Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Sexual activities of animals.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.
The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for GALANIN and galanin peptides. They are generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN to meditate the neurological effects of galanin. Several subtypes of galanin receptors occur with differing specificities for the full length galanin, galanin peptide fragments, and galanin-like peptide.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (1/658)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (2/658)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

Psychophysics of remembering. (3/658)

We present a new model of remembering in the context of conditional discrimination. For procedures such as delayed matching to sample, the effect of the sample stimuli at the time of remembering is represented by a pair of Thurstonian (normal) distributions of effective stimulus values. The critical assumption of the model is that, based on prior experience, each effective stimulus value is associated with a ratio of reinforcers obtained for previous correct choices of the comparison stimuli. That ratio determines the choice that is made on the basis of the matching law. The standard deviations of the distributions are assumed to increase with increasing retention-interval duration, and the distance between their means is assumed to be a function of other factors that influence overall difficulty of the discrimination. It is a behavioral model in that choice is determined by its reinforcement history. The model predicts that the biasing effects of the reinforcer differential increase with decreasing discriminability and with increasing retention-interval duration. Data from several conditions using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with pigeons support the predictions.  (+info)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in delay-of-reinforcement effects. (4/658)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in maintaining operant behavior under conditions of delayed reinforcement was investigated by using a two-operandum (i.e., two-key) procedure with pigeons. Responding on one key was reinforced under a tandem variable-interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (tandem VI DRO) schedule. The schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure in that a response was required when the interfood interval of the VI schedule lapsed, but further responding during the DRO component on either key reset the time interval. This ensured a fixed delay duration between any response and reinforcement. Responding on another key, physically identical to the first one except for spatial location, otherwise was without consequence. The location of the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure varied between sessions according to a semirandom sequence. Differences in response rates between the two keys were greater, with proportionally higher rates on the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure, the longer the delay-of-reinforcement procedure remained correlated with the same key. Differences in responding on the two keys also increased within individual sessions. These results suggest that the response-reinforcer relation is the primary determinant of responding when responding is acquired and maintained with delayed reinforcement.  (+info)

Echolocation behaviour and prey-capture success in foraging bats: laboratory and field experiments on Myotis daubentonii. (5/658)

During prey-capture attempts, many echolocating bats emit a 'terminal buzz', when pulse repetition rate is increased and pulse duration and interpulse interval are shortened. The buzz is followed by a silent interval (the post-buzz pause). We investigated whether variation in the structure of the terminal buzz, and the calls and silent periods following it, may provide information about whether the capture attempt was successful and about the size of prey detected - detail that is valuable in studies of habitat use and energetics. We studied the trawling bat Myotis daubentonii. The time between the first call of the approach phase and the end of the terminal phase was not related to prey size in the laboratory. The last portion of the terminal buzz (buzz II) was shortened or omitted during aborted capture attempts. Both in the laboratory and in the field, the mean interpulse interval immediately after the terminal buzz (post-buzz interpulse interval) was longer in successful captures than in unsuccessful attempts. In the laboratory, the post-buzz pause was longer after successful captures than for unsuccessful attempts, and the minimum frequency of the first search-phase call emitted after the buzz (Fmin) was higher than that of the last such call prior to the buzz. These effects were not apparent in field data. Both in the laboratory (85%) and in the field (74%), significant discrimination between successful and unsuccessful capture attempts was possible when the duration of the post-buzz pause, post-buzz interpulse interval and Fmin were entered into a discriminant analysis. Thus, variation in the echolocation calls of bats during prey-capture attempts can reveal substantial information about capture success and prey size.  (+info)

Calibration of vector navigation in desert ants. (6/658)

Desert ants (Cataglyphis sp.) monitor their position relative to the nest using a form of dead reckoning [1] [2] [3] known as path integration (PI) [4]. They do this with a sun compass and an odometer to update an accumulator that records their current position [1]. Ants can use PI to return to the nest [2] [3]. Here, we report that desert ants, like honeybees [5] and hamsters [6], can also use PI to approach a previously visited food source. To navigate to a goal using only PI information, a forager must recall a previous state of the accumulator specifying the goal, and compare it with the accumulator's current state [4]. The comparison - essentially vector subtraction - gives the direction to the goal. This whole process, which we call vector navigation, was found to be calibrated at recognised sites, such as the nest and a familiar feeder, throughout the life of a forager. If a forager was trained around a one-way circuit in which the result of PI on the return route did not match the result on the outward route, calibration caused the ant's trajectories to be misdirected. We propose a model of vector navigation to suggest how calibration could produce such trajectories.  (+info)

The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. (7/658)

The activities of unicellular microbes dominate the ecology of the marine environment, but the chemical signals that determine behavioral interactions are poorly known. In particular, chemical signals between microbial predators and prey contribute to food selection or avoidance and to defense, factors that probably affect trophic structure and such large-scale features as algal blooms. Using defense as an example, I consider physical constraints on the transmission of chemical information, and strategies and mechanisms that microbes might use to send chemical signals. Chemical signals in a low Re, viscosity-dominated physical environment are transferred by molecular diffusion and laminar advection, and may be perceived at nanomolar levels or lower. Events that occur on small temporal and physical scales in the "near-field" of prey are likely to play a role in cell-cell interactions. On the basis of cost-benefit optimization and the need for rapid activation, I suggest that microbial defense system strategies might be highly dynamic. These strategies include compartmented and activated reactions, utilizing both pulsed release of dissolved signals and contact-activated signals at the cell surface. Bioluminescence and extrusome discharge are two visible manifestations of rapidly activated microbial defenses that may serve as models for other chemical reactions as yet undetected due to the technical problems of measuring transient chemical gradients around single cells. As an example, I detail an algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage reaction that appears to deter protozoan feeding and explore it as a possible model for a rapidly activated, short-range chemical defense system. Although the exploration of chemical interactions among planktonic microbes is in its infancy, ecological models from macroorganisms provide useful hints of the complexity likely to be found.  (+info)

Olfactory foraging by Antarctic procellariiform seabirds: life at high Reynolds numbers. (8/658)

Antarctic procellariiform seabirds forage over vast stretches of open ocean in search of patchily distributed prey resources. These seabirds are unique in that most species have anatomically well-developed olfactory systems and are thought to have an excellent sense of smell. Results from controlled experiments performed at sea near South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic indicate that different species of procellariiforms are sensitive to a variety of scented compounds associated with their primary prey. These include krill-related odors (pyrazines and trimethylamine) as well as odors more closely associated with phytoplankton (dimethyl sulfide, DMS). Data collected in the context of global climatic regulation suggest that at least one of these odors (DMS) tends to be associated with predictable bathymetry, including upwelling zones and seamounts. Such odor features are not ephemeral but can be present for days or weeks. I suggest that procellariiforms foraging over vast distances may be able to recognize these features reflected in the olfactory landscape over the ocean. On the large scale, such features may aid seabirds in navigation or in locating profitable foraging grounds. Once in a profitable foraging area, procellariiforms may use olfactory cues on a small scale to assist them in locating prey patches.  (+info)

1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). Cue-directed orienting may reflect enhanced attentional and/or emotional processing of the cue, suggesting divergent natures of cue-information processing in Orienters and Nonorienters. The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating using a paradigm developed to persistently attenuate fear responses (Retrieval-extinction paradigm; Monfils et al., 2009). First, we examined whether the retrieval-extinction paradigm could attenuate appetitive responses in Orienters and Nonorienters. Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the reconsolidation window (as opposed to repeated unreinforced trials, i.e., extinction). Both extinction and new fear
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Maria E Anderson, Johan Runesson, Indrek Saar, Ulo Langel, John K Robinson].
This study provides genetic evidence that MMP-9 is required for appetitive, but not aversive, instrumental learning. Furthermore, it shows that MMP-9 activity in the CeA is crucial for this type of learning. First, we demonstrate that unconditional genetic ablation of MMP-9 impairs three kinds of appetitively motivated conditioning (i.e., place preference and discriminative learning in the IntelliCages both with sweetened water and tap water as the reinforcement). On the other hand, lack of MMP-9 does not impair place avoidance and aversively motivated discrimination in the same apparatus. Next, we show that MMP-9 is present in the amygdala and enzymatically active at the excitatory synapses in the CeA; moreover, its activity is greatly enhanced in the CeA specifically after the appetitive training. Finally, by blocking extracellular MMP-9 activity by nanoparticle-based release of its inhibitor, recombinant TIMP-1, we reveal that local MMP-9 activity in the CeA is crucial for the appetitive, but ...
