Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Receptor, Galanin, Type 2: A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.Receptor, Galanin, Type 1: The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.Receptors, Galanin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for GALANIN and galanin peptides. They are generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN to meditate the neurological effects of galanin. Several subtypes of galanin receptors occur with differing specificities for the full length galanin, galanin peptide fragments, and galanin-like peptide.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Motivational Interviewing: It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (1/658)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (2/658)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

Psychophysics of remembering. (3/658)

We present a new model of remembering in the context of conditional discrimination. For procedures such as delayed matching to sample, the effect of the sample stimuli at the time of remembering is represented by a pair of Thurstonian (normal) distributions of effective stimulus values. The critical assumption of the model is that, based on prior experience, each effective stimulus value is associated with a ratio of reinforcers obtained for previous correct choices of the comparison stimuli. That ratio determines the choice that is made on the basis of the matching law. The standard deviations of the distributions are assumed to increase with increasing retention-interval duration, and the distance between their means is assumed to be a function of other factors that influence overall difficulty of the discrimination. It is a behavioral model in that choice is determined by its reinforcement history. The model predicts that the biasing effects of the reinforcer differential increase with decreasing discriminability and with increasing retention-interval duration. Data from several conditions using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with pigeons support the predictions.  (+info)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in delay-of-reinforcement effects. (4/658)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in maintaining operant behavior under conditions of delayed reinforcement was investigated by using a two-operandum (i.e., two-key) procedure with pigeons. Responding on one key was reinforced under a tandem variable-interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (tandem VI DRO) schedule. The schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure in that a response was required when the interfood interval of the VI schedule lapsed, but further responding during the DRO component on either key reset the time interval. This ensured a fixed delay duration between any response and reinforcement. Responding on another key, physically identical to the first one except for spatial location, otherwise was without consequence. The location of the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure varied between sessions according to a semirandom sequence. Differences in response rates between the two keys were greater, with proportionally higher rates on the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure, the longer the delay-of-reinforcement procedure remained correlated with the same key. Differences in responding on the two keys also increased within individual sessions. These results suggest that the response-reinforcer relation is the primary determinant of responding when responding is acquired and maintained with delayed reinforcement.  (+info)

Echolocation behaviour and prey-capture success in foraging bats: laboratory and field experiments on Myotis daubentonii. (5/658)

During prey-capture attempts, many echolocating bats emit a 'terminal buzz', when pulse repetition rate is increased and pulse duration and interpulse interval are shortened. The buzz is followed by a silent interval (the post-buzz pause). We investigated whether variation in the structure of the terminal buzz, and the calls and silent periods following it, may provide information about whether the capture attempt was successful and about the size of prey detected - detail that is valuable in studies of habitat use and energetics. We studied the trawling bat Myotis daubentonii. The time between the first call of the approach phase and the end of the terminal phase was not related to prey size in the laboratory. The last portion of the terminal buzz (buzz II) was shortened or omitted during aborted capture attempts. Both in the laboratory and in the field, the mean interpulse interval immediately after the terminal buzz (post-buzz interpulse interval) was longer in successful captures than in unsuccessful attempts. In the laboratory, the post-buzz pause was longer after successful captures than for unsuccessful attempts, and the minimum frequency of the first search-phase call emitted after the buzz (Fmin) was higher than that of the last such call prior to the buzz. These effects were not apparent in field data. Both in the laboratory (85%) and in the field (74%), significant discrimination between successful and unsuccessful capture attempts was possible when the duration of the post-buzz pause, post-buzz interpulse interval and Fmin were entered into a discriminant analysis. Thus, variation in the echolocation calls of bats during prey-capture attempts can reveal substantial information about capture success and prey size.  (+info)

Calibration of vector navigation in desert ants. (6/658)

Desert ants (Cataglyphis sp.) monitor their position relative to the nest using a form of dead reckoning [1] [2] [3] known as path integration (PI) [4]. They do this with a sun compass and an odometer to update an accumulator that records their current position [1]. Ants can use PI to return to the nest [2] [3]. Here, we report that desert ants, like honeybees [5] and hamsters [6], can also use PI to approach a previously visited food source. To navigate to a goal using only PI information, a forager must recall a previous state of the accumulator specifying the goal, and compare it with the accumulator's current state [4]. The comparison - essentially vector subtraction - gives the direction to the goal. This whole process, which we call vector navigation, was found to be calibrated at recognised sites, such as the nest and a familiar feeder, throughout the life of a forager. If a forager was trained around a one-way circuit in which the result of PI on the return route did not match the result on the outward route, calibration caused the ant's trajectories to be misdirected. We propose a model of vector navigation to suggest how calibration could produce such trajectories.  (+info)

The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. (7/658)

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

Olfactory foraging by Antarctic procellariiform seabirds: life at high Reynolds numbers. (8/658)

Antarctic procellariiform seabirds forage over vast stretches of open ocean in search of patchily distributed prey resources. These seabirds are unique in that most species have anatomically well-developed olfactory systems and are thought to have an excellent sense of smell. Results from controlled experiments performed at sea near South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic indicate that different species of procellariiforms are sensitive to a variety of scented compounds associated with their primary prey. These include krill-related odors (pyrazines and trimethylamine) as well as odors more closely associated with phytoplankton (dimethyl sulfide, DMS). Data collected in the context of global climatic regulation suggest that at least one of these odors (DMS) tends to be associated with predictable bathymetry, including upwelling zones and seamounts. Such odor features are not ephemeral but can be present for days or weeks. I suggest that procellariiforms foraging over vast distances may be able to recognize these features reflected in the olfactory landscape over the ocean. On the large scale, such features may aid seabirds in navigation or in locating profitable foraging grounds. Once in a profitable foraging area, procellariiforms may use olfactory cues on a small scale to assist them in locating prey patches.  (+info)

1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR , 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR , 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR , 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR , 1 condition, but a ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants
This article seeks to understand the e-journal search patterns of STM (science, technology, and medicine) researchers from the French academic network by studying how researchers seek, read, and use articles on the ScienceDirect platform. The methodology combines two approaches. The first approach is quantitative and is based on statistical data concerning search activities on ScienceDirect between January 2008 and April 2009. The second approach is qualitative and is based on semi-directed interviews of researchers authorized to access ScienceDirect. The researchers information-seeking activities on ScienceDirect follow two complementary usage logics. On the one hand, they follow search and discovery itineraries, and, on the other hand, they implement continuous and recurrent access mechanisms. In both cases, the researchers searching behaviours on ScienceDirect are similar to their behaviours on the Web. This study concerns a previously unpublished large-scale analysis of STM searching behaviours.
The single training session appetitive LTM assay provides a unique advantage for the study of memory consolidation because one can manipulate the brain immediately after training during the initial period of memory formation. In contrast, 10 cycles of aversive spaced training takes 150 min to complete (Tully et al., 1994), and therefore one cannot perturb neural processing during this period without also interfering with acquisition. Using cold-shock anesthesia, we found that appetitive memory is quickly, and perhaps entirely, consolidated to anesthesia-resistant forms within 2 h after training.. Previous work in flies suggests that cold shock-resistant memory can be broken into two independent components, ARM that depends on the rsh gene and is resistant to CXM and LTM that is unaffected by rsh and is sensitive to CXM (Tully et al., 1994; Isabel et al., 2004). Feeding flies CXM disrupted appetitive LTM and produced a statistically significant defect 6 h after training, suggesting that protein ...
