 + 2C8F16O + HCl + H2 A ... It is used as an inert coolant fluid in electronics and other applications, and as a solvent. FC-75 can be synthesized by the ...
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring. This ring approximates an equilateral triangle, which makes it strained, ... and hence highly reactive, more so than other ethers. They are produced on a large scale for many applications. In general, low ... This reaction is the basis of two commercial applications, the formation of epoxy glues and the production of glycols.[17] ... In specialized applications, other peroxide-containing reagents are employed, such as dimethyldioxirane. Depending on the ...
It is soluble in hot water, alcohol, benzene, chloroform, and ether.[citation needed] NADPH oxidase is an enzyme that ... Apocynin has since been extensively studied to help determine its disease-fighting capabilities and applications.[citation ...
... polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 4-nonylphenol in biosolids and in soil receiving 33-year biosolids application". ... Land application[edit]. Main article: Biosolids. Biosolids is a term widely used to denote the byproduct of domestic and ... "Land Application of Biosolids" (PDF). EPA. 28 March 2002. Retrieved 5 June 2017.. ... National regulations that dictate the practice of land application of treated sewage sludge differ widely and e.g. in the US ...
The main application of manganese tetrafluoride is in the purification of elemental fluorine. Fluorine gas is produced by ... Manganese tetrafluoride reacts violently with water and even with sodium-dried petroleum ether. It immediately decomposes on ... "Fluorides of High Oxidising Power and Their Application to the Preparation of Organic Fluorine Compounds", Russ. Chem. Rev., 35 ...
Ethers and esters of picric acid are also called picrates. The ether methyl picrate (CAS# 606-35-9) has the formula (O2N) ... Ferrous picrate is used in some applications as a diesel fuel additive to achieve better mileage.[citation needed] Sodium ...
Transferable intermolecular potential functions for water, alcohols, and ethers. Application to liquid water. J. Am. Chem. Soc ... Since 3-site models achieve a high computational efficiency, these are widely used for many applications of molecular dynamics ...
Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which then boiled, absorbing heat from the ... Refrigeration units for commercial and industrial applications can be made in various sizes, shapes and styles to fit customer ... His 1856 patent was for a vapor compression system using ether, alcohol or ammonia. He built a mechanical ice-making machine in ... American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in 1850 for a vapor compression system that used ether. ...
Ether.camp which is an Ethereum blockchain explorer. Blockapps Strato which is a partnership with Microsoft Azure to build ... ConsenSys is developing a variety of applications which operate on the global distributed computing platform. The office is ... Joseph Lubin founded ConsenSys in early 2015 as a software foundry to develop decentralized software services and applications ... industry-specific blockchain (database) applications. TransActive Grid is a joint venture with LO3 Energy which proposes to ...
It is used in postemergence applications to certain crops which are resistant to its action. The name "Lactofen" is approved by ... Lactofen is a complex ester of acifluorfen and is a nitrophenyl ether selective herbicide. ...
... is soluble in alcohol, benzene, and diethyl ether, and practically insoluble in water. The topical application of ... Monobenzone, also called 4-(Benzyloxy)phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) is an organic chemical in the phenol ... It is a colourless solid that is classified as the monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone. ...
In the research lab, crown ethers are used for this purpose. Polyethylene glycols are more commonly used in practical ... One of the more complex applications of PTC involves asymmetric alkylations, which are catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium ... Takuya Hashimoto and Keiji Maruoka "Recent Development and Application of Chiral Phase-Transfer Catalysts" Chem. Rev. 2007, 107 ... and the sodium cyanide does not dissolve well in the ether. Upon the addition of small amounts of hexadecyltributylphosphonium ...
Jeans, J. H. (1905b). "On the Application of Statistical Mechanics to the General Dynamics of Matter and Ether". Proceedings of ... On the partition of energy between matter and æther". Philosophical Magazine. 10 (55): 91. doi:10.1080/14786440509463348.. ... Caniou, J. (1999). Passive Infrared Detection: Theory and Applications. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-8532-5.. ... Which peak to use depends on the application. The conventional choice is the wavelength peak at 25.0% given by Wien's ...