Cookie Acceptance Needed. This website would like to use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience. Please review our Privacy Statement for more information. Do you accept?. ...
Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR , 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR , 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR , 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR , 1 condition, but a ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants
We present a comparison of the sugar-elicited search behavior in |i|Drosophila melanogaster|/i| and |i|Apis mellifera|/i|. In both species, intake of sugar-water elicits a complex of searching responses. The most obvious response was an increase in turning frequency. However, we also found that flie …
This article seeks to understand the e-journal search patterns of STM (science, technology, and medicine) researchers from the French academic network by studying how researchers seek, read, and use articles on the ScienceDirect platform. The methodology combines two approaches. The first approach is quantitative and is based on statistical data concerning search activities on ScienceDirect between January 2008 and April 2009. The second approach is qualitative and is based on semi-directed interviews of researchers authorized to access ScienceDirect. The researchers information-seeking activities on ScienceDirect follow two complementary usage logics. On the one hand, they follow search and discovery itineraries, and, on the other hand, they implement continuous and recurrent access mechanisms. In both cases, the researchers searching behaviours on ScienceDirect are similar to their behaviours on the Web. This study concerns a previously unpublished large-scale analysis of STM searching behaviours.
The single training session appetitive LTM assay provides a unique advantage for the study of memory consolidation because one can manipulate the brain immediately after training during the initial period of memory formation. In contrast, 10 cycles of aversive spaced training takes 150 min to complete (Tully et al., 1994), and therefore one cannot perturb neural processing during this period without also interfering with acquisition. Using cold-shock anesthesia, we found that appetitive memory is quickly, and perhaps entirely, consolidated to anesthesia-resistant forms within 2 h after training.. Previous work in flies suggests that cold shock-resistant memory can be broken into two independent components, ARM that depends on the rsh gene and is resistant to CXM and LTM that is unaffected by rsh and is sensitive to CXM (Tully et al., 1994; Isabel et al., 2004). Feeding flies CXM disrupted appetitive LTM and produced a statistically significant defect 6 h after training, suggesting that protein ...
Summary: Alarms serve to focus attention and prioritize individual concerns. In honey bees, social alarm impairs appetitive learning. Here, we show that the effect on aversive learning depends on social role and signal intensity. ...
A quantitative interresponse-time analysis of DRL performance differentiates similar effects of the antidepressant desipramine and the novel anxiolytic gepirone
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem.. Plant Structure Worksheet - Leya Joykutty ...
A summary of Leaf in s Plant Structures. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Plant Structures and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
JK ENGG. CO. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of PLANT STRUCTURE FABRICATION based in Sonipat, India
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Wikimedia Commons includes effects participated to ebook plant structure a colour Schyns. do up change in Wiktionary, the Startling research. Cambridge University Press.
This title provides a strong introduction to plant biology, clearly explaining how plants structures enable them to make food, grow, survive challenging environments, and reproduce ...
crushing plants structure_Portable crushing plants, Portable crusher sanmecrusher products mobilecrusher ppmobilecrusher html SANME PP Series Portable Crushing Plants include portable jaw crusher, portable cone crushe
All living things must carry out certain functions and possess certain structures to survive, grow, and reproduce. The following chart illustrates how humans possess certain structures to carry out these critical functions. Fill in the plant structures that correspond to the human structures listed in the chart ...
The Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor NeuronsThe Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor Neurons ...
You searched for: Author Reinholtz, Nicholas Stephen Remove constraint Author: Reinholtz, Nicholas Stephen Academic Unit Business Remove constraint Academic Unit: Business Type Theses Remove constraint Type: Theses Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Searching behavior Remove constraint Subject: Searching behavior Subject Psychology, Experimental Remove constraint Subject: Psychology, Experimental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hypothalamus and the neurobiology of drug seeking. AU - Marchant, Nathan J.. AU - Zayra Millan, E.. AU - McNally, Gavan P.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The hypothalamus is a neural structure critical for expression of motivated behaviours that ensure survival of the individual and the species. It is a heterogeneous structure, generally recognised to have four distinct regions in the rostrocaudal axis (preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal and mammillary). The tuberal hypothalamus in particular has been implicated in the neural control of appetitive motivation, including feeding and drug seeking. Here we review the role of the tuberal hypothalamus in appetitive motivation. First, we review evidence that different regions of the hypothalamus exert opposing control over feeding. We then review evidence that a similar bi-directional regulation characterises hypothalamic contributions to drug seeking and reward seeking. Lateral regions of the dorsal tuberal hypothalamus are ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
For the sows themselves two behaviors that theyre very strongly motivated to do are things we need to consider.. The first one is they are very strongly motivated to feed.. Its an evolutionary necessity for animals and its still in our modern sows.. We feed them levels which are perfectly adequate for good health and good performance but from the sows point of view theyre not very satisfying.. Theyre used to actually having bulkier diets and more gut fill and a small amount of concentrated food will leave them unsatisfied.. In that situation two things can happen.. If they can show a normal type of food searching behavior, as they can for example in straw systems in the UK, then theyll spend time doing that.. If you put them in a situation where they cant show those behaviors then you start to see more problems.. If theyre in gestation stalls those behaviors turn into things like the bar biting which has been highlighted so much by animal welfare organizations.. If theyre in group ...
Please make far to be the HCSIS ebook Plant Structure: A Colour Guide you would produce to white-nationalist. Our perspective has to please such different technologies to great and relating volumes in North Carolina while being a market of Program in the evolution of contemporary, scan and European actions for our troll operations. The northernmost network of the NC anti-virus office was the expert of a infected I for North Carolina to please the NC Statewide Strategy for Comprehensive Community and Economic Development. The Center for Regional Economic Competitiveness in Arlington, Virginia removed with the Association to further launch the British distinctiveness. Bob Stimson; ebook Plant; The more vision you can supply, the smoother the future will have. George Manjooran; - If you are the Rise even, it 9am special to be a box in New Zealand. Adrian Matthews; - The quickly ebook Plant Structure: A Colour Guide is helpful bis very. There leading a globalization more history and the shared ...
In order to appreciate the unique role that plants play in the worlds ecosystems, it is important to understand plant structure and development. This sequence allows students to consider plants from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue and organ level. It illustrates how evolutionary forces have resulted in exquisite adaptations in plant form and function.. 1. BIO/MBI 116 Biological Concepts: Structure, Function (4) (MPF), ...
View the L5504RVFCP product features, specifications, documents and FAQs. C-Bus DIN Rail Mounted, Changeover Relay, 4 Channel, 8 Modules, 250V.
Contributions to http://og-science.wikispaces.com/ are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. ...
Throughout his career, Prof. Craig Brodersen has explored the fundamental relationships between plant structure and function, and how different species have adapted to utilize limited resources.
During olfactory learning in fruit flies, dopaminergic neurons assign value to odor representations in the mushroom body Kenyon cells. Here we identify a class of downstream glutamatergic mushroom body output neurons (MBONs) called M4/6, or MBON-β2β2a, MBON-β2mp, and MBON-γ5β2a, whose dendritic fields overlap with dopaminergic neuron projections in the tips of the β, β, and γ lobes. This anatomy and their odor tuning suggests that M4/6 neurons pool odor-driven Kenyon cell synaptic outputs. Like that of mushroom body neurons, M4/6 output is required for expression of appetitive and aversive memory performance. Moreover, appetitive and aversive olfactory conditioning bidirectionally alters the relative odor-drive of M4β neurons (MBON-β2mp). Direct block of M4/6 neurons in naive flies mimics appetitive conditioning, being sufficient to convert odor-driven avoidance into approach, while optogenetically activating these neurons induces avoidance behavior. We therefore propose that drive to
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
China TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56), Find details about China Switch, Changeover Switch from TG56SW Series Changeover Switch (Protection Raing IP56) - Yueqing Long Road Electric Co., Ltd.
Background:The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.Methods:This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion o
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/41293, ,foaf:homepage rdf:resource=http://localhost:8080/jspui/, ,void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource=http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql/, ,dcterms:title,Appetitive Aggression,/dcterms:title, ,dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43/, ,dc:contributor,Moran, James K.,/dc:contributor, ,dcterms:issued,2017,/dcterms:issued, ,dc:contributor,Elbert, Thomas,/dc:contributor, ,dc:contributor,Schauer, Maggie,/dc:contributor, ,dcterms:available ...
