Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic
Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4
A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss. (1/863)The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted. (+info)
Effect of postweaning feeding on the performance and energy balance of female rabbits at different physiological states. (2/863)The feeding of a high-fiber and low-energy diet to young rabbit does from weaning to the first kindling was used to modify their body reserves, stimulate their energy intake, and reduce the energy deficit during the first lactation. Rabbits (53 per group) were given ad libitum access to either a control or high-fiber diet (CP, 17.6 vs 15.8% of DM; crude fiber, 15.5 vs 19.9% of DM; digestible energy, 2,565 vs 2,261 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) from weaning to their first kindling. During lactation, both groups received the same diet, which contained 19.3% CP, 16.5% crude fiber, and 2,634 kcal/kg digestible energy (dry matter basis). Four comparative slaughters were performed to estimate the chemical and energy balance of rabbit does at different physiological states: at the beginning of the trial (12 rabbits, 45 d of age), at mating (10 rabbits per group, 136 d), at kindling (10 rabbits per group, 167 d), and at the end of lactation (12 and 11 rabbits for the control and the high-fiber group, 197 d). Large changes in body weight and composition were observed between slaughters. From 45 d to mating, doe body fat and energy increased 7.93 and 4.64 times the initial content, respectively. During pregnancy, body protein concentration decreased from 203 to 186 g/kg. At the end of lactation, body fat and energy concentration were reduced to values close to those measured at 45 d of age. Dietary treatment affected body chemical and energy balance during pregnancy and lactation but not reproductive and lactational performance. The high-fiber diet stimulated feed intake from weaning to the first kindling but not dietary energy intake. During lactation, the rabbits fed the high-fiber diet ate 10 kcal x d(-1) x kg live weight(-.75) more and lost less body fat (-405 vs -504 g) and body energy (-3,628 vs -4,294 kcal) than the does fed the control diet (P < .001). In the same period, all does showed water and protein retention (185 and 45 g, on average) regardless of dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding young does a high-fiber diet until their first kindling reduced the chemical and energy body deficit at the end of the first lactation. (+info)
Effects of age on concentrations of plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide YY and their relation to appetite and pyloric motility. (3/863)BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a decrease in appetite and a slowing of gastric emptying. The gastrointestinal hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) may mediate these changes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether aging influenced the secretion of CCK, GLP-1, and PYY and their effects on appetite and pyloric motility. DESIGN: Eight healthy older (65-80 y) and 7 younger (20-34 y) men received isoenergetic (12.1 kJ/min) intraduodenal infusions of lipid and glucose for 120 min on separate days. Plasma CCK, GLP-1, and PYY concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Plasma CCK concentrations were higher in older than in younger subjects (P = 0.004) as a result of higher baseline values (4.7+/-0.2 compared with 3.2+/-0.2 pmol/L; P < 0.0001) and a greater rise during lipid infusion (increase from baseline: 7.1+/-0.5 compared with 5.3+/-0.6 pmol/L; P = 0.048). Plasma GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were not significantly different between groups. The decrease in hunger during intraduodenal lipid infusion was inversely related to the increase in CCK, GLP-1, and PYY in younger but not older subjects. During intraduodenal lipid infusion, the increase in isolated pyloric pressure wave (IPPW) frequency was positively related to GLP-1 and PYY and the increase in IPPW amplitude was positively related to CCK in older but not younger subjects, whereas the increase in IPPW amplitude and pyloric tone was negatively related to GLP-1 and PYY in younger subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Human aging is associated with increased CCK concentrations, which may contribute to the slowing of gastric emptying, mediated by increased pyloric motility. The role of increased plasma CCK concentrations in mediating the age-related decrease in appetite remains to be established. (+info)
Sodium depletion and aldosterone decrease dopamine transporter activity in nucleus accumbens but not striatum. (4/863)Motivated behaviors, including sodium (Na) appetite, are correlated with increased dopamine (DA) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). DA transporter (DAT) modulation affects DA transmission and may play a role in motivated behaviors. In vivo Na depletion, which reliably induces Na appetite, was correlated with robust decreases in DA uptake via the DAT in the rat NAc with rotating disk electrode voltammetry [1,277 +/- 162 vs. 575 +/- 89 pmol. s-1. g-1; Vmax of transport for control vs. Na-depleted tissue]. Plasma aldosterone (Aldo) levels increase after in vivo Na depletion and contribute to Na appetite. Decreased DAT activity in the NAc was observed after in vitro Aldo treatment (428 +/- 28 vs. 300 +/- 25 pmol. s-1. g-1). Neither treatment affected DAT activity in the striatum. These results suggest that a direct action of Aldo is one possible mechanism by which Na depletion induces a reduction in DAT activity in the NAc. Reduced DAT activity may play a role in generating increased NAc DA transmission during Na appetite, which may underlie the motivating properties of Na for the Na-depleted rat. (+info)
