Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
The consumption of edible substances.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consumption of liquids.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The selection of one food over another.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.

Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites. (1/354)

1. The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. 2. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5-1.0 degrees C) in body temperature. 3. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). 4. Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg(-1)) of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, beta1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or beta2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg(-1)). 5. The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg(-1)), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the beta3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. 6. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg(-1)) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. 7. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via beta3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent.  (+info)

Use of dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine and phentermine and the risk of stroke. (2/354)

AIMS: To estimate the incidence of newly diagnosed idiopathic stroke among users of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine and phentermine compared to obese nonusers. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analysis utilizing data from the General Practice Research Database in the UK. Eight thousand four hundred and twenty-three subjects aged 69 years or less at the start of follow-up were exposed to at least one of the three study drugs and 17 225 similarly obese subjects were not exposed to any of the study drugs. RESULTS: We identified 45 incident cases of idiopathic CVA in this cohort of subjects. The incidence of CVA among all current users of a diet drug was 1.3/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.5, 3.5). The incidence for current fenfluramine users (n=2) was 2.6/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.7, 9.6), for current dexfenfluramine users (n=1) 1.1/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.3, 3.8), and for current phentermine users 0/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.0, 12.9). The incidence in obese nonusers was 0.6/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.4, 0. 9). The adjusted matched odds ratio (OR) for thrombotic stroke from the case-control analysis comparing current use of a diet drug to nonuse was 2.4 (95% CI 0.6, 9.1). There was only one exposed subject among seven who had haemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CVA in generally young obese subjects during use of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine or phentermine is low. Although we found an OR of 2. 4 comparing users of any of the anorexiants with nonusers, this is based on only three exposed cases and the confidence limits are wide. We conclude that our study does not support a substantial increased risk of stroke attributable to the use of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine or phentermine.  (+info)

Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (3/354)

Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound.  (+info)

Pharmacologic induction of weight loss to treat type 2 diabetes. (4/354)

OBJECTIVE: Most individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and weight loss for them is an important therapeutic objective. However, usual weight-loss strategies have generally not produced sustained weight loss. Pharmacologic agents to assist weight loss might be useful, but no long-term data on their effectiveness and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes are available. We therefore initiated a 2-year placebo-controlled trial of the weight-loss medications fenfluramine and phentermine in type 2 diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 44 overweight (> 120% ideal body weight) subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of fenfluramine and phentermine. All subjects received intensive nutrition counseling, an exercise prescription, and instruction in behavior modification. Subjects were randomly assigned to 20 mg fenfluramine three times a day and 37.5 mg phentermine daily (n = 23) or dual placebos (n = 21). Diabetes medications were adjusted as necessary to achieve glycemic goals. Changes in weight, glycemia, lipemia, and blood pressure were assessed every 2 months, as were adverse events. In September 1997, when fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market, fenfluramine was stopped in all subjects. Thus the length of drug treatment varied, but 16 subjects (8 in each group) reached 12 months of treatment. Only data obtained before the withdrawal of fenfluramine are included in this report. RESULTS: A study termination, diabetes medications had been reduced in 1 subject in the placebo group (5%) and 11 subjects in the drug treatment group (52%) (P = 0.005). Drug treatment resulted in significant reductions in body weight, BMI, and HbA1c at all time points through 6 months. Changes in weight at 6 months were -2.7 +/- 1.4 kg (mean +/- SEM) with placebo treatment and -9.6 +/- 1.5 kg with drug treatment (P = 0.003). Even though more subjects in the drug treatment group required reductions in diabetes medications, at 6 months, changes in HbA1c were -0.3 +/- 0.2% with placebo treatment and -1.6 +/- 0.3% with drug treatment (P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides were significantly reduced at some time points with drug treatment. No serious adverse events attributable to study medications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Premature study termination decreased the power of our study at later time points. However, our data suggest that weight loss medications are an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes during active weight loss. Whether the benefit persists after weight loss has stopped remains to be determined.  (+info)

Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients. (5/354)

OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of infusion of GLP-1 for 48 h in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We infused GLP-1 (2.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1) or saline subcutaneously for 48 h in randomized order in six patients with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the effect on appetite during fixed energy intake and on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, postprandial lipidemia, blood pressure, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. RESULTS: The infusion resulted in elevations of the plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 similar to those observed after intravenous infusion of 1.2 pmol.kg-1.min-1, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area under the curve for insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher during the GLP-1 administration, whereas glucagon levels were unchanged. Neither triglycerides nor free fatty acids were affected. GLP-1 administration decreased hunger and prospective food intake and increased satiety, whereas fullness was unaffected. No side effects during GLP-1 infusion were recorded except for a brief cutaneous reaction. Basal metabolic rate and heart rate did not change significantly during GLP-1 administration. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure tended to be lower during the GLP-1 infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure.  (+info)

Studies on the role of serotonin receptor subtypes in the effect of sibutramine in various feeding paradigms in rats. (6/354)

The effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine was studied in food deprived, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- or muscimol-injected rats. Sibutramine dose-dependently reduced feeding caused by food-deprivation (ED50 = 5.1+/-0.8 mg kg(-1)) or by NPY injection into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (ED50 = 6.0+/-0.5 mg kg(-1)). The increase in food intake caused by muscimol injected into the dorsal raphe was not modified by sibutramine (1-10 mg kg(-1)). The hypophagic effect of 5.1 mg kg(-1) sibutramine in food-deprived rats was studied in rats pretreated with different serotonin receptor antagonists. Metergoline (non-selective, 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)), ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) and GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D), 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) did not modify the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, while SB206553 (5-HT2B/2C, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) slightly but significantly reduced it (Fint(2.53) = 3.4; P<0.05). The reduction in food intake caused by 6.0 mg kg(-1) sibutramine in NPY-injected rats was not modified by GR127935 (1.0 mg kg(-1)). The results suggest that, with the possible exception of a partial involvement of 5-HT2B/2C receptors in sibutramine's hypophagia in food-deprived rats, 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes do not play an important role in the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, at least in the first 2 h after injection.  (+info)

Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. (7/354)

BACKGROUND: Coadministration of phentermine and fenfluramine (phen/fen) effectively treats obesity and possibly addictive disorders. The association of fenfluramine and certain other anorexic agents with serious side effects, such as cardiac valvulopathy and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), limits the clinical utility of these drugs. Development of new medications that produce neurochemical effects like phen/fen without causing unwanted side effects would be a significant therapeutic breakthrough. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that fenfluramine (and other anorexic agents) might increase the risk of PPH through interactions with serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Because 5-HT transporter proteins in the lung and brain are identical, we examined, in rat brain, the effects of selected drugs on 5-HT efflux in vivo and monoamine transporters in vitro as a generalized index of transporter function. Our data show that drugs known or suspected to increase the risk of PPH (eg, aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine) are 5-HT transporter substrates, whereas drugs that have not been shown to increase the risk of PPH are less potent in this regard. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that medications that are 5-HT transporter substrates get translocated into pulmonary cells where, depending on the degree of drug retention, their intrinsic drug toxicity, and individual susceptibility, PPH could develop as a response to high levels of these drugs or metabolites. Emerging evidence suggests that it is possible to develop transporter substrates devoid of adverse side effects. Such medications could have therapeutic application in the management of obesity, drug dependence, depression, and other disorders.  (+info)

The promotion effect of anorectic drugs on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatic preneoplastic foci. (8/354)

The ability of three extensively used anorectic drugs, namely fenfluramine (FN), fluoxetine (FX) and amphetamine (AM), to alter the development of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-induced gamma-glutamyl-positive (GGT(+)) preneoplastic liver foci was investigated in 135 male weanling F344 rats. Following AFB(1) administration, 15 rats were killed, while the rest were divided into four groups and fed diets containing either FN, FX, AM or control diet, with half of the animals in each group subsequently being killed at 4 weeks and half at 10 weeks. All three anorectic drugs as expected suppressed initial food intake, growth rate, body weight gain and food efficiency. They also tended to suppress body fat mass and to decrease plasma levels of T(3) and T(4). FN significantly (P < 0.05) increased GGT(+) foci number/cm(2) and number/cm(3), while FX significantly increased GGT(+) foci number/cm(2) and the volume fraction of foci. Histopathological staining also revealed that FN- and FX-treated animals had more serious morphological alterations in their liver tissue. In contrast, foci development was, if anything, suppressed by AM feeding. These results indicate that serotoninergic drugs (FN and FX), as opposed to dopaminergic drugs (AM), may have tumor promoter activity, at least for liver tissue.  (+info)

Appetite depressants are medications or substances that reduce or suppress feelings of hunger and appetite. They can be prescribed to treat various medical conditions, such as obesity or binge eating disorder, where weight loss is a recommended treatment goal. Some common appetite depressants include:

1. Phentermine: This medication works by stimulating the release of certain neurotransmitters in the brain that help suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is often prescribed for short-term use (up to 12 weeks) as part of a comprehensive weight loss plan.

