Nutrient-specific preferences by lambs conditioned with intraruminal infusions of starch, casein, and water. (1/419)We hypothesized that lambs discriminate between postingestive effects of energy and protein and associate those effects with a food's flavor to modify food choices. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that 1) lambs would acquire a preference for a poorly nutritious food (grape pomace) eaten during intraruminal infusions of energy (starch) or protein (casein) and that 2) shortly after an intraruminal infusion of energy or protein (preload), lambs would decrease their preferences for foods previously conditioned with starch or casein, respectively. Thirty lambs were allotted to three groups and conditioned as follows. On d 1, lambs in each group received grape pomace containing a different flavor and water was infused into their rumens as they ate the pomace. On d 2, the flavors were switched so each group received a new flavor and a suspension of starch (10% of the DE required per day) replaced the water infusion. On d 3, the flavors were switched again, and a suspension of casein (2.7 to 5.4% of the CP required per day) replaced the starch infusion. Conditioning was repeated during four consecutive trials. Lambs in Trial 1 had a basal diet of alfalfa pellets (e.g., free access from 1200 to 1700) and 400 g of rolled barley. Lambs in Trials 2, 3, and 4 received a restricted amount of alfalfa pellets (990 g/d) as their basal diet. After conditioning, all animals received an infusion of water, and, 30 min later, they were offered a choice of the three flavors previously paired with water, starch, or casein. On the ensuing days, the choice was repeated, but starch, casein, and barley replaced the water preload. The nutrient density of the infused preloads was increased during consecutive trials. Lambs preferred the flavors paired with starch > water > casein during Trial 1 (P < .05) and the flavors paired with starch > casein > water during Trials 2 (P < .05), 3 (P < .001), and 4 (P < .001). Preloads of casein decreased preferences for flavors previously paired with casein (P < .10 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3], and increased preferences for flavors paired with starch (P < .05 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3]). Preloads of energy (barley) had the opposite effect (P < .05 [Trial 3]). These results indicate that lambs discriminated between the postingestive effects of starch and casein and associated the effects with specific external cues (i.e., added flavors) to regulate macronutrient ingestion. (+info)
The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in food intake regulation. (2/419)Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is a glycoprotein synthesized by the human intestine. In rodents, both the small intestine and the liver secrete apo A-IV; the small intestine, however, is by far the major organ responsible for the circulating apo A-IV. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is markedly stimulated by fat absorption and appears not to be mediated by the uptake or reesterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. Rather, it is the formation of chylomicrons that acts as a signal for the induction of intestinal apo A-IV synthesis. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is also enhanced by a factor from the ileum and that factor is probably peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY). The inhibition of food intake by apo A-IV is probably mediated centrally. The stimulation of intestinal synthesis and secretion of apo A-IV by lipid absorption are rapid; thus, apo A-IV likely plays a role in the short-term regulation of food intake. Other evidence suggests that apo A-IV may also be involved in the long-term regulation of food intake and body weight. Chronic ingestion of a high fat diet blunts the intestinal apo A-IV response to lipid feeding and may explain why the chronic ingestion of a high fat diet predisposes both animals and humans to obesity. (+info)
Geriatric cachexia: the role of cytokines. (3/419)Weight loss in elderly patients is a common clinical problem. Wasting and cachexia are associated with severe physiologic, psychologic, and immunologic consequences, regardless of the underlying causes. Cachexia has been associated with infections, decubitus ulcers, and even death. Multivariate analyses of risk and prognostic factors in community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly have found that age by itself is not a significant factor related to prognosis. Among the significant risk factors, only nutritional status is amenable to medical intervention. Cachexia in the elderly may have profound consequences: medical, cognitive, and psychiatric disorders may diminish self-reliance in activities of daily living, thus reducing quality of life and increasing the frequency of secondary procedures, hospitalizations, and the need for skilled care. Cachexia is associated with higher-than-normal concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL) 1, IL-6, serotonin, and interferon gamma. The role of these proinflammatory cytokines has been established in the cachexia seen in cancer and AIDS patients. Reduction in the concentrations of these cytokines is associated with weight gain. Drugs that promote appetite stimulation and weight gain, such as progestational agents, cyproheptadines, pentoxifylline, and thalidomide may work by down-regulating these proinflammatory cytokines. An understanding of the relation between cachexia and negative regulatory cytokines may point to effective treatment of geriatric cachexia as well. (+info)
p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) suppresses ingestive behavior in male rats. (4/419)Ingestive behavior was activated in male rats by intraoral intake and intake from a bottle of 1-M solution of sucrose. Intraperitoneal injection of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), releasing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from serotonergic nerve terminals, inhibited ingestion of the sucrose solution. Significant inhibition of sucrose intake by PCA was observed at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg dose in a bottle intake test, and at 5.0 mg/kg dose in an intraoral intake test. These findings suggested that 1.25 and 5.0 mg/kg of PCA suppressed appetitive ingestive behavior and consummatory ingestive behavior in male rats, respectively. (+info)
