Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
Organic Cation Transporter 1
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Histamine H2 Antagonists
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
Ventricular Function, Right
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
... to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and ... Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension". Circulation. 100 (8): 869-75. doi:10.1161/01.cir.100.8.869. PMID 10458725. ... Developed in 1962, it is the 4-chloro derivative of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, which is still in ... Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. ...
Dexfenfluramine is believed to be solely responsible for the appetite suppressant properties of fenfluramine, of which it has ... been discontinued due to reports of causing cardiovascular conditions such as valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension ... activity-though not necessarily appetite suppressant effects-of not only levofenfluramine but of racemic fenfluramine as well. ... Seghatol FF, Rigolin VH (September 2002). "Appetite suppressants and valvular heart disease". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 17 ...
... was an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity. It was used both on its own and, in combination with ... In the early 1990s, French researchers reported an association of fenfluramine with primary pulmonary hypertension and dyspnea ... Approximately 50 million Europeans were treated with fenfluramine for appetite suppression between 1963 and 1996. Fenfluramine ... and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Because of the risks of VHD and PAH, fenfluramine is available only through a ...
... was marketed with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine as a combination appetite suppressant and fat burning agent under ... Serious side effects may include abuse but do not include pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease as the latter were ... It works as an appetite suppressant likely as a result of being a CNS stimulant. Chemically, phentermine is a substituted ... "FDA Announces Withdrawal Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine (Fen-Phen)". Fda.gov. Retrieved 12 July 2013. Weigle, DS (June 2003 ...
Some appetite suppressant drugs such as fenfluramine (which in combination with phentermine was marketed as Pondimin and ... and pulmonary hypertension), apparently by over-stimulating 5HT2B receptors on the cardiac fibroblast cells. ... have long been known to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon (both vasoconstrictive effects), as ... Sachdev M, Miller WC, Ryan T, Jollis JG (December 2002). "Effect of fenfluramine-derivative diet pills on cardiac valves: a ...
"Appetite-Suppressant Drugs and the Risk of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension". New England Journal of Medicine. 335 (9): 609-16. ... This was the case with aminorex in the 1960s, and again in the 1990s with fenfluramine (see: Fen-phen). Likewise, association ... or appetite suppressant. Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available ... Several appetite suppressants are based on a mix of natural ingredients, mostly using green tea as its basis, in combination ...
"Pulmonary hypertension has been associated with ingestion of the appetite suppressant aminorex. A similar compound, 4- ... amphetamine or 1.5 mg/kg fenfluramine from saline generalized to aminorex as amphetamine stimulus but not to fenfluramine. Rats ... Gaine SP, Rubin LJ, Kmetzo JJ, Palevsky HI, Traill TA (November 2000). "Recreational use of aminorex and pulmonary hypertension ... was discovered on the property of three individuals with diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension." There have been three studies ...
Unlike other serotonergic appetite suppressants like fenfluramine, sibutramine and its metabolites have only low and likely ... Currently, no case of pulmonary hypertension has been noted. (Fenfluramine, of the 1990s "Fen-Phen" combo, forced excess ... caution in controlled hypertension Existing pulmonary hypertension Existing damage on heart valves, coronary heart disease, ... Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in ...
5-HT2C receptor agonist
"Appetite suppressants and primary pulmonary hypertension in the United Kingdom". British Heart Journal. 74 (6): 660-3. doi: ... abnormalities and an increased risk of pulmonary hypertension resulted in a decision to remove products containing fenfluramine ... Devereux, Richard B. (1998). "Appetite Suppressants and Valvular Heart Disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (11): 765 ... Fenfluramine was sold as a racemic mixture of two enantiomers, dexfenfluramine and levofenfluramine. In 1994, sales of the ...
"Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study ... "FDA Announces Withdrawal Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine (Fen-Phen)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA. Retrieved 27 ... Bray, G. A. (1993). "Use and Abuse of Appetite-Suppressant Drugs in the Treatment of Obesity". Annals of Internal Medicine. 119 ... Sibutramine (Reductil or Meridia) is an anorectic or appetite suppressant, reducing the desire to eat. Sibutramine may increase ...
... was marketed with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine as a combination appetite suppressant and fat burning agent under ... Rare cases of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac valvular disease have been reported. Tolerance usually occurs; however, ... It works as an appetite suppressant likely as a result of being a CNS stimulant. Chemically, phentermine is a substituted ... Serious side effects may include pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease, and abuse. Use is not recommended during ...
Serotonin receptor agonist
Lorcaserin is an appetite suppressant and anti-obesity drug which acts as a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist. meta- ... Fenfluramine, pergolide, and cabergoline have been withdrawn from some markets for this reason. Many serotonergic psychedelics ... hypertension, clonus, seizures, agitation, aggression, and hallucinations which has ended in death on numerous occasions ... implications for cardiac and pulmonary disease. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 318(2), 604-610. Karila ...
... the serotonergic appetite suppressant drugs (fenfluramine, chlorphentermine, and aminorex), and certain anti-Parkinsonian ... Cardiovascular functioning (agonists increase risk of pulmonary hypertension), empathy (via the spindle neurons or Von Economo ... As with fenfluramine, some of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market after groups taking them showed a statistical ... It is seen in insect processes in roles similar to in the human central nervous system, such as memory, appetite, sleep, and ...
The stimulant effects of MDMA include hypertension, anorexia (appetite loss), euphoria, social disinhibition, insomnia ( ... The drug has also been used as an appetite suppressant in Europe. Propylhexedrine is not an amphetamine, though it is ... Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 7 (2): 43-61. doi:10.1097/00063198-200103000-00001. ISSN 1070-5287. PMID 11224724.. ... appetite suppressant, concentration aid, and decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia. ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with fenfluramine exposure: report of 109 cases | European Respiratory Society
Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study ... Comparison of exposure time for appetite-suppressant-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with and without bone ... Cumulative survival of patients with appetite-suppressant-related pulmonary arterial hypertension according to New York Heart ... Chronic pulmonary hypertension of vascular origin, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy and the appetite depressant aminorex: ...
Pulmonary Hypertension - Pulmonary Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
... treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... Those definitely associated with PAH are appetite suppressants (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, aminorex), toxic rapeseed oil, ... In pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vessels become constricted and/or obstructed. Severe pulmonary hypertension leads to right ... Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg at rest and a normal (≤ 15 mm Hg) pulmonary ...
Pulmonary HTN -Goya Flashcards by Brianna Thiessen | Brainscape
Study Pulmonary HTN -Goya flashcards from Brianna Thiessen ... Use of appetite suppressant drugs. 8 What drugs are known to ... which of the following value for her mean pulmonary arterial pressure supports the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in her? ... Systemic hypertension had LV dysfunction?. Cyanosis/murmur as a child. Joint/musculoskeletal pain. Raynauds syndrome. ... enlargement of main pulmonary artery and its major branches with tapering of peripheral arteries ...
Anorexic Agents Aminorex, Fenfluramine, and Dexfenfluramine Inhibit Potassium Current in Rat Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle...