2. Diethylpropion: Similar to phentermine, diethylpropion stimulates the release of neurotransmitters that suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is also prescribed for short-term use in treating obesity.

3. Naltrexone-bupropion (Contrave): This combination medication helps manage weight by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that blocks the rewarding effects of food, while bupropion is an antidepressant that can help reduce cravings for high-calorie foods.

4. Lorcaserin (Belviq): This medication works by selectively activating serotonin receptors in the brain, which helps promote satiety and reduce appetite. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2020 due to concerns about its potential link to an increased risk of cancer.

5. Topiramate (Topamax): Although primarily used as an anticonvulsant, topiramate has also been found to have appetite-suppressing effects. It is often combined with phentermine in a single formulation (Qsymia) for the treatment of obesity.

6. Cannabis: Some studies suggest that cannabinoids, the active compounds in marijuana, may help reduce hunger and promote weight loss by interacting with the endocannabinoid system in the body. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential as an appetite depressant.

It's important to note that appetite suppressants should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and as part of a comprehensive weight management plan. These medications can have side effects and potential risks, so it's crucial to discuss their use with your doctor before starting any new treatment regimen.

Appetite is the desire to eat or drink something, which is often driven by feelings of hunger or thirst. It is a complex process that involves both physiological and psychological factors. Physiologically, appetite is influenced by the body's need for energy and nutrients, as well as various hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate hunger and satiety signals in the brain. Psychologically, appetite can be affected by emotions, mood, stress levels, and social factors such as the sight or smell of food.

In medical terms, a loss of appetite is often referred to as anorexia, which can be caused by various factors such as illness, medication, infection, or psychological conditions like depression. On the other hand, an excessive or abnormal appetite is known as polyphagia and can be a symptom of certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

It's important to note that while "anorexia" is a medical term used to describe loss of appetite, it should not be confused with the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, which is a serious mental health condition characterized by restrictive eating, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight.

Appetite regulation refers to the physiological and psychological processes that control and influence the desire to eat food. This complex system involves a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways that work together to help maintain energy balance and regulate body weight. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a key role in appetite regulation by integrating signals from the digestive system, fat cells, and other organs to adjust feelings of hunger and fullness.

The hormones leptin and ghrelin are also important regulators of appetite. Leptin is released from fat cells and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss, while ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and promotes weight gain. Other factors that can influence appetite regulation include stress, emotions, sleep patterns, and cultural influences.

Abnormalities in appetite regulation can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, as well as obesity and other health problems. Understanding the mechanisms of appetite regulation is an important area of research for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Appetite stimulants are medications or substances that increase the desire to eat or improve appetite. They work by affecting brain chemicals, hormones, or other systems involved in regulating hunger and fullness. Some commonly used appetite stimulants include:

1. Megestrol acetate: a synthetic progestin hormone that is often prescribed for cancer-related weight loss and anorexia. It works by stimulating appetite and promoting weight gain.
2. Dronabinol: a synthetic form of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. It is approved for treating AIDS-related anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Dronabinol can increase appetite and promote weight gain.
3. Corticosteroids: medications that mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. They can help improve appetite, but their long-term use is associated with significant side effects.
4. Cyproheptadine: an antihistamine medication that can also stimulate appetite. It is sometimes used off-label to treat appetite loss in various conditions, such as cancer or HIV/AIDS.
5. Ghrelin agonists: these are medications that mimic the effects of ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach that increases hunger and appetite. Currently, there are no FDA-approved ghrelin agonists for appetite stimulation, but research is ongoing.

It's important to note that while appetite stimulants can help improve food intake in some individuals, they may not be effective for everyone, and their use should be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or supplement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myocardial Depressant Factor" is not a widely recognized or accepted medical term in the context of a defined disease entity or specific pathological process. It appears to be a historical term that was used in some research studies related to sepsis and septic shock during the 1970s and 1980s.