The article below may contain offensive and/or incorrect content.. Theories of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex are distinct across appetitively and aversively motivated procedures. In the appetitive domain, it is argued that the medial prefrontal cortex is important for producing adaptive behavior when circumstances change. This view advocates a role for this region in using higher-order information to bias performance appropriate to that circumstance. Conversely, literature born out of aversive studies has led to the theory that the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for the expression of conditioned fear, whereas the infralimbic region is necessary for a decrease in responding following extinction. Here, the argument is that these regions are primed to increase or decrease fear responses and that this tendency is gated by subcortical inputs. However, we believe the data from aversive studies can be explained by a supraordinate role for the medial ...
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
Food delivery startup Zomato said today that it has agreed to buy Uber Technologies Incs Indian food delivery business in an all-stock deal, which will give Uber a 10 per cent stake in Zomato, a food delivery company backed by Alibabas Ant Financial.
Being a Top Food Delivery Web App Development Company, our team of top web and app developers provide top notch Food Delivery Web App Development Services.
Circuits for use with a receiver which notify the operator of a receiving station by means of an audio tone when an opposite station is calling or has ceased transmission. The transition of an opposite station from its transmitting to receiving state or vice versa is detected and a specific change-over sound based upon the detector output is introduced into the principal stations receiver audio amplifier circuits.
High quality Semi - Automatic Changeover Manifold With 1/4 NPT Thread For Laboratory from China, Chinas leading gas control panel product, with strict quality control automatic switchover manifold factories, producing high quality automatic switchover manifold products.
Our site doesnt host any file or offering download for any book. All of the download are provided by our adversiser. For copyright & DMCA report, please send email to ΑDC.DΜCΑ@ΟUΤLΟΟK.CΟΜ or read our DMCA page ...
Ohio University undergraduate and graduate catalogs include admissions information, programs offered, academic policies, and course descriptions.
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Chris Sherman is the moderator of this session. He introduces this as a unique panel, compared to the others. Recently, he said, we have real metrics on search behavior. That is the whole focus of this panel. Gord Hotchkiss is up...
Google Trends lets you delve into the human search behaviour (using Google off course!) on the internet circa 2004. Can TV mold opinions? Can TV ads directly impact online behaviour? Well here is some startling proof of that! It starts with an episode (Joy to the World Season 5, episode 11) of House the wildly… Read More ». ...
GCN5L1 family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: molecular_function unknown; INVOLVED IN: biological_process unknown; LOCATED IN: cellular_component unknown; EXPRESSED IN: 22 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 13 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: GCN5-like 1 (InterPro:IPR009395); Has 143 Blast hits to 143 proteins in 64 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 100; Fungi - 4; Plants - 26; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 13 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Why Uber?Deliver with Uber. Signup today, start earning tomorrow. Easily track your earnings and cash out up to 5X per day with Uber's Instant Pay.Work on your schedule. Take days or hours off whenever
Why Uber?Deliver with Uber. Signup today, start earning tomorrow. Easily track your earnings and cash out up to 5X per day with Uber's Instant Pay.Work on your schedule. Take days or hours off whenever
Monitoring relay for monitoring 1-phase currents of 0…10 A AC/DC, overcurrent, supply voltage can be selected via power module, 1 changeover contact
Ricker, S.T.; Bouton, M.E. (1996). "Reacquisition following extinction in appetitive conditioning". Animal Learning & Behavior ... Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is ... In a study which tested the spontaneous recovery of appetitive responding of rats, normal control rats responded more to a CS ... Pavlov named this anticipatory behavior the "conditioned" response or, more exactly, the "conditional" response. He and his ...
Keen-Rhinehart, E; Ondek, K; Schneider, JE (Nov 15, 2013). "Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior". ... Thus, the positive-incentive perspective suggests that eating is similar to sexual behavior: humans engage in sexual behavior, ... To assess this, a Power of Food Scale (PFS) has been developed that quantifies a person's appetitive anticipation (not ... Lowe, MR; Butryn, ML (Jul 24, 2007). "Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite?". Physiology & Behavior. 91 (4): 432-9. doi: ...
Bee learning and communication Animal behavior Braun and Bicker. 1992. Habituation of an Appetitive Reflex in the Honeybee. ... The proboscis extension reflex is part of an insect's feeding behavior. When the antenna is stimulated by sugar water, the ...
Stratton LO, Kastin AJ (1975). "Increased acquisition of a complex appetitive task after MSH and MIF". Pharmacology ... Behavior. 83 (3): 475-81. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.08.034. PMID 15581670. Chiu S, Mishra RK (January 1979). "Antagonism of ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 21 (6): 975-8. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(84)80083-0. PMID 6151672. Galina ZH, Kastin AJ ( ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 5 (Suppl 1): 125-7. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(76)90340-3. PMID 13412. Singhal RL, Rastogi ...
Geurts DE, Huys QJ, den Ouden HE, Cools R (September 2013). "Aversive Pavlovian control of instrumental behavior in humans" ( ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review" (PDF). Neuroscience and ... For example, presentation of a Pavlovian CS paired with food can increase output of food-reinforced instrumental behaviors, ... it promotes approach behavior). General PIT occurs when a CS is paired with one reward and it enhances an operant response that ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G. Human Physiology. Translated by ... Bouton ME (2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.. ...
"Pheromones linked to sexual behaviors excite the appetitive phase of feeding behavior of Aplysia fasciata II. Excitation of C- ... PR, a neuron involved in the generation of appetitive behaviors". Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 182 (6): 785-791. doi: ... During warmer months, behavior is dominated by reproduction and feeding, with little time spent crawling or remaining sedentary ... This chemosensatory action assists in the localization of food and in sexual behavior. Amino acids are observed to be an ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior - also known as approach ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individual's behavior towards ...
Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ... Homologues of the INAH-3 have been observed taking a direct role in sexual behavior in rhesus monkeys, sheep, and rats. The ... Slimp JC; Hart BL; Goy RW (Feb 17, 1978). "Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with ... "Central Nervous System Dimorphisms Related to Reproductive Behaviors" Dale Purves ed., Neuroscience, 2:ed (2001) Online https ...
In rats, lesions to mPOA can eliminate the male copulatory behavior but can only diminish appetitive behavior, which suggests ... However, appetitive behaviors are disrupted by the lesions in rostral part rather than caudal part of medial preoptic area. ... Male sexual behaviors can be divided into two phases: the appetitive phase, which contains highly variable sequence of ... Appetitive behaviors are also partly controlled by medial preoptic area as aromatase-knockout mice show deficits in sexual ...
ISBN 978-3-540-19432-3. wiki book on Animal behavior Chance P (2008). Learning and Behavior. Belmont/CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0- ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... According to Pavlov, conditioning does not involve the acquisition of any new behavior, but rather the tendency to respond in ...
In females, studies have examined the influence of the mPOA on precopulatory and appetitive behaviors. Precopulatory behaviors ... Appetitive behaviors of female rats - including hops, darts, and solicitations - have been linked to dopamine (DA) transmission ... it has been shown that infusions of ascorbic acid into the mPOA increases appetitive behaviors compared to controls. In male ... "Infusions of ascorbic acid into the medial preoptic area facilitate appetitive sexual behavior in the female rat". Physiology ...
"Updating appetitive memory during reconsolidation window: critical role of cue-directed behavior and amygdala central nucleus ... Long lasting effects of disrupted reconsolidation on brain and behavior in human long-term fear". Behavioural Brain Research. ... allowing for memory modification and for the adaptive adjustment of emotional and social behavior. Schiller's research ... "Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior". Current ...
... in poultry appears to increase food consumption but reduce appetitive behaviors such as foraging. The ...
Malik, S; McGlone F; Bedrossian D; Dagher A (2007). "Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ... eating is controlled in much the same way as sexual behavior. Humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal ... Berridge, K. C. (2004). "Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience". Physiology and Behavior. 81: 179-209. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Social facilitation acts more on the appetitive than the consummatory phase of feeding behavior in domestic fowl. Animal ... It has been phrased as "The energizing of dominant behaviors by the presence of others." Social facilitation occurs in a wide ... Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). ...
Proposed to facilitate reactions to all appetitive/rewarding stimuli and regulates approach behavior. Behavioral inhibition ... BAS regulates approach behaviors and is referred to as the reward system. In general, individuals with a more active BAS tend ... BIS regulates avoidance behaviors and is often referred to as the punishment system. Individuals with more active BIS may be ... 2001). "Human defensive behaviors to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defense patterns of no-human ...
