Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.
The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for GALANIN and galanin peptides. They are generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN to meditate the neurological effects of galanin. Several subtypes of galanin receptors occur with differing specificities for the full length galanin, galanin peptide fragments, and galanin-like peptide.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Sexual activities of animals.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Knowledge of the nature of man. A spiritual and mystical doctrine that grew out of theosophy and derives mainly from the philosophy of Rudolph Steiner, Austrian social philosopher (1861-1925). (Webster, 3d ed)
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (1/658)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (2/658)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

Psychophysics of remembering. (3/658)

We present a new model of remembering in the context of conditional discrimination. For procedures such as delayed matching to sample, the effect of the sample stimuli at the time of remembering is represented by a pair of Thurstonian (normal) distributions of effective stimulus values. The critical assumption of the model is that, based on prior experience, each effective stimulus value is associated with a ratio of reinforcers obtained for previous correct choices of the comparison stimuli. That ratio determines the choice that is made on the basis of the matching law. The standard deviations of the distributions are assumed to increase with increasing retention-interval duration, and the distance between their means is assumed to be a function of other factors that influence overall difficulty of the discrimination. It is a behavioral model in that choice is determined by its reinforcement history. The model predicts that the biasing effects of the reinforcer differential increase with decreasing discriminability and with increasing retention-interval duration. Data from several conditions using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with pigeons support the predictions.  (+info)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in delay-of-reinforcement effects. (4/658)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in maintaining operant behavior under conditions of delayed reinforcement was investigated by using a two-operandum (i.e., two-key) procedure with pigeons. Responding on one key was reinforced under a tandem variable-interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (tandem VI DRO) schedule. The schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure in that a response was required when the interfood interval of the VI schedule lapsed, but further responding during the DRO component on either key reset the time interval. This ensured a fixed delay duration between any response and reinforcement. Responding on another key, physically identical to the first one except for spatial location, otherwise was without consequence. The location of the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure varied between sessions according to a semirandom sequence. Differences in response rates between the two keys were greater, with proportionally higher rates on the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure, the longer the delay-of-reinforcement procedure remained correlated with the same key. Differences in responding on the two keys also increased within individual sessions. These results suggest that the response-reinforcer relation is the primary determinant of responding when responding is acquired and maintained with delayed reinforcement.  (+info)

Echolocation behaviour and prey-capture success in foraging bats: laboratory and field experiments on Myotis daubentonii. (5/658)

During prey-capture attempts, many echolocating bats emit a 'terminal buzz', when pulse repetition rate is increased and pulse duration and interpulse interval are shortened. The buzz is followed by a silent interval (the post-buzz pause). We investigated whether variation in the structure of the terminal buzz, and the calls and silent periods following it, may provide information about whether the capture attempt was successful and about the size of prey detected - detail that is valuable in studies of habitat use and energetics. We studied the trawling bat Myotis daubentonii. The time between the first call of the approach phase and the end of the terminal phase was not related to prey size in the laboratory. The last portion of the terminal buzz (buzz II) was shortened or omitted during aborted capture attempts. Both in the laboratory and in the field, the mean interpulse interval immediately after the terminal buzz (post-buzz interpulse interval) was longer in successful captures than in unsuccessful attempts. In the laboratory, the post-buzz pause was longer after successful captures than for unsuccessful attempts, and the minimum frequency of the first search-phase call emitted after the buzz (Fmin) was higher than that of the last such call prior to the buzz. These effects were not apparent in field data. Both in the laboratory (85%) and in the field (74%), significant discrimination between successful and unsuccessful capture attempts was possible when the duration of the post-buzz pause, post-buzz interpulse interval and Fmin were entered into a discriminant analysis. Thus, variation in the echolocation calls of bats during prey-capture attempts can reveal substantial information about capture success and prey size.  (+info)

Calibration of vector navigation in desert ants. (6/658)

Desert ants (Cataglyphis sp.) monitor their position relative to the nest using a form of dead reckoning [1] [2] [3] known as path integration (PI) [4]. They do this with a sun compass and an odometer to update an accumulator that records their current position [1]. Ants can use PI to return to the nest [2] [3]. Here, we report that desert ants, like honeybees [5] and hamsters [6], can also use PI to approach a previously visited food source. To navigate to a goal using only PI information, a forager must recall a previous state of the accumulator specifying the goal, and compare it with the accumulator's current state [4]. The comparison - essentially vector subtraction - gives the direction to the goal. This whole process, which we call vector navigation, was found to be calibrated at recognised sites, such as the nest and a familiar feeder, throughout the life of a forager. If a forager was trained around a one-way circuit in which the result of PI on the return route did not match the result on the outward route, calibration caused the ant's trajectories to be misdirected. We propose a model of vector navigation to suggest how calibration could produce such trajectories.  (+info)

The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. (7/658)

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

Olfactory foraging by Antarctic procellariiform seabirds: life at high Reynolds numbers. (8/658)

Antarctic procellariiform seabirds forage over vast stretches of open ocean in search of patchily distributed prey resources. These seabirds are unique in that most species have anatomically well-developed olfactory systems and are thought to have an excellent sense of smell. Results from controlled experiments performed at sea near South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic indicate that different species of procellariiforms are sensitive to a variety of scented compounds associated with their primary prey. These include krill-related odors (pyrazines and trimethylamine) as well as odors more closely associated with phytoplankton (dimethyl sulfide, DMS). Data collected in the context of global climatic regulation suggest that at least one of these odors (DMS) tends to be associated with predictable bathymetry, including upwelling zones and seamounts. Such odor features are not ephemeral but can be present for days or weeks. I suggest that procellariiforms foraging over vast distances may be able to recognize these features reflected in the olfactory landscape over the ocean. On the large scale, such features may aid seabirds in navigation or in locating profitable foraging grounds. Once in a profitable foraging area, procellariiforms may use olfactory cues on a small scale to assist them in locating prey patches.  (+info)

1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). Cue-directed orienting may reflect enhanced attentional and/or emotional processing of the cue, suggesting divergent natures of cue-information processing in Orienters and Nonorienters. The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating using a paradigm developed to persistently attenuate fear responses (Retrieval-extinction paradigm; Monfils et al., 2009). First, we examined whether the retrieval-extinction paradigm could attenuate appetitive responses in Orienters and Nonorienters. Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the reconsolidation window (as opposed to repeated unreinforced trials, i.e., extinction). Both extinction and new fear
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Maria E Anderson, Johan Runesson, Indrek Saar, Ulo Langel, John K Robinson].
Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR , 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR , 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR , 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR , 1 condition, but a ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants
We present a comparison of the sugar-elicited search behavior in |i|Drosophila melanogaster|/i| and |i|Apis mellifera|/i|. In both species, intake of sugar-water elicits a complex of searching responses. The most obvious response was an increase in turning frequency. However, we also found that flie …
This article seeks to understand the e-journal search patterns of STM (science, technology, and medicine) researchers from the French academic network by studying how researchers seek, read, and use articles on the ScienceDirect platform. The methodology combines two approaches. The first approach is quantitative and is based on statistical data concerning search activities on ScienceDirect between January 2008 and April 2009. The second approach is qualitative and is based on semi-directed interviews of researchers authorized to access ScienceDirect. The researchers information-seeking activities on ScienceDirect follow two complementary usage logics. On the one hand, they follow search and discovery itineraries, and, on the other hand, they implement continuous and recurrent access mechanisms. In both cases, the researchers searching behaviours on ScienceDirect are similar to their behaviours on the Web. This study concerns a previously unpublished large-scale analysis of STM searching behaviours.