During those times, researchers proposed the existence of a "Myocardial Depressant Factor" (MDF) as a possible explanation for the reversible myocardial dysfunction observed in sepsis. However, the exact identity and nature of this MDF remained elusive and unproven, with various substances such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and free radicals being suggested as potential candidates.

Over time, the concept of a specific "Myocardial Depressant Factor" has largely fallen out of favor in the medical community. Instead, the current understanding of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is that it is likely to be multifactorial, involving various inflammatory mediators, microvascular dysfunction, and direct cellular injury.

I couldn't find a medical definition for "Depression, Chemical" as it is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide you with information about chemical imbalances in the brain that are associated with depression.

Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly referred to as depression, is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors. While there is no definitive evidence that depression is solely caused by a "chemical imbalance," neurotransmitter irregularities in the brain are associated with depressive symptoms. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the body. Some of the primary neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation include serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

In depression, it is thought that there may be alterations in the functioning of these neurotransmitter systems, leading to an imbalance. For example:

1. Serotonin: Low levels of serotonin are associated with depressive symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common class of antidepressants, work by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse (the space between neurons) to improve communication between brain cells.
2. Norepinephrine: Imbalances in norepinephrine levels can contribute to depressive symptoms and anxiety. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are medications that target norepinephrine to help alleviate depression.
3. Dopamine: Deficiencies in dopamine can lead to depressive symptoms, anhedonia (the inability to feel pleasure), and motivation loss. Some antidepressants, like bupropion, work by increasing dopamine levels in the brain.

In summary, while "Chemical Depression" is not a recognized medical term, chemical imbalances in neurotransmitter systems are associated with depressive symptoms. However, depression is a complex disorder that cannot be solely attributed to a single cause or a simple chemical imbalance. It is essential to consider multiple factors when diagnosing and treating depression.

Satiation is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology, which refers to the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that one experiences after eating food. It is the point at which further consumption of food no longer adds to the sensation of hunger or the desire to eat. This response is influenced by various factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, nutrient composition, energy density, individual appetite regulatory hormones, and gastric distension.

Satiation plays a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining energy balance. Understanding the mechanisms underlying satiation can help individuals make healthier food choices and prevent overeating, thereby reducing the risk of obesity and other related health issues.

In medical terms, "hunger" is not specifically defined as a clinical condition. However, it generally refers to the physiological need or desire for food and calories, driven by mechanisms in the brain and body that regulate energy balance. This sensation often arises when the body's energy stores are depleted, or when there has been a prolonged period without food intake.

Hunger is primarily mediated by hormones such as ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and leptin, which signals satiety. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a crucial role in integrating these hormonal signals to regulate hunger and energy balance. Additionally, other factors like sleep deprivation, stress, and certain medical conditions can also influence feelings of hunger.

Satiety response is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology to describe the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that follows food consumption. It is a complex process regulated by several factors, including the mechanical and chemical signals generated during digestion, hormonal responses, and psychological factors. The satiety response helps control food intake and energy balance by inhibiting further eating until the body has had enough time to metabolize and absorb the nutrients from the meal.

The satiety response can be influenced by various factors such as the type, volume, and texture of food consumed, as well as individual differences in appetite regulation and metabolism. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the satiety response is important for developing strategies to promote healthy eating behaviors and prevent overeating, which can contribute to obesity and other health problems.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

Meprobamate is a carbamate derivative and acts as a central nervous system depressant. It is primarily used as an anti-anxiety agent, although it also has muscle relaxant properties. Meprobamate works by enhancing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits nerve transmission in the brain, thereby producing a calming effect.

It is important to note that meprobamate has a potential for abuse and dependence, and its use is associated with several side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. Therefore, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are a class of drugs that slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to decreased arousal and decreased level of consciousness. They work by increasing the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, relaxation, reduced anxiety, and in some cases, respiratory depression.

Examples of CNS depressants include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and certain types of pain medications such as opioids. These drugs are often used medically to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and chronic pain, but they can also be misused or abused for their sedative effects.

It is important to use CNS depressants only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects, including addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose of CNS depressants can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death.