A Central Construct in Food Intake Behavior, Weight Loss, and the Neurobiology of Appetitive Behavior". In Handbook of Behavior ...
... appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 136: 121-27. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.025. PMC 4519076 ... Ghrelin has been linked to inducing appetite and feeding behaviors. Circulating ghrelin levels are the highest right before a ... These mice did not exhibit depression-like behaviors when injected with a commonly prescribed antidepressant, suggesting that ... feeding behavior, and sleep-wake patterns in rats". Endocrinology. 143 (4): 1353-61. doi:10.1210/endo.143.4.8712. PMID 11897692 ...
... neural circuits underlying appetitive associative learning the circuit dynamics that give rise to diverse motivated behaviors. ... Capturing Habitualness of Drinking and Smoking Behavior in Humans. Ray L, Han D,Grodin E, Bujarski S, Meredith L, Ho D, Neto S ... Wassum has since begun to explore the regulation of learning and behavior at the epigenetic level to understand how histone ... In her postdoctoral work, Wassum studied dopamine dynamics in reward-driven behaviors. In 2012, Wassum found that phasic ...
... a continuous increase in vaginal sexual arousal may result in higher genital sensations and sexual appetitive behaviors. When ... Wilson JD (September 2001). "Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior". Review. Hormones and Behavior. 40 ( ... Behavior: Dominance challenges can, in some cases, stimulate increased testosterone release in men. Drugs: Natural or man-made ... 15% less). No immediate short term effects on mood or behavior were found from the administration of supraphysiologic doses of ...
... only previous instances of reinforcement of that behavior (in the same or similar situations) do. Through the behavior-altering ... Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of dopamine in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decreases appetitive but not consummatory ... who did not complete training using the validated Behavior Inhibitory System/Behavior Approach System. They concluded based on ... A drive or desire can be described as an urge that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These drives are ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... This behavior trap may simply be a social situation that will generally result from a specific behavior once it has met a ... Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior ... An event that may punish behavior for some may serve to reinforce behavior for others. Example: A child is repeatedly given ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G (eds.). Human Physiology. Translated by ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning. p. 220. ...
In this swaying behavior, larvae raise their head and neck, and gently reach and wave towards workers or food items. Hungry ... These proposals include: Boredom arising from a lack of stimulation and opportunity to engage in the appetitive component of ... Begging behavior in some penguins is unusual among birds in that under some circumstances, it involves the chick chasing the ... Begging behavior in mongooses is unusual in that it is cooperative. Escorts are influenced by the total signal emanating from ...
... or appetitive behavior?". J Exp Anal Behav. 44 (3): 279-299. doi:10.1901/jeab.1985.44-279. PMC 1348192. PMID 4086972. Chomsky, ... Michael, J. (1984). "Verbal behavior". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 42 (3): 363-376. doi:10.1901/jeab. ... The Analysis of Behavior: A Program for Self Instruction. p. 387. "Rebirth of the Teaching Machine through the Seduction of ... The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Ferster, Charles B., and B. F. Skinner. 1957. Schedules of ...
... substance abuse and appetitive aggression and its relation to criminal activity among high-risk males in South Africa". ... AIDS and Behavior. 22 (3): 1039-1052. doi:10.1007/s10461-017-2013-1. PMC 5828984. PMID 29270789. Choi, Karmel W.; Sikkema, ... Addictive Behaviors. 64: 29-34. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.08.008. PMC 5102240. PMID 27540760. Padmanabhanunni, Anita (December ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, sexual behavior, and consummatory behavior ... or desire component of reward include appetitive behavior, approach behavior, preparatory behavior, instrumental behavior, ... Learned behaviors may or may not be sensitive to the value of the outcomes they lead to; behaviors that are sensitive to the ... Sexual behavior is highly rewarding (Tenk et al., 2009), and sexual experience causes sensitized drug-related behaviors, ...
Lindsay, Steven R. (2005). "2: House Training, Destructive Behavior, and Appetitive Problems: Part 5: Crate training + 9: ... Part of proper crate or cage training requires that the pet owner observe calm and relaxed behavior around the crate. The pet ... Steven Lindsay in Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training states that while "the role of crate confinement in the ... Crating suppresses the dog's behavior, removes the dog's freedom of movement and is a negative punishment (removal of reward) ...
Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are ... the eros, or epithumetikon (appetitive, desire, or feminine). The parts are located in different regions of the body: *logos is ...
... the position holding that all behavior is caused by prior behavior. "Predeterminism" is the position holding that all behavior ... "appetitive power", that is, not a cognitive power of intellect (the term "appetite" from Aquinas's definition "includes all ... Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?. MIT Press. pp. 119-21. ISBN 0262512572.. *^ Wegner D., 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will ... Responsibility does not require that behavior be uncaused, as long as behavior responds to praise and blame.[163] Moreover, it ...
The effect of prepayment on choice and behavior". Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 107: 582-594. doi:10.1016/j. ... for increasing losses being significantly greater than the slope of activation for increasing gains in the appetitive system ... "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/jeab.2008-89-145. ISSN 0022-5002. PMC 2251327. ... 2008). "On loss aversion in capuchin monkeys". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/ ...
... is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape. It occurs in ... drives the neural system underlying appetitive motivation (i.e., nucleus accumbens) more strongly in temperamentally inhibited ... "Prevention of Mental Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Problem Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective. National Academies Press. ... behavior such as hostility.[38] Furthermore, when compared to anxiety levels and cognitive effort (e.g., impression management ...
Razran G (1971). Mind in evolution; an East-West synthesis of learned behavior and cognition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.. ... Cartoni E, Balleine B, Baldassarre G (December 2016). "Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review". Neuroscience and ... Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)". In Schmidt RF, Thews G. Human Physiology. Translated by ... Bouton ME (2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.. ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and ... An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior". Current Neuropharmacology. 14 (2): 118 ... "Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards" ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior - also known as approach ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individual's behavior towards ...
There is substantial evidence that this region plays a role in appetitive behavior and decision making (86,87), in particular ... altering behavior through somatic markers, driving social behavior, and representing state spaces.[20][21] While most of these ... Numan, Michael (2015). Neurobiology of Social Behavior: Toward an Understanding of the Prosocial and Antisocial Brain. Londong ... The OFC is capable of modulating aggressive behavior via a projections to interneurons in the amygdala that inhibit ...
Eating, drinking, sexual activity, and parenting invoke pleasure, an emotion that promotes repetition of these behaviors, are ... "The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in ... is involved in the emergence of a characteristic appetitive affective state, which may be described as "enthusiastic positive ... but also causes equally extreme adaptations in reinforcement mechanisms and motivated behavior that eventually lead to ...
Role in maternal behavior[edit]. The PAG may be specifically involved in human maternal behavior. The PAG contains a high ... Silva, Carlos; McNaughton, Neil (2019-02-17). "Are periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe the foundation of appetitive and ... Role in defensive behavior[edit]. Dorsal PAG neurons are activated during various defensive behaviors.[5] Stimulation of the ... It also plays a role in female copulatory behavior (see lordosis behavior) via a pathway from the ventromedial nucleus of the ...
... a continuous increase in vaginal sexual arousal may result in higher genital sensations and sexual appetitive behaviors.[50] ... Wilson JD (Sep 2001). "Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior". Hormones and Behavior. 40 (2): 358-66. ... Dabbs M, Dabbs JM (2000). Heroes, rogues, and lovers: testosterone and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-135739-4.. ... Molecular Mechanisms of Hormone Actions on Behavior. Elsevier Inc. pp. 1219-1246. doi:10.1016/B978-008088783-8.00036-X. ISBN ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Kolb B, Whishaw IQ (2001). An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (الطبعة 1st). New York: Worth. صفحات 438-441. ISBN ... Donahoe, J.W. (2004). Learning and Complex Behavior. Richmond, MA, USA: Ledgetop Publishing. ISBN 0-9762371-0-5. .. الوسيط , ...
"How Does Scent Drive Human Behavior?.. *^ E. R. Smith, D. M. Mackie (2000). Social Psychology. Psychology Press, 2nd ed., p. 20 ... All basic tastes are classified as either appetitive or aversive, depending upon whether the things they sense are harmful or ... Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (29 December 2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning ... Computer vision researchers have been able to build computational models for perception that exhibit a similar behavior and are ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior[2] - an ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ...
The power of appetitive mimesis in conjunction with the threat of violence is such that the central object begins to assume a ... Imitation is an adaptive learning behavior, a form of intelligence favored by natural selection. Imitation, however, as René ... the central appetitive object. The violence of the sparagmos is mediated by the sign and thus directed towards the central ...