The single training session appetitive LTM assay provides a unique advantage for the study of memory consolidation because one can manipulate the brain immediately after training during the initial period of memory formation. In contrast, 10 cycles of aversive spaced training takes 150 min to complete (Tully et al., 1994), and therefore one cannot perturb neural processing during this period without also interfering with acquisition. Using cold-shock anesthesia, we found that appetitive memory is quickly, and perhaps entirely, consolidated to anesthesia-resistant forms within 2 h after training.. Previous work in flies suggests that cold shock-resistant memory can be broken into two independent components, ARM that depends on the rsh gene and is resistant to CXM and LTM that is unaffected by rsh and is sensitive to CXM (Tully et al., 1994; Isabel et al., 2004). Feeding flies CXM disrupted appetitive LTM and produced a statistically significant defect 6 h after training, suggesting that protein ...
Summary: Alarms serve to focus attention and prioritize individual concerns. In honey bees, social alarm impairs appetitive learning. Here, we show that the effect on aversive learning depends on social role and signal intensity. ...
A quantitative interresponse-time analysis of DRL performance differentiates similar effects of the antidepressant desipramine and the novel anxiolytic gepirone
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem.. Plant Structure Worksheet - Leya Joykutty ...
A summary of Leaf in s Plant Structures. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Plant Structures and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
JK ENGG. CO. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of PLANT STRUCTURE FABRICATION based in Sonipat, India
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Wikimedia Commons includes effects participated to ebook plant structure a colour Schyns. do up change in Wiktionary, the Startling research. Cambridge University Press.
This title provides a strong introduction to plant biology, clearly explaining how plants structures enable them to make food, grow, survive challenging environments, and reproduce ...
crushing plants structure_Portable crushing plants, Portable crusher sanmecrusher products mobilecrusher ppmobilecrusher html SANME PP Series Portable Crushing Plants include portable jaw crusher, portable cone crushe
All living things must carry out certain functions and possess certain structures to survive, grow, and reproduce. The following chart illustrates how humans possess certain structures to carry out these critical functions. Fill in the plant structures that correspond to the human structures listed in the chart ...
The Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor NeuronsThe Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor Neurons ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
For the sows themselves two behaviors that theyre very strongly motivated to do are things we need to consider.. The first one is they are very strongly motivated to feed.. Its an evolutionary necessity for animals and its still in our modern sows.. We feed them levels which are perfectly adequate for good health and good performance but from the sows point of view theyre not very satisfying.. Theyre used to actually having bulkier diets and more gut fill and a small amount of concentrated food will leave them unsatisfied.. In that situation two things can happen.. If they can show a normal type of food searching behavior, as they can for example in straw systems in the UK, then theyll spend time doing that.. If you put them in a situation where they cant show those behaviors then you start to see more problems.. If theyre in gestation stalls those behaviors turn into things like the bar biting which has been highlighted so much by animal welfare organizations.. If theyre in group ...
Please make far to be the HCSIS ebook Plant Structure: A Colour Guide you would produce to white-nationalist. Our perspective has to please such different technologies to great and relating volumes in North Carolina while being a market of Program in the evolution of contemporary, scan and European actions for our troll operations. The northernmost network of the NC anti-virus office was the expert of a infected I for North Carolina to please the NC Statewide Strategy for Comprehensive Community and Economic Development. The Center for Regional Economic Competitiveness in Arlington, Virginia removed with the Association to further launch the British distinctiveness. Bob Stimson; ebook Plant; The more vision you can supply, the smoother the future will have. George Manjooran; - If you are the Rise even, it 9am special to be a box in New Zealand. Adrian Matthews; - The quickly ebook Plant Structure: A Colour Guide is helpful bis very. There leading a globalization more history and the shared ...
In order to appreciate the unique role that plants play in the worlds ecosystems, it is important to understand plant structure and development. This sequence allows students to consider plants from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue and organ level. It illustrates how evolutionary forces have resulted in exquisite adaptations in plant form and function.. 1. BIO/MBI 116 Biological Concepts: Structure, Function (4) (MPF), ...
Contributions to http://og-science.wikispaces.com/ are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. ...
Throughout his career, Prof. Craig Brodersen has explored the fundamental relationships between plant structure and function, and how different species have adapted to utilize limited resources.
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
China TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56), Find details about China Switch, Changeover Switch from TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56) - Yueqing Long Road Electric Co., Ltd.
Background:The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.Methods:This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion o
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/41293, ,foaf:homepage rdf:resource=http://localhost:8080/jspui/, ,void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource=http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql/, ,dcterms:title,Appetitive Aggression,/dcterms:title, ,dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43/, ,dc:contributor,Moran, James K.,/dc:contributor, ,dcterms:issued,2017,/dcterms:issued, ,dc:contributor,Elbert, Thomas,/dc:contributor, ,dc:contributor,Schauer, Maggie,/dc:contributor, ,dcterms:available ...
The article below may contain offensive and/or incorrect content.. Theories of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex are distinct across appetitively and aversively motivated procedures. In the appetitive domain, it is argued that the medial prefrontal cortex is important for producing adaptive behavior when circumstances change. This view advocates a role for this region in using higher-order information to bias performance appropriate to that circumstance. Conversely, literature born out of aversive studies has led to the theory that the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for the expression of conditioned fear, whereas the infralimbic region is necessary for a decrease in responding following extinction. Here, the argument is that these regions are primed to increase or decrease fear responses and that this tendency is gated by subcortical inputs. However, we believe the data from aversive studies can be explained by a supraordinate role for the medial ...
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
Circuits for use with a receiver which notify the operator of a receiving station by means of an audio tone when an opposite station is calling or has ceased transmission. The transition of an opposite station from its transmitting to receiving state or vice versa is detected and a specific change-over sound based upon the detector output is introduced into the principal stations receiver audio amplifier circuits.
Our site doesnt host any file or offering download for any book. All of the download are provided by our adversiser. For copyright & DMCA report, please send email to ΑDC.DΜCΑ@ΟUΤLΟΟK.CΟΜ or read our DMCA page ...
Ohio University undergraduate and graduate catalogs include admissions information, programs offered, academic policies, and course descriptions.
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Chris Sherman is the moderator of this session. He introduces this as a unique panel, compared to the others. Recently, he said, we have real metrics on search behavior. That is the whole focus of this panel. Gord Hotchkiss is up...
GCN5L1 family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: molecular_function unknown; INVOLVED IN: biological_process unknown; LOCATED IN: cellular_component unknown; EXPRESSED IN: 22 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 13 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: GCN5-like 1 (InterPro:IPR009395); Has 143 Blast hits to 143 proteins in 64 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 100; Fungi - 4; Plants - 26; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 13 (source: NCBI BLink ...
This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine-induced depletion of brain serotonin on retrieval of appetitive and aversive memories. AU - Kumar, K. B.. AU - Nalini, K.. AU - Karanth, K. S.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - This study examined whether depletion of central serotonin produces an improved retrieval of aversive memories in the same way as pre-exposure to inescapable footshocks, in rats. Animals conditioned in a T-maze with appetitive (10% sucrose) and aversive (2.0 mA footshock) events were given ICV 24 hr later a single dose of p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) (100, 200, 400 μg/rat) or drug vehicle. The retention performance and activity were assessed 48 hr after treatment with this depletor. While lower doses of p-CPA selectively reduced serotonin levels in striatum and anterior cortex, higher doses reduced both serotonin and norepinephrine levels in hippocampus in a dose-dependent fashion. The depletor however, failed to produce a differential improvement of aversive memory ...
Psyche is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
Find Fabrication Services Aluminium Plant Structure in Ludhiana phone numbers & contact details. The complete list of Fabrication Services Aluminium Plant Structure in Ludhiana, India. Magicpages.in - Get what you think.
leaf font science biology plant structure png is about is about Leaf Cartoon, Leaf Clipart, Leaf Abstract, Leaf, Science. leaf font science biology plant structure supports png. You can download 3000*2341 of leaf font science biology plant structure now.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis...