Metalation of allyl ether with alkyllithium or LDA forms an anion α to the oxygen, and can proceed to 2,3-Wittig rearrangement ... Another application that takes advantage of this reactivity is the formation of carbocyclic and heterocyclic coumpounds via ... They are also an important intermediate in the formation of silyl enol ether. Lithium enolate formation can be generalized as ... Synthetic applications". Tetrahedron Lett. 39: 8975-8978. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98)02031-0. Cohen, T; Bhupathy. M (1989). " ...
Depending on the specific application of petroleum jelly, it may be USP, B.P., or Ph. Eur. grade. This pertains to the ... It is soluble in dichloromethane, chloroform, benzene, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide and oil of turpentine. ... soluble in ether, solvent hexane, or in most fixed and volatile oils, the degree of solubility in these solvents varying with ... "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia due to nasal application of petroleum jelly". Chest. 105 (3): 968-9. doi:10.1378/chest.105.3.968. ...
In medical applications, spray cans containing dimethyl ether or tetrafluoroethane may also be used to freeze and destroy ... Research is continuing to help control the application dosage and time to minimize permanent damage to the animals. Gas duster ... It may consist of various substances, which produce different temperatures, depending on the application. With the exception of ... For spot-cooling of electronic components during troubleshooting, dimethyl ether or tetrafluoroethane may be used. Freeze ...
Their preparation, reactions, and applications". Chemical Reviews. 71 (5): 483-505. doi:10.1021/cr60273a003.. ... Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... Oxazoline itself has no current applications however compounds containing the ring, which are referred to as oxazolines or ... Hoogenboom, Richard (12 October 2009). "Poly(2-oxazoline)s: A Polymer Class with Numerous Potential Applications". Angewandte ...
The consumption of DEGEE is dominated by its application in floor polish and paints, coatings, and inks owing to its superior ... The global diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market size was estimated at USD 374.9 million in 2018 and is expected to witness ... Application Insights. Floor polish application dominated the diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market in 2018 and accounted for ... Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Market Size, Industry Report, 2025 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Market Size, Share & ...
Crown Compounds: Toward Future Applications. Chichester: Wiley InterScience. ISBN 0471187836. *Cragg, Peter J. 2005. A ... Structures of some common crown ethers. Structures of common crown ethers: 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dibenzo-18-crown ... Crown ethers are heterocyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups. The most common crown ... Crown ethers in nature. Crown ethers are not the only macrocyclic ligands that have affinity for the potassium cation. ...
Market Sections By Applications:. Paints & Coatings, Printing Inks, Surface Cleaning Agent, Chemical Reagent ... Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) Market Top Business Growing Strategies, Technological Innovation and Emerging ... 1. To induce a discriminating survey of Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market and have the numerous meaning of ... 3. To recognize the foremost vast drives and discretion forces in Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) Market and its ...
Global Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Market Analysis and Forecast by Application ... Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Market Overview. *Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Supply Chain ... Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Pricing Analysis. *Global Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Market ... Uncategorized Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Market, Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (Cas 111-76-2) Market ...
1.2 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) Classification and Application. 1.3 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) ... 2.2.4 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) China Key Regions Development Status. 2.2.5 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether ( ... 2.2 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) Industry China Market Analysis. 2.2.1 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) ... Chapter One Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) Industry Overview. 1.1 Dipropylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (DPE) Definition ...
We Provide for you about propylen glycol monoethyl ether page1 ... Looking for propylen glycol monoethyl ether? Here you can find ... the lowest price products about propylen glycol monoethyl ether. ... Used as a solvent, in coating applications such as latex paint ... Glycol Ether DB ButylCarbitol Glycol Ether DE CarbitolSolvent Glycol Ether DPM Glycol Ether DPM Glycol Ether EB Acetate ... Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (Glycol Ether EE). Detailed Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether, also known as Glycol Ether EE, and ...