Summary: Alarms serve to focus attention and prioritize individual concerns. In honey bees, social alarm impairs appetitive learning. Here, we show that the effect on aversive learning depends on social role and signal intensity. ...
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem.. Plant Structure Worksheet - Leya Joykutty ...
A summary of Leaf in s Plant Structures. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Plant Structures and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
JK ENGG. CO. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of PLANT STRUCTURE FABRICATION based in Sonipat, India
This title provides a strong introduction to plant biology, clearly explaining how plants structures enable them to make food, grow, survive challenging environments, and reproduce ...
... _Portable crushing plants, Portable crusher sanmecrusher products mobilecrusher ppmobilecrusher html SANME PP Series Portable Crushing Plants include portable jaw crusher, portable cone crushe
... structures to survive, grow, and reproduce. The following chart illustrates how humans possess certain structures to carry out these critical functions. Fill in the plant structures that correspond to the human structures listed in the chart ...
The Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor NeuronsThe Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor Neurons ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
In order to appreciate the unique role that plants play in the worlds ecosystems, it is important to understand plant structure and development. This sequence allows students to consider plants from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue and organ level. It illustrates how evolutionary forces have resulted in exquisite adaptations in plant form and function.. 1. BIO/MBI 116 Biological Concepts: Structure, Function (4) (MPF), ...
Contributions to http://og-science.wikispaces.com/ are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. ...
Throughout his career, Prof. Craig Brodersen has explored the fundamental relationships between plant structure and function, and how different species have adapted to utilize limited resources.
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
China TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56), Find details about China Switch, Changeover Switch from TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56) - Yueqing Long Road Electric Co., Ltd.
Background:The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.Methods:This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion o
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
Circuits for use with a receiver which notify the operator of a receiving station by means of an audio tone when an opposite station is calling or has ceased transmission. The transition of an opposite station from its transmitting to receiving state or vice versa is detected and a specific change-over sound based upon the detector output is introduced into the principal stations receiver audio amplifier circuits.
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Chris Sherman is the moderator of this session. He introduces this as a unique panel, compared to the others. Recently, he said, we have real metrics on search behavior. That is the whole focus of this panel. Gord Hotchkiss is up...
This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than
Psyche is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
Find Fabrication Services Aluminium Plant Structure in Ludhiana phone numbers & contact details. The complete list of Fabrication Services Aluminium Plant Structure in Ludhiana, India. Magicpages.in - Get what you think.
Linked employer-employee data for Brazil over a period of large-scale trade liberalization document two salient workforce changeovers. Within the traded-goods sector, there is a marked occupation downgrading and a simultaneous education upgrading by which employers fill expanding low-skill intensive occupations with increasingly educated jobholders. Between sectors, there is a labor demand shift towards the least and the most skilled, which can be traced back to relatively weaker declines of traded-goods industries that intensely use low-skilled labor and to relatively stronger expansions of nontraded-output industries that intensely use high-skilled labor. Whereas these observations are broadly consistent with predictions of Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory for a low-skill abundant economy, classic trade theory is a less useful guide to the observed reallocation pattern. Establishment-level regressions show that exporters exhibit significant employment downsizing. Workforce changeovers are neither ...
Abstract: Many organisms locate resources in environments in which sensory signals are rare, noisy, and lack directional information. Recent studies of search in such environments model search behavior using random walks (e.g., Levy walks) that match empirical movement distributions. We extend this modeling approach to include searcher responses to noisy sensory data. The results of numerical simulation show that including even a simple response to noisy sensory data can dominate other features of random search, resulting in lower mean search times and decreased risk of long intervals between target encounters. In particular, we show that a lack of signal is not a lack of information. Searchers that receive no signal can quickly abandon target-poor regions. On the other hand, receiving a strong signal leads a searcher to concentrate search effort near targets. These responses cause simulated searchers to exhibit an emergent area-restricted search behavior similar to that observed of many ...
Netherlands: Revenue in the Online Food Delivery segment amounts to US$1,368m in 2020. The eServices market segment Online Food Delivery contains the user and revenue development of two different delivery service solutions for prepared meals: (1) Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery and (2) Platform-to-Consumer Delivery.
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence ...
Food delivery has swelled to a more than $10 billion industry in America. For the first time, restaurants are projected to make more money from food consumed outside their doors than inside in 2020. Thats partly thanks to ordering apps such as Door Dash, Grubhub, Uber Eats, and many others. Brook Silva-Braga explains how the billion-dollar trend started.
So if you are looking for additionally help I always added to my question on Google "Debian". And that was a good one. I changed my search behavior and first looked at debian.org or superuser. The answers were most reliable. Beside that I am following the Beagleboard groups on Google were new development is discussed. And it is a fast changing world. In the last days there were alone over 60 mails with Robert Nelson concerning the new Debian image. That is also the reason why I will not post a step by step instruction. It will be outdated when I have finished my post. And one last advice: Your system will look for it, but when you want to download pre-compiled software you have to get software for the armhf environment. All other will fail. That is the reason why you have to compile most of the software by yourself. But that should not be a problem ...
Whether you deal with changeovers yourself, are part of a fully-managed service or hire help, effective cleaning products will be your holiday homes best friend and weave a sparkly path to happy guests and great reviews.
Title: Ask MetaFilter questions tagged with pediatric, Description: Questions tagged with pediatric at Ask MetaFilter., By: Feedage Forager, ID: 564678, Grade: 87, Type: RSS20
Title: gadgetblog, Description: Gadget e regali particolari- oggetti e gadget tecnologici, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 570550, Grade: 90, Type: RSS20
Immunocytochemistry revealed that synapsin I is preferentially (and possibly exclusively) associated with small (40- to 60-nanometer) synaptic vesicles and not with large (greater than 60-nanometer) dense-core vesicles in bovine hypothalamus. These observations may explain why synapsin I is found exclusively in neurons, since small synaptic vesicles are specific to neurons whereas large dense-core vesicles in neurons may be considered the equivalent of secretory organelles in endocrine cells. ...
In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain.,br /,Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary ...
One further possibility is that childrens unstable fixation and their lower sensitivities are both symptoms of some more global immaturity, such as a general lack of attentiveness. This could be assessed in future by adding explicit catch trials to the test protocol in order to assess childrens false-negative (lapse) rates and false-positive rates (trigger errors).39 Previous work by Tschopp and colleagues40 has shown that lapse rates measured in this manner are strong predictors of childrens thresholds on standard automated perimetry; and on this basis, it seems plausible that such lapses may also explain some or all of childrens deficits in MP. A second/additional possibility is that childrens reduced sensitivities were a direct consequence of their reduced fixation stability. Substantial reductions in visual sensitivity are known to occur during eye movements,41,42 and children made more and larger eye movements than adults (e.g., due to "searching" behaviors, physiological nystagmus, or ...
