A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A condition characterized by poorly-circumscribed gelatinous masses filled with malignant mucin-secreting cells. Forty-five percent of pseudomyxomas arise from the ovary, usually in a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (CYSTADENOCARCINOMA, MUCINOUS), which has prognostic significance. Pseudomyxoma peritonei must be differentiated from mucinous spillage into the peritoneum by a benign mucocele of the appendix. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
A groin hernia occurring inferior to the inguinal ligament and medial to the FEMORAL VEIN and FEMORAL ARTERY. The femoral hernia sac has a small neck but may enlarge considerably when it enters the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. It is caused by defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.

Extrathymic derivation of gut lymphocytes in parabiotic mice. (1/269)

In adult mice, c-kit+ stem cells have recently been found in their liver, intestine and appendix, where extrathymic T cells are generated. A major population of such thymus-independent subsets among intraepithelial lymphocytes is T-cell receptor (TCR)gamma delta+ CD4- CD8alpha alpha+(beta-) cells, but the origins of other lymphocyte subsets are still controversial. In this study, we examined what type of lymphocyte subsets were produced in situ by such stem cells in the small intestine, large intestine and appendix. To investigate this subject, we used parabiotic B6.Ly5.1 and B5.Ly5. 2 mice which shared the same circulation by day 3. The origin of lymphocytes was identified by anti-Ly5.1 and anti-Ly5.2 monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Lymphocytes in Peyer's patches and lamina propria lymphocytes (especially B cells and CD4+ T cells) in the small intestine became a half-and-half mixture of Ly5.1+ and Ly5.2+ cells in each individual of parabiotic pairs of mice by day 14. However, the mixture was low in CD8alpha alpha+, CD8alpha beta+ and gamma delta T cells in the small and large intestines and in CD3+ CD8+ B220+ cells in the appendix. These cells might be of the in situ origin. When one individual of a pair was irradiated before parabiosis, the mixture of partner cells was accelerated. However, a low-mixture group always continued to show a lower mixture pattern than did a high-mixture group. The present results suggest that extrathymic T cells in the digestive tract may arise from their own pre-existing precursor cells and remain longer at the corresponding sites.  (+info)

Enrichment of c-kit+ Lin- haemopoietic progenitor cells that commit themselves to extrathymic T cells in in vitro culture of appendix mononuclear cells. (2/269)

The appendix as well as the small intestine have recently been found to carry c-kit+ stem cells which give rise to extrathymic T cells. In this study, the properties of c-kit+ stem cells in the appendix of mice were further characterized. When appendix mononuclear cells (MNC) were cultured in the presence of stem cell factor, interleukin-3, interleukin-6 and erythropoietin on a methylcellulose culture plate, the population of c-kitdull Lin- and that of c-kithi Lin- cells expanded. Morphological study revealed that these c-kithi Lin- cells were basophilic granular cells (possibly mast cells). Both populations of cultured appendix MNC were then injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice or cultured with Tst-4 thymic stroma cells. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that c-kitdull Lin- cells were oligopotent haemopoietic progenitor cells which gave rise to extrathymic T cells, while c-kithi Lin- cells lacked haemopoietic progenitor cell activity. In contrast to c-kit+ stem cells in the bone marrow, those in the appendix did not give rise to myeloid cells and conventional thymic T cells under any of the conditions tested. The present results suggest that the appendix primarily comprises c-kit+ cells which give rise to basophilic granular cells and extrathymic T cells and that such c-kit+ cells have the ability to replicate themselves in culture in vitro.  (+info)

Hematuria: an unusual presentation for mucocele of the appendix. Case report and review of the literature. (3/269)

Mucocele of the appendix is a nonspecific term that is used to describe an appendix abnormally distended with mucus. This may be the result of either neoplastic or non-neopleastic causes and may present like most appendiceal pathology with either mild abdominal pain or life-threatening peritonitis. Urologic manifestations of mucocele of the appendix have rarely been reported. Laparoscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool in equivocal cases. Conversion to laparotomy may be indicated if there is a special concern for the ability to remove the appendix intact or if more extensive resection is warranted, as in malignancy. We here report our experience with a woman presenting with hematuria whose ultimate diagnosis was mucocele of the appendix, and we review the appropriate literature. This case highlights the mucocele as a consideration in the differential diagnosis of appendiceal pathology and serves to remind the surgeon of the importance for careful intact removal of the diseased appendix.  (+info)

Carcinoid of the appendix during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: unexpected benefits. (4/269)