Background The appetite suppressant aminorex fumarate is thought to have caused an epidemic of pulmonary hypertension in Europe ... appetite-suppressant drug aminorex fumarate (2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline).1 2 Another appetite suppressant, fenfluramine, and ... Thomas S, Butt A, Corris P, Egan J, Higenbottam T, Madden B, Waller P. Appetite suppressants and primary pulmonary hypertension ... Mlczoch J. Drug and dietary induced pulmonary hypertension. In: Weir EK, Reeves JT, eds. Pulmonary Hypertension. New York, NY: ...
Drug-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
More than 600 drugs are known to cause pulmonary toxicity. This number will undoubtedly continue to increase as new therapeutic ... Appetite suppressants (eg, amphetamines, fenfluramine) are associated with an increased risk of pulmonary hypertension. The ... pulmonary hypertension, vasculitis, or pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is characterized by ... Clinicians should remain vigilant because most over-the-counter appetite suppressants contain fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine. ...
Fenfluramine - Wikipedia
Fenfluramine was an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity. It was used both on its own and, in combination with ... In the early 1990s, French researchers reported an association of fenfluramine with primary pulmonary hypertension and dyspnea ... Approximately 50 million Europeans were treated with fenfluramine for appetite suppression between 1963 and 1996. Fenfluramine ... and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Because of the risks of VHD and PAH, fenfluramine is available only through a ...
Appetite suppressants - children, causes, effects, adults, withdrawal, drug, people, used
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that affects the blood vessels in the lungs and ... The FDA-approved appetite suppressant medications that affect serotonin (fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine) have been withdrawn ... POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF APPETITE SUPPRESSANT TREATMENT. Short-term use of appetite suppressant medications has been shown to ... Appetite-suppressant medications are drugs that promote weight loss by decreasing appetite or increasing the sensation of ...
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Caused By Fen Phen
... an appetite suppressant, they would produce a miracle weight loss pill.. They missed the mark by a mile, because what they ... Phentermine and fenfluramine had been approved as single agents and only for short term use. Physicians had been prescribing ... Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Caused By Fen Phen. Posted on April 1, 2010. January 23, 2019. by L. Taylor ... You must act soon, if you have been diagnosed with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension caused by Fen Phen, contact us at The Law ...
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
... has been associated with the appetite suppressants fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine (fen/phen), ... Primary Pulmonary Hypertension. What is primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)?. Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in ... Pulmonary hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion. Diagnostic procedures may include:. *. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). A ... Secondary pulmonary hypertension occurs as a result of the effects of other conditions which may include diseases of the heart ...
Chlorphentermine - Wikipedia
... to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and ... Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension". Circulation. 100 (8): 869-75. doi:10.1161/01.cir.100.8.869. PMID 10458725. ... Developed in 1962, it is the 4-chloro derivative of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, which is still in ... Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension overview --Doctors Lounge
... connective tissue disorders as well as fenfluramine (appetite-suppressant), HIV and sickle cell disease. ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but very dangerous condition characterized by a pulmonary arterial pressure >25 ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic (IPAH) or associated with a number of predisposing diseases (APAH) that ... 2016). 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the ...
Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension is associated with germline mutations of the gene encoding BMPR-II, a receptor member...
1996) Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension ... most recently of the fenfluramine/dexfenfluramine group.19-21 Additionally, an epidemic of cases was reported following the ... Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is characterised by a sustained increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (,25 mm Hg at ... BACKGROUND Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), resulting from occlusion of small pulmonary arteries, is a devastating ...
Recent trends in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Pulmonary hypertension is a serious and unrelenting pulmonary vascular disorder that affects the functional quality of patients ... Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension: International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension study ... fenfluramine, and dexfenfluramine, as well as tryptophan in the setting eosinophlia-myalgia syndrome. An epidemic of PH ... Idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, primary pulmonary hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, ...
Pharmacovigilance in a rare disease: example of the VIGIAPATH program in pulmonary arterial hypertension | SpringerLink
Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. International primary pulmonary hypertension study ... Brenot F, Herve P, Petitpretz P, Parent F, Duroux P, Simonneau G. Primary pulmonary hypertension and fenfluramine use. Br Heart ... Pulmonary hypertension associated with benfluorex exposure. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:1164-72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients treated by dasatinib. Circulation. 2012;125:2128-37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Lorcaserin therapy for severe epilepsy of childhood onset | Neurology
Combining fenfluramine with phentermine (Fen-Phen) led to sustained weight loss in obese patients, but pulmonary hypertension ... Fenfluramine, an appetite suppressant, increases serotonin activity by releasing and inhibiting the reuptake of 5-HT and ... Successful use of fenfluramine as an add-on treatment for Dravet syndrome. Epilepsia 2012;53:1131-1139. ... A small open-label trial with fenfluramine and a subsequent randomized trial found significant reductions in seizures in ...
... the serotonergic appetite suppressant drugs (fenfluramine, chlorphentermine, and aminorex), and certain anti-parkinsonian ... may cause acute or chronic pulmonary hypertension from pulmonary vasoconstriction, or else syndromes of retroperitoneal ... Serotonergic agonist drugs may cause not only pulmonary hypertension but also fibrosis anywhere in the body, particularly the ...
Chlorphentermine - DrugBank
It has been implicated in lipid storage disorders and pulmonary hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ... to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and ... Used as an appetite suppressant.. Pharmacodynamics. Chlorphentermine is a relatively weak stimulant with little abuse potential ... It has been implicated in lipid storage disorders and pulmonary hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ...
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Epidemics of fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage associated with pharmaceutical anorectic agents have led to ... This was the case with aminorex in the 1960s, and again in the 1990s with fenfluramine (see: Fen-phen). Likewise, ... Thats where appetite suppressant products may help. The benefits you may see from appetite suppressants are: Researchers from ... Two appetite suppressants - sibutramine (Reductil) and rimonabant (Acomplia) - were taken off the UK market in recent years. ...
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Appetite suppressants are drugs that work on the brain to "fool" it into thinking that it is not hungry. Appetite suppressants ... Epidemics of fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage associated with pharmaceutical anorectic agents have led to ... This was the case with aminorex in the 1960s, and again in the 1990s with fenfluramine (see: Fen-phen). Likewise, ... some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. Most common natural appetite suppressants are based on Hoodia, ...
Healthy Fellow » Food and Drink
Prescription 2016: Natural Appetite Suppressants. May 30, 2016 Written by JP. Appetite suppressants have earned a well deserved ... that fen-phen be pulled from the US marketplace after numerous reports of heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension became ... Perhaps the highest profile example is fen-phen, a drug combination consisting of fenfluramine and phentermine. In 1997, the ...
Anorectic - Wikipedia
"Appetite-Suppressant Drugs and the Risk of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension". New England Journal of Medicine. 335 (9): 609-16. ... This was the case with aminorex in the 1960s, and again in the 1990s with fenfluramine (see: Fen-phen). Likewise, ... some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. Most common natural appetite suppressants are based on Hoodia, ... Several appetite suppressants are based on a mix of natural ingredients, mostly using green tea as its basis, in combination ...
Orem Good Earth Condition Center
Obesity is associated with increased risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. The use of appetite suppressant ... Fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) were voluntarily removed from the market in 1997. These two medications ... In some cases, they travel to the lungs and lodge in the lungs arteries causing a pulmonary embolism, a serious condition that ... Appetite suppressants background *Appetite suppressants are agents that promote weight loss by decreasing appetite or ...