The psychology term superimposed schedules of reinforcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or more simple schedules of reinforcement operate simultaneously. Reinforcers can be positive, negative, or both. An example is a person who comes home after a long day at work. The behavior of opening the front door is rewarded by a big kiss on the lips by the persons spouse and a rip in the pants from the family dog jumping enthusiastically. Another example of superimposed schedules of reinforcement is a pigeon in an experimental cage pecking at a button. The pecks deliver a hopper of grain every 20th peck, and access to water after every 200 pecks.. Superimposed schedules of reinforcement are a type of compound schedule that evolved from the initial work on simple schedules of reinforcement by B.F. Skinner and his colleagues (Skinner and Ferster, 1957). They demonstrated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules, and further that organisms behaved differently under different ...
AMSTERDAM, Nov 2- TripAdvisor users will be able to order meal deliveries in nine European countries under a deal with Dutch online food delivery company Takeaway.com. The deal comes as competition in online food delivery heats up with the entry of Uber and Amazon.com. U.S.-owned TripAdvisor users will be able to click through to Takeaways site to order food...
Study heterogeneity also limited our ability to identify which features of a residency program or changeover system are most problematic. In general, studies aggregated data across patient care events or clinical settings in which the resident role in patient care varied markedly. Only a few studies gave specific information about the level of involvement of residents in the specific episode of care (8, 52) or in the clinical setting overall, by adjusting for number of residency programs in the hospital (30) or resident-to-bed or resident-to-discharge ratios (46, 57, 61). Study descriptions of the switch and associated supervisory system also varied. Most did not describe the level of supervision, and for those that did, the degree of supervision varied from 24/7 direct supervision by an attending physician (38, 49-51, 54, 58) to interns initiating supervision as needed (35). Only 1 accounted for level of supervision as a covariate (8). With 1 exception (33), studies did not report whether ...
When planning plant structures and factory layouts, the know-how of employees involved regarding logistics, assembly as well as production planning and control is an important criterion for success. Among other things, the most common problems in factory planning are that those affected by the planning are not sufficiently involved in the planning process and that decisions have to be revisited repeatedly.. With the support of an assistive system for factory planning, such as visTABLE, all parties can be quickly brought up to speed on the current state of planning, and essential information presented clearly and transparently.. In addition, with visTABLE, analysis functions are supported and planning results can be presented in a clear and concise manner.. ...
DRIVECOD series intelligent actuators are suitable to drive positioning and auxiliary axes and allow you to greatly reduce set-up and change-over times. They a…
The study of diagnosing students misconception about plant structure in relation to photosynthesis among middle school using drawing method was conducted to identify students misconception using drawing method concerning on this important concept. A descriptive research was applied in this study and a number of eight grade students (N=32) is participated in this research. Purposive sampling was implemented as the sampling technique of this study. Data was gathered from thirty two students drawings, modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI), interview, and questionnaire. These drawings were analyzed and categorized based on five level of drawings criteria by Köse. The result showed that the students intensify on Level 4 in which students drawings mostly demonstrate partial understanding and no misconception found in the concept of plant structure in relation to photosynthesis. From the drawings, there were 25% students identified which held misconception on plant structure and it is ...
Research in my lab centers on organismal-level biology of invertebrates, involving ecology, behavior and evolution. Many of the projects have dealt with predator/prey or parasite/host interactions involving mites feeding on insects. These projects include searching behavior, the use of chemical cues in host or prey location, and the impact of mites on their insect prey/hosts. Potentials for research on reproductive behavior include studying mate-seeking and mate-selection behavior, and chemical communication among mites. Summer-based research can involve studies on host-parasite interactions in naturally-occurring populations (i.e., field studies), most academic year studies are laboratory based. However, if you are interested in field-oriented ecological research, I can suggest projects involving aquatic invertebrates. Please look at my web page for additional information about research in my lab ...
In the absence of response-reinforcer delays, AcbC-lesioned rats acquired an instrumental response normally, responding even more than sham-operated controls. In contrast, blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the AcbC has been shown to retard instrumental learning for food under a variable-ratio-2 (VR-2) schedule [in which P(reinforcer , response) ≅ 0.5] [40], as has inhibition or over-stimulation of cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) within the Acb [41]. Concurrent blockade of NMDA and DA D1 receptors in the AcbC synergistically prevents learning of a VR-2 schedule [42]. Once the response has been learned, subsequent performance on this schedule is not impaired by NMDA receptor blockade within the AcbC [40]. Furthermore, infusion of a PKA inhibitor [41] or a protein synthesis inhibitor [43] into the AcbC after instrumental training sessions impairs subsequent performance, implying that PKA activity and protein synthesis in ...
Drug effects on operant behavior are often characterized by their effects on rate of responding, usually expressed as the number of responses per unit of time. The time between two consecutive responses constitutes an interresponse time (IRT), and this measure has been used also to characterize the effects of drugs on operant behavior. IRTs which occur during a session can be classified on a statistical basis as: 1) short-IRT, an IRT(s) of short duratio generated by high-frequency responses; 2) pause, an IRT of long duratio generated by low-frequency responses; and 3) post-reinforcement pause, an IRT which immediately follows reinforcement. This investigation used three schedules of water reinforcement (fixed-ratio 20, fixed-interval 90-seconds and variable-interval 20-seconds) to examine how these IRT classes are influenced by changes in water deprivation conditions or amphetamine administration. Base-line IRT distributions depended upon the schedule of reinforcement. Changes induced by doses ...
Neurons are highly polarized cells exhibiting axonal and somatodendritic domains with distinct complements of cytoplasmic organelles. Although some organelles are widely distributed throughout the neuronal cytoplasm, others are segregated to either the axonal or somatodendritic domains. Recent findings show that organelle segregation is largely established at a pre-axonal-exclusion zone (PAEZ) within the axon hillock. Polarized sorting of cytoplasmic organelles at the PAEZ is proposed to depend mainly on their selective association with different microtubule motors and, in turn, with distinct microtubule arrays. Somatodendritic organelles that escape sorting at the PAEZ can be subsequently retrieved at the axon initial segment (AIS) by a microtubule- and/or actin-based mechanism. Dynamic sorting along the PAEZ-AIS continuum can thus explain the polarized distribution of cytoplasmic organelles between the axonal and somatodendritic domains.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
My students LOVE playing scoot or any other game really! Anything that allows them to talk and move is a winner with them! This scoot game has been used in my fourth grade classroom and my students were big fans! I know your scientists will love it too!
certified organic with no parabens or other synthetics harvested and processed by hand to ensure delicate plant structure not damaged cold processed fruits, veg
With the Tennessee General Assembly reconvening in just over a month, House Speaker Beth Harwell’s schedule is about to get much tighter as she juggles legislating and campaigning over the
Lt. Columbo: Mrs. Peck? Mrs. Peck, I made a very poor introduction of myself to you. I know that. Im a stranger in your house that you love and Im here to do something thats not very pleasant so I dont expect you to like me. But I have feelings too, Mrs. Peck. Now Im sorry about being untidy. Thats something that I cant control. Thats a fault of mine that I, I, I dont know, I just cant correct that. Ive tried many years. Im just very untidy, thats my nature. But Ive never been un-, Ive never been rude to you, Mrs. Peck. And, and if you keep on treating me like an enemy just because Im here trying to find who killed the man you worked for for 33 years, well, then, well then I think youre a very unfair person. [leaves] ...