E-series Glycol Ether Market by Type (EGPE, EGBE, EGBEA), Application (Paints & Coatings, Printing Ink, Cleaners, Cosmetics & ... Which applications/end-user segments are showing wider adoption of E-series Glycol Ether Market? ... HOME › E-series Glycol Ether Market by Type (EGPE, EGBE, EGBEA), Application (Paints & Coatings, Printing Ink, Cleaners, ... MarketsandMarkets will host webinar to help you uncover the high growth opportunities in E-series Glycol Ether Market. Our ...
The Cellulose Ether & its Derivatives Market was Valued at USD 4.51 Billion in 2015 and is Projected to Reach USD 6.41 Billion ... 5.1.1.1 Cellulose Ether & Derivatives Market, By Product Type. 5.1.1.2 Cellulose Ether & Derivatives Market, By Application. ... Table 2 Cellulose Ether & Derivatives Market, By Application. Table 3 Properties, Benefits, and Use of Cellulose Ether. Table 4 ... Figure 24 Cellulose Ether & Derivatives Market, By Application. Figure 25 Industrial Application to Dominate the Carboxymethyl ...
Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether Market Research 2020: Currently Trending Market Strategies of Production and Applications by 2025. ... What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types and applications of Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether market? ... The Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether industry report firstly announced the Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether Market fundamentals: type ... Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether market competition by top manufacturers/ Key player Profiled:. BASF SE , Celanese Corporation , ...
... letters and reviews in the general field of bioinorganic chemistry and its applications. Its scope includes all aspects of ... Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research in the form of ... Design and Synthesis of Redox-Switched Lariat Ethers and Their Application for Transport of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metal ... "Design and Synthesis of Redox-Switched Lariat Ethers and Their Application for Transport of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metal ...
... uses for perfluoroalkyl haloalkyl ether compounds and compositions thereof, optionally comprising surfactant; and ... Described are compositions comprising perfluoroalkyl haloalkyl ethers and, optionally, surfactant; ... Perfluoroalkyl haloalkyl ethers and compositions and applications thereof Related Parent Applications (1). Application Number. ... Perfluoroalkyl haloalkyl ethers and compositions and applications thereof Family Applications Before (4). Application Number. ...
... ether sulfone) copolymers containing pendant sulfonate groups were prepared by direct aromatic nucleophilic substitution ... Nano Composite Membranes of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ketone)/ Poly (Ether Sulfone) Copolymer and SiO2 for Fuel Cell Application p ... Nano Composite Membranes of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ketone)/ Poly (Ether Sulfone) Copolymer and SiO2 for Fuel Cell Application. ... H. S. Park et al., "Nano Composite Membranes of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ketone)/ Poly (Ether Sulfone) Copolymer and SiO2 for ...
Macrocyclization methodologies allowing access to macrocycles having an endo ary ether and an endo ary-aryl bond, especially ... Access to Macrocycles with an endo Aryl ether and an endo Aryl-Aryl Bond, Development and Application Wang, Qian ; Zhu, Jieping ... Home , Access to Macrocycles with an endo Aryl ether and an endo Aryl-Aryl Bond, Development and Application ... Macrocyclization methodologies allowing access to macrocycles having an endo ary ether and an endo ary-aryl bond, especially ...
The endo aryl-aryl and aryl-alkyl ether bonds exist in a number of biologically important macrocyclic natural products, such as ... For a short account, see: Zhu, J. (1997) SNAr based macrocyclization via biaryl ether formation: Application in natural product ... Application in the Synthesis of Heterodectic Macrocyclic Peptides with Endo Aryl-Aryl and Aryl-Alkyl Ether Bonds. In: ... Application in the Synthesis of Heterodectic Macrocyclic Peptides with Endo Aryl-Aryl and Aryl-Alkyl Ether Bonds. ...
Application and Regions / Countries report by HeyReport. Summary This report includes market status and forecast of global... ... 134 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2015-2023 World Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) Market Research Report by Product ... Application (2015-2017). Table Global Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) Market Share by End-Use / Application (2015-2017). ... Application (2015-2017). Table Europe Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) Market Share by End-Use / Application (2015-2017). ...