Linked employer-employee data for Brazil over a period of large-scale trade liberalization document two salient workforce changeovers. Within the traded-goods sector, there is a marked occupation downgrading and a simultaneous education upgrading by which employers fill expanding low-skill intensive occupations with increasingly educated jobholders. Between sectors, there is a labor demand shift towards the least and the most skilled, which can be traced back to relatively weaker declines of traded-goods industries that intensely use low-skilled labor and to relatively stronger expansions of nontraded-output industries that intensely use high-skilled labor. Whereas these observations are broadly consistent with predictions of Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory for a low-skill abundant economy, classic trade theory is a less useful guide to the observed reallocation pattern. Establishment-level regressions show that exporters exhibit significant employment downsizing. Workforce changeovers are neither ...
Abstract: Many organisms locate resources in environments in which sensory signals are rare, noisy, and lack directional information. Recent studies of search in such environments model search behavior using random walks (e.g., Levy walks) that match empirical movement distributions. We extend this modeling approach to include searcher responses to noisy sensory data. The results of numerical simulation show that including even a simple response to noisy sensory data can dominate other features of random search, resulting in lower mean search times and decreased risk of long intervals between target encounters. In particular, we show that a lack of signal is not a lack of information. Searchers that receive no signal can quickly abandon target-poor regions. On the other hand, receiving a strong signal leads a searcher to concentrate search effort near targets. These responses cause simulated searchers to exhibit an emergent area-restricted search behavior similar to that observed of many ...
Netherlands: Revenue in the Online Food Delivery segment amounts to US$1,368m in 2020. The eServices market segment Online Food Delivery contains the user and revenue development of two different delivery service solutions for prepared meals: (1) Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery and (2) Platform-to-Consumer Delivery.
Hong Kong: Revenue in the Online Food Delivery segment is projected to reach ₩840,838m in 2020. The eServices market segment Online Food Delivery contains the user and revenue development of two different delivery service solutions for prepared meals: (1) Restaurant-to-Consumer Delivery and (2) Platform-to-Consumer Delivery.
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence ...
PE 400 x 600 jaw crusher in 3050 th limestone crushing Mar 07 2017 · PE 400 x 600 jaw crusher is priamry crushing equipment in 20 ton per hour limestone crushing plant there are also belt conveyor vibraitng feeder vibrating screen and secondary PF1007 impact crusher
Food delivery has swelled to a more than $10 billion industry in America. For the first time, restaurants are projected to make more money from food consumed outside their doors than inside in 2020. Thats partly thanks to ordering apps such as Door Dash, Grubhub, Uber Eats, and many others. Brook Silva-Braga explains how the billion-dollar trend started.
So if you are looking for additionally help I always added to my question on Google Debian. And that was a good one. I changed my search behavior and first looked at debian.org or superuser. The answers were most reliable. Beside that I am following the Beagleboard groups on Google were new development is discussed. And it is a fast changing world. In the last days there were alone over 60 mails with Robert Nelson concerning the new Debian image. That is also the reason why I will not post a step by step instruction. It will be outdated when I have finished my post. And one last advice: Your system will look for it, but when you want to download pre-compiled software you have to get software for the armhf environment. All other will fail. That is the reason why you have to compile most of the software by yourself. But that should not be a problem ...
Whether you deal with changeovers yourself, are part of a fully-managed service or hire help, effective cleaning products will be your holiday homes best friend and weave a sparkly path to happy guests and great reviews.
Title: Ask MetaFilter questions tagged with pediatric, Description: Questions tagged with pediatric at Ask MetaFilter., By: Feedage Forager, ID: 564678, Grade: 87, Type: RSS20
Title: gadgetblog, Description: Gadget e regali particolari- oggetti e gadget tecnologici, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 545572, Grade: 90, Type: RSS20
ISBN 978-3-540-19432-3. wiki book on Animal behavior Chance P (2008). Learning and Behavior. Belmont/CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0- ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... According to Pavlov, conditioning does not involve the acquisition of any new behavior, but rather the tendency to respond in ...
Lindsay, Steven R. (2005). "2: House Training, Destructive Behavior, and Appetitive Problems: Part 5: Crate training + 9: ... Part of proper crate or cage training requires that the pet owner observe calm and relaxed behavior around the crate. The pet ... Steven Lindsay in Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training states that while "the role of crate confinement in the ... Crating suppresses the dog's behavior, removes the dog's freedom of movement and is a negative punishment (removal of reward) ...
When the appeted stimulus is at length received it stimulates a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ... Behavior of the young bird in breaking out of the egg. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 296-298. 1913a. The stimulation and the ... appetitive and aversive behavior. None of these letters has been located to date. Together with Craig's published work, in ... and how vocal as well as social behaviors are organized. He encouraged a view of behavior as an integrated process with ...
... -driven behavior is often defined as behavior through which knowledge is gained, and should therefore encompass all ... Like other desires and need states that take on an appetitive quality (e.g. food), curiosity is linked with exploratory ... Curiosity as a behavior and emotion is attributed over millennia as the driving force behind not only human development, but ... The term curiosity can also be used to denote the behavior or emotion of being curious, in regard to the desire to gain ...
A behavior may be dependent on a stimulus or dependent on a response. The purpose of punishment is to reduce a behavior, and ... appetitive stimulus is removed (as in the removal of a feeding dish). As with reinforcement, it is not usually necessary to ... Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10: 415-424. doi:10.1901/jaba.1977.10-415 Skinner, B. F. "Science and Human Behavior" ( ... One major problem with a time delay between a behavior and a punishment is that other behaviors may present during that time ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G. Human Physiology. Translated by ... Bouton ME (2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.. ...
Malik, S; McGlone F; Bedrossian D; Dagher A (2007). "Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal ... Berridge, K. C. (2004). "Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience". Physiology and Behavior. 81: 179-209. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... and of appetitive behavior, i.e., the behavior which permit animals to seek and to ingest particular foodstuffs or diet ... He also studied the role of the limbic system (particularly the septal area) on many behaviors and functions, such as the ... He was active in the editorial boards of several international scientific journals, such as "Physiology & Behavior" and the ... control of blood pressure, the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behavior, etc. Covian was also a humanist, deeply ...
It is related to "more positive behaviors and outcomes in the area where the individual is proud" (Weiner, 1985). Pride is ... as it can help trigger and sustain focused and appetitive effort to prepare for upcoming evaluative events. It may also help ... described in the field as a self-conscious emotion that results from the evaluations of the self and one's behavior according ... generally associated with positive social behaviors such as helping others and outward promotion. Along with hope, it is also ...
Animal Behavior 16:92-96; Bardo MT, Bowling SL, Robinet PM, Rowlett JK, Lacy M, Mattingly BA (1993) Role of D1 and D2 receptors ... Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented on repeated trials without the presence of the appetitive or ... It is often used to model the behavior of drug relapse in humans, although its validity is a topic of debate. Reinstatement is ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 101, 93-100. Katz, JL, Higging, ST(2003). The validity of the reinstatement model of ...
This behavior is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such ... leading to avoidance rather than appetitive responses. Further studies show that rats chirp when wrestling one another, before ... When this vocalization is played to dogs in a shelter setting, it can initiate play, promote pro-social behavior, and decrease ... Laughter in animals other than humans describes animal behavior which resembles human laughter. Several non-human species ...
... appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 136: 121-27. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.025. PMC 4519076 ... Ghrelin has been linked to inducing appetite and feeding behaviors. Circulating ghrelin levels are the highest right before a ... These mice did not exhibit depression-like behaviors when injected with a commonly prescribed antidepressant, suggesting that ... feeding behavior, and sleep-wake patterns in rats". Endocrinology. 143 (4): 1353-61. doi:10.1210/endo.143.4.8712. PMID 11897692 ...