Simultaneous observation of ingestive and copulatory behavior of the male rat. (5/419)In a preliminary test male rats were allowed to ingest a 1 M solution of sucrose from a drinking spout. After daily intake of sucrose became stabilized, the males were given a sexually receptive or non-receptive female and the bottle filled with sucrose solution simultaneously. The ingestive and copulatory behavior was observed for 60 min under illumination by a red lamp. The data obtained from this study showed that the ingestive behavior of males was suppressed by the presence of sexually receptive females and, conversely, the sexual behavior of males was not affected by the presence of a bottle of sucrose. These results suggest that the presence of a sexual partner inhibits appetitive ingestive behavior, i.e., the responses used by male rats to obtain food. (+info)
Origins of nutritional imbalance in cancer. (6/419)Some parallels and differences are considered between the nutritional circumstances that favor carcinogenesis and those that favor tumor growth and host cachexia. From evidence on deletion of physiological feeding controls and changes in feeding behavior during tumor growth and from evidence on differences in sets of available feeding controls and in feeding behavior among normal individuals, it is suggested that acquisition of possibly carcinogenic dietary habits may originate, in part, from innate deficits in physiological feeding controls. (+info)
Neurobiology of zinc-influenced eating behavior. (7/419)Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including immune and antioxidant function, growth and reproduction. Many aspects of zinc deficiency-induced anorexia have been well studied in experimental animals, most notably the laboratory rat. There is evidence that suggests zinc deficiency may be intimately involved with anorexia in humans: if not as an initiating cause, then as an accelerating or exacerbating factor that may deepen the pathology of the anorexia. The present review describes recent research investigating the relationship between zinc deficiency and the regulation of food intake, along with advances in the understanding of the food intake and body weight regulation systems. For more comprehensive reviews of zinc nutrition and zinc deficiency, readers are referred to the other reviews in this volume and the review text of Mills (1989). An excellent review focused solely on zinc status and food intake has been presented by O'Dell and Reeves (1989). (+info)
Secretory, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine function of the adipocyte. (8/419)Obesity is a major public health problem in Western countries, and >55% of adult Americans are overweight or obese. A major contributor to the epidemic of obesity is the current environment, which is characterized by increased availability of high energy foods and decreased physical activity. Several studies also demonstrated that genetic susceptibility contributes to obesity in some populations. Obesity research has focused primarily on the role of the hypothalamus in neuroendocrine regulation of food intake. However, a growing number of studies support a potential contribution of adipose tissue, via its newly discovered secretory function, to the pathogenesis of obesity and co-morbid conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. This paper will review the role of four factors secreted by adipose tissue (leptin, agouti, angiotensin II and prostaglandins) and their functions in the regulation of energy balance and whole-body homeostasis. Several other peptide and nonpeptide substances are secreted from adipose tissue; their function and regulation have been documented extensively. (+info)
Appetite regulation refers to the complex process by which the body controls hunger and satiety, or the desire to eat and the feeling of fullness, respectively. This process involves a complex interplay between various hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural circuits in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. The primary hormones involved in appetite regulation include ghrelin, which stimulates hunger, and leptin, which inhibits hunger and promotes feelings of fullness. Other hormones, such as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones, can also influence appetite. Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, also play a role in appetite regulation. Dopamine is associated with the reward pathway in the brain and is released in response to food intake, while serotonin is involved in regulating mood and appetite. The neural circuits involved in appetite regulation include the hypothalamus, which is the primary control center for hunger and satiety, and the brainstem, which regulates autonomic functions such as heart rate and breathing. Disruptions in appetite regulation can lead to various eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Additionally, certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and thyroid disorders, can affect appetite regulation and lead to changes in eating habits.
In the medical field, appetite refers to the desire or craving for food. It is a complex physiological and psychological process that is regulated by a variety of factors, including hunger, satiety, and taste preferences. Appetite is controlled by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in regulating hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus receives signals from the stomach and other parts of the body that indicate whether a person is hungry or full. It then sends signals to the brain and the rest of the body to either stimulate or suppress appetite. In some cases, appetite can be affected by medical conditions or medications. For example, people with diabetes may experience changes in their appetite due to fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Certain medications, such as antidepressants, can also affect appetite. Abnormalities in appetite can lead to a variety of health problems, including overeating or undereating, which can contribute to obesity, malnutrition, and other health issues. Therefore, understanding and regulating appetite is an important aspect of maintaining good health.