By Application (Food & Beverages, Pharmaceuticals, Water & Wastewater Treatment - Market research report and industry analysis ... India Water Soluble Polymers Market By Type (Guar Gum, Polyacrylamide, Gelatin, Cellulose Ether & Others), By Application (Food ... Figure 24: India Gelatin Market Share, By Application, By Volume, 2012-2026F. Figure 25: India Cellulose Ether Market Size, By ... Figure 27: India Cellulose Ether Market Share, By Application, By Volume, 2012-2026F. Figure 28: India Water Soluble Polymers ...
Butane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl-; Ether, methyl tert-pentyl; tert-Amyl Methyl ether; Methyl tert-pentyl ether; 1,1-Dimethylpropyl ... tert-Amyl Methyl ether Compound Information and Applications for GC (Gas Chromatography) and LC (Liquid Chromatography) ... Application Chromatograms. Simulated Distillation of Gasoline with Oxygenates on MXT-1 (ASTM D7096-16). ... Tert-Amyl methyl ether. CAS # 994-05-8. Compound Structure and Properties. ...
Characterization and applications, Carbohydrate Polymers" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research ... "Electrospinning of non-ionic cellulose ethers/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers: ... Electrospinning of non-ionic cellulose ethers/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers: Characterization and applications. Wali, Ashwini; ... Electrospinning of non-ionic cellulose ethers/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers: Characterization and applications. Electrospinning ...
Development of an advanced on-line position-specific stable carbon isotope system and application to methyl tert-butyl ether ... Development of an advanced on-line position-specific stable carbon isotope system and application to methyl tert-butyl ether. ... In the case of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) presented here, a pre-pyrolysis fractionation of MTBE leading to a depletion of ... methyl tert-butyl ether, chemistry, Chemistry, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), Organic Chemistry, ...
2-mercaptoethyl ether acetic acid average Mn 3,500; CAS Number: 165729-81-7; Synonym: mercaptoPEG acid, mercaptopoly(ethylene ... Application Reported applications include: bioconjugation, drug delivery, PEG hydrogel, crosslinker, and surface ... Poly(ethylene glycol) 2-mercaptoethyl ether acetic acid average Mn 3,500 Synonym: mercaptoPEG acid, mercaptopoly(ethylene ... biocompatible polymer with widespread use in biomedical and other applications. PEGs are synthesized using a ring-opening ...
... contains 500 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor; CAS Number: 2680-03-7; EC Number: 220-237-5; Synonym: 2- ... Application DMA is used in the synthesis of photoresponsive polymers. It is used in the synthesis of copolymers by. grafting ... 99%, contains 500 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor Synonym: 2-Propenamide ...
Application. Reagent for the introduction of a phenyl group and mild metalating agent. ...
... pure metals and materials for a wide span of applications. ... Applications. sec-Butyl methyl ether is used as a solvent in ... Kamiguchi, S.; Seki, Y.; Satake, A.; Okumura, K.; Nagashima, S.; Chihara, T. Catalytic Cracking of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether to ... Badia, J. H.; Fité, C.; Bringué, R.; Ramírez, E.; Cunill, F. Byproducts formation in the ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) ...
... pure metals and materials for a wide span of applications. ... Applications. Diethylene glycol diethyl ether is used to study ... Excess molar volumes and viscosities of binary mixtures of diethylene glycol diethyl ether with chloroalkanes at 298.15 K. ... Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether with Dimethyl Carbonate, Diethyl Carbonate, and ...
Ashland has also introduced new CMC binder products for battery applications in February 2015, thus giving them a competitive ... The global cellulose ether & its derivatives market was valued at USD 4.51 Billion in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 6.41 ... Expansions is the key Strategy Adopted by the key Industry Players to Maintain Growth in the Cellulose Ether & Its Derivatives ... Expansions is the key Strategy Adopted by the key Industry Players to Maintain Growth in the Cellulose Ether & Its Derivatives ...