Anorexia is a medical condition defined as a loss of appetite or aversion to food, leading to significant weight loss. It can be a symptom of various underlying causes, such as mental health disorders (most commonly an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal issues, cancer, infections, or side effects of medication. In this definition, we are primarily referring to anorexia as a symptom rather than the specific eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by:

1. Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (in context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain
3. Disturbed body image, such as overvaluation of self-worth regarding shape or weight, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Anorexia nervosa has two subtypes: restricting type and binge eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). In contrast, the binge eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

It is essential to differentiate between anorexia as a symptom and anorexia nervosa as a distinct psychological disorder when discussing medical definitions.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Peptide YY (PYY) is a small peptide hormone consisting of 36 amino acids, that is released by the L cells in the intestinal epithelium in response to feeding. It is a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family and plays a crucial role in regulating appetite and energy balance.

After eating, PYY is released into the circulation and acts on specific receptors in the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake. This anorexigenic effect of PYY is mediated by its ability to decrease gastric emptying, reduce intestinal motility, and increase satiety.

PYY has also been shown to have effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and inflammation, making it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders.

Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, which means they slow down the activity of the brain and nerves. They were commonly used in the past to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures, but their use has declined due to the risk of addiction, abuse, and serious side effects. Barbiturates can also be used for surgical anesthesia and as a treatment for barbiturate or pentobarbital overdose.

Barbiturates work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, hypnosis, and anticonvulsant effects. However, at higher doses, barbiturates can cause respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Some examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and amobarbital. These drugs are usually available in the form of tablets, capsules, or injectable solutions. It is important to note that barbiturates should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they carry a high risk of dependence and abuse.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Scorpion venoms are complex mixtures of neurotoxins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that are produced by the venom glands of scorpions. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. The neurotoxins found in scorpion venoms can cause a variety of symptoms in humans, including pain, swelling, numbness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Scorpion venoms are being studied for their potential medical applications, such as in the development of new pain medications and insecticides. Additionally, some components of scorpion venom have been found to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful in the development of new antibiotics.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

Thirst, also known as dry mouth or polydipsia, is a physiological need or desire to drink fluids to maintain fluid balance and hydration in the body. It is primarily regulated by the hypothalamus in response to changes in osmolality and volume of bodily fluids, particularly blood. Thirst can be triggered by various factors such as dehydration, excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, burns, certain medications, and medical conditions affecting the kidneys, adrenal glands, or other organs. It is a vital homeostatic mechanism to ensure adequate hydration and proper functioning of various bodily systems.

Methysergide, commonly known as methylergometrine or metergoline, is not typically considered a medication in the medical field. It is actually a derivative of ergot alkaloids, which are fungal metabolites that have been used in medicine for their vasoconstrictive and oxytocic properties.

Methysergide has been used in the past as a migraine prophylaxis medication due to its ability to block serotonin receptors in the brain. However, its use is now limited due to its potential to cause serious side effects such as fibrotic reactions in various organs, including the heart, lungs, and kidneys.

Therefore, methysergide/metergoline is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and its use is typically reserved for highly specific cases under close medical supervision.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Enflurane is a volatile halogenated ether that was commonly used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. Its chemical formula is C3H2ClF5O. It has been largely replaced by newer and safer anesthetics, but it is still occasionally used in certain clinical situations due to its favorable properties such as rapid onset and offset of action, stable hemodynamics, and low blood solubility. However, it can cause adverse effects such as respiratory depression, arrhythmias, and neurotoxicity, particularly with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use requires careful monitoring and management by anesthesia professionals.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

Diethylpropion is a sympathomimetic amine, which is a type of medication that stimulates the nervous system. It is primarily used as an appetite suppressant for the short-term treatment of obesity. Diethylpropion works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate appetite, leading to a decrease in food intake and an increase in weight loss.

Diethylpropion is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken two to three times a day, about one hour before meals. Common side effects of diethylpropion include dry mouth, constipation, difficulty sleeping, and increased heart rate. More serious side effects can include high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and seizures.