Indian Patents. 242722:A COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR BODY WEIGHT LOSS
F. Brenot et al., Appetite Suppressant Drugs and the Risk of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension, N. Engl. J. Med., 335:609-16, 1996 ... pulmonary hypertension suppressant Tenuate Dospan Fenfluramine racemic Pondimin; One component of "fen/ mixture dexfenfluramine ... For example, the once popular appetite suppressant drug "Fen-Phen" (the combination of fenfluramine and phentermine), which ... fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine, which suppress appetite by both releasing serotonin and then inhibiting its re-uptake; and ...
How to write a patient case report | American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335:609-16. ... fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, with primary pulmonary hypertension and subsequently spawned trials that evaluated the ... Anorexic agents aminorex, fenfluramine, and dexfenfluramine inhibit potassium current in rat pulmonary vascular smooth muscle ...
Internet Scientific Publications
pulmonary hypertension and fenfluramine use. Br Heart J 1993;70:537-. 41.. 20. Thomas SHL, Butt AY, Corris PA, et al. Appetite ... Appetite suppressant drugs have long been implicated in the development of pulmonary hypertension since the 1960s, during an ... Pulmonary hypertension, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy and the appetite depressant drug aminorex: Post or propter? Bull Eur ... pulmonary hypertension? Br Med J 1971;1:265- 6.. 16. Douglas JG, Munro JF, Kitchin AH, et al. Pulmonary hypertension and ...
Novel antiepileptic drugs: Something old, something new in the therapeutic pipeline - Epilepsy Journey
Fenfluramine Decades ago, fenfluramine was a widely prescribed appetite suppressant used for weight loss. The drug was ... removed from the market because of its alarming association with cardiac valvular thickening and pulmonary hypertension. But it ... First, French investigators discovered fenfluramine appeared to have therapeutic benefit in photosensitive epilepsy (N Engl J ...
Obesity Course | CEUfast Nursing Continuing Education
Appetite suppressants have been shown to lead to a 0.5 pound weight loss per week over placebo (Bray, 2014). ... were associated with valvular heart disease and primary pulmonary hypertension.. Patients need to have realistic expectations ... Most recently fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, more popularly known as phen/fen, ... Appetite suppressants are associated with multiple problems including many side effects and the potential for abuse. Common ...
Managing patients who are obese - BPJ65 December 2014
Phentermine is a dopaminergic agonist that acts as an appetite suppressant. It is indicated as a short-term, i.e. 12 weeks or ... Phentermine is contraindicated in patients with: pulmonary artery hypertension, severe cardiac disease, heart valve ... has been reported in patients taking phentermine in combination with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine, and very rarely primary ... Appetite suppressants as adjuncts for weight loss. Am Fam Physician 2011;83:1-2. ...
Current and Potential Drugs for Treatment of Obesity-Endocrine Reviews : LC Research/Media Forum : Active Low-Carber Forums
Rare cases of pulmonary hypertension have been reported in association with fenfluramine. The major problem with the ... Mazindol also delayed gastric emptying significantly (452). Another appetite suppressant, fenfluramine, changed ACTH patterns ... a new appetite suppressant, was taken off the market in Europe shortly after marketing because of an outbreak of pulmonary ... This included 1) continuous fenfluramine (60 mg/day); 2) intermittent fenfluramine; 3) alternating fenfluramine and phentermine ...
Pharmacotherapy of Childhood Obesity | Diabetes Care
Michelakis ED, Weir EK: Anorectic drugs and pulmonary hypertension from the bedside to the bench. Am J Med Sci 321: 292-299, ... Colman E: Anorectics on trial: a half-century of federal regulation of prescription appetite suppressants. Ann Int Med 143: 380 ... Sachdev M, Miller WC, Ryan T, Jollis JG: Effect of fenfluramine-derivative diet pills on cardiac valves: a meta-analysis of ... Food and Drug Administration approval owing to the development of valvular heart disease and primary pulmonary hypertension in ...
DexfenfluramineAminorexValvularClassification of Pulmonary HypertensionSerotoninIdiopathicCause pulmonary hypertensionArterial pressureCombination of fenfluramine and phentermineSibutramineObesityAmphetamineSymposium on Pulmonary Arterial HypVeno-occlusiPrescription appetite suppressantsPressure in the pulmonaryMean pulmonary artery pressureStimulantArteriesFatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valveCongenital systemic-to-pulmonary shuntsSickle cell diVenousLungAmphetaminesFamilialSympathomimetic amineSymptoms of primary pulmonary hyFormerly known as primary pulmonary hySuppressKnown appetite suppressantCardiovascularLungsVascular resistanceSecondaryDiagnosisPrimary Pulmonary HypertenMechanism by which fenfluramineHeart valveEphedrineMorbidity and mortaArtery smooth musclObeseWithdrawnClinicalAdverseDrugs containing fExposure to fenfluraminePhentermine and fenfluraminePhen-FenDrug-induced pulmonaryAnorexic agentsHypoxiaVasoconstriction
- More recently, pulmonary hypertension has been described in some patients taking other amphetamine-like, anorexic agents: fenfluramine and its d -isomer, dexfenfluramine. (ahajournals.org)
- Methods and Results Using the whole-cell, patch-clamp technique, we found that aminorex, fenfluramine, and dexfenfluramine inhibit potassium current in smooth muscle cells taken from the small resistance pulmonary arteries of the rat lung. (ahajournals.org)
- In the isolated, perfused rat lung, aminorex, fenfluramine, and dexfenfluramine induce a dose-related increase in perfusion pressure. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 2 Another appetite suppressant, fenfluramine, and its d -isomer, dexfenfluramine (a phenyl-ethylamine derivative), have also been linked in case reports to the development of pulmonary hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- One appetite suppressant medication was approved for longer-term use within the past decade, but that drug, dexfenfluramine (Redux) was withdrawn from the market because of unacceptable risks associated with its use. (minddisorders.com)
- Primary pulmonary hypertension has been associated with the appetite suppressants fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine (fen/phen), which were taken off the market in 1997. (baycare.org)
- 1 Seminal patient case reports linked the Food and Drug Administration-approved indication for the anorexic agents, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, with primary pulmonary hypertension and subsequently spawned trials that evaluated the mechanism, incidence, and risk factors of this adverse effect, culminating in their withdrawal from the market. (ajhp.org)
- Fenfluramine (Pondimin®- AH Robins) and dexfenfluramine are anorexients that induce the release and inhibit the reuptake of serotonin ( 7 , 8 ). (ispub.com)
- Dexfenfluramine, the biologically active dextro-rotatory stereoisomer of fenfluramine, has been available in Europe for many years and was recently approved by the FDA in the United States ( 9 ). (ispub.com)
- Unlike fenfluramine however, dexfenfluramine is not contraindicated in patients undergoing anesthesia. (ispub.com)
- Since the initial case report by Bennett and Eltringham however, there have been no further reports of adverse events related to a anesthetic interaction with either fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine and unfortunately no definitive drug interaction studies have been conducted. (ispub.com)
- From the initial report, the number of patients with this problem grew until the only prudent move was to withdraw fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine from the market. (lowcarber.org)
- The drug in question was dexfenfluramine, which was removed from the commercial market 18 months after its subsequent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval owing to the development of valvular heart disease and primary pulmonary hypertension in a subset of patients ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Appetite suppressant medications (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, diethylpropion), these are no longer available in the U.S. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- PAH can also be induced by certain drugs and toxins, for example fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine (appetite suppressants now banned by the FDA), toxic rapeseed oil, and amphetamines. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
- Finally, pulmonary hypertension is also associated with appetite suppressants, such as fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine, which block reuptake of 5-HT. (jci.org)
- According to Drugs.com, pulmonary hypertension can occur when phentermine is mixed with other diet medications such as fenfluramine, which is sold under the brand name Phen-Fen, or dexfenfluramine, brand name Redux. (livestrong.com)
- We accepted studies involving obese patients treated with any of the following appetite suppressants: fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, and phentermine. (springer.com)