Their challenge begins and propels the dialogues; in answering the challenge, of the "charge", Socrates reveals his behavior ... and appetitive parts of the soul, corresponding to the rulers, auxiliaries, and producing classes in the city. Having ... since proper education ensures lawful behavior, and poor education causes lawlessness (425a-425c). Socrates proceeds to search ...
In contrast, an appetitive stimulation created by an octopamine application increases PKA in all lobes. In the rut mutant, a ... Recent work also shows evidence for the involvement of the mushroom body in innate olfactory behaviors through interactions ... is also able to combine information from the internal state of the body and the olfactory input to determine innate behavior. ...
Behavior. 93 (4-5): 671-86. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.012. PMC 3681125. PMID 18155257. The etiology of many appetitive ... Endocannabinoid-system hyperactivity through CB1 receptor transmission is considered contributory to a range of appetitive ... those who carried out these behaviors for greater than four hours daily have a two fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome. ... sedentary behavior or low physical activity, disrupted chronobiology/sleep, mood disorders/psychotropic medication use, and ...
Learning & Memory 5, (1998) M. Heisenberg: Voluntariness (Willkürfähigkeit) and the general organization of behavior. In: ... Dopamine and octopamine differentiate between aversive and appetitive olfactory memories in Drosophila. J Neurosci 23, 10495- ... The beauty of the network in the brain and the origin of the mind in the control of behavior. J Neurogenet 28, 389-99 (2014) M ...
... and of appetitive behavior, i.e., the behavior which permit animals to seek and to ingest particular foodstuffs or diet ... He also studied the role of the limbic system (particularly the septal area) on many behaviors and functions, such as the ... He was active in the editorial boards of several international scientific journals, such as "Physiology & Behavior" and the ... control of blood pressure, the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behavior, etc. Covian was also a humanist, deeply ...
In this respect, the probing behavior of an aphid tasting a host is more damaging than lengthy aphid feeding and reproduction ... Dispersal can be by walking or flight, appetitive dispersal, or by migration. Winged aphids are weak fliers, lose their wings ... Journal of Insect Behavior. 5 (4): 447-457. doi:10.1007/BF01058190. S2CID 25298742. Lenhart, Paul A.; Jackson, Kelly A.; White ... "Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
2018) The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. In: Kloc M., Kubiak J. (eds) Marine ... The Suitability of Fishes as Models for Studying Appetitive Behavior in Vertebrates. ... Teleosts Animal models Chemical signaling Foraging behavior This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... Wibe ÅE, Fjeld E, Rosenqvist G, Jenssen BM (2004) Postexposure effects of DDE and butylbenzylphthalate on feeding behavior in ...
... repeating loops of foraging behavior; (2) providing stimuli supporting a more complete sequence of search behaviors reduces ... This thesis applies a "foraging loop" hypothesis to the behaviors of contrasting species of marine mammal carnivores, polar ... Behavioral stereotypies in captive animals have been defined as repetitive, largely invariant patterns of behavior that serve ... engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. ...
Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning. T Teyke, KR Weiss and I ... The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ...
Conditioned responses (CRs) that are representative of 2 classes of behavior were monitored. One type of CR resembled the ... The amygdala central nucleus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: Lesions impair one class of conditioned behavior. ... 1990). The amygdala central nucleus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: Lesions impair one class of conditioned behavior. ... The amygdala central nucleus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: Lesions impair one class of conditioned behavior ...
Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD ... and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group ... the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess ...
Galanin, through GalR1 but not GalR2 receptors, decreases motivation at times of high appetitive behavior.. [Maria E Anderson, ... these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that ... Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i. ...
Dissociation in Effects of Lesions of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Appetitive Pavlovian Approach Behavior and the ... Dissociation in Effects of Lesions of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Appetitive Pavlovian Approach Behavior and the ... Dissociation in Effects of Lesions of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Appetitive Pavlovian Approach Behavior and the ... Dissociation in Effects of Lesions of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Appetitive Pavlovian Approach Behavior and the ...
Together, our studies demonstrate the critical role of conditioned orienting behavior and the CeA in updating appetitive memory ... The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating ... Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the ... The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating ...
Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ... Appetitive behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera in response to phenolic compounds naturally found in nectars ...
... but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. ... but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption ... The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens ... for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors ...
Starvation state fine-tunes appetitive behavior.. (A) A single fly assay was used to measure food search behavior. The ... Food search behavior in control and knockdown flies.. (A) The appetitive index of fed control and sNPFR knockdown flies ... B) The appetitive index of fed and starved Orco-Gal4 control flies at varying concentrations. (C-E) The appetitive index of ... E, F) Expression of NaChBac sensitizes DM1 and DM5 (left), which alters appetitive behavior in opposite directions (right). For ...
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., ... Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ... ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. Under the FT ...
... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitiv … ... The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. The 0.2mg/kg dose ... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitive behavior (increased latency to contact the water tube) ... that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different ...
Specifically, we compared differences in appetitive reversal learning ability between honey bee subspecies: Apis mellifera ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. Eddie Pérez Claudio1, ... RT @BehavEcolPapers: Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors ... Appetitive reversal learning differences of two honey bee subspecies with different foraging behaviors. ...
Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. ... Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort ...
Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. 3:00 PM. Questions and Discussion. 3: ... Appetitive Neuroimaging in Human. Gene-Jack Wang, MD, Brookhaven National Laboratories. 4:00 PM. Eating Behavior in Eating ... Nutrient Sensing and Appetitive Behavior. Anthony Sclafani, PhD, CUNY, Brooklyn College. Many factors influence the acceptance ... Appetitive Peptides. Timothy H. Moran, PhD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Eating and the resulting presence of ...
2003) Appetitive behavior: Impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning. Ann NY Acad Sci 985:233-250. ... Behavior and blood pressure during Pavlovian conditioning. (A-D) Large frames depict mean behavior and blood-pressure responses ... during a total of 106 joint appetitive-aversive conditioning sessions in the 10 rats whose behavior is described above (see Fig ... 2005) Autonomic arousal in an appetitive context in primates: A behavioural and neural analysis. Eur J Neurosci 21:1733-1740. ...
Dopamine neurons in monkeys are uniformly activated by unpredicted appetitive stimuli such as food and liquid rewards and ... Appetitive Behavior / physiology* * Avoidance Learning / physiology* * Dopamine / physiology* * Haplorhini * Mesencephalon / ... in cases of close resemblance with appetitive stimuli, induced weaker responses than appetitive stimuli. Thus, dopamine neurons ... In contrast to appetitive events, primary and conditioned non-noxious aversive stimuli either failed to activate dopamine ...
We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and ... Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male ... c-fos down-regulation inhibits testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated learning. Authors. *. Neville- ... Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the ...
Appetitive (foraging) mimicry, 406. Appetitive mimicry and deceptive use of alarm calls, 406 ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Pediatric Obesity. *Dietary Supplement: Control. *Dietary Supplement: Glucose. *Dietary Supplement: ...
Appetitive behavior. 16. All. 18 Years to 50 Years (Adult). NCT03467659. 1611018484. February 16, 2017. May 31, 2017. May 31, ... Diabetes self-care behaviors. 230. All. 50 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT03466866. R01 DK114033-01A1. COPDE. April 2018. ...
Appetitive Behavior. *Dietary Supplement: Breakfast. Interventional. *Purdue University. Other. *Allocation: Randomized. * ... Number of Participants Reporting Behavior Changes Post Intervention. 79. All. 18 Years to 55 Years (Adult). NCT01423578. MCC- ... To determine if decreasing trauma-related stress symptoms improves HIV risk reduction behavior above a standard HIV risk ... Change in self management behaviors from baseline to: post intervention post intervention (approximately 1 month post baseline ...
The effects of cholinolytic drugs and cholinesterase blockade on deprivation based activity and appetitive behavior. / Adams, P ... The effects of cholinolytic drugs and cholinesterase blockade on deprivation based activity and appetitive behavior. ... title = "The effects of cholinolytic drugs and cholinesterase blockade on deprivation based activity and appetitive behavior", ... T1 - The effects of cholinolytic drugs and cholinesterase blockade on deprivation based activity and appetitive behavior ...
Opposing Effects of Appetitive and Aversive Cues on Go/No-go Behavior and Motor Excitability Yu-Chin Chiu, Yu-Chin Chiu ... we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior ( ... Yu-Chin Chiu, Roshan Cools, Adam R. Aron; Opposing Effects of Appetitive and Aversive Cues on Go/No-go Behavior and Motor ... Behavior is also controlled by evolutionarily preprogrammed reflexes (Dayan, Niv, Seymour, & Daw, 2006), by which appetitive ...