This is a question and I have the answer, but I am wondering about why some of the other choices are not also correct: The question is: Which of the following statements reflects a developmental
The unwind controller drum for metering web material into a web processing machine is positively driven by a positive, fixed-ratio drive train. Several drive ratios are selectively available, each differing only slightly from another to provide minute changes in the drive ratio from ...
You are currently visiting Medline.com in Internet Explorer 8 which is not supported. Please upgrade your browser or switch to a supported browser. For a list of supported browsers visit: https://www.medline.com/help/tech-support/. ...
Newborn mammals are highly dependent on their mothers milk for survival, and they typically exhibit a defined sequence of actions when searching for milk. This searching behavior rapidly becomes increasingly directed, showing that mammalian newborns are efficient learners. Past studies of this very early learning in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have shown that newborn pups engage in typical food-searching movements in response to olfactory signals that include the mammary pheromone secreted in mothers milk. The ability of newborns to rapidly improve their milk-finding skills likely involves learning that "new" odors--for example, those from the mothers abdomen, or of milk itself--are associated with food.. In the new work, the researchers investigated whether the mammary pheromone plays a role in the ability of newborns to learn to associate other odors with the availability of milk. By presenting newborns with the pheromone in combination with an otherwise "neutral" odor and ...
Eseja: Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio
Abstract: During behavioral interventions, practitioners commonly use a variety of reinforcers to maintain behaviors. Despite the ubiquity of this practice, few studies have compared the effects of varied and constant reinforcers on responding. Furthermore, the studies yielded mixed results. Varied reinforcers do not consistently maintain higher relative response rates. The origin of such mixed results could be the interaction among the stimuli used as reinforcers (the degree of substitutability).The effects of varied versus constant reinforcers on response rates and choice were determined in the present study. Two experiments were conducted with either human participants or rats as subjects. In both experiments, the degree of substitutability between pairs of stimuli was determined using concurrent operant arrangements. After identifying pairs of substitute and complementary reinforcers, the effects of constant versus varied reinforcers on response rates was determined using multiple schedules ...
Three human studies are propsed to more fully characterized attributes of liquids and solids that may account for the differential appetitive responses they elicit, potential contributory mechanisms as well as the dietary implications of their consumption. Study 1 will contrast the acute effects of fluid and solid foods varying in macronutrient content on satiation, satiety and feeding. Study 2 will determine if the pattern of fluid and solid ingestion influences satiety and feeding by monitoring appetitive and dietary responses to energy and macronutrient matched fluid and solid loads ingested as meal components or between meal snacks. To better assess the clinical implications ofdiets incorpprating liquid or solid supplements. Study 3 will entail chronic ingestion of matched energy yeilding fluid or solid loads with concurrent measurement of appetite, dietary intake, energy expenditureand body weight/composition ...
Three human studies are propsed to more fully characterized attributes of liquids and solids that may account for the differential appetitive responses they elicit, potential contributory mechanisms as well as the dietary implications of their consumption. Study 1 will contrast the acute effects of fluid and solid foods varying in macronutrient content on satiation, satiety and feeding. Study 2 will determine if the pattern of fluid and solid ingestion influences satiety and feeding by monitoring appetitive and dietary responses to energy and macronutrient matched fluid and solid loads ingested as meal components or between meal snacks. To better assess the clinical implications ofdiets incorpprating liquid or solid supplements. Study 3 will entail chronic ingestion of matched energy yeilding fluid or solid loads with concurrent measurement of appetite, dietary intake, energy expenditureand body weight/composition ...
Theresa McKeon will present an exclusive mini-workshop on the topic of applied operant conditioning and how to make this work for you in a fun and focused way ...
The effects of acute oral administration of lithium (7439932) compounds on multiple schedule performance were studied in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley-rats were administered lithium-chloride (7447418) or lithium-carbonate (554132) orally in doses of 100, 200, or 300 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Bar pressing performance on a multiple fixed ratio 20/fixed interval 5 minute schedule was measure
Best price in Australia on Betancourt Nutrition Englutarade Reinforcer, Fruit Punch - 540g (1.29 lbs) from eVitamins.com. Find Englutarade Reinforcer, Fruit Punch reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast and reliable shipping to the Australia. Englutarade Reinforcer and other products by Betancourt Nutrition for all your health needs.
TOPS Parrot Food Pellets For Mini Hookbills 2 Pack 4 Lbs 8 Lbs Total [31503241017-2] - TOPs Outstanding Mini Pellets for the smallest Hookbills 4 lb factory sealed package 2 PACK SPECIAL OFFER - You get two bags of TOPs most popular items for just $46. TOPs new Mini Pellets for Hookbills are USDA Organic Certified and perfect for the smallest of parrots like budgies, lovebirds, parrotlets and parakeets. The proprietary pellets, which measure just 3/32 in diameter, are made with 100 percent organic ingredients (and same ingredients as the other TOPs pellets) from the United
The centuries-old philosophical idea that man has an image of the self containing an image of the self (of the second order) obtains a new life in the mathematical model of the subject possessing reflexion. One assumption underlying the model is that the subject tends to generate patterns of behavior such that some kind of similarity is established between the subject himself and his second order image of the self. We demonstrate that this model allows a single explanation for three diverse, experimentally observed phenomena: (a) the nonlinear relation between magnitude estimation and categorization of identical stimuli (Parducci, Stevens, Galanter), (b) the avoidance of the value of 0.5 in estimating stimuli equidistant from two samples on a psychological scale (Poulton, Simmonds), and (c) the formal correspondence between, on the one hand, frequency of choice for particular alternatives and, on the other, reinforcement rate, found in some experiments with animals and people (Herrnstein, Baum). ...
Best stories, art and poetry about gregory peck. Authors who write about gregory peck. Other Red Fez members intersted in gregory peck.
On September 10, 2013, Rebecca Sedwick, 12, jumped to her death from a third-story cement plant structure in central Florida after being verbally, physically and cyber bullied for two years ...
Chronic pain is associated with cognitive deficits. Considerable overlap in brain regions involved in pain and aversion suggests that aversive learning and memory may be affected during chronic pain. Passive-avoidance ...
The AQ300 has all the advantages of discrete analysis - auto standard preparation, auto dilution, automatic method changeover, low reagent consumption - true automation.
Unique tie rod design holds valve head, pump body and base drive unit accurately aligned. Loosening the tie rods enables the whole pump head to be removed and easily disassembled for cleaning and sterilizing. Additional pump heads allow rapid changeover, one pump being cleaned while the other is in production. The pumps can easily be overhauled in the field by replacing a few inexpensive components.. Adaptability for Automation ...
Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these ...
Remember • Operant conditioning extinction differs from classical conditioning extinction • Responds decreases to near zero for both • Operant conditioning: - Transient increase - Extinction induced aggression Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: PREE • Extinction occurs at different rates depending on the schedule: - Continuous reinforcement: FAST extinction - Partial reinforcement schedules: SLOWER extinction - Variable schedules show slower extinction than fixed (rate or time) schedules. • PREE used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding during extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training - Faster extinction after continuous reinforcement training. • Partial reinforcement schedules show RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION Other Extinction Effects • magnitude reinforcement extinction effect - Less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following training with a large reinforcer - More persistance of responding with a small or moderate ...