- Intervention: The appetite suppressants of interest were dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine and phentermine. (springer.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon and deadly lung disorder that can arise when combining Phentermine with other diet medications like fenfluramine in the banned Phen-Fen and dexfenfluramine in the diet medication Redux. (phen375australia.info)
- ii) Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine. (suelynonline.com)
- Fenfluramine hit the market-place in the late 70s, Dexfenfluramine scrambled in its footsteps. (suelynonline.com)
- Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine are appetite suppressants that were in widespread use in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Subsequently, reports of fenfluramine- or dexfenfluramine-associated valvulopathy increased. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, in this analysis, a case of fenfluramine- or dexfenfluramine-associated cardiac valvulopathy was defined as documented AR of mild or greater severity and/or MR of moderate or greater severity after exposure to these drugs. (cdc.gov)
- In early September, FDA received echocardiographic reports from five independent, unpublished echocardiographic prevalence surveys of patients who had received dexfenfluramine or fenfluramine alone or in combination with phentermine ( Table_1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Unlike Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine, Sibutramine does not increase release of these neurotransmitters from the cells. (pharmaeurope.com)
- This litigation involves claims regarding the health effects of two related prescription drugs--fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine. (settlementdietdrugs.com)
- Dexfenfluramine, the 'd-isomer' of fenfluramine, is chemically related to fenfluramine and acts as an appetite suppressant by stimulating the release of serotonin from nerve cells in the brain and by reducing the reuptake of the released serotonin. (settlementdietdrugs.com)
- Although this clearly indicated a role as a risk factor, the clinical course of aminorex-associated PAH was not conclusively different from idiopathic PAH (IPAH, formerly known as primary pulmonary hypertension), despite later results suggesting a better survival in the first group 7 . (ersjournals.com)
- Fenfluramine derivatives share with aminorex such characteristics as being potent serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitors and interacting directly with the 5-HT transporter 11 . (ersjournals.com)
- Background The appetite suppressant aminorex fumarate is thought to have caused an epidemic of pulmonary hypertension in Europe in the 1960s. (ahajournals.org)
- This was associated with the use of the amphetamine-like, appetite-suppressant drug aminorex fumarate (2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline). (ahajournals.org)
- The mechanism by which aminorex or fenfluramine might cause pulmonary hypertension is unknown but might resemble that responsible for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, in which K + channel inhibition leads to membrane depolarization and Ca 2+ entry through the voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels. (ahajournals.org)
- 14 We hypothesized that inhibition of an I K , which initiates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle, 13 15 might play a role in the pulmonary hypertension sometimes associated with aminorex and fenfluramine ingestion. (ahajournals.org)
- It is no longer used due mainly to safety concerns, as it has a serotonergic effects profile similar to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and cardiac fibrosis following prolonged use. (wikipedia.org)
- Aminorex Cericlamine Cloforex Clortermine Etolorex Fenfluramine Methylenedioxyphentermine Phentermine Gylys JA, Hart JJ, Warren MR (September 1962). (wikipedia.org)
- Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Aminorex and pulmonary hypertension. (springer.com)
- This was the case with aminorex in the 1960s, and again in the 1990s with fenfluramine (see: Fen-phen). (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
- In 1971 aminorex, or aminoxaphen, a new appetite suppressant, was taken off the market in Europe shortly after marketing because of an outbreak of pulmonary hypertension linked to this drug (13). (lowcarber.org)
- The Aminorex fad was mercifully short-lived as usage of the drug resulted in an " epidemic of pulmonary hypertension " in those three countries, with cases of the serious lung disorder increasing tenfold. (mnn.com)
- It has long been established that Aminorex can cause pulmatory hypertension . (drugs-forum.com)
- Now, primary pulmatory hypertension attributed to aminorex is believed to be linked to the release of catecholamines and norepinephrine, while "fen/phen" owes its toxicity to the unfortunate combination of the two drugs methods of inhibiting the removal of serotonin from the blood and causing the release of a large amount of serotonin into the blood. (drugs-forum.com)
- In fact, only ~2% of those who ingested aminorex during the period of the "epidemic" developed primary pulmonary hypertension . (drugs-forum.com)
- Also, in most of the cases of aminorex-induced hypertension the hypertension was reversible. (drugs-forum.com)
- Aminorex pulmonary hypertension, In: Fishman AP, ed. (drugs-forum.com)
- 4] Mielke H, Seiler KU, Stumpf U, Wasserman O. Influence of aminorex (menocil) on pulmonary pressure and on the content of biogenic amines in the lungs of rats. (drugs-forum.com)
- The rise was subsequently traced to aminorex fumarate, an amphetamine-like drug introduced in Europe in 1965 to control appetite. (pph-lawyer.com)
-  ] A second study in which rats trained to discriminate either 0.75 mg/kg S(+)-amphetamine or 1.5 mg/kg fenfluramine from saline generalized to aminorex as amphetamine stimulus but not to fenfluramine. (wikidoc.org)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fenfluramine labeling includes a boxed warning stating the drug is associated with valvular heart disease (VHD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (wikipedia.org)
- The distinctive valvular abnormality seen with fenfluramine is a thickening of the leaflet and chordae tendineae. (wikipedia.org)
- Since fenfluramine and its active metabolite norfenfluramine stimulate serotonin receptors, this may have led to the valvular abnormalities found in patients using fenfluramine. (wikipedia.org)
- The drug was eventually removed from the market because of its alarming association with cardiac valvular thickening and pulmonary hypertension. (epilepsyjourney.com)
- The first was the report in July and publication in August of 24 women who had developed an unusual form of valvular heart disease while being treated with fenfluramine and phentermine (2). (lowcarber.org)
- The final problem has been the valvular heart disease associated with the combined use of fenfluramine and phentermine (2). (lowcarber.org)
- Fintepla carries a Boxed Warning regarding the risks of valvular heart disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension. (empr.com)
- According to trial data of up to 3 years duration, no patient receiving Fintepla developed valvular heart disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension. (empr.com)
- According to the National Institutes of Health, fenfluramine and its derivatives are potent causal factors in mitral and aortic valvular heart disease. (livestrong.com)
- Although appetite suppressants have been implicated in the development of valvular heart disease, the exact level of risk is still uncertain. (springer.com)
- Our objective was to systematically assess the risk of valvular heart disease with appetite suppressants. (springer.com)
- The risk of valvular heart disease is significantly increased by the appetite suppressants reviewed here. (springer.com)
- The first case reports that suggested a link between the use of appetite suppressants and valvular heart disease were published in 1997. (springer.com)
- Fenfluramine, an amphetamine derivative, has been used in combination with phentermine in the popular "fen-phen" diet, which has been banned after numerous cases of pulmonary hypertension , valvular heart failure, and heart failure has occurred. (iheartlung.com)
- Richard_smoker alerted me to the possibility that 4-methylaminorex may cause cardiac valvular lesions like those attributed to the combination of fenfluramine and phentermine (fen/phen). (drugs-forum.com)
- On July 8, 1997, 24 cases of valvular heart disease in women who had been treated with fenfluramine and phentermine were publicly reported (1). (cdc.gov)
Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension3
- Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension ) based on a number of pathologic, physiologic, and clinical factors. (merckmanuals.com)
- The aim of a clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is to group together different manifestations of disease sharing similarities in pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical presentation, and therapeutic approaches. (onlinejacc.org)
- The classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has gone through a series of changes since the first classification was proposed in 1973 at an international conference on primary PH (PPH) endorsed by the World Health Organization ( 1,2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- In overdose, fenfluramine can cause serotonin syndrome and rapidly result in death. (wikipedia.org)