Roles of aldosterone and angiotensin in maturation of sodium appetite in furosemide-treated rats. (5/863)When rats are treated with furosemide, there is a rapid natriuresis. However, increased sodium appetite does not occur until some time later. One hypothesis to explain this delay is that increased circulating levels of the hormones of sodium depletion prime or sensitize the brain circuits involved in sodium appetite, perhaps by induction of target gene(s). In the present study, we describe the time course of the temporal maturation of sodium appetite after furosemide treatment and the associated changes in plasma levels of ANG II and aldosterone and in plasma volume. Sodium appetite is modest 3 h after furosemide treatment, is increased after 12 h, and is still larger after 24 h. This pattern is evident with repeated testing. Plasma levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity are substantially increased 3 h after furosemide treatment, and so the NaCl appetite cannot result simply from progressively increasing levels of these hormones. Furthermore, activation of the subfornical organ and the ventral lamina terminalis, assessed with c-Fos immunocytochemistry, did not differ across these three times. Metyrapone, an inhibitor of adrenal steroid synthesis, was used to examine sodium appetite in the absence of elevations in aldosterone after furosemide treatment. Although metyrapone effectively blocked the increase in aldosterone, it was without effect on the appetite 3 or 24 h after furosemide treatment. Furthermore, elevations of plasma aldosterone by the use of minipumps for several days before furosemide treatment did not prime or potentiate but instead tended to inhibit the induced sodium appetite, despite achieving levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity typically associated with a robust sodium appetite. Infusions of DOCA gave a similar result. Lastly, minipump infusions of ANG II also did not potentiate sodium appetite. Thus neither addition nor subtraction of these hormones alone influenced sodium appetite under these conditions. (+info)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. (6/863)Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis. Recent experimental evidence in animals and healthy subjects suggests that GLP-1 has a role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. We have therefore examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 12 patients with diabetes type 2 the effect of intravenously infused GLP-1 on appetite sensations and energy intake. On 2 days, either saline or GLP-1 (1.5 pmol. kg-1. min-1) was given throughout the experiment. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite sensations; furthermore, food and fluid intake of a test meal were recorded, and blood was sampled for analysis of plasma glucose and hormone levels. GLP-1 infusion enhanced satiety and fullness compared with placebo (P = 0.028 for fullness and P = 0.026 for hunger feelings). Energy intake was reduced by 27% by GLP-1 (P = 0.034) compared with saline. The results demonstrate a marked effect of GLP-1 on appetite by showing enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake in patients with diabetes type 2. (+info)
Neuropeptide Y restores appetite and alters concentrations of GH after central administration to endotoxic sheep. (7/863)The objective of this study was to determine whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) and recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) would: first, increase food intake; secondly, decrease concentrations of GH; thirdly, reduce GHRH-induced release of GH; and fourthly, reduce changes to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma during experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Six treatments were given to six castrated male sheep in a 6x6 Latin square treatment order. Osmotic mini-pumps were implanted at 0 h and a jugular vein was cannulated. Each sheep was continuously infused with saline (0.9%) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 micrograms/kg per 24 h, s.c.) at 10 microliters/h for 72 h via the osmotic mini-pumps. Blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 15-min intervals from 24 to 33 h. At 26 h, one of three treatments (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, NPY or IL-1ra) was injected i.c.v. within 30 s (0.3 microgram/kg), then infused i.c.v. from 26 to 33 h (600 microliters/h) at 0.3 microgram/kg per h. GHRH was injected i.v. (0.075 microgram/kg) at 32 h after which blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Feed intake was reduced up to 50% for 48 h in LPS-treated compared with non-LPS-treated sheep. NPY restored feed intake in LPS-treated sheep and induced hyperphagia in non-LPS-treated sheep from 24 to 48 h. In contrast, IL-1ra did not affect appetite. Injection of NPY increased concentrations of GH from 26 to 27 h, while IL-1ra had no effect. Infusion of NPY suppressed GHRH-induced release of GH. However, no treatment altered pulse secretion parameters of GH. Concentrations of IGF-I were 20% higher at 72 h in LPS-treated sheep given NPY than in sheep treated with LPS alone, and this may reflect increased appetite from 24 to 48 h. We concluded that reduced appetite during endotoxemia is due to down-regulation of an NPY-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, NPY stimulates release of GH in healthy sheep, does not reduce pulse secretion parameters of GH, but does suppress GHRH-induced release of GH in endotoxic sheep. Therefore, NPY may be an important neurotransmitter linking appetite with regulation of GH during endotoxemic and healthy states in sheep. (+info)
Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats. (8/863)In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment. (+info)
Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It is primarily produced by cells in the stomach called ghrelin cells, which are stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach. Ghrelin is released into the bloodstream in response to fasting and low blood sugar levels, and it signals the brain to increase appetite and stimulate the release of growth hormone. In addition to its role in appetite regulation, ghrelin has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the body's response to stress.