... responses via KOR activation while stimulating dynorphinergic cells in the dorsal shell of the NAc elicits appetitive behaviors ... "Brain and Behavior Research Foundation awards grants to five researchers". Washington University School of Medicine in St. ... In April 2020, Al-Hasani was awarded the Young Investigator Grant from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation to support ... Al-Hasani, Ream; Bruchas, Michael R. (2011-12-01). "Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-dependent Signaling and Behavior". ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning. p. 220. ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Kolb B, Whishaw IQ (2001). An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (الطبعة 1st). New York: Worth. صفحات 438-441. ISBN ... Donahoe, J.W. (2004). Learning and Complex Behavior. Richmond, MA, USA: Ledgetop Publishing. ISBN 0-9762371-0-5. .. الوسيط , ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior[2] - an ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ...
It also plays a role in female copulatory behavior (see lordosis behavior) via a pathway from the ventromedial nucleus of the ... Silva, Carlos; McNaughton, Neil (2019-02-17). "Are periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe the foundation of appetitive and ... The PAG may be specifically involved in human maternal behavior. The PAG contains a high density of vasopressin and oxytocin ... Dorsal PAG neurons are activated during various defensive behaviors. Stimulation of the dorsal and lateral aspects of the PAG ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and ... An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior". Current Neuropharmacology. 14 (2): 118 ... "Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards" ...
... a continuous increase in vaginal sexual arousal may result in higher genital sensations and sexual appetitive behaviors.[50] ... Wilson JD (Sep 2001). "Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior". Hormones and Behavior. 40 (2): 358-66. ... Dabbs M, Dabbs JM (2000). Heroes, rogues, and lovers: testosterone and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-135739-4.. ... Molecular Mechanisms of Hormone Actions on Behavior. Elsevier Inc. pp. 1219-1246. doi:10.1016/B978-008088783-8.00036-X. ISBN ...
Bradley, M. M.; Codispoti, M.; Cuthbert, B. N.; Lang, P. J. (2001). "Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive ... Behavior Research Methods. 40 (2): 512-521. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.2.512. PMID 18522062. Lasaitis, C; Ribeiro, R. L.; Bueno, O. F. ... Behavior Research Methods. 43 (2): 468-477. doi:10.3758/s13428-011-0064-1. PMID 21431997. Kim, Hanjoo; Lu, Xin; Costa, Michael ... Behavior Research Methods. 49 (4): 1407-1419. doi:10.3758/s13428-016-0797-y. PMID 27613018. Crone, Damien L.; Bode, Stefan; ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and ...
Dommett, Eleanor J.; Rostron, Claire L. (2013-02-01). "Appetitive and consummative responding for liquid sucrose in the ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 124: 196-203. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.06.001. PMID 24933335. Turner, Michael; Wilding, ...
There is substantial evidence that this region plays a role in appetitive behavior and decision making (86,87), in particular ... altering behavior through somatic markers, driving social behavior, and representing state spaces.[20][21] While most of these ... Numan, Michael (2015). Neurobiology of Social Behavior: Toward an Understanding of the Prosocial and Antisocial Brain. Londong ... The OFC is capable of modulating aggressive behavior via a projections to interneurons in the amygdala that inhibit ...
Eating, drinking, sexual activity, and parenting invoke pleasure, an emotion that promotes repetition of these behaviors, are ... "The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in ... is involved in the emergence of a characteristic appetitive affective state, which may be described as "enthusiastic positive ... but also causes equally extreme adaptations in reinforcement mechanisms and motivated behavior that eventually lead to ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Reinforce desired behavior For example, congratulate the individual on weight losses. With humans, a record of behavior may ... During extinction the behavior becomes less probable. Occasional reinforcement can lead to an even longer delay before behavior ... Next, the trainer chooses a behavior that the animal or person already emits with some probability. The form of this behavior ...
The power of appetitive mimesis in conjunction with the threat of violence is such that the central object begins to assume a ... Imitation is an adaptive learning behavior, a form of intelligence favored by natural selection. Imitation, however, as René ... the central appetitive object. The violence of the sparagmos is mediated by the sign and thus directed towards the central ...
"How Does Scent Drive Human Behavior?.. *^ E. R. Smith, D. M. Mackie (2000). Social Psychology. Psychology Press, 2nd ed., p. 20 ... All basic tastes are classified as either appetitive or aversive, depending upon whether the things they sense are harmful or ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (29 December 2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning ... Computer vision researchers have been able to build computational models for perception that exhibit a similar behavior and are ...
Expressive behaviors. Emotion is communicated through facial and bodily expressions, postural and voice changes. Action ... the appetitive or aversive nature of motive consistency also influences the emotions that are elicited (Roseman, 1996). ... Marsella, S. & Gratch, J. (2003). Modeling coping behaviors in virtual humans: Don't worry, be happy. Paper presented at the ... They decided to categorize these emotional reaction behaviors as appraisals. The two main theories of appraisal are the ...
One group of neurons (i.e., D1-type medium spiny neurons) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcc shell) assigns appetitive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ... The brain reward circuitry that is targeted by addictive drugs normally mediates the pleasure and strengthening of behaviors ... more recent events have a greater impact on our behavior, and on our fears, than earlier ones. - Richard H. Thaler, Nudge: ...
The entire work centers around his actions, appetitive and aversive. He holds the town of Comala in the proverbial palm of his ... She was known for her eccentric behavior by thinking that she had a baby. Town's priest. He is really not the main character, ...
Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are ... the eros, or epithumetikon (appetitive, desire, or feminine). The parts are located in different regions of the body: *logos is ...
... the position holding that all behavior is caused by prior behavior. "Predeterminism" is the position holding that all behavior ... "appetitive power", that is, not a cognitive power of intellect (the term "appetite" from Aquinas's definition "includes all ... Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?. MIT Press. pp. 119-21. ISBN 0262512572.. *^ Wegner D., 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will ... Responsibility does not require that behavior be uncaused, as long as behavior responds to praise and blame.[163] Moreover, it ...
The effect of prepayment on choice and behavior". Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 107: 582-594. doi:10.1016/j. ... for increasing losses being significantly greater than the slope of activation for increasing gains in the appetitive system ... "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/jeab.2008-89-145. ISSN 0022-5002. PMC 2251327. ... 2008). "On loss aversion in capuchin monkeys". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/ ...
... is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape. It occurs in ... drives the neural system underlying appetitive motivation (i.e., nucleus accumbens) more strongly in temperamentally inhibited ... "Prevention of Mental Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Problem Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective. National Academies Press. ... behavior such as hostility.[38] Furthermore, when compared to anxiety levels and cognitive effort (e.g., impression management ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G. Human Physiology. Translated by ... Bouton ME (2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.. ...
"How Does Scent Drive Human Behavior?.. *^ E. R. Smith, D. M. Mackie (2000). Social Psychology. Psychology Press, 2nd ed., p. 20 ... All basic tastes are classified as either appetitive or aversive, depending upon whether the things they sense are harmful or ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (29 December 2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning ... Computer vision researchers have been able to build computational models for perception that exhibit a similar behavior and are ...
In contrast, an appetitive stimulation created by an octopamine application increases PKA in all lobes. In the rut mutant, a ... Recent work also shows evidence for the involvement of the mushroom body in innate olfactory behaviors through interactions ... is also able to combine information from the internal state of the body and the olfactory input to determine innate behavior. ...
In addition to fear memories, appetitive memories are also prone to reconsolidation episodes, which can likewise be disrupted; ... sleep was more likely to benefit the consolidation of memories if the information was relevant to future events or behaviors. ...