- Fenfluramine acts primarily as a serotonin releasing agent. (wikipedia.org)
- It increases the level of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite and other functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin by disrupting vesicular storage of the neurotransmitter, and reversing serotonin transporter function. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to monoamine release, while fenfluramine binds only very weakly to the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, norfenfluramine binds to and activates the serotonin 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors with high affinity and the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor with moderate affinity. (wikipedia.org)
- The combination of fenfluramine with phentermine, a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent acting primarily on norepinephrine, results in a well-balanced serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent with weaker effects of dopamine release. (wikipedia.org)
- They work by increasing serotonin or catecholamines, two neurotransmitters (chemicals) in the brain that affect both mood and appetite. (minddisorders.com)
- Fenfluramine, an appetite suppressant, increases serotonin activity by releasing and inhibiting the reuptake of 5-HT and stimulating all 5-HT receptors. (neurology.org)
- Elevated brain serotonin levels are associated with early satiety and appetite suppression. (ispub.com)
- Several lines of evidence including the role of serotonin in the association between anorexient-induced pulmonary hypertension along with data on the effects of halogenated anesthetics on the pulmonary handling of serotonin suggest the possibility of a interaction. (ispub.com)
- The agent's antiepileptic and appetite suppressing properties are thought to rely on its ability to increase serotonin levels in the brain. (dravetsyndromenews.com)
- We do know that fenfluramine and phentermine alter the way the brain chemical serotonin is metabolized, and serotonin that circulates in the blood can cause [heart] valve injury. (cnn.com)
- Popular in the 1990s, Redux caused weight loss by increasing serotonin levels in the brain, thereby reducing appetite. (livestrong.com)
- Redux primarily affects serotonin - a neurotransmitter that regulates sleep, mood and appetite. (livestrong.com)
- The American Heart Association states that the increase of serotonin caused by Redux is to blame for primary pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage in patients taking the drug. (livestrong.com)
- One of the more recent prescription appetite suppressants to be pulled by the FDA, this anti-obesity treatment also sold under the names Reductil and Sibutrex and contained sibutramine , a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. (mnn.com)
- Appetite suppressants decrease appetite by increasing levels of serotonin or catecholamines, such as norepinephrine . (emedicinehealth.com)
- Serotonin and catecholamines are brain chemicals that affect mood and appetite. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Fenfluramine tones down Wagner's craving for food by increasing the amount of serotonin in her brain. (laurafraser.com)
- Serotonin is a chemical messenger that helps regulate not just appetite but impulsiveness, sexual feelings, and mood. (laurafraser.com)
- 5-HT (serotonin) is removed from the blood when it undergoes oxidative deamination by monamine oxidase within the pulmonary endothelium. (drugs-forum.com)
- Fenfluramine (the "fen") and its primary metabolite release serotonin into the synapses via the S-5-H2 receptors. (drugs-forum.com)
- Sibutramine blocks norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake to lead to the appetite suppressant effect. (mokemagnetic.com)
- Bethany Shipsey was only 21 when she died Credit: Fenfluramine inhibits serotonin reuptake to reduce appetite. (mokemagnetic.com)
- Fenfluramine increases the brain's serotonin levels (Prozac does, too, but not as dramatically) to produce a sense of satiety. (slate.com)
- Sibutramine (Meridia) suppresses appetite by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters Serotonin and Norepinephrine in the brain synapses. (pharmaeurope.com)
- Therefore, the action of Sibutramine is similar to that of anti-depressants that inhibit re-uptake of Serotonin such as Fluoxetine (Prozac), a medication that has been used for years without known association with pulmonary hypertension or heart valve damage. (pharmaeurope.com)
- Fenfluramine is an appetite suppressant that affects blood levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin. (settlementdietdrugs.com)
- The median survival was 6.4 yrs, without significant difference between fen-PAH and a control group of idiopathic and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension patients referred to the present authors' centre during the same time frame and treated identically. (ersjournals.com)
- Fenfluramine-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension shares clinical, functional, haemodynamic and genetic features with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as overall survival rates. (ersjournals.com)
- these cases are termed idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. (merckmanuals.com)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic (IPAH) or associated with a number of predisposing diseases (APAH) that include COPD (Cor pulmonale), left ventricular failure, connective tissue disorders as well as fenfluramine (appetite-suppressant), HIV and sickle cell disease. (doctorslounge.com)
- When no cause can be identified after testing, the condition is called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- In essence, PAH includes the idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and associated conditions that affect pulmonary arteries, with similar presentations and responses to PAH-specific medical therapies. (renalandurologynews.com)
- It has been replaced by the term idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension or IPAH. (renalandurologynews.com)
Cause pulmonary hypertension2
- Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg at rest and a normal (≤ 15 mm Hg) pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) as measured by right heart catheterization . (merckmanuals.com)
- During the work up for her DOE you did echocardiogram, which of the following value for her mean pulmonary arterial pressure supports the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in her? (brainscape.com)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but very dangerous condition characterized by a pulmonary arterial pressure >25 mm Hg. (doctorslounge.com)
- Until recently, the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was based upon a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of greater than 20 mm mercury. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an elevation in pulmonary vascular pressure that can be caused by an isolated increase in pulmonary arterial pressure or by increases in both pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous pressures (1) . (rcemlearning.co.uk)
- It refers to conditions that share common isolated elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure, namely: sporadic PAH, familial PAH and PAH associated with other diseases (e.g. collagen vascular disease and congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts), PAH associated with drugs and toxins (e.g. appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine, cocaine and amphetamines). (rcemlearning.co.uk)
- The constriction gradually worsens, eventually increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure. (pph-lawyer.com)
Combination of fenfluramine and phentermine1
- For example, the once popular appetite suppressant drug "Fen-Phen" (the combination of fenfluramine and phentermine), which gave a 15-20% reduction in body weight, was clinically determined to have significantly increased the risk of heart valve damage. (allindianpatents.com)
- This drug, an appetite suppressant, is called sibutramine (Meridia). (minddisorders.com)
- Key words: obesity, body mass index, appetite suppressants, anorexiants, phentermine, sibutramine, orlistat) Obesity has become a health problem of epidemic proportions in the United States despite medical efforts to contain the disease. (oclc.org)
- Sibutramine, an appetite suppressant that was removed from the US market by the FDA in 2010 because its use increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. (iheartlung.com)
- However, 269 supplements touted for weight loss products contain sibutramine and others contain the stimulant ephedrine and fenfluramine. (iheartlung.com)
- Orlistat is not an appetite suppressant, but rather, a member of a new class of anti-obesity drugs known as "lipase inhibitors. (minddisorders.com)
- Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
- John has the typical apple shape indicating he has abdominal obesity which is linked to many negative health effects including: diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. (ceufast.com)