Peptide YY (PYY) is a hormone that is produced by the gastrointestinal tract in response to the presence of food in the stomach and small intestine. It is also produced by the pancreas and the central nervous system. PYY plays a role in regulating appetite and satiety, meaning it helps to control hunger and fullness. It is released in response to the presence of nutrients in the bloodstream, and it signals to the brain that the body has received enough food and does not need to eat more. PYY has also been shown to have other effects on the body, including reducing blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, and decreasing inflammation. As a result, PYY has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It is primarily produced by cells in the stomach called ghrelin cells, which are stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach. Ghrelin is released into the bloodstream in response to fasting and low blood sugar levels, and it signals the brain to increase appetite and stimulate the release of growth hormone. In addition to its role in appetite regulation, ghrelin has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the body's response to stress.
Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It helps to signal the brain when the body has enough energy stores and can therefore reduce hunger and increase energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a role in regulating the body's immune system and has been linked to a number of other physiological processes, including reproduction and bone health. In the medical field, leptin is often studied in relation to obesity and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the treatment of these conditions.
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Appetite depressants are medications that are used to reduce appetite and decrease food intake. They are commonly prescribed to people who are overweight or obese, as a way to help them lose weight. Appetite depressants work by affecting the parts of the brain that control hunger and satiety, making a person feel less hungry and more satisfied with smaller amounts of food. Some examples of appetite depressants include amphetamines, phentermine, and topiramate. It is important to note that appetite depressants should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Appetite stimulants are medications that are used to increase appetite and stimulate food intake in individuals who have a decreased appetite due to various medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, anorexia nervosa, and malnutrition. These medications work by increasing the production of certain hormones in the body that stimulate hunger and increase food intake. Some common appetite stimulants include megestrol acetate, mirtazapine, and cyproheptadine. It is important to note that appetite stimulants should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Anorexia is a mental health disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, leading to a distorted body image and a restrictive eating behavior. People with anorexia often have a significantly lower body weight than is considered healthy for their age, sex, and height. They may also engage in extreme behaviors such as purging (e.g., vomiting, using laxatives), excessive exercise, or fasting to try to lose weight or maintain their low body weight. Anorexia can have serious physical and mental health consequences, including malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, and depression or anxiety. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medical care, and nutritional counseling.
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- You deserve to know the truth about the supplement you're looking to buy, so we're here to give you just the facts with our appetite suppressant reviews. (dietspotlight.com)
- This story led to worldwide notoriety as the next big appetite suppressant. (dietspotlight.com)
- Others do not have such support from science or appetite suppressant reviews. (dietspotlight.com)
- Subjective feelings of appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption) and plasma concentrations of appetite-related hormones were measured in fasting and every 30 minutes after a standardized breakfast for 2.5 hours. (nutrition.org)
- These three hormones are intricately connected, working together to regulate appetite, metabolism, and energy balance. (evensonholistic.com)
- Taken together, these findings indicated that exercise mediates different effects on appetite-related hormones at night and that meal frequency is an important factor which regulates the response of acylated ghrelin, but not leptin. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- These hormones regulate the body's growth, and are involved in cell to cell communication, control metabolic activity, sleep-wake homeostasis, and altered regulation or dysregulation of adaptive response in various physiologic and pathophysiologic states. (medscape.com)
- To bridge this knowledge gap, and in a collaborative effort with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Martins (University of Alabama at Birmingham) and colleagues performed a secondary analysis aiming to determine if percent fat-free mass loss following weight loss predicts weight regain and to investigate the association between percent fat-free mass loss and changes in appetite markers in men and women with obesity. (nutrition.org)
- Association between Fat-Free Mass Loss, Changes in Appetite, and Weight Regain in Individuals with Obesity. (nutrition.org)
- Because individuals with obesity report significant challenges with adhering to these cues, augmenting behavioral interventions with appetite self-regulation training may be a solution. (inclinicaltrials.com)
- Thus, the investigator propose to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-month remotely-delivered appetite regulation + lifestyle modification intervention to treat obesity. (inclinicaltrials.com)
