Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Appetite Stimulants: Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.Myocardial Depressant Factor: A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Metergoline: A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Diethylpropion: A appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nialamide: An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Secobarbital: A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.

Thermogenic effects of sibutramine and its metabolites. (1/354)

1. The thermogenic activity of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine (BTS 54524; Reductil) was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) in rats treated with sibutramine or its two pharmacologically-active metabolites. 2. Sibutramine caused a dose-dependent rise in VO2, with a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) of sibutramine or its metabolites producing increases of up to 30% that were sustained for at least 6 h, and accompanied by significant increases (0.5-1.0 degrees C) in body temperature. 3. Based on the accumulation in vivo of radiolabelled 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose, sibutramine had little or no effect on glucose utilization in most tissues, but caused an 18 fold increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT). 4. Combined high, non-selective doses (20 mg kg(-1)) of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, atenolol and ICI 118551, inhibited completely the VO2 response to sibutramine, but the response was unaffected by low, beta1-adrenoceptor-selective (atenolol) or beta2-adrenoceptor-selective (ICI 118551) doses (1 mg kg(-1)). 5. The ganglionic blocking agent, chlorisondamine (15 mg kg(-1)), inhibited completely the VO2 response to the metabolites of sibutramine, but had no effect on the thermogenic response to the beta3-adrenoceptor-selective agonist BRL 35135. 6. Similar thermogenic responses were produced by simultaneous injection of nisoxetine and fluoxetine at doses (30 mg kg(-1)) that had no effect on VO2 when injected individually. 7. It is concluded that stimulation of thermogenesis by sibutramine requires central reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased efferent sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis via beta3-adrenoceptor, and that this contributes to the compound's activity as an anti-obesity agent.  (+info)

Use of dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine and phentermine and the risk of stroke. (2/354)

AIMS: To estimate the incidence of newly diagnosed idiopathic stroke among users of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine and phentermine compared to obese nonusers. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analysis utilizing data from the General Practice Research Database in the UK. Eight thousand four hundred and twenty-three subjects aged 69 years or less at the start of follow-up were exposed to at least one of the three study drugs and 17 225 similarly obese subjects were not exposed to any of the study drugs. RESULTS: We identified 45 incident cases of idiopathic CVA in this cohort of subjects. The incidence of CVA among all current users of a diet drug was 1.3/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.5, 3.5). The incidence for current fenfluramine users (n=2) was 2.6/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.7, 9.6), for current dexfenfluramine users (n=1) 1.1/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.3, 3.8), and for current phentermine users 0/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.0, 12.9). The incidence in obese nonusers was 0.6/1000 person-years (95% CI 0.4, 0. 9). The adjusted matched odds ratio (OR) for thrombotic stroke from the case-control analysis comparing current use of a diet drug to nonuse was 2.4 (95% CI 0.6, 9.1). There was only one exposed subject among seven who had haemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CVA in generally young obese subjects during use of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine or phentermine is low. Although we found an OR of 2. 4 comparing users of any of the anorexiants with nonusers, this is based on only three exposed cases and the confidence limits are wide. We conclude that our study does not support a substantial increased risk of stroke attributable to the use of fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine or phentermine.  (+info)

Amphetamine and fenproporex levels following multidose administration of fenproporex. (3/354)

Drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially of significant concern in the interpretation of positive drug-testing results for amphetamines. A number of different drugs have been reported to produce amphetamine in the urine of users. One of these compounds, fenproporex, has been shown to be metabolized to amphetamine, and previous reports indicated the parent compound could be detected at low levels for up to 48 h. Administration of fenproporex for seven days (one 10-mg dose per day) to five healthy volunteers resulted in amphetamine being detected in the urine of all subjects. Peak concentrations of amphetamine ranged from approximately 2850 to 4150 ng/mL. Amphetamine could be detected (> or = 5 ng/mL) in the urine for up to nearly 170 h after the last dose. Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug. In addition, evaluation of the enantiomeric composition of the metabolite (amphetamine) can be a valuable tool in the interpretation of time since last dose. More significantly, all samples that contained amphetamine at a concentration of > or = 500 ng/mL were shown to also contain detectable amounts of the parent compound.  (+info)