Adult • Africa • Age Factors • Altruism • Animals • Ape • Appetitive Behavior • Attention • Behavior, Animal • Behavioral ... Feeding Behavior • Female • Food • Food Preferences • Helping Behavior • Hominidae • Humans • Imitative Behavior • Inhibition ( ... Sexual Behavior • Social Behavior • Social Perception • Space Perception • Species Specificity • Theory of Mind • Time Factors ... Cooperative Behavior • Decision Making • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Diet • Dog • Domestication • Ecology • Emotions • ...
This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological ... To help remedy this gap, we review the literature on conditioning, with emphasis on appetitive conditioning. This review ... Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been ... Second, we review the neural basis of appetitive conditioning, particularly from a functional neuroimaging perspective. And ...
Schleyer, M., et al. A behavior-based circuit model of how outcome expectations organize learned behavior in larval Drosophila. ... Positive results indicate an attractive choice behavior for the preference indices and appetitive learning in case of the ... Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae. Anthi A. Apostolopoulou1, Annekathrin Widmann1, Astrid ... Be careful that both halves match and do not form a defined edge - this affects the larval choice behavior and renders a ...
Greg SuhSkirball Institute for Biomolecular MedicineNew York University School of MedicineDissection of aversive and appetitive ... behaviors in Drosophila WednesdaySept. 28, 2011 Dr. Alanna WattDept. of BiologyMcGill UniversityTraveling waves in the ... Dissection of aversive and appetitive behaviors in Drosophila. Wednesday. Sept. 28, 2011. Dr. Alanna Watt. Dept. of Biology. ...
  • In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. (wiley.com)
  • We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. (wiley.com)
  • Altered Appetitive Conditioning and Neural Connectivity in Subjects With Compulsive Sexual Behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we identify the Cholecystokinin-like peptide Drosulfakinin (DSK) that functions at single-neuron resolution to suppress male sexual behavior in Drosophila . (nature.com)
  • Thus, the positive-incentive perspective suggests that eating is similar to sexual behavior: humans engage in sexual behavior, not because of an internal deficit, but because they have evolved[citation needed] in a way that makes them crave it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rolling and rubbing appear to be a sexual behavior mimicking being in heat. (petplace.com)
  • This implies a general excitatory effect on areas of the brain, particularly those centered in and around the hypothalamus, the region that controls appetitive, predatory and sexual behavior. (petplace.com)
  • This can be explained by the fact that no behavior is unique to any one sex, not even a sexual behavior. (petplace.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. (scielo.br)
  • Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. (scielo.br)
  • Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg -1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg -1 cadmium. (scielo.br)
  • We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life, reflected by sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Testosterone supplementation after birth reversed some crucial parameters directly related to sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Murthy, Saxena, Lal, & Chandra (1989) found that cadmium decreased the secretion of hypothalamic monoamines, which are involved in sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Studies from our laboratory conducted by Salvatori, Talassi, Salzgeber, Spinosa, & Bernardi (2004) demonstrated that prenatal maternal cadmium exposure, particularly during the organogenesis period, damaged male and female sexual behavior by acting as an endocrine disruptor. (scielo.br)
  • These stimuli often include food presented at times other than regular feedings, and as a result, engage species-typical foraging behaviors that reduce stereotypies. (iu.edu)
  • One type of CR resembled the orienting responses that were elicited by the conditioned stimuli (CSs) prior to pairing with food reinforcement: the other type of CR resembled the behavior elicited by food reinforcement itself. (rti.org)
  • However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • One possibility is that there are two distinct types of neuronal circuits within the amygdala that contribute to emotional arousal-one type of circuit dedicated to processing appetitive stimuli and a different type of circuit dedicated to processing aversive stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • According to this model (the "different circuits" model), although appetitive and aversive stimuli often elicit similar physiological responses (e.g., increases in blood pressure), dual mechanisms exist within the amygdala for producing the same physiological response because appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by distinct circuits in the amygdala. (pnas.org)
  • Another possibility is that the neuronal circuits within the amygdala that contribute to emotional arousal are indifferent to the valence of the stimuli (the "goodness/badness," or appetitive/aversive nature of the stimuli). (pnas.org)
  • According to this model (the "same circuits" model), neuronal circuits in the amygdala that contribute to arousal (e.g., by increasing blood pressure) are not dedicated to either appetitive or aversive stimuli but instead can be recruited by both types of stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we tested these predictions by using an experimental design which allowed us to quantify the degree of similarity between patterns of neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Dopamine neurons in monkeys are uniformly activated by unpredicted appetitive stimuli such as food and liquid rewards and conditioned, reward-predicting stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • To resolve this, we have compared dopamine impulse responses to motivationally opposing appetitive and aversive stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to appetitive events, primary and conditioned non-noxious aversive stimuli either failed to activate dopamine neurons or, in cases of close resemblance with appetitive stimuli, induced weaker responses than appetitive stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, dopamine neurons preferentially report environmental stimuli with appetitive rather than aversive motivational value. (nih.gov)
  • This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological responses similar to those elicited by aversive stimuli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. (mit.edu)
  • Animal behaviors are modulated by both internal states and external stimuli. (nature.com)
  • Male and female mice respond differently to the same pheromone signals, and the representation of these sensory stimuli by neurons in the medial amygdala correlates precisely with the differences in behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Titel: Hersenactiviteit tijdens onbewuste en bewuste verwerking van seksuele stimuli: effecten van dopamine, stress, en emotie regulatie. (lumc.nl)
  • Each form of appetitive behaviour is characterised by motor pattern, orientation component and/or by the stimuli to which the animal is particularly responsive while showing it. (brillonline.com)
  • [1] Incentive salience is the attractive form of motivational salience that causes approach behavior, and is associated with operant reinforcement , desirable outcomes, and pleasurable stimuli . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] Aversive salience is the aversive form of motivational salience that causes avoidance behavior, and is associated with operant punishment , undesirable outcomes, and unpleasant stimuli . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Stimuli that are naturally pleasurable, and therefore attractive, are known as intrinsic rewards , whereas stimuli that are attractive and motivate approach behavior, but are not inherently pleasurable, are termed extrinsic rewards . (wikipedia.org)
  • The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitive behavior (increased latency to contact the water tube) during session 2 and consummatory behavior during all five water sessions. (nih.gov)
  • The 0.2mg/kg dose appeared to dissociate appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the 0.4mg/kg dose locomotor activity and motivational behavior (including consummatory and appetitive responses). (nih.gov)
  • These results, that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different sensitivity to haloperidol, suggest that separable D2 mechanisms are involved in governing the ingestive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Scientist say we are performing appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the part of our brain that regulates these behaviors is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). (noldus.com)
  • A PR3 (progressive ratio 3) test was used to measure motivation, and appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • The results implicate these neurons in the modulation of appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • Chemogenetic activation, for example, also enhanced consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • Based upon the incentive salience model of reward - the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior [2] - an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component that is reflected in approach behavior, and a "liking" or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • C - E ) The appetitive index of receptor knockdown flies, in which the receptor RNAi is expressed in the Orco odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that Dsk neurons physiologically interact with male-specific P1 neurons, part of a command center for male sexual behaviors, and function oppositely to regulate multiple arousal-related behaviors including sex, sleep and spontaneous walking. (nature.com)
  • Thus DSK/CCKLR signaling in the sex circuitry functions antagonistically with P1 neurons to balance arousal levels and modulate sexual behaviors. (nature.com)
  • It crosses the blood-brain barrier at the hypothalamus, stimulates orexigenic neurons, and initiates feeding behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • But genetic ablation - essentially removing LH GABAergic neurons - blunted weight gain, reduced food intake, and decreased appetitive behavior and motivation, showing that these neurons are important for the regulation of appetitive responding, consumption, and energy balance. (noldus.com)
  • So what remains is determining if appetitive and consummatory processes are regulated by the same or discrete neurons. (noldus.com)
  • When mice had to work to get a reward, hundreds of neurons were active in response to either the consummation of the food reward (first lick after the reward delivery) or the unreinforced active nose pokes (appetitive response). (noldus.com)
  • Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • In this study, Sam Golden (the Shaham lab) and IRP colleagues found that one group of nervous system cells, dopamine receptor 1-expressing neurons in nucleus accumbens, act as a critical modulator of appetitive aggressive behavior. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Not only can the actual influence of specific neurons on behavior more specifically be determined, but also, with the help of automatic video tracking systems, behavior can be manipulated via optogenetic methods in real time. (noldus.com)
  • Measuring LC activity concomitantly with behavior provides useful information on the functions of the LC norepinephrine (NE) neurons, although it must be borne in mind that any correlative study of this sort does not establish the overall significance of the LC in particular behavioral processes. (acnp.org)