We have recently found that the erythroid ankyrin gene, Ank1, expresses isoforms in mouse skeletal muscle, several of which share COOH-terminal sequence with previously known Ank1 isoforms but have a novel, highly hydrophobic 72-amino acid segment at their NH2 termini. Here, through the use of domain-specific peptide antibodies, we report the presence of the small ankyrins in rat and rabbit skeletal muscle and demonstrate their selective association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In frozen sections of rat skeletal muscle, antibodies to the spectrin-binding domain (anti-p65) react only with a 210-kD Ank1 and label the sarcolemma and nuclei, while antibodies to the COOH terminus of the small ankyrin (anti-p6) react with peptides of 20 to 26 kD on immunoblots and decorate the myoplasm in a reticular pattern. Mice homozygous for the normoblastosis mutation (gene symbol nb) are deficient in the 210-kD ankyrin but contain normal levels of the small ankyrins in the myoplasm. In nb/nb skeletal
Waterloo, ON - Packaging machine and line changeover is usually viewed as lost time and productivity. Septimatech is changing that by helping packaging operations improve performance and productivity through more efficient, repeatable changeovers, precise container handling and increased flexibility.. At PACK EXPO International, November 6-9 in Chicago, Septimatech is featuring multiple packaging changeover and container handling solutions, including its Unison G2 high performance adjustable guide rail system, Multi-Lane Adjustment System, Rapid eXchange No Tool (RXNT) change parts, Custom Container Handling and OEM Replacement Change Parts, Smart Storage Systems, and Feed Screws and Drives.. Unison G2 is the second generation of Septimatechs modular Unison Guide Rail System which delivers industry-leading changeover time, adjustment accuracy, and container control. The Unison system allows customers to precisely change up to 80 feet (24m) of guide rail, including any configuration of straight, ...
High pressure NMR kinetics. 8. High-pressure kinetic evidence for an associative-dissociative changeover for solvent exchange mechanism on the divalent metal ions along the first-row transition ...
The goal of my research is to understand the basic mechanisms of learning, memory, and emotion that are represented in Pavlovian and instrumental learning, two of the most fundamental examples of associative learning that we know. I have been especially interested in extinction and other inhibitory processes in learning and memory, and how "contexts," or cues that are present in the background whenever learning and remembering occur, control them. In Pavlovian and instrumental learning, the context can include external cues provided by the setting or environment, the internal state created by drugs, emotions, recent events, and even the passage of time. Members of my lab and I study all of these things. I am especially interested in: ...
The goal of my research is to understand the basic mechanisms of learning, memory, and emotion that are represented in Pavlovian and instrumental learning, two of the most fundamental examples of associative learning that we know. I have been especially interested in extinction and other inhibitory processes in learning and memory, and how "contexts," or cues that are present in the background whenever learning and remembering occur, control them. In Pavlovian and instrumental learning, the context can include external cues provided by the setting or environment, the internal state created by drugs, emotions, recent events, and even the passage of time. Members of my lab and I study all of these things. I am especially interested in: ...
Review photosynthesis and structures of the plant at the same time and how each structure relates to photosynthesis. Pictures of a flower is attached to label the flower, questions included to help analyze which part of the photosynthesis formula matches with part of the plant. Includes xylem, phloe...
Dynamic Loading and Design of Structures. No different ebook has tested the different sorts of loading in a entire and systematic demeanour, and checked out their signficance within the layout approach. The booklet starts with a survey of the probabilistic historical past to all varieties of quite a bit, that is fairly very important to dynamic lots, after which appears to be like on the major varieties in flip: wind, earthquake, wave, blast and impression loading. ...
Portable Greenhouses Kits or Commercial Greenhouses will save you money, keep you feeling younger and give you a healthier lifestyle. Compact Greenhouses to Commercial Greenhouses and Greenhouse Accessories. Brands Names Rhino Greenhouses and Earthcare Greenhouses
Harrisons Pepper Adult Lifetime Coarse organic bird food pellets. Low price on fiery hot adult lifetime coarse, pepper is in nice large chunky certified organic nuggets. It has an irresistible spicy and nutty flavor, with an irregular crunchy texture that birds love! Coarse pellets are recommended for small birds that enjoy holding pellets with their foot when they eat, as well as for medium, large and x-large birds.
Bernia huddles against the window of the train, glad that Sanda is occupying the aisle portion of the bench, between Bernia and Torias eagle eye. Bernia has managed to keep up some semblance of her normal behavior, but has been finding it increasingly difficult to concentrate on school gossip the nearer they get to the Ford. Her arms are aching worse than ever, under her sleeves, and theres a gnawing pain behind her belly button that comes and goes, but mostly comes. Sanda has been acting normal, too, with the emphasis on "acting". Toria knows theres something going on she doesnt know about, but is not too worried -- teenage conspiracies are well within her scope. Sanda is feeling increasingly heroic that shes going to save Bernias life by getting her to the Ford. Shes been developing a series of cover stories just in case: e.g. if Bernia throws up, shell tell Toria that Bernia is motion sick. Bernia absentmindedly nods agreement to Sandas latest revelation, without really hearing it. ...
[117 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Reinforcement Materials Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Reinforcement Materials market is valued...
The desert ant Cataglyphis fortis primarily feeds on dead insects that are sparse and unevenly distributed in their environment. A single forager can carry a small dead insect back to the nest without aid. As dead insects are typically found as individuals and not in groups, foragers locate food as individuals, rather than cooperatively. This…
Free Online Library: Intervention for adults with autism. by The Journal of Rehabilitation; Health, general Autism Care and treatment Operant behavior Health aspects Operant conditioning
Page contains details about example of CNT-containing hybrid reinforcement . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
... is the process, in which traits that increase pre‐zygotic isolation between two differentiated populations are favoured due to natural selection against the production of unfit hybrids or otherwise maladaptive interbreeding
On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding ...
The Husky 515 air-operated double diaphragm pump features a stall-free low pulsation air valve which provides a smooth and rapid changeover.. The bolt through fluid cover design eliminates leaks and makes the Husky safer with higher reliability.. ...
There has been an almost complete changeover of personnel in the industry and it is time for a fresh pair of eyes to look at it. Additionally, the industry is in the early stage of digitalizing the fueling process and the document needs to be amended to include these features.. ...
BACKGROUND: Memories are not created equally strong or persistent for different experiences. In Drosophila, induction of long-term memory (LTM) for aversive olfactory conditioning requires ten spaced repetitive training trials, whereas a single trial is sufficient for LTM generation in appetitive olfactory conditioning. Although, with the ease of genetic manipulation, many genes and brain structures have been related to LTM formation, it is still an important task to identify new components and reveal the mechanisms underlying LTM regulation. RESULTS: Here we show that single-trial induction of LTM can also be achieved for aversive olfactory conditioning through inhibition of highwire (hiw)-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase activity or activation of its targeted proteins in a cluster of neurons, localized within the α/β core region of the mushroom body. Moreover, the synaptic output of these neurons is critical within a limited posttraining interval for permitting consolidation of both aversive and ...