Pharmacologic induction of weight loss to treat type 2 diabetes. (4/354)

OBJECTIVE: Most individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and weight loss for them is an important therapeutic objective. However, usual weight-loss strategies have generally not produced sustained weight loss. Pharmacologic agents to assist weight loss might be useful, but no long-term data on their effectiveness and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes are available. We therefore initiated a 2-year placebo-controlled trial of the weight-loss medications fenfluramine and phentermine in type 2 diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 44 overweight (> 120% ideal body weight) subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of fenfluramine and phentermine. All subjects received intensive nutrition counseling, an exercise prescription, and instruction in behavior modification. Subjects were randomly assigned to 20 mg fenfluramine three times a day and 37.5 mg phentermine daily (n = 23) or dual placebos (n = 21). Diabetes medications were adjusted as necessary to achieve glycemic goals. Changes in weight, glycemia, lipemia, and blood pressure were assessed every 2 months, as were adverse events. In September 1997, when fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market, fenfluramine was stopped in all subjects. Thus the length of drug treatment varied, but 16 subjects (8 in each group) reached 12 months of treatment. Only data obtained before the withdrawal of fenfluramine are included in this report. RESULTS: A study termination, diabetes medications had been reduced in 1 subject in the placebo group (5%) and 11 subjects in the drug treatment group (52%) (P = 0.005). Drug treatment resulted in significant reductions in body weight, BMI, and HbA1c at all time points through 6 months. Changes in weight at 6 months were -2.7 +/- 1.4 kg (mean +/- SEM) with placebo treatment and -9.6 +/- 1.5 kg with drug treatment (P = 0.003). Even though more subjects in the drug treatment group required reductions in diabetes medications, at 6 months, changes in HbA1c were -0.3 +/- 0.2% with placebo treatment and -1.6 +/- 0.3% with drug treatment (P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides were significantly reduced at some time points with drug treatment. No serious adverse events attributable to study medications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Premature study termination decreased the power of our study at later time points. However, our data suggest that weight loss medications are an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes during active weight loss. Whether the benefit persists after weight loss has stopped remains to be determined.  (+info)

Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients. (5/354)

OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of infusion of GLP-1 for 48 h in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We infused GLP-1 (2.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1) or saline subcutaneously for 48 h in randomized order in six patients with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the effect on appetite during fixed energy intake and on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, postprandial lipidemia, blood pressure, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. RESULTS: The infusion resulted in elevations of the plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 similar to those observed after intravenous infusion of 1.2 pmol.kg-1.min-1, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area under the curve for insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher during the GLP-1 administration, whereas glucagon levels were unchanged. Neither triglycerides nor free fatty acids were affected. GLP-1 administration decreased hunger and prospective food intake and increased satiety, whereas fullness was unaffected. No side effects during GLP-1 infusion were recorded except for a brief cutaneous reaction. Basal metabolic rate and heart rate did not change significantly during GLP-1 administration. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure tended to be lower during the GLP-1 infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure.  (+info)

Studies on the role of serotonin receptor subtypes in the effect of sibutramine in various feeding paradigms in rats. (6/354)

The effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine was studied in food deprived, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- or muscimol-injected rats. Sibutramine dose-dependently reduced feeding caused by food-deprivation (ED50 = 5.1+/-0.8 mg kg(-1)) or by NPY injection into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (ED50 = 6.0+/-0.5 mg kg(-1)). The increase in food intake caused by muscimol injected into the dorsal raphe was not modified by sibutramine (1-10 mg kg(-1)). The hypophagic effect of 5.1 mg kg(-1) sibutramine in food-deprived rats was studied in rats pretreated with different serotonin receptor antagonists. Metergoline (non-selective, 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)), ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) and GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D), 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) did not modify the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, while SB206553 (5-HT2B/2C, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) slightly but significantly reduced it (Fint(2.53) = 3.4; P<0.05). The reduction in food intake caused by 6.0 mg kg(-1) sibutramine in NPY-injected rats was not modified by GR127935 (1.0 mg kg(-1)). The results suggest that, with the possible exception of a partial involvement of 5-HT2B/2C receptors in sibutramine's hypophagia in food-deprived rats, 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes do not play an important role in the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, at least in the first 2 h after injection.  (+info)

Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. (7/354)

BACKGROUND: Coadministration of phentermine and fenfluramine (phen/fen) effectively treats obesity and possibly addictive disorders. The association of fenfluramine and certain other anorexic agents with serious side effects, such as cardiac valvulopathy and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), limits the clinical utility of these drugs. Development of new medications that produce neurochemical effects like phen/fen without causing unwanted side effects would be a significant therapeutic breakthrough. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that fenfluramine (and other anorexic agents) might increase the risk of PPH through interactions with serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Because 5-HT transporter proteins in the lung and brain are identical, we examined, in rat brain, the effects of selected drugs on 5-HT efflux in vivo and monoamine transporters in vitro as a generalized index of transporter function. Our data show that drugs known or suspected to increase the risk of PPH (eg, aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine) are 5-HT transporter substrates, whereas drugs that have not been shown to increase the risk of PPH are less potent in this regard. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that medications that are 5-HT transporter substrates get translocated into pulmonary cells where, depending on the degree of drug retention, their intrinsic drug toxicity, and individual susceptibility, PPH could develop as a response to high levels of these drugs or metabolites. Emerging evidence suggests that it is possible to develop transporter substrates devoid of adverse side effects. Such medications could have therapeutic application in the management of obesity, drug dependence, depression, and other disorders.  (+info)

The promotion effect of anorectic drugs on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatic preneoplastic foci. (8/354)

The ability of three extensively used anorectic drugs, namely fenfluramine (FN), fluoxetine (FX) and amphetamine (AM), to alter the development of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-induced gamma-glutamyl-positive (GGT(+)) preneoplastic liver foci was investigated in 135 male weanling F344 rats. Following AFB(1) administration, 15 rats were killed, while the rest were divided into four groups and fed diets containing either FN, FX, AM or control diet, with half of the animals in each group subsequently being killed at 4 weeks and half at 10 weeks. All three anorectic drugs as expected suppressed initial food intake, growth rate, body weight gain and food efficiency. They also tended to suppress body fat mass and to decrease plasma levels of T(3) and T(4). FN significantly (P < 0.05) increased GGT(+) foci number/cm(2) and number/cm(3), while FX significantly increased GGT(+) foci number/cm(2) and the volume fraction of foci. Histopathological staining also revealed that FN- and FX-treated animals had more serious morphological alterations in their liver tissue. In contrast, foci development was, if anything, suppressed by AM feeding. These results indicate that serotoninergic drugs (FN and FX), as opposed to dopaminergic drugs (AM), may have tumor promoter activity, at least for liver tissue.  (+info)

*Pentorex

Opitz, K.; Kemper, F.; Loeser, A. (1965). "Comparative Study of the Anorexigenic Potency of some Appetite Depressants". ... Opitz, K. (1965). "[Natriuretic and Diuretic Effect of Appetite Depressant Amphetamine Derivatives]". Klinische Wochenschrift ( ...

*Levopropylhexedrine

Therapeutic experiences with the appetite depressant eventin]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (in German). 108 (14): 304-6. ...

*Anorectic

The following are listed as appetite depressants by MeSH, an index of medical journal articles and books. Benfluorex Butenolide ... or appetite suppressant. Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available ... By contrast, an appetite stimulant is referred to as orexigenic. The term is (from the Greek ἀν- (an-) = "without" and ὄρεξις ( ... Several appetite suppressants are based on a mix of natural ingredients, mostly using green tea as its basis, in combination ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... appetite depressants MeSH D27.505.954.427.153 --- antitussive agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.210 --- central nervous system ... appetite stimulants MeSH D27.505.954.427.220.224 --- convulsants MeSH D27.505.954.427.270 --- emetics MeSH D27.505.954.427.300 ... central nervous system depressants MeSH D27.505.696.277.100 --- anesthetics MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.017 --- anesthetics, ... appetite stimulants MeSH D27.505.696.282.224 --- convulsants MeSH D27.505.696.329 --- emetics MeSH D27.505.696.353 --- ...

*Pregabalin

In clinical studies, pregabalin showed a side effect profile similar to other central nervous system depressants. Adverse drug ... Common (1-10% of patients): blurred vision, diplopia, increased appetite and subsequent weight gain, euphoria, confusion, vivid ...