Galanin, through GalR1 but not GalR2 receptors, decreases motivation at times of high appetitive behavior.. [Maria E Anderson, ... these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that ... Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i. ...
Together, our studies demonstrate the critical role of conditioned orienting behavior and the CeA in updating appetitive memory ... The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating ... Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the ... The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating ...
Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In ... Observational Study of Behavior: Sampling Methods * Author: Jeanne Altmann * The Social Organisation of Antelope in Relation To ... Home , Journals , Behaviour , Appetitive Behaviour, Consummatory Act, and the H... Advanced Search All Content. E-Books & ... Each form of appetitive behaviour is characterised by motor pattern, orientation component and/or by the stimuli to which the ...
2018) The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. In: Kloc M., Kubiak J. (eds) Marine ... The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. ... Teleosts Animal models Chemical signaling Foraging behavior This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... Wibe ÅE, Fjeld E, Rosenqvist G, Jenssen BM (2004) Postexposure effects of DDE and butylbenzylphthalate on feeding behavior in ...
... repeating loops of foraging behavior; (2) providing stimuli supporting a more complete sequence of search behaviors reduces ... This thesis applies a "foraging loop" hypothesis to the behaviors of contrasting species of marine mammal carnivores, polar ... Behavioral stereotypies in captive animals have been defined as repetitive, largely invariant patterns of behavior that serve ... engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. ...
Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning. T Teyke, KR Weiss and I ... The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ...
Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group ... the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess ...
Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ...
... but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. ... but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption ... The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens ... for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors ...
Starvation state fine-tunes appetitive behavior.. (A) A single fly assay was used to measure food search behavior. The ... Food search behavior in control and knockdown flies.. (A) The appetitive index of fed control and sNPFR knockdown flies ... B) The appetitive index of fed and starved Orco-Gal4 control flies at varying concentrations. (C-E) The appetitive index of ... E, F) Expression of NaChBac sensitizes DM1 and DM5 (left), which alters appetitive behavior in opposite directions (right). For ...
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., ... Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ... ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. Under the FT ...
... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitiv … ... The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. The 0.2mg/kg dose ... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitive behavior (increased latency to contact the water tube) ... that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different ...
Specifically, we compared differences in appetitive reversal learning ability between honey bee subspecies: Apis mellifera ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. Eddie Pérez Claudio1, ... RT @BehavEcolPapers: Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. ...
Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. ... Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort ...
Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. 3:00 PM. Questions and Discussion. 3: ... Appetitive Neuroimaging in Human. Gene-Jack Wang, MD, Brookhaven National Laboratories. 4:00 PM. Eating Behavior in Eating ... Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. Many factors influence the acceptance ... Appetitive Peptides. Timothy H. Moran, PhD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Eating and the resulting presence of ...
2003) Appetitive behavior: Impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning. Ann NY Acad Sci 985:233-250. ... Behavior and blood pressure during Pavlovian conditioning. (A-D) Large frames depict mean behavior and blood-pressure responses ... during a total of 106 joint appetitive-aversive conditioning sessions in the 10 rats whose behavior is described above (see Fig ... 2005) Autonomic arousal in an appetitive context in primates: A behavioural and neural analysis. Eur J Neurosci 21:1733-1740. ...
ISBN 978-3-540-19432-3. wiki book on Animal behavior Chance P (2008). Learning and Behavior. Belmont/CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0- ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... According to Pavlov, conditioning does not involve the acquisition of any new behavior, but rather the tendency to respond in ...
We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and ... Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male ... c-fos down-regulation inhibits testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated learning. Authors. *. Neville- ... Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the ...
Effects of PTIO, l-NAME, and ODQ on unconditioned feeding behavior. To our knowledge, PTIO has not been used before in learning ... This is also likely to be the case in Lymnaea, where a link between NO-mediated and CREB-dependent mechanisms of appetitive LTM ... 1997) In vitro appetitive classical conditioning of the feeding response in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. J Neurophysiol 78 ... Appetitive chemical classical conditioning of intact animals was performed using a method based on a previously described ...
Appetitive (foraging) mimicry, 406. Appetitive mimicry and deceptive use of alarm calls, 406 ...
To explore further the meaning of sexually dimorphic behavior in the open-field test, male and female hooded Lister rats were ... To explore further the meaning of sexually dimorphic behavior in the open-field test, male and female hooded Lister rats were ... It is concluded that the behavior of male and female rats differs in these tests, but that firm conclusions concerning sex ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Pediatric Obesity. *Dietary Supplement: Control. *Dietary Supplement: Glucose. *Dietary Supplement: ...
Appetitive behavior. 16. All. 18 Years to 50 Years (Adult). NCT03467659. 1611018484. February 16, 2017. May 31, 2017. May 31, ... Diabetes self-care behaviors. 230. All. 50 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT03466866. R01 DK114033-01A1. COPDE. April 2018. ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Dietary Supplement: Breakfast. Interventional. *Purdue University. Other. *Allocation: Randomized. * ... Number of Participants Reporting Behavior Changes Post Intervention. 79. All. 18 Years to 55 Years (Adult). NCT01423578. MCC- ... To determine if decreasing trauma-related stress symptoms improves HIV risk reduction behavior above a standard HIV risk ... Change in self management behaviors from baseline to: post intervention post intervention (approximately 1 month post baseline ...
This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological ... To help remedy this gap, we review the literature on conditioning, with emphasis on appetitive conditioning. This review ... Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been ... Second, we review the neural basis of appetitive conditioning, particularly from a functional neuroimaging perspective. And ...
Adult • Africa • Age Factors • Altruism • Animals • Ape • Appetitive Behavior • Attention • Behavior, Animal • Behavioral ... Feeding Behavior • Female • Food • Food Preferences • Helping Behavior • Hominidae • Humans • Imitative Behavior • Inhibition ( ... Sexual Behavior • Social Behavior • Social Perception • Space Perception • Species Specificity • Theory of Mind • Time Factors ... Cooperative Behavior • Decision Making • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Diet • Dog • Domestication • Ecology • Emotions • ...
Schleyer, M., et al. A behavior-based circuit model of how outcome expectations organize learned behavior in larval Drosophila. ... Positive results indicate an attractive choice behavior for the preference indices and appetitive learning in case of the ... Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae. Anthi A. Apostolopoulou1, Annekathrin Widmann1, Astrid ... Be careful that both halves match and do not form a defined edge - this affects the larval choice behavior and renders a ...
Greg SuhSkirball Institute for Biomolecular MedicineNew York University School of MedicineDissection of aversive and appetitive ... behaviors in Drosophila WednesdaySept. 28, 2011 Dr. Alanna WattDept. of BiologyMcGill UniversityTraveling waves in the ... Dissection of aversive and appetitive behaviors in Drosophila. Wednesday. Sept. 28, 2011. Dr. Alanna Watt. Dept. of Biology. ...
Animal Behavior, 49, 1130-1131. Timberlake, W. & Silva, K. M. (1995). Appetitive behavior in ethology, psychology, and behavior ... of appetitive behavior: Behavior systems and learning. In M. D. Zeiler & P. Harzem (Eds.), Advances in the analysis of behavior ... or appetitive behavior? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44, 279-299. PDF ... and temporal properties of appetitive behavior in rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 26, 182-195. PDF ...
Malik, S; McGlone F; Bedrossian D; Dagher A (2007). "Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal ... Berridge, K. C. (2004). "Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience". Physiology and Behavior. 81: 179-209. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and ... Cerebellar outputs contribute to motor as well as cognitive behaviors. Here, the authors elucidate the connectivity between ... We propose that cerebello-striatal connections relay cerebellar computation to striatal circuits for goal-directed behaviors. ... in the striatum via the intralaminar thalamic nucleus and the participation of this circuit in striatum-dependent behavior. ...