Diethylpropion is a controlled substance in many countries due to its potential for abuse and dependence. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and for a limited period of time.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "meals" is a term that refers to food or drink consumed at regular intervals as part of a person's daily diet, rather than a medical term. It is not typically defined in a medical context. However, in a nutritional or healthcare setting, meals are often discussed in terms of their timing, composition, and impact on factors such as medication administration, blood sugar control, and overall health.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Iontophoresis is a medical technique in which a mild electrical current is used to deliver medications through the skin. This process enhances the absorption of medication into the body, allowing it to reach deeper tissues that may not be accessible through topical applications alone. Iontophoresis is often used for local treatment of conditions such as inflammation, pain, or spasms, and is particularly useful in treating conditions affecting the hands and feet, like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating). The medications used in iontophoresis are typically anti-inflammatory drugs, anesthetics, or corticosteroids.

Central muscle relaxants are a class of pharmaceutical agents that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce skeletal muscle tone and spasticity. These medications do not directly act on the muscles themselves but rather work by altering the messages sent between the brain and the muscles, thereby reducing excessive muscle contraction and promoting relaxation.

Central muscle relaxants are often prescribed for the management of various neuromuscular disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, and stroke-induced spasticity. They may also be used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions like strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries.

Examples of central muscle relaxants include baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, and diazepam. It is important to note that these medications can have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired cognitive function, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Bemegride is a central nervous system stimulant that was previously used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose and to reduce intracranial pressure in patients with brain injuries. It works by increasing the activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine.

However, the use of bemegride is not common in modern medical practice due to its potential for causing seizures and other adverse effects. It has largely been replaced by other medications that are safer and more effective for treating these conditions.

It's important to note that the use of bemegride should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly.

Halothane is a general anesthetic agent, which is a volatile liquid that evaporates easily and can be inhaled. It is used to produce and maintain general anesthesia (a state of unconsciousness) during surgical procedures. Halothane is known for its rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia.

The medical definition of Halothane is:

Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) is a volatile liquid general anesthetic agent with a mild, sweet odor. It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in surgical procedures due to its rapid onset and offset of action. Halothane is administered via inhalation and acts by depressing the central nervous system, leading to a reversible loss of consciousness and analgesia.

It's important to note that Halothane has been associated with rare cases of severe liver injury (hepatotoxicity) and anaphylaxis (a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction). These risks have led to the development and use of alternative general anesthetic agents with better safety profiles.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Fenfluramine is a drug that was previously used for the short-term treatment of obesity. It works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness. Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative and stimulates the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Fenfluramine was commonly prescribed in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, under the brand name Fen-Phen. However, in 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning about the potential risk of serious heart valve damage associated with the use of fenfluramine and withdrew its approval for the drug's use. Since then, fenfluramine has not been approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Nialamide is not typically considered in modern medical definitions as it is an older, first-generation monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that has largely been replaced by newer and safer medications. However, for the sake of completeness:

Nialamide is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the availability of these neurotransmitters, which can help to elevate mood in individuals with depression.

It's important to note that MAOIs like Nialamide have significant dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential for serious and life-threatening interactions with certain foods and medications. Their use is generally reserved for treatment-resistant cases of depression and other psychiatric disorders, when other treatment options have been exhausted.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "scorpions" are not a medical term, but instead refer to a type of arachnid. If you're asking about a medical condition that might involve scorpions, then perhaps you're referring to "scorpion stings."

Scorpion stings occur when a scorpion uses its venomous stinger to inject venom into another animal or human. The effects of a scorpion sting can vary greatly depending on the species of scorpion and the amount of venom injected, but generally, they can cause localized pain, swelling, and redness at the site of the sting. In more severe cases, symptoms such as numbness, difficulty breathing, muscle twitching, or convulsions may occur. Some species of scorpions have venom that can be life-threatening to humans, especially in children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical condition or term, please provide more details so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Isoflurane is a volatile halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, sweet odor. Isoflurane is an agonist at the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor and inhibits excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, leading to unconsciousness and immobility. It has a rapid onset and offset of action due to its low blood solubility, allowing for quick adjustments in anesthetic depth during surgery. Isoflurane is also known for its bronchodilator effects, making it useful in patients with reactive airway disease. However, it can cause dose-dependent decreases in heart rate and blood pressure, so careful hemodynamic monitoring is required during its use.