*Antenatal depression

Reported benefits of medication include returned appetite, feeling of connect, increased mood, increased energy, and better ... anti-depressant medication has been found to be extremely effective in treating antenatal depression. Patients can expect to ...

*Methamphetamine

... may decrease the effects of sedatives and depressants and increase the effects of antidepressants and other ... The physical effects of methamphetamine can include loss of appetite; hyperactivity; dilated pupils ( Mydriasis ); excessive ... Methamphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, dysphoric mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased ... reduce appetite, and promote weight loss. At higher doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle, seizures and ...

*Dantrolene

CNS depressants: Sedative action is potentiated. Benzodiazepines may also cause additive muscle weakness. Combined oral ... Gastrointestinal effects include bad taste, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Liver side ...

*Endocannabinoid system

A recent study conducted with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis found that the endurance of the depressant effects was ... Emerging data suggests that THC acts via CB1 receptors in the hypothalamic nuclei to directly increase appetite. It is thought ... 2-AG and CBD are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management. The endocannabinoid ... Kirkham TC, Tucci SA (2006). "Endocannabinoids in appetite control and the treatment of obesity". CNS Neurol Disord Drug ...

*Dysosmia

There is a loss of appetite because of unpleasant flavor and fear of failing to recognize and consuming spoiled food. A ... Other medications suggested include sedatives, anti-depressants, and anti-epileptic drugs. The medications may or may not work ...

*College health

Alcohol is a depressant used in intoxicating people. It is found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is made when microorganisms ... Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is characterized by low appetite and a strong desire to lose weight, be thin, and ...

*Minor depressive disorder

This treatment includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), anti-depressant medication, and combination therapy. A lot of ... an increase/decrease in appetite can provide clues as well), insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or psychomotor ...

*Separation anxiety in dogs

Dogs can also be treated with psychotropic drugs, such as anti-depressants or anti-anxiety drugs. A recent trend in treatment ... The most common adverse effects related to fluoxetine treatment were decreased appetite, experienced by 23% of the dogs in the ... A study in 2012 tested nelumbinis semen, the seeds of the herb Nelumbo nucifera, and its anti-depressant effects on animals ... Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Hye Jeong; Shim, Insop; Bae, Hyunsu (2012-05-28). "Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis ...

*Ringo Brown

Ringo grows close to Carmella as she treats him as an adult and he helps her to overcome her anti-depressant addiction. After ... When Rosetta catches Ringo using appetite suppressants, she tells Frazer about his condition. After nearly drowning during a ... Rosetta Cammeniti (Natalie Saleeba) catches Ringo taking appetite suppressants, which leaves her upset by the situation. Clark ...

*Kleine-Levin syndrome

Anti-depressants do not prevent recurrence. The frequency of KLS episodes can vary from attacks one week in length occurring ... Excessive appetite (hyperphagia) and unusual cravings are present in half to two thirds of cases. About half of patients, ... In 1815, there was a report of a young man who showed excessive appetite and prolonged sleep after experiencing a fever; this ... Levin noted that some patients displayed an intense appetite in addition to their persistent tiredness. MacDonald Critchley, ...

*Stimulant

The drug has also been used as an appetite suppressant in Europe. Propylhexedrine is not an amphetamine, though it is ... Antipsychotics Depressants Hallucinogens Nootropics Psychoanaleptics Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one ... Khat contains a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone, a "keto-amphetamine", that is said to cause excitement, loss of appetite, ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ...

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Abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, and weight loss. Other potential side effects include ... Stimulants and antidepressants (sedatives and depressants) may increase (decrease) the drug effects of amphetamine, and vice ... Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased ... and loss of appetite. The risk of developing an addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low ...

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Those who use stimulant and depressant drugs are more likely to report adverse reactions from stimulant use, more likely to be ... Include the following: Depression Shaking Feeling unreal Appetite loss Muscle twitching Memory loss Motor impairment Nausea ... the high that benzodiazepines produce or more commonly they are used to either enhance the effects of other CNS depressant ... injecting stimulants and more likely to have been treated for a drug problem than those using stimulant but not depressant ...