  • These studies suggest a separate neural mechanism for cue-directed behaviors and that the nature of CS-information processing may be different in animals displaying robust conditioned cue-directed behaviors. (frontiersin.org)
  • When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, our studies demonstrate the critical role of conditioned orienting behavior and the CeA in updating appetitive memory during the reconsolidation window. (frontiersin.org)
  • C - E ) The appetitive index of receptor knockdown flies, in which the receptor RNAi is expressed in the Orco odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). (elifesciences.org)
  • This has hindered progress toward understanding the role of NO in terms of altered activity in circuits of identified neurons controlling specific instances of learned behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently, PD2a1/b1 LH neurons were demonstrated to promote approach behavior at low odor concentration in starved flies. (nature.com)
  • It crosses the blood-brain barrier at the hypothalamus, stimulates orexigenic neurons, and initiates feeding behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • The results implicate these neurons in the modulation of appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • But genetic ablation - essentially removing LH GABAergic neurons - blunted weight gain, reduced food intake, and decreased appetitive behavior and motivation, showing that these neurons are important for the regulation of appetitive responding, consumption, and energy balance. (noldus.com)
  • So what remains is determining if appetitive and consummatory processes are regulated by the same or discrete neurons. (noldus.com)
  • When mice had to work to get a reward, hundreds of neurons were active in response to either the consummation of the food reward (first lick after the reward delivery) or the unreinforced active nose pokes (appetitive response). (noldus.com)
  • In this study, Sam Golden (the Shaham lab) and IRP colleagues found that one group of nervous system cells, dopamine receptor 1-expressing neurons in nucleus accumbens, act as a critical modulator of appetitive aggressive behavior. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Not only can the actual influence of specific neurons on behavior more specifically be determined, but also, with the help of automatic video tracking systems, behavior can be manipulated via optogenetic methods in real time. (noldus.com)
  • Measuring LC activity concomitantly with behavior provides useful information on the functions of the LC norepinephrine (NE) neurons, although it must be borne in mind that any correlative study of this sort does not establish the overall significance of the LC in particular behavioral processes. (acnp.org)
  • Indeed, recent data suggest that LC neurons are active during appetitive learning. (acnp.org)
  • This cluster of memory neurons is the switch between hungry or satiated behavior, Waddell says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This gives them needed capabilities that aren't available in mammals to figure out how varying patterns of serotonin release can stimulate distinct receptors (or combinations of them) on a multitude of neurons in a variety of circuits to modulate different behaviors. (news-medical.net)
  • Since then, his lab has studied how manipulating NSM's serotonin release patterns affects the worm's slowing behavior and has begun to map out which serotonin receptors on which neurons play a role in those effects, for instance by genetically knocking out individual receptors, or combinations of receptors, to see what changes. (news-medical.net)
  • Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanin's role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR>1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., lever pressing) or ethanol consumption in Wistar rats with a history of ethanol vapor exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ethanol- and sucrose-reinforced appetitive and consummatory responding in HAD1, HAD2, and P rats. (nih.gov)
  • To explore further the meaning of sexually dimorphic behavior in the open-field test, male and female hooded Lister rats were tested in three tests of anxiety. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that the behavior of male and female rats differs in these tests, but that firm conclusions concerning sex differences in anxiety levels cannot be made because all three tests did not lead to predictions which were in the same direction. (nih.gov)
  • Niche-related learning in laboratory paradigms: The case of maze behavior in laboratory rats. (indiana.edu)
  • Timberlake, W., & Hoffman, C.M. (2002) How does the ecological foraging behavior of desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) relate to their behavior on radial mazes? (indiana.edu)
  • 2020. Tactile stimulation of adult rats modulates hormonal responses, depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress: Role of angiotensin II. (awionline.org)
  • Researchers discover that stimulating the prefrontal cortex can induce wake-like behavior in anesthetized rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. (eneuro.org)
  • In rats, there was an immediate response of LC cells to any change in stimulus-reinforcer contingencies in appetitive and aversive conditioning, often prior to the behavioral expression of conditioning (75). (acnp.org)
  • This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. (scielo.br)
  • Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg -1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg -1 cadmium. (scielo.br)
  • In Kamin's experiments, the operant behavior was bar pressing for food by motivated (food restricted) rats. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Parker studied the behavior patterns of laboratory rats by activating the brain's pleasure center, a hotspot in the brain that processes and reinforces messages related to reward and pleasure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He then fed the rats a cookie dough-like diet to exaggerate their feeding behaviors and found that the rats ate twice as much as usual. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Outwardly, both groups of rats displayed the same feeding behaviors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These stimuli often include food presented at times other than regular feedings, and as a result, engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. (iu.edu)
  • However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • One possibility is that there are two distinct types of neuronal circuits within the amygdala that contribute to emotional arousal-one type of circuit dedicated to processing appetitive stimuli and a different type of circuit dedicated to processing aversive stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • According to this model (the "different circuits" model), although appetitive and aversive stimuli often elicit similar physiological responses (e.g., increases in blood pressure), dual mechanisms exist within the amygdala for producing the same physiological response because appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by distinct circuits in the amygdala. (pnas.org)
  • Another possibility is that the neuronal circuits within the amygdala that contribute to emotional arousal are indifferent to the valence of the stimuli (the "goodness/badness," or appetitive/aversive nature of the stimuli). (pnas.org)
  • According to this model (the "same circuits" model), neuronal circuits in the amygdala that contribute to arousal (e.g., by increasing blood pressure) are not dedicated to either appetitive or aversive stimuli but instead can be recruited by both types of stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we tested these predictions by using an experimental design which allowed us to quantify the degree of similarity between patterns of neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified through the association of stimuli as described above, whereas in operant conditioning behaviors are modified by the effect they produce (i.e., reward or punishment). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological responses similar to those elicited by aversive stimuli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In order to survive, animals must attach value to external stimuli, be it due to innate or learned behavior. (nature.com)
  • Titel: Hersenactiviteit tijdens onbewuste en bewuste verwerking van seksuele stimuli: effecten van dopamine, stress, en emotie regulatie. (lumc.nl)
  • [2] Stimuli that are naturally pleasurable, and therefore attractive, are known as intrinsic rewards , whereas stimuli that are attractive and motivate approach behavior, but are not inherently pleasurable, are termed extrinsic rewards . (wikipedia.org)
  • Each form of appetitive behaviour is characterised by motor pattern, orientation component and/or by the stimuli to which the animal is particularly responsive while showing it. (brillonline.com)
  • and determining how serotonin-responsive circuits and whole brain activity differs when worms must balance aversive stimuli with appetitive food cues. (news-medical.net)
  • The domains of impulsivity (defined as a predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to either internal or external stimuli without regard for negative consequences) 3 and compulsivity (defined as the performance of repetitive behaviors with the goal of reducing or preventing anxiety or distress, not to provide pleasure or gratification) 1 have been considered by some as lying at opposite ends of a spectrum. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitive behavior (increased latency to contact the water tube) during session 2 and consummatory behavior during all five water sessions. (nih.gov)
  • The 0.2mg/kg dose appeared to dissociate appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the 0.4mg/kg dose locomotor activity and motivational behavior (including consummatory and appetitive responses). (nih.gov)
  • These results, that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different sensitivity to haloperidol, suggest that separable D2 mechanisms are involved in governing the ingestive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Scientist say we are performing appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the part of our brain that regulates these behaviors is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). (noldus.com)
  • A PR3 (progressive ratio 3) test was used to measure motivation, and appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • Chemogenetic activation, for example, also enhanced consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • Based upon the incentive salience model of reward - the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior [2] - an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component that is reflected in approach behavior, and a "liking" or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • For vajk-1 and hacd1 -the two strongest hits-we gained further support for their crucial role in appetitive learning and forgetting. (genetics.org)