Anorexia is a mental health disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, leading to a distorted body image and a restrictive eating behavior. People with anorexia often have a significantly lower body weight than is considered healthy for their age, sex, and height. They may also engage in extreme behaviors such as purging (e.g., vomiting, using laxatives), excessive exercise, or fasting to try to lose weight or maintain their low body weight. Anorexia can have serious physical and mental health consequences, including malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, and depression or anxiety. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medical care, and nutritional counseling.
Peptide YY (PYY) is a hormone that is produced by the gastrointestinal tract in response to the presence of food in the stomach and small intestine. It is also produced by the pancreas and the central nervous system. PYY plays a role in regulating appetite and satiety, meaning it helps to control hunger and fullness. It is released in response to the presence of nutrients in the bloodstream, and it signals to the brain that the body has received enough food and does not need to eat more. PYY has also been shown to have other effects on the body, including reducing blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, and decreasing inflammation. As a result, PYY has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Peptide hormones are a type of hormone that are composed of chains of amino acids. They are synthesized in the endocrine glands and are released into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions. Peptide hormones are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and the regulation of the body's response to stress. Examples of peptide hormones include insulin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. These hormones act on specific receptors in target cells to produce their effects, and they are often regulated by feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body.
Diethylpropion is a stimulant medication that is used to treat obesity. It works by increasing the body's metabolic rate and reducing appetite. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is similar to amphetamines, but with a shorter duration of action. Diethylpropion is available in tablet form and is usually taken three times a day, with or without food. It is important to note that diethylpropion should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It helps to signal the brain when the body has enough energy stores and can therefore reduce hunger and increase energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a role in regulating the body's immune system and has been linked to a number of other physiological processes, including reproduction and bone health. In the medical field, leptin is often studied in relation to obesity and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the treatment of these conditions.
Fenfluramine is a medication that was previously used to treat obesity. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine, which can help to suppress appetite and increase feelings of fullness. Fenfluramine was also sometimes used in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, to create the weight loss medication Redux. However, fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market in 1997 due to concerns about its potential cardiovascular side effects, including valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. It is now considered a controlled substance and is only available under certain circumstances, such as in clinical trials or for the treatment of certain rare conditions.
Gastrointestinal hormones are chemical messengers produced by cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that regulate various functions of the digestive system, including appetite, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. These hormones are secreted in response to various stimuli, such as the presence of food in the stomach or the stretching of the gut wall. Some examples of gastrointestinal hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin. Gastrin stimulates the production of stomach acid and the release of digestive enzymes, while secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate the release of bile from the liver and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Ghrelin, on the other hand, is involved in regulating appetite and energy balance. Gastrointestinal hormones play a crucial role in maintaining the normal functioning of the digestive system and are often studied in the context of various digestive disorders, such as gastrointestinal ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced by cells in the small intestine and the pancreas. It plays a role in regulating the digestive process by stimulating the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. CCK also helps to slow down the movement of food through the small intestine, allowing more time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition to its role in digestion, CCK has been found to have other functions in the body, including the regulation of appetite and the control of blood sugar levels.
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. It plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and inhibiting the release of glucagon, another hormone that raises blood sugar levels. GLP-1 also has other effects on the body, including slowing down the rate at which food is digested and absorbed, reducing appetite, and promoting weight loss. It is also involved in the regulation of the digestive system and the cardiovascular system. In the medical field, GLP-1 is used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. It is administered as a medication, either through injection or inhalation, and works by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin and reducing the amount of glucagon that is released. This helps to lower blood sugar levels and improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
Cachexia is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by unintentional weight loss, muscle wasting, and fatigue. It is often associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and kidney disease. In cachexia, the body's metabolism is disrupted, leading to a breakdown of muscle tissue and fat stores. This can result in a loss of muscle mass, which can impair physical function and make it difficult for patients to perform daily activities. Additionally, cachexia can cause fatigue, weakness, and anemia, which can further exacerbate the patient's condition. Cachexia is a serious condition that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life and prognosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disease and providing nutritional support to help prevent further muscle wasting and weight loss.
Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions. It is a white, odorless, crystalline powder that is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and chloroform. Megestrol acetate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injections. In the medical field, megestrol acetate is primarily used to treat anorexia, cachexia (wasting away), and breast cancer in women. It is also used to treat advanced prostate cancer in men and to stimulate appetite and increase weight gain in people with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or other conditions that cause weight loss. Megestrol acetate works by binding to progesterone receptors in the body, which can help to increase appetite, reduce nausea and vomiting, and stimulate weight gain. Megestrol acetate can cause side effects, including fluid retention, swelling, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding. It may also increase the risk of blood clots, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Megestrol acetate is not recommended for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding, as it may harm the developing fetus or newborn.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. It is one of the most widely distributed neuropeptides in the brain and body, and it plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and mood regulation. In the brain, NPY is primarily produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in regulating hunger and metabolism. NPY is also produced by neurons in other regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which are involved in emotional regulation and reward processing. NPY acts on a number of different receptors in the brain and body, including Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and Y6 receptors. These receptors are found on a variety of different cell types, including neurons, immune cells, and smooth muscle cells. Activation of NPY receptors can have a wide range of effects, depending on the specific receptor that is activated and the cell type that expresses it. In the medical field, NPY and its receptors are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and addiction. For example, drugs that block NPY receptors have been shown to reduce appetite and body weight in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for obesity and related conditions in humans. Similarly, drugs that activate NPY receptors have been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for anxiety and depression in humans.
Phentermine is a medication that is used to treat obesity. It is a stimulant that works by suppressing appetite and increasing energy levels. It is typically prescribed to people who are obese and have other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes. Phentermine is usually taken in combination with a low-calorie diet and regular exercise to help people lose weight. It is important to note that phentermine can have side effects, such as increased heart rate, insomnia, and dry mouth, and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Agouti-Related Protein (AGRP) is a neuropeptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates appetite, metabolism, and body weight. AGRP is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance, and it is thought to play a role in the development of obesity and related disorders. AGRP is synthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into smaller peptides, including AGRP and the related peptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). These peptides are released into the bloodstream and act on specific receptors in the brain and other organs to regulate appetite, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In the medical field, AGRP is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of obesity and related disorders. For example, drugs that block the action of AGRP or its receptors may be effective in reducing appetite and promoting weight loss. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of AGRP in the development of obesity and to develop safe and effective treatments for this condition.
Hyperphagia is a medical condition characterized by an excessive appetite or an uncontrollable desire to eat. People with hyperphagia feel an intense urge to eat, even when they are not hungry, and may eat large amounts of food in a short period of time. This can lead to weight gain and obesity, as well as other health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Hyperphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, neurological disorders, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, which is a genetic disorder that affects appetite and metabolism. Treatment for hyperphagia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help control appetite and weight. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals develop healthy eating habits and manage their weight.
"Sodium, Dietary" refers to the amount of sodium (also known as sodium chloride) that is consumed in a person's diet. Sodium is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating blood pressure. However, excessive intake of sodium can lead to health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. In the medical field, dietary sodium intake is often measured in milligrams (mg) per day. The recommended daily intake of sodium for adults is around 2,300 mg per day, although some people may need less or more depending on their age, sex, health status, and other factors. The American Heart Association recommends that adults aim for a sodium intake of no more than 1,500 mg per day to reduce the risk of high blood pressure and other health problems. Monitoring dietary sodium intake is important for managing conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and heart failure. Healthcare providers may recommend sodium-restricted diets for patients with these conditions, and may also recommend monitoring sodium intake through dietary records or other methods.
Furosemide is a medication that is used to treat fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure (hypertension). It is a type of diuretic, which means that it increases the amount of urine that the body produces. This helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the body and lower blood pressure. Furosemide is also used to treat heart failure, liver disease, and some types of kidney disease. It is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given intravenously (by injection into a vein). Furosemide is a relatively potent diuretic and can cause side effects such as dehydration, low blood pressure, and electrolyte imbalances. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to let them know if you experience any side effects while taking furosemide.