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Aminobutyrates are compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a butyric acid group (-CH2-CH2-CH2-COOH). The most common aminobutyrate is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating brain excitability and is involved in various physiological processes, including sleep, memory, and anxiety regulation. Abnormalities in GABAergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain. Other aminobutyrates may also have important biological functions, but their roles are less well understood than that of GABA.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of short-term insomnia and as a preoperative sedative. It works by depressing the central nervous system, producing a calming effect and helping to induce sleep. Secobarbital has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

It is available in various forms, including capsules and injectable solutions, and is typically prescribed for use on an as-needed basis rather than as a regular medication. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and withdrawal, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

It's important to note that Secobarbital is not commonly prescribed in modern medical practice due to its high potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective sleep aids.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is secreted by the intestines in response to food intake. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels through several mechanisms, including stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, inhibition of glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. GLP-1 is an important target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to its insulin-secretory and glucose-lowering effects. In addition, GLP-1 receptor agonists are used in the management of obesity due to their ability to promote weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness.

Pregnanes are a class of steroid hormones and steroids that contain a pregnane nucleus, which is a steroid core with a carbon skeleton consisting of 21 carbons. This structure includes four fused rings, labeled A through D, and is derived from cholesterol.

Pregnanes are important precursors for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in the body, including progesterone, which plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle. Other examples of pregnanes include cortisol, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland, and aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

It's worth noting that pregnanes can also refer to synthetic compounds that contain this steroid nucleus and are used in various medical and research contexts.

Thiopental, also known as Thiopentone, is a rapid-onset, ultrashort-acting barbiturate derivative. It is primarily used for the induction of anesthesia due to its ability to cause unconsciousness quickly and its short duration of action. Thiopental can also be used for sedation in critically ill patients, though this use has become less common due to the development of safer alternatives.

The drug works by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain that produces a calming effect. This results in the depression of the central nervous system, leading to sedation, hypnosis, and ultimately, anesthesia.

It is worth noting that Thiopental has been largely replaced by newer drugs in many clinical settings due to its potential for serious adverse effects, such as cardiovascular and respiratory depression, as well as the risk of anaphylaxis. Additionally, it has been used in controversial procedures like capital punishment in some jurisdictions.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The postprandial period is the time frame following a meal, during which the body is engaged in the process of digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients. In a medical context, this term generally refers to the few hours after eating when the body is responding to the ingested food, particularly in terms of changes in metabolism and insulin levels.

The postprandial period can be of specific interest in the study and management of conditions such as diabetes, where understanding how the body handles glucose during this time can inform treatment decisions and strategies for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

Diazepam is a medication from the benzodiazepine class, which typically has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Its medical uses include the treatment of anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, end-of-life sedation, seizures, muscle spasms, and as a premedication for medical procedures. Diazepam is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, rectal gel, and injectable solutions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in the modulation of nerve impulses in the brain, producing a sedative effect.

It is important to note that diazepam can be habit-forming and has several potential side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to the prescribed dosage to minimize the risk of adverse effects and dependence.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Cachexia is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by severe weight loss, muscle wasting, and weakness. It is often associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, heart failure, kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cachexia differs from simple malnutrition or starvation in that it involves a significant loss of muscle mass and an imbalance in energy metabolism, even when adequate calories are consumed.

The hallmark features of cachexia include:

1. Weight loss: Unintentional loss of more than 5% of body weight over 12 months or less, or more than 2% in individuals already underweight.
2. Muscle wasting: Reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength, leading to weakness and functional impairment.
3. Fatigue and anorexia: Decreased appetite and reduced food intake due to various factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and psychological distress.
4. Inflammation: Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6) that contribute to metabolic dysregulation and muscle wasting.
5. Insulin resistance: Impaired glucose uptake and utilization by cells, leading to increased blood glucose levels and altered energy metabolism.
6. Altered protein metabolism: Increased protein breakdown and decreased protein synthesis in skeletal muscles, contributing to muscle wasting.
7. Altered lipid metabolism: Increased lipolysis (breakdown of fat) and impaired lipogenesis (formation of fat), leading to loss of adipose tissue and altered energy storage.

Cachexia significantly impacts patients' quality of life, treatment outcomes, and overall survival. Currently, there is no single effective treatment for cachexia, and management typically involves addressing the underlying disease, nutritional support, exercise interventions, and pharmacological therapies to target specific aspects of the metabolic dysregulation associated with this condition.

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