Carcinoid tumors of the midgut arise from the distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, ascending and right transverse colon. The appendix and terminal ileum are the most common location. The majority of carcinoid tumors originate from neuroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract, but they are also found in the lung, ovary, and biliary tracts. We report the first case of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in which we found a suspicious lesion at the tip of the appendix and proceeded to perform a laparoscopic appendectomy. The lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor of the appendix.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel transcript of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase 1 with a tissue-specific profile of expression. (5/269)

The enzyme prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) has a pivotal role in the prostanoid biosynthetic pathway because it catalyses the formation of prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)), the common precursor of prostanoids. Two PGHS isoforms have been reported, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2, which have 61% identity (at the amino acid level) and 73% similarity (at the nucleotide level) between the two human enzymes. Transcription of the PGHS-1 gene leads to the formation of two transcripts (2.8 and 5.1 kb); two transcripts of 2.8 and 4.5 kb are produced from the PGHS-2 gene. By Northern blot analysis with the entire coding region of human PGHS-1, 2.8 and 5.1 kb transcripts as well as a novel 4.5 kb transcript were detected in the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01. We designed a strategy to characterize the 4.5 kb PGHS transcript. Probes specific for each PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 were designed on the basis of the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), where no similarity is present. The 4.5 kb transcript was detected only with the PGHS-1-specific 3' UTR probes and not with the PGHS-2-specific 3' UTR probe. To investigate the origin of the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript, the remaining 947 bp of the 5.1 kb PGHS-1 transcript was generated by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RACE) and sequenced. A non-canonical polyadenylation signal (AAGAAA) located upstream of a potential cleavage site (CA) was found and could generate the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript. Analysis of the sequence also produced several possible G/U-rich elements downstream of the potential cleavage site. An RNA dot-blot with 50 different human tissues was probed with the 4.5 and 5.1 kb PGHS-1-specific probes. A signal for the 4.5 kb PGHS-1 transcript was detected in the bladder and appendix. Signals of lower intensity were detected in the colon, bone marrow, small intestine, uterus, prostate, peripheral leucocyte, lymph node and stomach. In conclusion, our results suggest that the cell line MEG-01, the bladder and the appendix contain a new PGHS-1 transcript of 4.5 kb that can be produced from the PGHS-1 gene and we provide a better strategy for distinguishing PGHS-1 transcripts from PGHS-2.  (+info)

ICBP90, a novel human CCAAT binding protein, involved in the regulation of topoisomerase IIalpha expression. (6/269)

The one-hybrid system with an inverted CCAAT box as the DNA target sequence was used to identify proteins acting on key DNA sequences of the promoter of the topoisomerase IIalpha gene. Screening of cDNA libraries from the leukemia Jurkat cell line and from the adult human thymus resulted in the isolation of a novel protein of 793 amino acids (89,758 Da). This protein has in vitro CCAAT binding properties and has been called ICBP90. Adult thymus, fetal thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow, known as active tissues in terms of cell proliferation, are the tissues richest in ICBP90 mRNA. In contrast, highly differentiated tissues and cells such as the central nervous system and peripheral leukocytes are free of ICBP90 mRNA. Western blotting experiments showed a simultaneous expression of topoisomerase IIalpha and ICBP90 in proliferating human lung fibroblasts. Simultaneous expression of both proteins has also been observed in HeLa cells, but in both proliferating and confluent cells. Overexpression of ICBP90 in COS-1-transfected cells induced an enhanced expression of endogenous topoisomerase IIalpha. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that topoisomerase IIalpha and ICBP90 were coexpressed in proliferating areas of paraffin-embedded human appendix tissues and in high-grade breast carcinoma tissues. We have identified ICBP90, which is a novel CCAAT binding protein, and our results suggest that it may be involved in topoisomerase IIalpha expression. ICBP90 may also be useful as a new proliferation marker for cancer tissues.  (+info)

Assessment of the prevalence of vCJD through testing tonsils and appendices for abnormal prion protein. (7/269)