- The consequences of obesity place an enormous strain on the health system due to its causal relationship with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, dyslipidaemia, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and many forms of cancer. (bpac.org.nz)
- Fintepla's active ingredient - fenfluramine - was originally developed as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity. (dravetsyndromenews.com)
- As the U.S. studies/data are growing, it is crystal clear that obesity and the associated co-morbidities (hypertension, diabetes) are the greatest predictors of who will get very sick/die from contracting the virus vs. who will shake this off like a common flu. (doctorbobposner.com)
- This article reviews appetite suppressants both from a historical perspective and currently, and then presents a rationale for the continued use of antiobesity agents in the management of obesity. (oclc.org)
- Fen-phen was short for Fenfluramine and Phentermine, two drugs classified as appetite suppressants, which were at one time heralded as the answer to obesity when used together. (trianglepubs.com)
- Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder, which is often associated with many other significant diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and certain cancers. (obesitynetwork.info)
- A pharmacologist obesity expert and weight loss expert gave testimony regarding the valvulopathy attributed to fenfluramine taken by hundreds of patients. (formerfda.com)
- Nevertheless, some researchers argue that even though d-fenfluramine has an increased health risk associated with it, the risks associated with obesity are far greater. (bio-medicine.org)
- With one exception, the medications used to treat obesity work by suppressing the appetite. (emedicinehealth.com)
- S cientists didn't always view appetite as a cause of obesity. (slate.com)
- b Since overweight was shown to contribute to the development and aggravation of chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer, prevention and treatment of obesity is today a major public health concern. (scielosp.org)
- The FDA has been wary of obesity drugs since the Fen-Phen (fenfluramine/phentermine) disaster in the 1990s, when fenfluramine, an appetite suppressor, was implicated in heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac fibrosis. (fool.com)
- Reductil is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity, as an appetite suppressant. (pharmaeurope.com)
- Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. (wikipedia.org)
- Indeed, amphetamine itself was sold commercially as an appetite suppressant until it was outlawed in most parts of the world in the late 1950s because of safety issues. (wikipedia.org)
- An amphetamine derivative, fenfluramine was initially developed as an appetite suppressant and is believed to work through serotonergic mechanisms. (empr.com)
- Well, it's probably because you weren't living in Germany, Switzerland or Austria from 1965 to 1972, when this over-the-counter appetite suppressant with a chemical composition not too dissimilar from amphetamine was popular among pill-popping dieters. (mnn.com)
- Some of the possible causes include immune system disease, congenital heart defects, portal hypertension, HIV infection, Collagen Vascular Disease, amphetamine use, and intravenous drug use or other chemical exposures. (pph-lawyer.com)
Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hyp3
- Twenty-five years later, the 2nd World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) was held in Evian, France. (onlinejacc.org)
- In 2003, during the Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension held in Venice, Italy, it was decided to maintain the general architecture and philosophy of the Evian classification. (onlinejacc.org)
- The 2003 Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) held in Venice, Italy, provided the opportunity to assess the impact and the usefulness of the Evian classification and to propose some modifications. (onlinejacc.org)
- A newly identified mutation in the EIF2AK4 gene has been linked to pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, a form of PAH Group 1' ( 1 ). (merckmanuals.com)
- These included extrinsic arterial compression by lymphadenopathies in three cases and histologically proven pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in the five patients who underwent lung transplantation. (bmj.com)
- Such mechanisms include extrinsic compression of large pulmonary arteries by mediastinal or hilar adenopathies or fibrosis, 2, 7 specific granulomatous vascular involvement 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 which sometimes simulates secondary pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD), 11, 12 and pulmonary vasoconstriction by vasoactive factors. (bmj.com)
Prescription appetite suppressants1
- All but two of the prescription appetite suppressants in the United States have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for short-term use only. (minddisorders.com)
Pressure in the pulmonary6
- Pulmonary hypertension is increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. (merckmanuals.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels. (baycare.org)
- Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, the arteries carry blood from your heart to your lungs to pick up oxygen. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- These tests can suggest pulmonary hypertension, but to make the final diagnosis, the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries must be measured directly. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- Those requiring medication to directly lower the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries often find symptom improvement and these medication may prevent the progression of pulmonary hypertension. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to elevated pressure in the pulmonary vasculature that can result from a wide range of conditions. (renalandurologynews.com)
Mean pulmonary artery pressure2
-  By contrast, an appetite stimulant is referred to as orexigenic . (wikipedia.org)
- Phentermine is an appetite suppressant and stimulant. (livestrong.com)
- Fen-Phen is a combination of two drugs -- fenfluramine, an appetite suppressant, and phentermine, a mild stimulant. (cnn.com)
- Redux was an appetite suppressant often used in conjunction with the stimulant phentermine and made up one half of the diet drug commonly called Fen-Phen. (livestrong.com)
- Chlorphentermine itself is a relatively weak stimulant with little abuse potential, but is classed as a Schedule 3 drug in the USA due mainly to its similarity to other appetite suppressants such as [[diethylpropion]] which have been more widely abused. (wikidoc.org)
- Phentermine is a stimulant and appetite suppressant that works like amphetamines. (phen375australia.info)
- The third divisions of the pulmonary arteries were then dissected and placed in a Ca 2+ -free Hanks' solution for 10 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
- BACKGROUND Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), resulting from occlusion of small pulmonary arteries, is a devastating condition. (bmj.com)
- Your right ventricle, the lower right chamber of your heart, pumps blood to your pulmonary arteries. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is caused by changes in the cells that line your lungs' arteries. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- Computed tomography (CT Scan): Detailed X-ray films of the chest provided by a CT scan may show enlarged pulmonary arteries and presence of clots. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- It was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997 after reports of cardiovascular side effects, including heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs) in patients given doses of up to 220 mg per day. (dravetsyndromenews.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension is a disorder in which the arteries supplying the heart have an abnormally high blood pressure. (cnn.com)
- Primary pulmonary hypertension - a disease characterized by high blood pressure in the small arteries of the lungs - was also associated with use of Redux. (livestrong.com)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder specific to the pulmonary arteries, resulting in an increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), leading to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, right heart failure, and death. (renalandurologynews.com)
- PAH results from restriction of blood flow through pulmonary arteries that leads to increase in PVR and consequently resulting in right heart failure. (renalandurologynews.com)
Fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve2
- Epidemics of fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage associated with pharmaceutical anorectic agents have led to the withdrawal of products from the market. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
- Later, when it was discovered that the commercial drug was associated with potentially fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart-valve problems, it was withdrawn from the market and the manufacturer was sued to the tune of more than ten billion dollars. (thistimeimeanit.com)
Congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts1
- to update risk factors and associated conditions for pulmonary arterial hypertension and to propose guidelines in order to improve the classification of congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts. (onlinejacc.org)