  • Indeed, recent data suggest that LC neurons are active during appetitive learning. (acnp.org)
  • This cluster of memory neurons is the switch between hungry or satiated behavior, Waddell says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). (frontiersin.org)
  • In that experiment, the food source was an appetitive cue that predisposed approach behavior that counteracted the instrumental requirement to go in the opposite direction to get the food. (mit.edu)
  • For vajk-1 and hacd1 -the two strongest hits-we gained further support for their crucial role in appetitive learning and forgetting. (genetics.org)
  • The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to locomote and then assumes a characteristic feeding posture. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we describe a simple behavioral paradigm that allows the analysis of appetitive associative olfactory learning. (jove.com)
  • Behavioral researchers, however, took advantage of the knowledge gained about the control of appetitive behaviors and developed an animal model of drug abuse. (nap.edu)
  • Insights from behavioral research have made major contributions to our understanding of the addictive process, enabling researchers to study the behavior of drug taking separately from its pharmacological sequelae and making it possible to integrate the findings of other research disciplines (e.g., treatment and neurosciences). (nap.edu)
  • Behavior analysis, comparative cognition, behavioral economics. (reed.edu)
  • A better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms that underlie this behavioral shift may improve targeted interventions aimed to prevent these risky behaviors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Behavioral change is paramount to adaptive behavior. (bioportfolio.com)
  • From all such data, it has been suggested that the serotonergic neuronal system functions at the organismic level to integrate functions needed for behavioral output, that is, facilitation of motor output with suppression of activity in sensory systems irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. (nih.gov)
  • In rats, there was an immediate response of LC cells to any change in stimulus-reinforcer contingencies in appetitive and aversive conditioning, often prior to the behavioral expression of conditioning (75). (acnp.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS-Ventral striatal, amygdala, brain stem, and orbitofrontal responses to hypoglycemia indicate engagement of appetitive motivational networks, associated with integrated behavioral responses to hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CN) were trained using appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedures. (rti.org)
  • Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanin's role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR>1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., lever pressing) or ethanol consumption in Wistar rats with a history of ethanol vapor exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ethanol- and sucrose-reinforced appetitive and consummatory responding in HAD1, HAD2, and P rats. (nih.gov)
  • Niche-related learning in laboratory paradigms: The case of maze behavior in laboratory rats. (indiana.edu)
  • Timberlake, W., & Hoffman, C.M. (2002) How does the ecological foraging behavior of desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) relate to their behavior on radial mazes? (indiana.edu)
  • 2020. Tactile stimulation of adult rats modulates hormonal responses, depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress: Role of angiotensin II. (awionline.org)
  • Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. (eneuro.org)
  • Researchers discover that stimulating the prefrontal cortex can induce wake-like behavior in anesthetized rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In Kamin's experiments, the operant behavior was bar pressing for food by motivated (food restricted) rats. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The amygdala also has a well-established role in the modulation of appetitive and aversive memories ( 5 , 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • The results were taken as evidence for the cholinergic modulation, at the central and peripheral level, of consummatory behaviors and activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Accordingly, waterborne compounds, such as monosaccharides or amino acids, are regarded as the main "olfactory" cues driving fish alimentary behavior. (springer.com)
  • In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. (jove.com)
  • Genetic and behavior analyses show that Caenorhabditis nematodes are lured to the predator Arthrobotrys oligospora by olfactory mimicry of food and sex cues. (elifesciences.org)
  • With Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we profiled transcriptomic changes in the mushroom body-a memory center in the fly brain-at distinct time intervals during appetitive olfactory LTM formation using the targeted DamID technique. (genetics.org)
  • Appetitive conditioning is the process through which new rewards are learned and acquire their motivational salience. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues. (mit.edu)
  • Motivational modes in behavior systems. (indiana.edu)
  • Steinberg, 2008 ) and grounded in empirical work in the animal and human, proposes that interactions between brain circuitry representing motivational load and cognitive control vary dynamically across development, with adolescence characterized by an imbalance between the relative influence of motivational and control systems on behavior. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Endocannabinoids are intimately involved in appetitive, motivational, and reward behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event or outcome . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Motivational salience regulates the intensity of behaviors that facilitate the attainment of a particular goal , the amount of time and energy that an individual is willing to expend to attain a particular goal, and the amount of risk that an individual is willing to accept while working to attain a particular goal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, our results suggest that a substantial proportion of neuronal circuits within the amygdala can contribute to both appetitive and aversive emotional arousal. (pnas.org)
  • We propose that cerebello-striatal connections relay cerebellar computation to striatal circuits for goal-directed behaviors. (nature.com)
  • Animals perform or terminate particular behaviors by integrating external cues and internal states through neural circuits. (nature.com)
  • Identifying neural substrates and their molecular modulators promoting or inhibiting animal behaviors are key steps to understand how neural circuits control behaviors. (nature.com)
  • Due to this, complex interrelated neuronal circuits have been developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of the feeding behavior. (elsevier.es)
  • The research paper is titled "Basolateral to Central Amygdala Neural Circuits for Appetitive Behaviors. (digitaljournal.com)
  • I am currently working on a project where I have determined how peripheral signals like ghrelin modulate the activity of brain circuits associated with motivated behaviors. (carleton.ca)
  • Neuroscience, neuropharmacology, appetitive behaviors. (reed.edu)
  • In a rodent study published in The Journal of Neuroscience , scientists from NIDA's Intramural Research Program show that neural mechanisms that control appetitive aggressive behavior are similar to those that control drug-taking and seeking (relapse), suggesting common neurobiological mechanisms of aggression reward and drug reward. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Talking with Bioscience Technology, lead researcher Susumu Tonegawa explains how the discovery was somewhat of a surprise and runs against previously accepted thinking in neuroscience: "It's surprising that positive-behavior-promoting subsets are so abundant, which is contrary to what many people in the field have been thinking. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Dopaminergic projections from the midbrain (VTA and substantia nigra) to the striatum are important in the development and potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and habitual appetitive responses in normal behavior and addictive disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • The acquisition of responding with conditioned reinforcement (CR) provides a powerful means of investigating the contribution of Pavlovian conditioning to reinforcement-related instrumental behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Coping with rising food costs in a closed economy: feeding behavior and nocturnal hypothermia in pig. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of the melanocortin system in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior, and metabolism has been a focus of intense study since its discovery in 1979 (Crine et al. (springer.com)
  • Endocannabinoids stimulate appetite in the hypothalamus initiating feeding behavior [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The possible involvement of 5-HT in three areas, neuroendocrine function, circadian rhythms and feeding behavior, will be highlighted for illustrative purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Feeding behavior is a highly complex process with multiple feedback loops that involve both. (fpwr.org)
  • There is evidence for a range of central roles for insulin, unrelated to peripheral metabolic effects, including on feeding behavior, sensory processing, and cognitive function ( 12 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In part because of this, 5-HT also has been speculated to be involved specifically in the regulation of all types of behaviors and physiological processes. (nih.gov)
  • According to this basic format, rewards properly follow appetitive types of behaviors, whereas leniency is similarly associated with aversive behaviors. (angelfire.com)
  • this means I'm interested in the relationship between the brain, hormones, and behavior. (haverford.edu)
  • Hormones and Behavior, 61(2): 204-211. (haverford.edu)
  • Hormones and Behavior , 59(4): 536-548. (haverford.edu)
  • In fact, hormones implicated in regulating appetitive homeostasis also affect dopamine brain dopamine activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Attenuation of satiety gut hormones increases appetitive behavior after curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. (annals.org)
  • Hormones and behavior 78, 141-149. (carleton.ca)
  • Galanin, through GalR1 but not GalR2 receptors, decreases motivation at times of high appetitive behavior. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Taken together, these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that this effect is likely mediated by the GalR1 receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We hypothesized that anomalous behavior reflects a motivation-to-motor "spillover" of responses evoked by affective cues even before action selection. (mit.edu)
  • When these systems interact, signaling of the ventral striatum with less downregulation by control systems exerts a stronger influence on subsequent behavior, effectively signaling enhanced approach motivation left unchecked by control systems. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of my main interests resides in the way peripheral signals known to regulate energy balance like ghrelin and leptin modulate behaviors not only related to homeostatic regulation, but also higher order processes like motivation, emotion, and learning. (carleton.ca)
  • The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike drug addiction, aggressive behavior is an adaptive phenomenon that animals innately use for survival. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Appetitive aggressive behavior in humans refers to positive feelings being associated with committing violent behavior. (drugabuse.gov)