The objective of this study was to determine the age group or groups which will provide the most information on the potential size of the vCJD epidemic in Great Britain via the sampling of tonsil and appendix material to detect the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)). A subsidiary aim was to determine the degree to which such an anonymous age-stratified testing programme will reduce current uncertainties in the size of the epidemic in future years. A cohort- and time-stratified model was used to generate epidemic scenarios consistent with the observed vCJD case incidence. These scenarios, together with data on the age distribution of tonsillectomies and appendectomies, were used to evaluate the optimal age group and calendar time for undertaking testing and to calculate the range of epidemic sizes consistent with different outcomes. The analyses suggested that the optimal five-year age group to test is 25-29 years, although a random sample of appendix tissue from all age groups is nearly as informative. A random sample of tonsil tissue from all age groups is less informative, but the information content is improved if sampling is restricted to tissues removed from those over ten years of age. Based on the assumption that the test is able to detect infection in the last 75% of the incubation period, zero detected infections in an initial random sample of 1000 tissues would suggest that the epidemic will be less than 870,000 cases. If infections are detected, then the model prediction suggests that both relatively small epidemics (800+ cases if one is detected or 8300+ if two are detected) and larger epidemics (21,000+ cases if three or more are detected) are possible. It was concluded that testing will be most informative if undertaken using appendix tissues or tonsil tissues removed from those over ten years of age. Large epidemics can only be excluded if a small number of infections are detected and the test is able to detect infection early in the incubation period.  (+info)

The coexistence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix and appendiceal diverticula: a possible role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. (8/269)

We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or without diverticula. Medical records were reviewed for multiple parameters, including presenting symptoms, presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei, and presence of associated malignancies. Binomial statistics were used to calculate the probability that the observed prevalence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together was significantly different from the expected prevalence of diverticula or low-grade mucinous neoplasms alone, using historical controls from the literature. Twenty-five percent of the total cases (8 of 32) contained both a low-grade mucinous neoplasm (7 cystadenomas and 1 mucinous tumor of unknown malignant potential) and a diverticulum. Thus, 8 of 19 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (42%) were associated with diverticula. Of the appendices with both low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula, three contained dissecting acellular mucin within the appendiceal wall, four showed diverticular perforation, and one had pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with the ruptured diverticulum. A significant percentage (P < .001) of cases contained low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together. The case of coexistent low-grade mucinous neoplasm, diverticulum, and pseudomyxoma peritonei suggests that diverticula could play a role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. This could occur either by involvement of preexisting diverticula by the neoplasm or by distention of the appendiceal lumen by mucin, leading to increased intraluminal pressure and subsequent diverticulum formation at a weak area in the wall. Either mechanism might allow low-grade mucinous neoplasms to penetrate the appendiceal wall more easily.  (+info)

The appendix is a small, tube-like structure that projects from the large intestine, located in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. Its function in humans is not well understood and is often considered vestigial, meaning it no longer serves a necessary purpose. However, in some animals, the appendix plays a role in the immune system. Inflammation of the appendix, known as appendicitis, can cause severe abdominal pain and requires medical attention, often leading to surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy).

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

An appendectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vermiform appendix is removed. This procedure is performed when a patient has appendicitis, which is an inflammation of the appendix that can lead to serious complications such as peritonitis or sepsis if not treated promptly. The surgery can be done as an open procedure, in which a single incision is made in the lower right abdomen, or as a laparoscopic procedure, in which several small incisions are made and specialized instruments are used to remove the appendix. In some cases, if the appendix has burst, a more extensive surgery may be required to clean out the abdominal cavity.

Appendicitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix, a small finger-like structure that projects from the colon located in the lower right abdomen. The appendix doesn't have a known function, and its removal (appendectomy) does not appear to affect a person's health.

The inflammation of the appendix can be caused by various factors, such as obstruction due to hardened stool, foreign bodies, or tumors. The blockage can lead to increased pressure within the appendix, reduced blood flow, and bacterial growth, resulting in infection and inflammation. If left untreated, appendicitis can progress to peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) or even sepsis, a life-threatening condition.

Common symptoms of appendicitis include:

* Sudden onset of pain in the lower right abdomen, which may start around the navel and shift to the lower right side over several hours
* Pain that worsens with movement, coughing, or sneezing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Loss of appetite
* Fever and chills
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Abdominal swelling or bloating

If you suspect appendicitis, it's essential to seek immediate medical attention. The standard treatment for appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy), which can be performed as an open surgery or laparoscopically. Antibiotics are also administered to treat any existing infection. Delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so it's crucial not to ignore symptoms and seek medical help promptly.

Cecal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the cecum, which is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. The cecum plays an important role in digestion, particularly in the fermentation of certain types of food.