*Doxepin

Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the benzodiazepines can cause additive CNS depression. Co-treatment with thyroid ... increased appetite, and weight gain, all were not observed. Clinical evidence of H1 receptor antagonists and TCAs for the ... Alcohol may potentiate some of the CNS depressant effects of doxepin. Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated ... PMC 4027305 . In general, sedating properties of anti-depressant agents are related to antagonism of serotonin 5HT2, histamines ...

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In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives and depressants and increase the effects of stimulants and ... Abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, and weight loss. Other potential side effects include ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... Vicentic A, Jones DC (February 2007). "The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug ...

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In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives and depressants and increase the effects of stimulants and ... Abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, and weight loss. Other potential side effects include ... Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased ...

*Serotonin

It is seen in insect processes in roles similar to in the human central nervous system, such as memory, appetite, sleep, and ... such as fluoxetine and sertraline anti-depressants, inhibit PMAT but at IC50 values which surpass the therapeutic plasma ... When humans smell food, dopamine is released to increase the appetite. But, unlike in worms, serotonin does not increase ... This halts their dopamine release, and thereby serotonin decreases appetite. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors make the body ...

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It was used in the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s as an anti-depressant (under the name Эфедрон-ephedrone). ... and causes appetite suppression.[citation needed] Users can easily forget to consume fluids leading to increased thirst and ...

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Severe headache, restlessness, irritability, loss of appetite, body aches, severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, tremors ... given that morphine is a central nervous system depressant. Morphine has resulted in impaired functioning on critical flicker ... loss of appetite, and the beginning of intestinal cramping[citation needed] Stage IV, 24 h to 36 h after last dose: Increase in ... Recovery of appetite and normal bowel function, beginning of transition to postacute and chronic symptoms that are mainly ...

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Certain depressants can produce euphoria; some of the euphoriant drugs in this class include alcohol in moderate doses, γ- ... Changes in appetite and energy may reflect abnormalities in various hypothalamic nuclei. Depressed mood and anhedonia (lack of ... loss of appetite, shyness, awkwardness ... in the presence of the loved person" (Fisher 1998:32). The presence of similar ...