  • Given their strong capital investment capacity, these companies are focusing on forward integration across the market value chain by developing new production technologies for glycol ethers. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Anubhuti Awasthy, Mamta Bhatnagar, Jyoti Tomar, and Uma Sharma, "Design and Synthesis of Redox-Switched Lariat Ethers and Their Application for Transport of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metal Cations Across Supported Liquid Membrane," Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications , vol. 2006, Article ID 97141, 4 pages, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • From the view point of synthesis design ( 15 ), macrocyclization via formation of aryl-aryl or aryl-alkyl ether bond is unique, since it tackles two difficult synthetic problems, i.e., formation of ether bond and ring closure by a single operation. (springer.com)
  • Intramolecular Ullmann ether synthesis ( 16 ), oxidative coupling reaction ( 17 ), and so forth, have been employed for the synthesis of type A ( Fig. 1 ) compounds. (springer.com)
  • Synthesis of PPEs for optical and nonoptical applications is far from trivial, but experience from other fields is useful in synthesizing optical-grade materials. (photonics.com)
  • The content of the book is unique as there are no books which deal with the recent advances synthesis, morphology, structure, properties and applications of engineering polymers and their blends and composites including nanocomposites. (wiley.com)
  • This final volume in the Handbook of Engineering and Speciality Thermoplastics covers Nylons and details the developments of the last decade with respect to their polymerization, properties, synthesis, and applications. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Silyl ethers are usually used as protecting groups for alcohols in organic synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the synthesis of taxol: Silyl ethers are mainly differentiated on the basis of sterics or electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is synthesized by a modification of the Williamson ether synthesis, here the reaction of phenol and bromobenzene in the presence of base and a catalytic amount of copper: PhONa + PhBr → PhOPh + NaBr Involving similar reactions, diphenyl ether is a significant side product in the high-pressure hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the production of phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8. The composition of claim 1, wherein said carrier is sodium borate decahydrate and said ether alcohol is dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether. (google.com)
  • 13. The composition of claim 11, which contains 80.35% sodium borate decahydrate, 12.0% aluminum oxide, 6.0% dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1.5% of a non-ionic surfactant and 0.15% fragrance, said percentages being based on the total weight of said composition. (google.com)
  • Asia Pacific Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Market will register more than a third of the overall SLES market share in 2024 owing to increasing awareness towards personal, residential, and institutional hygiene in the developing countries such as China and India. (fractovia.org)
  • Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Market is slated to witness significant growth over the years to come, as SLES is one of the main constituents of various household products such as dish washing soaps and household cleaners. (fractovia.org)
  • Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) has been gaining popularity among various personal care product manufacturers pertaining to its effective foaming capabilities and cost effectiveness. (fractovia.org)
  • Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES) Market Worth $1.5bn by 2024: Global Market Insights, Inc. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Growing awareness about personal hygiene along with huge investments in the commercial activities of personal care products will have a significant impact on global sodium lauryl ether sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) market in the coming years. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Sodium lauryl ether sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate or SLES market research report has been categorized on application basis into personal care products, detergents & cleaners, and other applications. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • In 2024, detergents & cleaners application segment of the global SLES market was worth over USD 650 million and it will hold sway throughout the forecast spell owing to the superior foaming and stain removal properties in both hard and soft water. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES 70%)(id:5790279). (ec21.com)
  • Given their strong capital investment capacity, these companies are focusing on forward integration across the market value chain by developing new production technologies for glycol ethers. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Staflo®, Gabroil® and Gabrosa™ represent a comprehensive range of PAC and CMC grades to meet the requirements of the drilling fluid systems for the oilfield industry: The Staflo grades are premium high purity PAC grades and the Gabroil and Gabrosa can be economically attractive alternatives for drilling applications that do not require high purity PAC or CMC. (akzonobel.com)