Sickle cell di3
- Patients with hereditary causes of hemolytic anemia , such as sickle cell disease , are at high risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (10% of cases based on right heart catheterization criteria). (merckmanuals.com)
- Other risk factors for pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease include iron overload, liver dysfunction, thrombotic disorders, and chronic kidney disease. (merckmanuals.com)
- However, the prevalence of PH is thought to be much higher than reported in developing countries where diseases that may promote pulmonary vascular disease (schistosomiasis, sickle cell disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, liver cirrhosis and congenital heart disease) are relatively common (4-6) . (rcemlearning.co.uk)
- The Evian classification (3,4) consisted of five categories ( Table 1 ) in which PH diseases were grouped according to specific therapeutic interventions directed at dealing with the cause of: 1) PAH, 2) pulmonary venous hypertension, 3) PH associated with disorders of the respiratory system or hypoxemia, 4) PH caused by thrombotic or embolic diseases, and 5) PH caused by diseases affecting the pulmonary vasculature. (onlinejacc.org)
- Pulmonary function testing (PFTs) primarily results in a restrictive lung disease pattern, with decreases in the total lung capacity (TLC). (medscape.com)
- 2016). 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). (doctorslounge.com)
- Patients with refractory pulmonary hypertension should be referred to these research centers for enrolment into any ongoing drug trials as well as for evaluation for heart-lung, single lung, or double lung transplantation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Lung and heart-lung transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
- The approach to a patient with pulmonary disease in whom drug-induced lung toxicity is of concern can be challenging because of a number of complicating factors. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- In cases with fibrosis there was no correlation between haemodynamics and lung volumes or arterial oxygen tensions, suggesting other mechanisms for PH in addition to pulmonary destruction and hypoxaemia. (bmj.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension is a rare and sometimes fatal lung disorder. (livestrong.com)
- Before Tuesday's announcement, primary pulmonary hypertension, a serious lung disease, was the only known serious side effect of Fen-Phen. (cnn.com)
- Secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPH) is the result of other types of lung disease, abnormal breathing processes or heart disease. (pph-lawyer.com)
- Many amphetamines produce side effects, including addiction , tachycardia and hypertension ,  making prolonged unsupervised use dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
- Phentermine acts similarly to amphetamines by suppressing the particular appetite, revitalizing the central nervous system, and boosting blood pressure. (ivet-ua.science)
- Though fenfluramine is chemically related to amphetamines, it does not cause drug dependency. (suelynonline.com)
- Research has linked primary pulmonary hypertension to genetic or familial predisposition. (baycare.org)
- Generically identifiable as phentermine hcl, phentermine is an appetite suppressant classed as a sympathomimetic amine. (krepost-club.ru)
Symptoms of primary pulmonary hy1
- The symptoms of primary pulmonary hypertension may resemble other conditions or medical problems. (baycare.org)
Formerly known as primary pulmonary hy1
- This condition was formerly known as primary pulmonary hypertension. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- they also increase the metabolic rate and suppress the appetite. (suelynonline.com)
- Best Fat Burning Heart Rate For Weight Recommended Otc Appetite Suppressant Natural Appetite Suppressant Supplement Gnc Phentermine Diet Pills Best Fat Burning Heart Rate For Weight Natural Supplements To Suppress Appetite Weight Loss Cheapest Meal Replacement Shakes Uk Members Mark 500mg Cinnamon Dietary Supplement How Does Monarch Medical Weight Loss Work TelesolDiario. (telesoldiario.com)
- These products promise to suppress appetite, increase metabolism, or alter the way the body breaks down fat and calories. (mokemagnetic.com)
- In 1995, a combination of two drugs, fenfluramine and phentermine--fen-phen--was shown to suppress appetite enough to help the severely obese lose an average of 24 pounds after two years. (slate.com)
- Over-the-Counter Diet Drugs and Ephedra Diet Pills Over-the-counter diet pills that contain phenylpropanolamine such as Acutrim and Dexatrim effectively suppress appetite, but have been known to cause severe high blood pressure and stroke if taken in doses of 75 mg or higher in the immediate-release form. (consumerdietreview.com)
- Protein also provides a greater feeling of satiety which helps suppress the appetite. (xanadumedspa.com)
Known appetite suppressant1
- Developed in 1962, it is the 4-chloro derivative of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, which is still in current use. (wikipedia.org)
- It was postulated that fenfluramine may have had a catecholamine-depleting effect that may have led to cardiovascular collapse upon exposure to halothane. (ispub.com)
- Male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight, 300 to 400 g) were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital, and the lungs were removed after perfusion of the pulmonary artery with Ca 2+ -free Hanks' solution. (ahajournals.org)
- Secondary pulmonary hypertension occurs as a result of the effects of other conditions which may include diseases of the heart or lungs, a blood clot in the lungs, or a condition called scleroderma. (baycare.org)
- Pulmonary hypertension is rarely discovered in a routine medical examination, and in its later stages, the signs of the disease can be confused with other conditions affecting the heart and lungs. (baycare.org)
- Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q scan): A nuclear medicine test that can help identify blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary emboli), one cause of pulmonary hypertension. (sflhealthandwellness.com)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive condition that affects the heart and lungs. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
- It is characterized by abnormally high blood pressure (hypertension) in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
- When the actual disease process involves the lungs or heart, differentiating between the underlying process and pulmonary drug toxicity may be challenging. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- In addition to the health risks above, taking Phen/Fen increases your chances of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension, which is a disease that attacks the lungs, has a poor prognosis, and is fatal. (something-fishy.org)
- Pulmonary hypertension (elevated pressure in the lungs)-Use with caution. (drugs.com)
- Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare and often fatal disease that results in the progressive narrowing of the blood vessels of the lungs which as a result causes high blood pressure in these blood vessels and eventually leads to heart failure. (pph-lawyer.com)
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare condition in which the main feature is the presence of increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in right heart failure and, ultimately, death 1 . (ersjournals.com)
- The American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association definition of PAH also includes pulmonary vascular resistance greater than 3 Wood units. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Extensive review of the literature spanning the last 30 years was made through Medline using titles such as primary pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, secondary pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary vascular diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
- PH from a number of unrelated conditions was grouped as secondary pulmonary hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
- 13, 14 Uncommonly, portal hypertension secondary to liver sarcoidosis can also provoke PH. (bmj.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was previously classified into two categories: primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) or secondary pulmonary hypertension, depending on the absence or the presence of identifiable causes or risk factors. (onlinejacc.org)
- Drug-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of drug-mediated pulmonary toxicity is usually established based on clinical findings. (medscape.com)
- In general, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy is not helpful in establishing the diagnosis of drug-induced pulmonary toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Transbronchial biopsy, however, may aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement by other diseases such as sarcoidosis, metastatic cancer, or lymphoma. (medscape.com)
- BAL also is helpful in the differential diagnosis, primarily by excluding an infective etiology to the pulmonary infiltrates. (medscape.com)