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The feeling of increased appetite following the use of cannabis has been documented for hundreds of years, and is known ... While many psychoactive drugs clearly fall into the category of either stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen, cannabis ... Scientists have claimed to be able to explain what causes the increase in appetite, concluding that "endocannabinoids in the ... Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC (April 2005). "Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in ...
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Fenproporex (Perphoxene) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which was developed in the 1960s. It is used as an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity. Fenproporex produces amphetamine as a metabolite, and was withdrawn in many countries following problems with abuse, but it is still prescribed in some countries. It is sometimes combined with benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other compounds to create the "Brazilian diet pill". Fenproporex has never been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sale in the US due to lack of efficacy and safety data. However, in March 2009 the FDA warned consumers that it has been detected as an unlabeled component of diet pills available over the Internet. Fenproporex is designated a Schedule IV controlled substance in the US pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act. Fenproporex is on the list of substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and any sportsperson testing positive for the ...
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After the screening period, patients eligible for inclusion/exclusion criteria would administer Sibutramine placebo and Orlistat placebo during 2 weeks of the run-in period, Subsequently, subjects are randomized to 2 groups of the Sibutramine monotherapy group and the Orlistat and Sibutramine combination group. Sibutramine monotherapy group would receive Sibutramine 10mg once daily and Orlistat placebo three times daily for 12 weeks; the Orlistat and Sibutramine combination group would receive Sibutramine 10mg once daily and Orlistat 120mg three times daily for 12 weeks. After completing the dosing period, the occurrence of adverse events would be checked for 4 weeks and the study would be completed.. Body weight, abdominal CT(Computed Tomography)(visceral fat examination), body fat analysis, etc. would be measured before the study initiation and after 14 weeks of treatment, and comparatively analyzed. A two sample t-test is conducted for the inter-group comparison and a paired t-rest is ...
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supplements are touted for curbing your appetite. But is it really possible to do that? Researchers at Columbia University did a study on the nucleus incumbens and. its role in binge eating. The Nucleus incumbens is in the limbic system and. it controls mood and. feelings of satiation, including feeling "full". In the research they injected opioids into rats. The ones who had opioids injected ate 3 times as much fatty foods.. The result of the study showed that nucleus incumbens only controlled appetite AFTER they were full. This means that appetite suppressing supplements, should only work for preventing overeating, only after you first have become full. But is this really true? Everyone who has tried stimulants such as ephedrine have noticed a appetite suppressing effect. Some possible theories of mine on why this may be the case is that perhaps this study is faulty, or it only works in rats, or Ephedrine works in some other part of the brain or body to suppress appetite.. ...
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This is the courts approval of the settlement in the Fen-Phen class action products liability case. The very long opinion details the history of the drugs, the procedural background of the litigation, the evidence as presented by parties in their motions before the court, and the rationale for approving the settlement. This litigation involves claims regarding the health effects of two related prescription drugs - fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine. Fenfluramine is an appetite suppressant that affects blood levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Dexfenfluramine, the d-isomer of fenfluramine, is chemically related to fenfluramine and acts as an appetite suppressant by stimulating the release of serotonin from nerve cells in the brain and by reducing the reuptake of the released serotonin. In 1973, The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved A.H. Robins, Inc.s new drug application to market fenfluramine in the United States. After the Dalkon Shield litigation settlement, ...
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Université de Bordeaux II, USN du Haut-Leveque, Pessac, France We study the regulation of motivated behavior, such as appetite. In a study fundamental for understanding ingestion, we showed that drinking is an integrated component of meal taking in rats, a finding that redefined what a meal is. Using the meal model, we discovered that leptin and fenfluramine suppress appetite through different behavioral mechanisms, as had been suggested by clinical experience but not reproduced in animal models. The model opens the way for differentiating appetite suppressants according to modes of action and perhaps for identifying those that act as long-term, and not only short-term, signals of energy balance. One goal of our group is to understand the influence of stress and stress-related peptides, such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the urocortins, on motivated behavior. We found that CNS infusion of urocortin 2, a selective CRF2 receptor agonist, reduced intake of a palatable cafeteria diet, ...
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A serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent (SNRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin and norepinephrine (and epinephrine) in the body and/or brain. Only a few SNRAs are known, examples of which include norfenfluramine and MBDB. Fenfluramine/phentermine (Fen-Phen), a combination formulation of fenfluramine, a serotonin releasing agent, and phentermine, a norepinephrine releasing agent, is a functional SNRA that was formerly used as an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity. A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Monoamine releasing agent Serotonin releasing agent Norepinephrine releasing agent Serotonin-dopamine releasing agent Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing ...
Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first. This drug should not be used with certain medications because very serious interactions may occur. If you are taking or have taken other appetite-suppressant drugs in the past year (e.g., phentermine, sibutramine, ephedra/ma huang), tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting this medication. Avoid taking MAO inhibitors (e.g., furazolidone, isocarboxazid, linezolid, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine) within 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment with phendimetrazine. In some cases a serious (possibly fatal) drug interaction may occur. If you are currently using any of these medications, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting this medication. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and ...
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Appetite Depressants (15) • Agents that are used to suppress appetite. MeSH. Appetite Stimulants (2) • Agents that are used to ... stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS. MeSH ...
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Appetite Depressants (15) • Agents that are used to suppress appetite. MeSH. Appetite Stimulants (2) • Agents that are used to ... stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS. MeSH ...
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Opitz, K.; Kemper, F.; Loeser, A. (1965). "Comparative Study of the Anorexigenic Potency of some Appetite Depressants". ... Opitz, K. (1965). "[Natriuretic and Diuretic Effect of Appetite Depressant Amphetamine Derivatives]". Klinische Wochenschrift ( ...
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  • The term is (from the Greek ἀν- (an-) = "without" and ὄρεξις (órexis) = "appetite"), and such drugs are also known as anorexigenic , anorexiant , or appetite suppressant . (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, association of the related appetite suppressant phenylpropanolamine with hemorrhagic stroke led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to request its withdrawal from the market in the United States in 2000, and similar concerns regarding ephedrine resulted in an FDA ban on its inclusion in dietary supplements in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are listed as appetite depressants by MeSH , an index of medical journal articles and books. (wikipedia.org)