Keen-Rhinehart, E; Ondek, K; Schneider, JE (Nov 15, 2013). "Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior". ... Thus, the positive-incentive perspective suggests that eating is similar to sexual behavior: humans engage in sexual behavior, ... To assess this, a Power of Food Scale (PFS) has been developed that quantifies a person's appetitive anticipation (not ... Lowe, MR; Butryn, ML (Jul 24, 2007). "Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite?". Physiology & Behavior. 91 (4): 432-9. doi: ...
Bee learning and communication Animal behavior Braun and Bicker. 1992. Habituation of an Appetitive Reflex in the Honeybee. ... The proboscis extension reflex is part of an insect's feeding behavior. When the antenna is stimulated by sugar water, the ...
"Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior". Cell Metabolism. 7 (5): 400-9. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ... According to this perspective, eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... Lowe, M. R. (1993). "The effects of dieting on eating and behavior: A three-factor model" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 114: ...
Stratton LO, Kastin AJ (1975). "Increased acquisition of a complex appetitive task after MSH and MIF". Pharmacology ... Behavior. 83 (3): 475-81. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.08.034. PMID 15581670. Chiu S, Mishra RK (January 1979). "Antagonism of ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 21 (6): 975-8. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(84)80083-0. PMID 6151672. Galina ZH, Kastin AJ ( ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 5 (Suppl 1): 125-7. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(76)90340-3. PMID 13412. Singhal RL, Rastogi ...
Behavior Research and Therapy, 48(6), 467-475. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.01.008 Wilson, K. M., de Joux, N. R., Finkbeiner, K. M ... defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 1(3), 276.doi:10.1037//1528-3542.1.3.276 Baglioni, C., ... Behavior Research Methods. 40: 512-521. Lasaitis, C; Ribeiro, R. L.; Bueno, O. F. A. (2008). "Brazilian norms for the ... Behavior Research Methods. 49 (2): 457-470. doi:10.3758/s13428-016-0715-3. ISSN 1554-3528. Official site of IAPS and related ...
"Clitoral stimulation modulates appetitive sexual behavior and facilitates reproduction in rats". Physiology & Behavior. 100 (2 ... Ashton Acton (2012). Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 1464966877. ... Hormones and Behavior. 59 (5): 689-695. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.10.005. PMID 20950622. Matsumoto, J.; Urakawa, S.; Hori, E.; ... "Neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens shell during sexual behavior in male rats". The Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (5): ...
... appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 136: 121-27. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.025. PMC 4519076 ... Ghrelin has been linked to inducing appetite and feeding behaviors. Circulating ghrelin levels are the highest right before a ... Ghrelin injections also increase an animal's motivation to seek out food, behaviors including increased sniffing, foraging for ... These mice did not exhibit depression-like behaviors when injected with a commonly prescribed antidepressant, suggesting that ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G. Human Physiology. Translated by ... Bouton ME (2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.. ...
Geurts DE, Huys QJ, den Ouden HE, Cools R (September 2013). "Aversive Pavlovian control of instrumental behavior in humans". ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... For example, presentation of a Pavlovian CS paired with food can increase output of food-reinforced instrumental behaviors, ... it promotes approach behavior). General PIT occurs when a CS is paired with one reward and it enhances an operant response that ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior - an intrinsic ... or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior - also known as approach ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ...
Malik, S; McGlone F; Bedrossian D; Dagher A (2007). "Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal ... Berridge, K. C. (2004). "Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience". Physiology and Behavior. 81: 179-209. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In females, studies have examined the influence of the mPOA on precopulatory and appetitive behaviors. Precopulatory behaviors ... Appetitive behaviors of female rats - including hops, darts, and solicitations - have been linked to dopamine (DA) transmission ... it has been shown that infusions of ascorbic acid into the mPOA increases appetitive behaviors compared to controls. In male ... "Infusions of ascorbic acid into the medial preoptic area facilitate appetitive sexual behavior in the female rat". Physiology ...
Social facilitation acts more on the appetitive than the consummatory phase of feeding behavior in domestic fowl. Animal ... It has been phrased as "The energizing of dominant behaviors by the presence of others." Social facilitation occurs in a wide ... Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). ...
Proposed to facilitate reactions to all appetitive/rewarding stimuli and regulates approach behavior. Behavioral inhibition ... BAS regulates approach behaviors and is referred to as the reward system. In general, individuals with a more active BAS tend ... BIS regulates avoidance behaviors and is often referred to as the punishment system. Individuals with more active BIS may be ... 2001). "Human defensive behaviors to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defense patterns of no-human ...
Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ... Homologues of the INAH-3 have been observed taking a direct role in sexual behavior in rhesus monkeys, sheep, and rats. The ... Slimp JC; Hart BL; Goy RW (Feb 17, 1978). "Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with ... "Central Nervous System Dimorphisms Related to Reproductive Behaviors" Dale Purves ed., Neuroscience, 2:ed (2001) Online https ...
In rats, lesions to mPOA can eliminate the male copulatory behavior but can only diminish appetitive behavior, which suggests ... However, appetitive behaviors are disrupted by the lesions in rostral part rather than caudal part of medial preoptic area. ... Male sexual behaviors can be divided into two phases: the appetitive phase, which contains highly variable sequence of ... Appetitive behaviors are also partly controlled by medial preoptic area as aromatase-knockout mice show deficits in sexual ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and multiple forms of ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning. p. 220. ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive and consummatory behaviours are the only processes ... Luo S, Monterosso JR, Sarpelleh K, Page KA (2015). "Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive ... the science of behavior. Toronto: Pearson. Suzuki, K; Jayasena, CN; Bloom, SR (2011). "The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation ... An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior". Current Neuropharmacology. 14 (2): 118 ...
... or desire component of reward include appetitive behavior, preparatory behavior, instrumental behavior, anticipatory behavior, ... Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior - also known as approach ... or pleasure component of reward include consummatory behavior and taking behavior. The three primary functions of rewards are ...
In this swaying behavior, larvae raise their head and neck, and gently reach and wave towards workers or food items. Hungry ... These proposals include: Boredom arising from a lack of stimulation and opportunity to engage in the appetitive component of ... Begging behavior in some penguins is unusual among birds in that under some circumstances, it involves the chick chasing the ... Begging behavior in mongooses is unusual in that it is cooperative. Escorts are influenced by the total signal emanating from ...
Lindsay, Steven R. (2005). "2: House Training, Destructive Behavior, and Appetitive Problems: Part 5: Crate training + 9: ... Steven Lindsay in Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training states that while "the role of crate confinement in the ... Crating suppresses the dog's behavior, removes the dog's freedom of movement and is a negative punishment (removal of reward) ... Borchelt, P. L.; Voith, V. L. (1982). "Diagnosis and treatment of separation-related behavior problems in dogs". Veterinary ...
When the appeted stimulus is at length received it stimulates a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ... Behavior of the young bird in breaking out of the egg. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 296-298. 1913a. The stimulation and the ... appetitive and aversive behavior. None of these letters has been located to date. Together with Craig's published work, in ... and how vocal as well as social behaviors are organized. He encouraged a view of behavior as an integrated process with ...