- energy balance regulation and its application to the two clinical extremes of obesity and illness related undernutrition. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- epidemic towards decreased physical activity in 2013, 23.8% (95% uncertainty levels - because of the increasing- interval [UI], 22.9-24.7%) of boys Obesity is a result of a positive en- ly sedentary nature of recreational and 22.6% (95% UI, 21.7-23.6%) ergy balance (i.e. energy intake that activities, changing modes of trans- of girls were overweight or obese. (who.int)
- However, a greater percent fat-free mass loss was accompanied by a greater increase in the secretion of ghrelin, a hunger hormone, under ketogenic conditions, suggesting a link between fat-free mass and appetite regulation. (nutrition.org)
- Leptin, produced by fat cells, inhibits hunger by suppressing appetite when fat stores are sufficient. (evensonholistic.com)
- Heisler, LK & Lam, DD 2017, ' An appetite for life: brain regulation of hunger and satiety ', Current Opinion in Pharmacology , vol. 37, pp. 100-106. (elsevierpure.com)
- There are some herbal appetite suppressants that are clinically proven to help promote weight loss and curb hunger. (dietspotlight.com)
- Similar to Contrave and Belviq, Phentermine diet pills work to suppress appetite and hunger. (dallasnews.com)
- Serotonin and appetite regulation. (bvsalud.org)
- We also consider particularly promising pharmacological targets for appetite modulation. (elsevierpure.com)
- Beyond appetite regulation, leptin also influences metabolism and energy expenditure. (evensonholistic.com)
- Insulin and glucose metabolism are tightly linked, influencing appetite and energy balance. (evensonholistic.com)
- Understanding the intricate relationships between leptin, ghrelin, and insulin provides valuable insights into the regulation of appetite, metabolism, and body weight. (evensonholistic.com)
- A growing body of evidence suggests that fat-free mass plays a role in the drive to eat and is likely to modulate energy intake and body weight via its effects on energy expenditure and through feedback signaling between fat-free mass and appetite control regions of the brain. (nutrition.org)
- It stimulates appetite and increases food intake. (evensonholistic.com)
- Conversely, ghrelin stimulates appetite and food intake when the stomach is empty. (evensonholistic.com)
- GLP-1 is a physiologic regulator of appetite and calorie intake, and the GLP-1 receptor is present in several areas of the brain involved in appetite regulation. (medscape.com)
- Inulin-propionate ester was therefore developed as a food supplement to provide the gut with a much larger dose of propionate than could be readily provided by a normal diet, producing the feeling of fullness more quickly and thus suppressing the appetite. (nutraingredients.com)
- Basic and clinical appetite regulation and energy expenditure. (medlineplus.gov)
- Thus, the aim of this thesis was to explore, using a multidisciplinary approach, the relationships between body mass index (8M I), appetite regulation, gastrointestinal health and physical activity during shift-work and night-work. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- Using a single-arm design, the investigator will examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-month, remotely-delivered, appetite self-regulation intervention for weight loss maintenance. (inclinicaltrials.com)
- Maintaining a healthy weight and managing appetite can be a complex endeavor. (evensonholistic.com)
- Engaging in regular exercise not only helps manage body weight but also has a positive impact on hormone regulation. (evensonholistic.com)
- There are four main herbal appetite suppressants sold as part of weight-loss formulas and as standalone supplements. (dietspotlight.com)
- The investigators assessed hormonal and appetite changes in response to the reduced weight state, first at 10 weeks and then at 62 weeks. (medscape.com)
- Thus, patients with weight loss have a "double whammy": They have changes both in appetite regulation and energy expenditure that favor weight regain. (medscape.com)
- Moderate-intensity exercise combined with an appetite suppressing supplement that plays on the gut-brain axis could boost the rate at which fat is burned in the human body, new research suggests. (nutraingredients.com)
- Several studies using rs-fMRI revealed associations of insulin or glucose levels with the functional connectivity (FC) of particular brain networks or brain sites that are related to homeostatic regulation but not without contradictions. (frontiersin.org)
- An alternative proposal is to create a standalone watchdog for the rapidly expanding superannuation sector, merging ASIC's oversight responsibilities and the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority's financial stability role. (afr.com)
- The levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK), well known for its role in cellular energy sensing and regulation, and ATP show reciprocal changes. (jneurosci.org)
- they appear to play a role in regulation of appetite, pain sensation, and memory. (msdmanuals.com)
- Norepinephrine , which is involved in the body's stress response and plays a role in mood regulation and alertness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Appetite, defined as the motivational drive to obtain food, is regulated by a complex neurocircuitry which integrates a variety of interoceptive signals to gauge nutritional state and guide appropriate levels of food-seeking. (elsevierpure.com)
- This interplay between leptin and insulin contributes to the regulation of appetite and energy balance. (evensonholistic.com)
- But just as I cautioned that a little goes a long way, new research shows that older men and women, particularly those who eat more carbohydrates, may have a harder time regulating their appetite. (marksdailyapple.com)
- Fat-free mass loss and appetite regulation: Is there a link? (nutrition.org)
- Dr. Zane Andrews, a neuroendocrinologist from Monash University, found that free radicals organize an assault on appetite-regulating POMC neurons. (marksdailyapple.com)
- Dronabinol , a synthetic oral form of the active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and to enhance appetite in AIDS patients. (msdmanuals.com)
- Scientific studies have shown that α-LACYS RESET® naturally boosts fat-burning and suppresses your appetite by triggering thermogenesis. (dallasnews.com)