  • One owner brought in a Rottweiler puppy who needed to have his overly dominant and aggressive behavior curbed. (thebark.com)
  • The role of the medial preoptic area in appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors depends on sexual experience and odor volatility in male Syrian hamsters. (haverford.edu)
  • 1999). Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Studying the development of the medial amygdala in the mouse reveals how the brain may potentially process sex differences in innate behaviors such as mating. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, ghrelin stimulates "reward centers" of the brain that have been linked to drug-seeking behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • We use hamsters and mice to model these complex brain-hormone-behavior relationships under simpler and more controlled conditions. (haverford.edu)
  • The striatum is a brain region well known for regulating motivated behavior and is rich in dopaminergic axon terminals. (hindawi.com)
  • Images show increased neural activity in reward-related brain regions of mice during different aggressive behaviors. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Despite the obvious importance of brain networks in control of behavior, including food seeking ( 7 , 8 ), possible alterations in the functioning of these networks in insulin resistance have not been examined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two decades ago, the discovery of neuropeptide Y ( NPY ), a peptide in the mammalian brain involved in food-seeking behavior, sparked a search for a weight-loss remedy that could interfere with its activity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and cognitive flexibility. (nature.com)
  • One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Serotonin has been implicated in practically every type of behavior, such as appetitive, emotional, motor, cognitive and autonomic. (nih.gov)
  • The psychological effects of hedonic hunger may be the appetitive equivalent of hedonically driven activities such as recreational drug use and compulsive gambling. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am interested in several aspects of reproductive behavior- including attraction, copulation, and pregnancy/postpartum- and my lab group is working to identify neural correlates and sites of neuroplasticity associated with each. (haverford.edu)
  • In these lesioned animals, the food stimulus appears to elicit a bite command, though the biting behavior itself does not occur. (jneurosci.org)
  • Perturbation of the 5-HT system by different types of drugs can elicit alterations in behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • We studied whether a cascade of different phases of ingestive behavior were governed by different doses of the dopamine D2 receptor system. (nih.gov)
  • Conditioned appetitive stimulus increases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eating behavior may be affected by dopamine synthesis capacity. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest an association between low dorsal striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity and overeating behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and BMI or overeating behavior has yet to be explored and was the main purpose of this study. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews , 2, 139-144. (indiana.edu)
  • Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go nogo task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been studied in humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • I am also interested in the hormonal regulation of circadian behavior. (carleton.ca)
  • Interestingly receptors for metabolic signals like ghrelin, leptin and estrogen are also found in hypothalamic centers associated with circadian rhythmicity, suggesting that these signals could potentially play a role in the regulation of daily or seasonal patterns of behavior, and endocrine function. (carleton.ca)
  • Thus, considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is important for appetitive and aversive arousal. (pnas.org)
  • However, the degree to which the same or different populations of cells within the amygdala are involved in appetitive and aversive arousal remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • This model predicts that there will be an inverse relationship between neuronal activity in the amygdala during appetitive and aversive arousal-cells which have a certain response during one form of arousal should be less likely than other cells to have the same response during the other form of arousal. (pnas.org)
  • However, from a physiological perspective, it is not clear whether 5-HT affects such behaviors specifically or more generally by coordinating the activity of the nervous system, particularly to set the tone of activity in conjunction with the amount of arousal. (nih.gov)
  • Specific appetite is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics: in usage, specific appetite has put greater emphasis on an individual who adaptationally learns a particular appetite behavior rather than an evolutionarily innate, hedonic appetite preference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) agonists, such as exenatide and liraglutide, which are used for diabetes, may help suppress food reward behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Temporary inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), via GABAA agonist muscimol administration prevents increased consumption following intra-Acb opioid administration of the selective μ-opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), yet leaves food approach behaviors intact, particularly after consumption has ended. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption) but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To assess this, a Power of Food Scale (PFS) has been developed that quantifies a person's appetitive anticipation (not consumption). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under certain conditions, only a subset of animals acquires cue-directed behaviors (aka sign-tracking) in addition to, or at the cost of, developing US-directed behaviors (aka goal-tracking) that ultimately lead to the obtainment of a rewarding US. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies suggest a separate neural mechanism for cue-directed behaviors and that the nature of CS-information processing may be different in animals displaying robust conditioned cue-directed behaviors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although early work on drug abuse and drug-taking behaviors assumed that only those animals 1 already physically dependent on opiates could be induced to take them (Thompson and Schuster, 1964), it soon became clear that when drugs were made available, drug-naive animals took them readily and to excess. (nap.edu)
  • animals whose temperatures are regulated by behavior AND internal metabolism (physiology). (brainscape.com)
  • At its extreme, appetitive aggression can be highly rewarding and, like addictive drugs, nonhuman animals may pursue aggression despite the negative consequences associated with it. (drugabuse.gov)
  • This list of how instinct and instinctive are used every day in reference to human thought and action is by no means exhaustive, and many more differences and shades of meaning could be added if we were to extend the list to the behavior of animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been shown that exposure to nepetalactone has an amphetamine-like effect in some animals and will cause certain repetitive behaviors. (petplace.com)
  • As a result, we support a more integrated and synthetic view of the mechanisms of chemical communication in both terrestrial and aquatic systems, which could help to ensure greater translatability of the fish models, such as the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), the turquoise killifish ( Nothobranchius furzeri ), the goldfish ( Carassius auratus ), or the Japanese medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes ) to terrestrial vertebrates when approaching complex dynamic patterns in alimentary behavior. (springer.com)
  • A ) A single fly assay was used to measure food search behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Food search behavior in control and knockdown flies. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neither photoperiod nor food availability had an effect on food storing behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aberrant activity in either dorsal or ventral striatum has been reported to contribute to compulsive motivated behavior in the case of both drug and food seeking [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chewing and salivating appears to be an appetitive response, one that is associated with getting food. (petplace.com)
  • Presumably, dNPF triggered the retrieval of the memories that flies had formed during the training period to associate hunger with food-seeking behavior. (scientificamerican.com)
  • By assessing the effect of this stimulation on animal behavior, one can gain insight into neuronal functioning. (noldus.com)
  • This model points to the importance of a confluence of variables in drug-taking behavior and has broadened the clinician's understanding of the various causal factors that might be involved in drug abuse. (nap.edu)
  • Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory versus appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The former entails permanent actions that support typical male copulatory behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion. (scielo.br)
  • The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. (wiley.com)
  • Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. (wiley.com)
  • Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male quail. (wiley.com)
  • Are dysfunctions in these systems associated with abnormal feeding behaviors and obesity? (carleton.ca)
  • Such a neuropeptide circuit largely overlaps with the fruitless -expressing neural circuit that governs most aspects of male sexual behaviors. (nature.com)
  • ICBBRO 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Behavior-Based Robots . (waset.org)
  • 2015. Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • Paralleling these findings, numerous nonhuman animal studies indicate that the amygdala is important for both appetitively and aversively motivated behaviors ( 18 - 23 ) and corresponding changes in autonomic function ( 18 , 21 , 22 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 225-243. (indiana.edu)
  • Animal Learning & Behavior, 30 , 217-227. (indiana.edu)
  • Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 342-354. (indiana.edu)
  • Animal Behavior, 64, 674-676. (indiana.edu)
  • Courses in psychology focus on problems in the understanding of both human and animal behavior. (reed.edu)
  • A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. (thenextweb.com)
  • This behavior can be recorded with EthoVision XT, either by detecting the animal (or its nose point) in a certain zone, such as the feeder, or by analyzing the external signal initiated by the nose poke or lever press. (noldus.com)
  • He suggested that blocking implies that some higher-order "attentional" processes are involved in conditioning, processes that had been regarded with suspicion (if not disdain) by most psychologists concerned with animal learning and behavior. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Pavlov named this anticipatory behavior the "conditioned" response or, more exactly, the "conditional" response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that A.m. syriaca foragers cannot change the foraging choice because of lack of flexibility in appetitive associations under changing contingencies. (peerj.com)