... as a behavior and emotion is attributed over millennia as the driving force behind not only human development, but ... Like other desires and need states that take on an appetitive quality (e.g. food), curiosity is linked with exploratory ... The term curiosity can also be used to denote the behavior or emotion of being curious, in regard to the desire to gain ... This type of exploratory behavior is common in many species. Take the example of a human toddler who, if bored in his current ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior[2] - an ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ...
... the position holding that all behavior is caused by prior behavior. "Predeterminism" is the position holding that all behavior ... "appetitive power", that is, not a cognitive power of intellect (the term "appetite" from Aquinas's definition "includes all ... Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?. MIT Press. pp. 119-21. ISBN 0262512572.. *^ Wegner D., 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will ... Responsibility does not require that behavior be uncaused, as long as behavior responds to praise and blame.[163] Moreover, it ...
Physiology & Behavior 170:141-150. Kuhn, S. L., D. A. Raichlen, and A. E. Clark. 2016. What moves us? How mobility and movement ... these results suggest that cannabinoid activity in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens is related to appetitive, food- ... Evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in food-seeking behavior comes from a variety of cannabinoid studies. ... These contrasting effects reveal the importance of the endocannabinoid system in regulating anxiety-dependent behavior. Results ...
Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group ... the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess ...
2018) The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. In: Kloc M., Kubiak J. (eds) Marine ... The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. ... Teleosts Animal models Chemical signaling Foraging behavior This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... Wibe ÅE, Fjeld E, Rosenqvist G, Jenssen BM (2004) Postexposure effects of DDE and butylbenzylphthalate on feeding behavior in ...
... repeating loops of foraging behavior; (2) providing stimuli supporting a more complete sequence of search behaviors reduces ... This thesis applies a "foraging loop" hypothesis to the behaviors of contrasting species of marine mammal carnivores, polar ... Behavioral stereotypies in captive animals have been defined as repetitive, largely invariant patterns of behavior that serve ... engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. ...
Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning. T Teyke, KR Weiss and I ... The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ...
... but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. ... but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption ... The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens ... for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors ...
Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ...
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., ... Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ... ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. Under the FT ...
... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitiv … ... The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. The 0.2mg/kg dose ... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitive behavior (increased latency to contact the water tube) ... that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different ...
Specifically, we compared differences in appetitive reversal learning ability between honey bee subspecies: Apis mellifera ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. Eddie Pérez Claudio1, ... RT @BehavEcolPapers: Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. ...
... Anderson, Maria E. ... these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that ... Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i. ...
Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. 3:00 PM. Questions and Discussion. 3: ... Appetitive Neuroimaging in Human. Gene-Jack Wang, MD, Brookhaven National Laboratories. 4:00 PM. Eating Behavior in Eating ... Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. Many factors influence the acceptance ... Appetitive Peptides. Timothy H. Moran, PhD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Eating and the resulting presence of ...
2003) Appetitive behavior: Impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning. Ann NY Acad Sci 985:233-250. ... Behavior and blood pressure during Pavlovian conditioning. (A-D) Large frames depict mean behavior and blood-pressure responses ... during a total of 106 joint appetitive-aversive conditioning sessions in the 10 rats whose behavior is described above (see Fig ... 2005) Autonomic arousal in an appetitive context in primates: A behavioural and neural analysis. Eur J Neurosci 21:1733-1740. ...
We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and ... Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male ... c-fos down-regulation inhibits testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated learning. Authors. *. Neville- ... Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the ...
Appetitive (foraging) mimicry, 406. Appetitive mimicry and deceptive use of alarm calls, 406 ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Pediatric Obesity. *Dietary Supplement: Control. *Dietary Supplement: Glucose. *Dietary Supplement: ...
Appetitive behavior. 16. All. 18 Years to 50 Years (Adult). NCT03467659. 1611018484. February 16, 2017. May 31, 2017. May 31, ... Diabetes self-care behaviors. 230. All. 50 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT03466866. R01 DK114033-01A1. COPDE. April 2018. ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Dietary Supplement: Breakfast. Interventional. *Purdue University. Other. *Allocation: Randomized. * ... Number of Participants Reporting Behavior Changes Post Intervention. 79. All. 18 Years to 55 Years (Adult). NCT01423578. MCC- ... To determine if decreasing trauma-related stress symptoms improves HIV risk reduction behavior above a standard HIV risk ... Change in self management behaviors from baseline to: post intervention post intervention (approximately 1 month post baseline ...
This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological ... To help remedy this gap, we review the literature on conditioning, with emphasis on appetitive conditioning. This review ... Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been ... Second, we review the neural basis of appetitive conditioning, particularly from a functional neuroimaging perspective. And ...
Schleyer, M., et al. A behavior-based circuit model of how outcome expectations organize learned behavior in larval Drosophila. ... Positive results indicate an attractive choice behavior for the preference indices and appetitive learning in case of the ... Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae. Anthi A. Apostolopoulou1, Annekathrin Widmann1, Astrid ... Be careful that both halves match and do not form a defined edge - this affects the larval choice behavior and renders a ...
Greg SuhSkirball Institute for Biomolecular MedicineNew York University School of MedicineDissection of aversive and appetitive ... behaviors in Drosophila WednesdaySept. 28, 2011 Dr. Alanna WattDept. of BiologyMcGill UniversityTraveling waves in the ... Dissection of aversive and appetitive behaviors in Drosophila. Wednesday. Sept. 28, 2011. Dr. Alanna Watt. Dept. of Biology. ...
Animal Behavior, 49, 1130-1131. Timberlake, W. & Silva, K. M. (1995). Appetitive behavior in ethology, psychology, and behavior ... of appetitive behavior: Behavior systems and learning. In M. D. Zeiler & P. Harzem (Eds.), Advances in the analysis of behavior ... or appetitive behavior? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44, 279-299. PDF ... and temporal properties of appetitive behavior in rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 26, 182-195. PDF ...
Malik, S; McGlone F; Bedrossian D; Dagher A (2007). "Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal ... Berridge, K. C. (2004). "Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience". Physiology and Behavior. 81: 179-209. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and ... Cerebellar outputs contribute to motor as well as cognitive behaviors. Here, the authors elucidate the connectivity between ... We propose that cerebello-striatal connections relay cerebellar computation to striatal circuits for goal-directed behaviors. ... in the striatum via the intralaminar thalamic nucleus and the participation of this circuit in striatum-dependent behavior. ...
Neuroscience, neuropharmacology, appetitive behaviors. On sabbatical 2014-15. Timothy D. Hackenberg. Behavior analysis, ... This course will address the behavior of people in groups. Basic research from social psychology will form a foundation for ... Courses in psychology focus on problems in the understanding of both human and animal behavior. The department adopts an ... This course will emphasize the ways in which cultural contexts and diversity shape mental processes and human behavior. The ...