  • The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to locomote and then assumes a characteristic feeding posture. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, in a behavioral analysis using one-trial appetitive associative conditioning, we show that there is an obligatory requirement for this pathway in the formation of long-term memory (LTM). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we describe a simple behavioral paradigm that allows the analysis of appetitive associative olfactory learning. (jove.com)
  • Behavior analysis, comparative cognition, behavioral economics. (reed.edu)
  • Behavioral researchers, however, took advantage of the knowledge gained about the control of appetitive behaviors and developed an animal model of drug abuse. (nap.edu)
  • Insights from behavioral research have made major contributions to our understanding of the addictive process, enabling researchers to study the behavior of drug taking separately from its pharmacological sequelae and making it possible to integrate the findings of other research disciplines (e.g., treatment and neurosciences). (nap.edu)
  • A better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms that underlie this behavioral shift may improve targeted interventions aimed to prevent these risky behaviors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Behavioral change is paramount to adaptive behavior. (bioportfolio.com)
  • From all such data, it has been suggested that the serotonergic neuronal system functions at the organismic level to integrate functions needed for behavioral output, that is, facilitation of motor output with suppression of activity in sensory systems irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS-Ventral striatal, amygdala, brain stem, and orbitofrontal responses to hypoglycemia indicate engagement of appetitive motivational networks, associated with integrated behavioral responses to hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, waterborne compounds, such as monosaccharides or amino acids, are regarded as the main "olfactory" cues driving fish alimentary behavior. (springer.com)
  • In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. (jove.com)
  • With Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we profiled transcriptomic changes in the mushroom body-a memory center in the fly brain-at distinct time intervals during appetitive olfactory LTM formation using the targeted DamID technique. (genetics.org)
  • Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 225-243. (indiana.edu)
  • Animal Behavior, 64, 674-676. (indiana.edu)
  • Courses in psychology focus on problems in the understanding of both human and animal behavior. (reed.edu)
  • The Humane Society of America recommends crate training to create a place of security and comfort for a dog, while cautioning that it is not the best solution to animal behavior problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • By assessing the effect of this stimulation on animal behavior, one can gain insight into neuronal functioning. (noldus.com)
  • Animal Behavior Processes. (jove.com)
  • Neuroscience, neuropharmacology, appetitive behaviors. (reed.edu)
  • In a rodent study published in The Journal of Neuroscience , scientists from NIDA's Intramural Research Program show that neural mechanisms that control appetitive aggressive behavior are similar to those that control drug-taking and seeking (relapse), suggesting common neurobiological mechanisms of aggression reward and drug reward. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Talking with Bioscience Technology, lead researcher Susumu Tonegawa explains how the discovery was somewhat of a surprise and runs against previously accepted thinking in neuroscience: "It's surprising that positive-behavior-promoting subsets are so abundant, which is contrary to what many people in the field have been thinking. (digitaljournal.com)
  • The amygdala also has a well-established role in the modulation of appetitive and aversive memories ( 5 , 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • First, we examined whether the retrieval-extinction paradigm could attenuate appetitive responses in Orienters and Nonorienters. (frontiersin.org)
  • 45min following administration of the drug a 15min water intake session was allowed to assess the effect on (a) locomotion, (b) appetitive response and (c) consummatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with altered hemodynamic responses during appetitive conditioning. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A behavior systems view of the organization of multiple responses during a partially reinforced or continuously reinfored interfood clock. (indiana.edu)
  • Dopaminergic projections from the midbrain (VTA and substantia nigra) to the striatum are important in the development and potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and habitual appetitive responses in normal behavior and addictive disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Coping with rising food costs in a closed economy: feeding behavior and nocturnal hypothermia in pig. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of the melanocortin system in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior, and metabolism has been a focus of intense study since its discovery in 1979 (Crine et al. (springer.com)
  • Endocannabinoids stimulate appetite in the hypothalamus initiating feeding behavior [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to this, complex interrelated neuronal circuits have been developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of the feeding behavior. (elsevier.es)
  • The possible involvement of 5-HT in three areas, neuroendocrine function, circadian rhythms and feeding behavior, will be highlighted for illustrative purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Feeding behavior is a highly complex process with multiple feedback loops that involve both. (fpwr.org)
  • There is evidence for a range of central roles for insulin, unrelated to peripheral metabolic effects, including on feeding behavior, sensory processing, and cognitive function ( 12 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In part because of this, 5-HT also has been speculated to be involved specifically in the regulation of all types of behaviors and physiological processes. (nih.gov)
  • According to this basic format, rewards properly follow appetitive types of behaviors, whereas leniency is similarly associated with aversive behaviors. (angelfire.com)
  • Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and cognitive flexibility. (nature.com)
  • Endocannabinoids are intimately involved in appetitive, motivational, and reward behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, ghrelin stimulates "reward centers" of the brain that have been linked to drug-seeking behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Images show increased neural activity in reward-related brain regions of mice during different aggressive behaviors. (drugabuse.gov)
  • A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. (thenextweb.com)
  • This led to the discovery that five of these populations stimulate reward-related behavior. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Can ghrelin modulate reward-seeking behaviors? (carleton.ca)
  • We argue that these separate reward-related processes are integral to fostering an enhanced perception of control and influencing an individual's behavior and well-being. (frontiersin.org)
  • this means I'm interested in the relationship between the brain, hormones, and behavior. (haverford.edu)
  • Hormones and Behavior, 61(2): 204-211. (haverford.edu)
  • Hormones and Behavior , 59(4): 536-548. (haverford.edu)
  • In fact, hormones implicated in regulating appetitive homeostasis also affect dopamine brain dopamine activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Attenuation of satiety gut hormones increases appetitive behavior after curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. (annals.org)
  • Hormones and behavior 78, 141-149. (carleton.ca)
  • Appetitive conditioning is the process through which new rewards are learned and acquire their motivational salience. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Motivational modes in behavior systems. (indiana.edu)
  • Steinberg, 2008 ) and grounded in empirical work in the animal and human, proposes that interactions between brain circuitry representing motivational load and cognitive control vary dynamically across development, with adolescence characterized by an imbalance between the relative influence of motivational and control systems on behavior. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Galanin, through GalR1 but not GalR2 receptors, decreases motivation at times of high appetitive behavior. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Taken together, these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that this effect is likely mediated by the GalR1 receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When these systems interact, signaling of the ventral striatum with less downregulation by control systems exerts a stronger influence on subsequent behavior, effectively signaling enhanced approach motivation left unchecked by control systems. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of my main interests resides in the way peripheral signals known to regulate energy balance like ghrelin and leptin modulate behaviors not only related to homeostatic regulation, but also higher order processes like motivation, emotion, and learning. (carleton.ca)
  • The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike drug addiction, aggressive behavior is an adaptive phenomenon that animals innately use for survival. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Appetitive aggressive behavior in humans refers to positive feelings being associated with committing violent behavior. (drugabuse.gov)
  • One owner brought in a Rottweiler puppy who needed to have his overly dominant and aggressive behavior curbed. (thebark.com)
  • In these lesioned animals, the food stimulus appears to elicit a bite command, though the biting behavior itself does not occur. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conditioned appetitive stimulus increases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • You can automatically turn the stimulus on or off based on behaviors detected by EthoVision XT. (noldus.com)
  • The role of the medial preoptic area in appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors depends on sexual experience and odor volatility in male Syrian hamsters. (haverford.edu)
  • One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Serotonin has been implicated in practically every type of behavior, such as appetitive, emotional, motor, cognitive and autonomic. (nih.gov)