  • The product is considered to be a safe and tolerable pharmaceutical-grade glycol ether when used at 99.9% purity. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • This report was created for strategic planners, international executives and import/export managers who are concerned with the market for vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments. (reportbuyer.com)
  • I have developed a methodology, based on macroeconomic and trade models, to estimate the market for vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments for those countries serving the world market via exports or supplying from various countries via imports. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Which countries are supplying vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments? (reportbuyer.com)
  • How much do the imports of vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments vary from one country to another? (reportbuyer.com)
  • In what follows, Chapter 2 begins by summarizing the regional markets for imported and exported vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments. (reportbuyer.com)
  • After the worldwide summary in Chapter 2 of both imports and exports, Chapter 3 details the exports of vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments, for each individual country. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Chapter 4 does the same, but for imports of vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments for all countries in the world. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Combined, Chapters 3 and 4 present the complete picture for imports and exports of vegetable alkaloids and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives excluding medicaments to and from all major countries in the world. (reportbuyer.com)
  • These mature markets are becoming saturated and major players in cellulose ether products are shifting their manufacturing bases to countries such as India, Malaysia, and China, among others, where the cost of production is low. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Moreover, the company has adopted distributors for its cellulose ether products globally to gain a strong foothold in the market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The present invention relates to compounds and compositions of formula I, which are unsymmetrical aromatic ether diacids, and polymers formed from the same. (google.com.au)
  • Polymers formed from the functionalized unsymmetrical aromatic ether diacids are expected to have controllable degradation profiles, enabling them to release an active component over a desired time range. (google.com.au)
  • The global Polyoxypropylene Glycerol Ether market will reach Volume Million USD in 2017 with CAGR xx% 20182025. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In March 2016, AkzoNobel appointed Krahn Chemie (Germany) as its distributor for its Bermocell brand of cellulose ethers in Benelux & neighboring countries. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • As per the report by Global Market Insights, Inc., "Worldwide sodium lauryl ether sulfate market was worth USD 1 billion in 2015 and will register a CAGR of more than 5% over the period of 2016 - 2024. (fractovia.org)
  • Europe sodium lauryl ether sulfate industry collected a revenue of USD 250 million in 2015 and is slated to generate considerable revenue with an annual growth rate of above 4.5% over 2016-2024. (fractovia.org)
  • These properties are achieved by using as a thickening agent a cellulose ether which is substituted with hydroxyalkyl groups, such as hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl, and alkyl groups having 1-3 carbon atoms, and which has a cloud point in the range from 35 C. to 80 C. (google.com.au)
  • The first number in the name of a crown ether refers to the number of atoms in the cycle, and the second number refers to the number of those atoms that are oxygen . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Paints, coatings, and inks is the second-largest application for the product and the segment is anticipated to exhibit a CAGR of 5.5%, in terms of revenue. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • At Patents you can conduct a Patent Search, File a Patent Application, find a Patent Attorney, or search available technology through our Patent Exchange. (patents.com)
  • Patent Appeal No. 7555 United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals 7 April 1966 http://openjurist.org/358/f2d/750/application-of-edward-s-blake-and-william-c-hammann http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/44570 Suter, C. M. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium lauryl polyoxyethylene ether sulfate price,buy Formaldehyde,Formaldehyde supplier-Hebei yanxi chemical co. (lookchem.com)
  • The coordination chemistry and (electro)chemical understanding as well as the excellent cycling stability collectively leads toward a breakthrough in realizing the practical applicability of this ether aided ionic liquid electrolytes in lithium metal battery applications, while delivering high energy density in a prototype cell. (chemrxiv.org)
  • Silyl ethers are a group of chemical compounds which contain a silicon atom covalently bonded to an alkoxy group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since R1R2R3 can be combinations of differing groups which can be varied in order to provide a number of silyl ethers, this group of chemical compounds provides a wide spectrum of selectivity for protecting group chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to silicon ether compounds having a general formula (I), a method for the preparation thereof and use thereof as a component of catalysts for polymerization of olefins. (justia.com)