Dexfenfluramine is a psychoactive drug that was previously used as an appetite suppressant and weight loss aid. It is a serotonin-releasing agent and acts on the central nervous system to reduce appetite and increase metabolism. Dexfenfluramine was marketed under the brand name "Redux" and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. However, in 1997, the FDA issued a warning about the potential cardiovascular risks associated with dexfenfluramine when used in combination with fenfluramine, another appetite suppressant. The combination of the two drugs was found to increase the risk of heart valve damage, pulmonary hypertension, and other serious cardiovascular problems. As a result, the FDA banned the use of dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine in combination, and Redux was withdrawn from the market. Since then, dexfenfluramine has not been approved for use in any medical setting, and its use is generally discouraged due to the potential for serious side effects.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that is synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. It is a large protein that is cleaved into several smaller peptides, including α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone), β-endorphin, and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). In the medical field, POMC and its cleavage products are important for regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and immune function. For example, α-MSH is involved in the regulation of skin pigmentation and the body's response to stress, while β-endorphin is a natural painkiller that is involved in the body's response to stress and pain. Abnormalities in the production or function of POMC and its cleavage products can lead to various medical conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, POMC and its cleavage products are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field, with the goal of developing new treatments for these conditions.
In the medical field, weight loss refers to a decrease in body weight as a result of various factors, including diet, exercise, medication, or surgery. Weight loss is often used as a treatment for obesity, which is a medical condition characterized by excessive body fat that can lead to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Weight loss can also be used as a treatment for other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and sleep apnea. In some cases, weight loss may be recommended as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. It is important to note that weight loss should be achieved through a healthy and sustainable approach, such as a balanced diet and regular exercise, rather than through crash diets or extreme measures that can be harmful to the body. Medical professionals can provide guidance and support to help individuals achieve safe and effective weight loss.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
In the medical field, weight gain refers to an increase in body weight over a period of time. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including changes in diet, lack of physical activity, hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain can be measured in kilograms or pounds and is typically expressed as a percentage of body weight. A healthy weight gain is generally considered to be 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week, while an excessive weight gain may be defined as more than 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week over a period of several weeks or months. In some cases, weight gain may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, such as diabetes or heart disease. Therefore, it is important to monitor weight changes and consult with a healthcare provider if weight gain is a concern.
The Melanocortin Type 4 Receptor (MC4R) is a protein that is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, adipose tissue, and muscle. It is a member of the melanocortin receptor family, which also includes the MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, and MC5R receptors. The MC4R plays a critical role in regulating energy balance and body weight. It is activated by the hormone melanocortin-4, which is produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Activation of the MC4R can lead to a decrease in appetite, an increase in energy expenditure, and a reduction in body fat storage. Mutations in the MC4R gene have been associated with several disorders of obesity and related conditions, including Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alström syndrome. These mutations can lead to a loss of function of the MC4R receptor, resulting in an inability to regulate appetite and energy expenditure properly. In the medical field, the MC4R is a target for the development of drugs to treat obesity and related conditions. However, the use of MC4R agonists or antagonists can also have side effects, such as increased heart rate, hypertension, and anxiety, and therefore require careful monitoring and management.
In the medical field, dietary carbohydrates refer to the carbohydrates that are consumed as part of a person's diet. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (along with protein and fat) that provide energy to the body. They are found in a variety of foods, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Dietary carbohydrates are classified into two main types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Examples of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables. The amount and type of carbohydrates that a person consumes can have a significant impact on their health. Consuming too many simple carbohydrates, particularly those that are high in added sugars, can contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. On the other hand, consuming adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates can provide important nutrients and fiber that are essential for good health.
Receptors, Ghrelin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that is produced by the stomach and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. When ghrelin binds to its receptors, it can stimulate hunger and increase food intake. The receptors for ghrelin are found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including the brain, the pancreas, and the fat cells.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Eating disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits that significantly interfere with a person's physical health and well-being. Eating disorders can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, genders, and body types. The three most common eating disorders are: 1. Anorexia nervosa: A severe and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even when underweight. People with anorexia often restrict their food intake, exercise excessively, and may use laxatives or other methods to lose weight. 2. Bulimia nervosa: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting or using laxatives, to compensate for the overeating. People with bulimia may also engage in other compensatory behaviors, such as excessive exercise or fasting. 3. Binge eating disorder: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, which are marked by a lack of control over eating and a feeling of a loss of control during the binge. People with binge eating disorder may also feel a sense of shame or guilt after a binge episode. Other eating disorders include avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, pica, and rumination disorder. Eating disorders can have serious physical and mental health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, depression, anxiety, and even death. Treatment for eating disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medical care, and nutritional counseling.
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