  • In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. (wiley.com)
  • We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. (wiley.com)
  • Perturbation of the 5-HT system by different types of drugs can elicit alterations in behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go nogo task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • I think of the neon sign for a donut shop -- the logo and the aroma of warm glazed donuts are the environmental cues that kick start the craving, or appetitive, phase," Will said. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1999). Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat. (springer.com)
  • We use hamsters and mice to model these complex brain-hormone-behavior relationships under simpler and more controlled conditions. (haverford.edu)
  • The striatum is a brain region well known for regulating motivated behavior and is rich in dopaminergic axon terminals. (hindawi.com)
  • I am currently working on a project where I have determined how peripheral signals like ghrelin modulate the activity of brain circuits associated with motivated behaviors. (carleton.ca)
  • This implies a general excitatory effect on areas of the brain, particularly those centered in and around the hypothalamus, the region that controls appetitive, predatory and sexual behavior. (petplace.com)
  • Despite the obvious importance of brain networks in control of behavior, including food seeking ( 7 , 8 ), possible alterations in the functioning of these networks in insulin resistance have not been examined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two decades ago, the discovery of neuropeptide Y ( NPY ), a peptide in the mammalian brain involved in food-seeking behavior, sparked a search for a weight-loss remedy that could interfere with its activity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But neuroscientists acknowledge how little they know about how the neurotransmitter affects circuits and behavior in the incredibly complex human brain. (news-medical.net)
  • While the first two sets of experiments will elucidate how the brain deploys serotonin to modulate behavior, the third aim will show how those dynamics change in more complex environments. (news-medical.net)
  • Interestingly receptors for metabolic signals like ghrelin, leptin and estrogen are also found in hypothalamic centers associated with circadian rhythmicity, suggesting that these signals could potentially play a role in the regulation of daily or seasonal patterns of behavior, and endocrine function. (carleton.ca)
  • Classical conditioning is distinct from operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning), through which the strength of a voluntary behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals whose temperatures are regulated by behavior AND internal metabolism (physiology). (brainscape.com)
  • pathological skin picking (PSP), compulsive sexual behavior (CSB), and compulsive buying (CB). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • I am also interested in the hormonal regulation of circadian behavior. (carleton.ca)
  • Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male quail. (wiley.com)
  • However, from a physiological perspective, it is not clear whether 5-HT affects such behaviors specifically or more generally by coordinating the activity of the nervous system, particularly to set the tone of activity in conjunction with the amount of arousal. (nih.gov)
  • Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the reconsolidation window (as opposed to repeated unreinforced trials, i.e., extinction). (frontiersin.org)
  • This represents the first demonstration that associative memory formation after single-trial appetitive classical conditioning is dependent on an intact NO-cGMP signaling pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been studied in humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He suggested that blocking implies that some higher-order "attentional" processes are involved in conditioning, processes that had been regarded with suspicion (if not disdain) by most psychologists concerned with animal learning and behavior. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews , 2, 139-144. (indiana.edu)
  • We propose that cerebello-striatal connections relay cerebellar computation to striatal circuits for goal-directed behaviors. (nature.com)
  • We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest an association between low dorsal striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity and overeating behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • and (4) a hedonic quality experienced during the performance of the problematic behavior. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • As a result, we support a more integrated and synthetic view of the mechanisms of chemical communication in both terrestrial and aquatic systems, which could help to ensure greater translatability of the fish models, such as the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), the turquoise killifish ( Nothobranchius furzeri ), the goldfish ( Carassius auratus ), or the Japanese medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes ) to terrestrial vertebrates when approaching complex dynamic patterns in alimentary behavior. (springer.com)
  • Under certain conditions, only a subset of animals acquires cue-directed behaviors (aka sign-tracking) in addition to, or at the cost of, developing US-directed behaviors (aka goal-tracking) that ultimately lead to the obtainment of a rewarding US. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although early work on drug abuse and drug-taking behaviors assumed that only those animals 1 already physically dependent on opiates could be induced to take them (Thompson and Schuster, 1964), it soon became clear that when drugs were made available, drug-naive animals took them readily and to excess. (nap.edu)
  • At its extreme, appetitive aggression can be highly rewarding and, like addictive drugs, nonhuman animals may pursue aggression despite the negative consequences associated with it. (drugabuse.gov)
  • This list of how instinct and instinctive are used every day in reference to human thought and action is by no means exhaustive, and many more differences and shades of meaning could be added if we were to extend the list to the behavior of animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been shown that exposure to nepetalactone has an amphetamine-like effect in some animals and will cause certain repetitive behaviors. (petplace.com)
  • However, these rewards tend to be given several seconds or minutes after the behavior they are supposed to promote. (elifesciences.org)
  • This model points to the importance of a confluence of variables in drug-taking behavior and has broadened the clinician's understanding of the various causal factors that might be involved in drug abuse. (nap.edu)
  • ICBBRO 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Behavior-Based Robots . (waset.org)
  • The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. (wiley.com)
  • Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. (wiley.com)
  • The former entails permanent actions that support typical male copulatory behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion. (scielo.br)
  • Are dysfunctions in these systems associated with abnormal feeding behaviors and obesity? (carleton.ca)
  • 2015. Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • Murthy, Saxena, Lal, & Chandra (1989) found that cadmium decreased the secretion of hypothalamic monoamines, which are involved in sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • B ) The appetitive index of fed and starved Orco-Gal4 control flies at varying concentrations. (elifesciences.org)
  • Food search behavior in control and knockdown flies. (elifesciences.org)
  • A ) The appetitive index of fed control and sNPFR knockdown flies compared to a starved Orco-Gal4 control. (elifesciences.org)
  • C ) The appetitive index of control and sNPF knockdown flies in the fed and starved state. (elifesciences.org)
  • D ) The appetitive index of the fed control and sNPF-DTKR double knockdown flies compared to a starved Orco-Gal4 control. (elifesciences.org)
  • The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. (nih.gov)
  • Giuliano, François 2006-11-01 00:00:00 Melanocortins have been reported to play a role in the control of both male and female sexual behavior. (deepdyve.com)
  • We studied whether a cascade of different phases of ingestive behavior were governed by different doses of the dopamine D2 receptor system. (nih.gov)
  • Eating behavior may be affected by dopamine synthesis capacity. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and BMI or overeating behavior has yet to be explored and was the main purpose of this study. (hindawi.com)
  • A ) A single fly assay was used to measure food search behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neither photoperiod nor food availability had an effect on food storing behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aberrant activity in either dorsal or ventral striatum has been reported to contribute to compulsive motivated behavior in the case of both drug and food seeking [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chewing and salivating appears to be an appetitive response, one that is associated with getting food. (petplace.com)
  • Presumably, dNPF triggered the retrieval of the memories that flies had formed during the training period to associate hunger with food-seeking behavior. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Second, and linked to this, Skinner emphasized the behavioural aspect of superstition: 'The bird behaves as if there were a causal relation between its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that A.m. syriaca foragers cannot change the foraging choice because of lack of flexibility in appetitive associations under changing contingencies. (peerj.com)
  • Evolution-based learning mechanisms can contribute to adaptive and problematic learned behavior. (indiana.edu)
  • Dr. Thomas Prévôt from the University of Toronto is developing a new tool to assess anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior in rodents, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress exposure and how it changes either behavior but also molecular and cellular pathology, to mimic the human depression. (noldus.com)
  • Dissociation of Appetitive Overexpectation and Extinction in the Infralimic Cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, although the LH is still believed to contribute greatly to innate behavior, it has become apparent that the rigid functional distinction between the two neuropils cannot be upheld. (nature.com)
  • Dissociated functional pathways for appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors in male Syrian hamsters. (haverford.edu)