Behavior-Based Robots scheduled on September 21-22, 2020 in September 2020 in Toronto is for the researchers, scientists, ... Exploration/directional behaviors Goal-oriented appetitive behaviors Aversive/protective behaviors Path following behaviors ... Social/cooperative behaviors. Perceptual behaviors. Walking behaviors Manipulator-specific behaviors. Gripper hand behaviors ... Behaviors and actions. Intelligent behavior and reasoning. Features of behavior-based robots. Generating behaviors. Behavioral ...
  • Taken together, these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that this effect is likely mediated by the GalR1 receptor. (diva-portal.org)
  • When these systems interact, signaling of the ventral striatum with less downregulation by control systems exerts a stronger influence on subsequent behavior, effectively signaling enhanced approach motivation left unchecked by control systems. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of my main interests resides in the way peripheral signals known to regulate energy balance like ghrelin and leptin modulate behaviors not only related to homeostatic regulation, but also higher order processes like motivation, emotion, and learning. (carleton.ca)
  • Brain-cannula mapping investigations of appetitive motivation: Focus on ghrelinergic signaling. (reed.edu)
  • We studied whether a cascade of different phases of ingestive behavior were governed by different doses of the dopamine D2 receptor system. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, drugs of abuse likely "tap into" an existing neural circuit that normally processes information about natural reinforcers such as food, water, and sexual behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1999). Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat. (springer.com)
  • In addition, ghrelin stimulates "reward centers" of the brain that have been linked to drug-seeking behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • We use hamsters and mice to model these complex brain-hormone-behavior relationships under simpler and more controlled conditions. (haverford.edu)
  • Due to this, complex interrelated neuronal circuits have been developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of the feeding behavior. (elsevier.es)
  • I am currently working on a project where I have determined how peripheral signals like ghrelin modulate the activity of brain circuits associated with motivated behaviors. (carleton.ca)
  • This implies a general excitatory effect on areas of the brain, particularly those centered in and around the hypothalamus, the region that controls appetitive, predatory and sexual behavior. (petplace.com)
  • Despite the obvious importance of brain networks in control of behavior, including food seeking ( 7 , 8 ), possible alterations in the functioning of these networks in insulin resistance have not been examined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two decades ago, the discovery of neuropeptide Y ( NPY ), a peptide in the mammalian brain involved in food-seeking behavior, sparked a search for a weight-loss remedy that could interfere with its activity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But neuroscientists acknowledge how little they know about how the neurotransmitter affects circuits and behavior in the incredibly complex human brain. (news-medical.net)
  • While the first two sets of experiments will elucidate how the brain deploys serotonin to modulate behavior, the third aim will show how those dynamics change in more complex environments. (news-medical.net)
  • The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Our findings establish the causal evidence for the concurrent existence of two distinct engrams within a single brain site, each mediating opposing environmental actions on a learned behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the causal evidence supporting the concurrent existence of multiple engrams within a single brain site, each mediating different environmental actions on a learned behavior (e.g., a go/no-go task), is still lacking. (elifesciences.org)
  • The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Coping with rising food costs in a closed economy: feeding behavior and nocturnal hypothermia in pig. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Endocannabinoids stimulate appetite in the hypothalamus initiating feeding behavior [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that cabbage loopers ( Trichoplusia ni ) display rhythmic feeding behavior that is sustained under constant conditions, and plants entrained in light/dark cycles coincident with the entrainment of the T. ni suffer only moderate tissue loss due to herbivory. (pnas.org)
  • Circadian jasmonate accumulation occurs in a phase pattern consistent with preparation for the onset of peak circadian insect feeding behavior, providing evidence for the underlying mechanism of clock-enhanced herbivory resistance. (pnas.org)
  • T. ni is shown to display circadian-controlled feeding behavior, peaking during late day. (pnas.org)
  • The possible involvement of 5-HT in three areas, neuroendocrine function, circadian rhythms and feeding behavior, will be highlighted for illustrative purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Feeding behavior is a highly complex process with multiple feedback loops that involve both. (fpwr.org)
  • 45min following administration of the drug a 15min water intake session was allowed to assess the effect on (a) locomotion, (b) appetitive response and (c) consummatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with altered hemodynamic responses during appetitive conditioning. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A behavior systems view of the organization of multiple responses during a partially reinforced or continuously reinfored interfood clock. (indiana.edu)
  • Self-administration sessions were then reinstituted, and a fixed time (FT) schedule of 10% ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ethanol seeking. (diva-portal.org)
  • Specific appetite is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics: in usage, specific appetite has put greater emphasis on an individual who adaptationally learns a particular appetite behavior rather than an evolutionarily innate, hedonic appetite preference. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although the LH is still believed to contribute greatly to innate behavior, it has become apparent that the rigid functional distinction between the two neuropils cannot be upheld. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly receptors for metabolic signals like ghrelin, leptin and estrogen are also found in hypothalamic centers associated with circadian rhythmicity, suggesting that these signals could potentially play a role in the regulation of daily or seasonal patterns of behavior, and endocrine function. (carleton.ca)
  • Temporary inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), via GABAA agonist muscimol administration prevents increased consumption following intra-Acb opioid administration of the selective μ-opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), yet leaves food approach behaviors intact, particularly after consumption has ended. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption) but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To assess this, a Power of Food Scale (PFS) has been developed that quantifies a person's appetitive anticipation (not consumption). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissociation of Appetitive Overexpectation and Extinction in the Infralimic Cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Two ways to achieve alterations in previously established behavior are extinction and overexpectation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • His focus is on understanding, both at the psychological and neural systems levels, how organisms represent the causal structure of their environment with special interests in the extinction of acquired behaviors, in the mechanisms involved in reward processing and interval timing, and in computational models of associative learning. (cuny.edu)
  • Research on contextual control of instrumental behavior is consistent with the principle that generalization of acquisition and extinction depend on a match between conditions present during learning and conditions present during testing. (springer.com)
  • The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. (wiley.com)
  • Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. (wiley.com)
  • Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male quail. (wiley.com)
  • The former entails permanent actions that support typical male copulatory behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion. (scielo.br)
  • This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that A.m. syriaca foragers cannot change the foraging choice because of lack of flexibility in appetitive associations under changing contingencies. (peerj.com)
  • We propose that cerebello-striatal connections relay cerebellar computation to striatal circuits for goal-directed behaviors. (nature.com)
  • We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. (wiley.com)
  • We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. (wiley.com)
  • I am interested in several aspects of reproductive behavior- including attraction, copulation, and pregnancy/postpartum- and my lab group is working to identify neural correlates and sites of neuroplasticity associated with each. (haverford.edu)
  • This thesis applies a "foraging loop" hypothesis to the behaviors of contrasting species of marine mammal carnivores, polar bears and walruses. (iu.edu)
  • In part because of this, 5-HT also has been speculated to be involved specifically in the regulation of all types of behaviors and physiological processes. (nih.gov)
  • The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetitive behavior have been observed. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thus, the positive-incentive perspective suggests that eating is similar to sexual behavior: humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal deficit, but because they have evolved[citation needed] in a way that makes them crave it. (wikipedia.org)
  • By taking advantage of a well-defined paradigm for serotonergic function and cutting-edge imaging technologies, we are well positioned to examine how patterned serotonin release activates distinct receptor types throughout a circuit to change the large-scale activity patterns that give rise to behavior. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. (uni-wuerzburg.de)