- Diagnosis is made by finding elevated pulmonary artery pressure (estimated by echocardiography and confirmed by right heart catheterization). (merckmanuals.com)
- Pulmonary hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion. (baycare.org)
- Ultimately, the diagnosis should be confirmed by ventilation/perfusion scan, right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography. (doctorslounge.com)
- METHODS We investigated 50 unrelated patients, with a clinical diagnosis of PPH and no identifiable family history of pulmonary hypertension, by direct sequencing of the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries of the BMPR2 gene. (bmj.com)
- A retrospective series of 22 sarcoidosis patients (16 men) of mean (SD) age 46 (13) years with PH was divided into two groups depending on the absence (stage 0: n = 2, stage II: n = 4, stage III: n = 1) or presence (n = 15) of radiographic pulmonary fibrosis at the time of PH diagnosis. (bmj.com)
- The effectiveness of fenfluramine was established in 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients 2 to 18 years of age (N=202) with a clinical diagnosis of Dravet syndrome who were inadequately controlled on at least 1 antiepileptic drug or other antiseizure treatment (including vagal nerve stimulation or ketogenic diet). (empr.com)
Primary Pulmonary Hyperten2
- Following this, a retrospective study 9 reinforced the possible role of fenfluramine derivatives as risk factors for PAH development and the results of the International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study (IPPHS) 10 conclusively demonstrated a strong association between PAH and the use of anorexic drugs (mainly derivatives of fenfluramine). (ersjournals.com)
- International primary pulmonary hypertension study group. (springer.com)
Mechanism by which fenfluramine2
- Combining fenfluramine with phentermine (Fen-Phen) led to sustained weight loss in obese patients, but pulmonary hypertension and heart valve lesions led to withdrawal. (neurology.org)
- Echocardiographic scans showed no heart valve problems in all treated patients, and no signs of pulmonary hypertension were seen. (dravetsyndromenews.com)
- Fenfluramine was the "bad fen" linked to the heart valve issue discovered about 20 years ago. (doctorbobposner.com)
- It was also marketed as a combination drug (Fen-Phen) which contained fenfluramine, and would eventually be recalled for its suspected association with heart valve disease. (phentermineclinics.net)
- The drug was withdrawn with legal damages of over $13 billion after reports of heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension. (acfed.com.au)
- 5] Likewise, association of the related appetite suppressant phenylpropanolamine with hemorrhagic stroke led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to request its withdrawal from the market in the United States in 2000, and similar concerns regarding ephedrine resulted in an FDA ban on its inclusion in dietary supplements in 2004. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
- These range from common over the counter appetite suppressants such as phenylpropanolamine, caffeine pills and ephedrine hydrochloride (ephedrine is not an appetite suppressant, though often misused as one - commonly referred to as "white crosses" or "mini thins") to prescription medications like Redux and Phen/Fen. (something-fishy.org)
- Research is underway that may show a link to ephedra ( ephedrine alkaloids) and primary pulmonary hypertension. (pph-lawyer.com)
Morbidity and morta2
Artery smooth muscl2
- 5-HT levels are known to be elevated in PAH 12 and 5-HT acts as growth factor for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells 13 , 14 , thus possibly contributing to the pathophysiology of PAH development and progression. (ersjournals.com)
- Rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were freshly dissociated for electrophysiological studies each day. (ahajournals.org)
- Yet, the pediatric community confronts a serious problem: the surge of metabolic complications in obese adolescents, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, ovarian hyperandrogenism, hepatic steatosis, and sleep apnea ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Beyond that, obese people are more prone to a number of diseases such as problems with bones, joints, hypertension, diabetes, stroke and coronary disease. (obesitynetwork.info)
- 2 ] Since then, other researchers have performed similar echocardiographic studies, some of which have included control obese patients unexposed to appetite suppressants. (springer.com)
- Participants: We included studies that involved adult, obese patients treated with appetite suppressants. (springer.com)
- Ionamin serves as a short-term appetite suppressant for the morbidly obese (body mass index of greater than 35%) that is produced by Medeva Pharmaceuticals. (phentermineclinics.net)
- Consequently, after a number of confirmed "Fen-Phen"-related patient deaths, most of the drugs containing fenfluramine have been recalled and withdrawn. (allindianpatents.com)
- After being haled as a miracle diet drug in the mid-1990s, serious heart-related side effects were reported in patients taking the drug, causing fenfluramine and its derivatives to be withdrawn from the market. (livestrong.com)
- Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997. (fool.com)
- Therefore, the present authors conclude that fenfluramine exposure characterises a potent trigger for pulmonary arterial hypertension without influencing its clinical course. (ersjournals.com)
- Finding the right clinical trial for Pulmonary arterial hypertension can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
- When a patient presents with specific pulmonary abnormalities, it is useful to understand the broad categories of clinical patterns that are described in association with drug-induced toxicities, as described in the sections below. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- These clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic syndromes may occur as a consequence of drug exposure, but they may also result from an underlying, independent pulmonary disease process. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- In 2003, during the 3rd World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, the clinical classification of PH initially adopted in 1998 during the 2nd World Symposium was slightly modified. (onlinejacc.org)
- In 1998, during the Second World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) held in Evian, France, a clinical classification of PH was proposed. (onlinejacc.org)
- Radiologic patterns observed in drug-induced pulmonary toxicity are highly variable and depend on the type of adverse reaction the patient is experiencing. (medscape.com)
- Information obtained under the Freedom of Information Act from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration also failed to reveal any additional reports of adverse events related to the use of fenfluramine and anesthesia. (ispub.com)
- The listing is extensively referenced and frequently updated, and is a remarkable resource for descriptions of adverse pulmonary effects of individual drugs and for identification of drugs that may cause various toxic syndromes. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
Drugs containing f1
- Redux and other drugs containing fenfluramine are now known to cause serious and potentially fatal side effects. (livestrong.com)
Exposure to fenfluramine1
- In these patients, the duration of exposure to fenfluramine was significantly lower than in patients without mutation. (ersjournals.com)
Phentermine and fenfluramine2
- Prescription diet pills like the new and popular Phen/Fen (phentermine/fenfluramine) should never be taken without the written prescription of a doctor. (something-fishy.org)
- Most drug-induced pulmonary toxicities involve the parenchyma, thus, interstitial infiltrates may be demonstrated on radiographs. (medscape.com)
- If the drug-induced pulmonary toxicity causes airway obstruction, then the FEV 1 /FVC ratio and FEV 1 will be reduced. (medscape.com)
- It is demonstrated how a dedicated program named VIGIAPATH created to reinforce pharmacovigilance of drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension at a national level, led to increase self-reporting and confirm safety signals. (springer.com)
- Conclusions These observations indicate that anorexic agents, like hypoxia, can inhibit potassium current, cause membrane depolarization, and stimulate pulmonary vasoconstriction. (ahajournals.org)
- These actions are similar to those of hypoxia, which initiates pulmonary vasoconstriction by inhibiting a potassium current in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
- 5-HT) is one of many vasoactive substances postulated to participate in the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. (jci.org)
- Pulmonary vasoactive responses to hypoxia are intensified by 5-HT ( 1 ), but attempts to block hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension with 5-HT receptor antagonists have met with mixed success. (jci.org)
- 13 Vasoconstriction is important in both hypoxic pulmonary hypertension 13 and primary pulmonary hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- The increase in PVR is related to various mechanisms including: vasoconstriction, obstructive remodeling of the pulmonary vessel wall, inflammation, and thrombosis. (renalandurologynews.com)