There are several different types of cecal diseases, including:

1. Cecal volvulus: This is a rare condition in which the cecum twists on itself, cutting off blood flow and causing severe pain and other symptoms.
2. Diverticulitis: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the wall of the cecum and become inflamed or infected.
3. Appendicitis: Although not strictly a cecal disease, the appendix is a small tube-like structure that branches off from the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis) can cause severe pain in the lower right abdomen and may require surgical removal of the appendix.
4. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, including the cecum.
5. Tuberculosis: The cecum can also be affected by tuberculosis, which is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body.
6. Cancer: Although rare, cancer can also affect the cecum, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Treatment for cecal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, or other medical interventions. If you are experiencing symptoms that may be related to a cecal disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

A mucocele is a mucus-containing cystic lesion that results from the accumulation of mucin within a damaged minor salivary gland duct or mucous gland. It is typically caused by trauma, injury, or blockage of the duct. Mucocele appears as a round, dome-shaped, fluid-filled swelling, which may be bluish or clear in color. They are most commonly found on the lower lip but can also occur on other areas of the oral cavity. Mucocele is generally painless unless it becomes secondarily infected; however, it can cause discomfort during speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and may affect aesthetics. Treatment usually involves surgical excision of the mucocele to prevent recurrence.

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei (PMP) is a rare, slow-growing, and invasive cancer that typically starts in the appendix as a low-grade mucinous neoplasm, although it can also arise from other organs of the abdominal cavity. The primary characteristic of PMP is the accumulation of copious amounts of gelatinous ascites (peritoneal fluid containing mucin) within the peritoneal cavity, causing progressive abdominal distension and discomfort.

The condition is classified into three main histological subtypes: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), and hybrid tumors. DPAM is the least aggressive form, while PMCA is more invasive and has a worse prognosis.

The primary treatment for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei involves cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This approach aims to remove all visible tumors and destroy any remaining cancer cells within the abdominal cavity. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for patients with PMP, although long-term survival rates remain variable due to the disease's rarity and heterogeneity.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

A carcinoid tumor is a type of slow-growing neuroendocrine tumor that usually originates in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine. These tumors can also arise in other areas such as the lungs, appendix, and rarely in other organs. Carcinoid tumors develop from cells of the diffuse endocrine system (also known as the neuroendocrine system) that are capable of producing hormones or biologically active amines.

Carcinoid tumors can produce and release various hormones and bioactive substances, such as serotonin, histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and tachykinins, which can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most common syndrome associated with carcinoid tumors is the carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and wheezing or difficulty breathing.

Carcinoid tumors are typically classified as functional or nonfunctional based on whether they produce and secrete hormones that cause symptoms. Functional carcinoid tumors account for approximately 30% of cases and can lead to the development of carcinoid syndrome, while nonfunctional tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones and are often asymptomatic until they grow large enough to cause local or distant complications.

Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as whether it is functional or nonfunctional. Treatment may include surgery, medications (such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies), and radiation therapy. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and biochemical tests is essential to monitor for recurrence and assess treatment response.

A villous adenoma is a type of polyp (a growth that protrudes from the lining of an organ) found in the colon or rectum. It is named for its appearance under a microscope, which reveals finger-like projections called "villi" on the surface of the polyp.

Villous adenomas are typically larger than other types of polyps and can be several centimeters in size. They are also more likely to be cancerous or precancerous, meaning that they have the potential to develop into colon or rectal cancer over time.

Because of this increased risk, it is important for villous adenomas to be removed surgically if they are found during a colonoscopy or other diagnostic procedure. Regular follow-up colonoscopies may also be recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps or recurrence of previous ones.

Spermatic cord torsion is a urological emergency that refers to the twisting of the spermatic cord, which contains the vas deferens, blood vessels (testicular artery and pampiniform plexus), nerves, and lymphatics. This twisting results in the compromise of the blood supply to the testicle, leading to potential ischemia, necrosis, and loss of the testicle if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The spermatic cord torsion mainly affects the pediatric population, particularly newborns and adolescents; however, it can also occur in adults, especially those with a history of an undescended testicle or previous episodes of torsion. The most common presenting symptom is sudden onset of severe scrotal pain, often associated with nausea, vomiting, and fever. A physical examination may reveal swelling, tenderness, and elevation of the affected testicle (known as a high-riding or "bell clapper" testicle). Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound or Doppler ultrasonography, although in some cases, surgical exploration might be necessary for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment of spermatic cord torsion usually involves prompt surgical intervention to untwist the spermatic cord and secure the affected testicle to the scrotal wall (orchidopexy) to prevent recurrence. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to severe complications, including loss of the testicle, infertility, and chronic pain.

Intestinal perforation is a medical condition that refers to a hole or tear in the lining of the intestine. This can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or stomach. Intestinal perforation allows the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes and bacteria, to leak into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to a serious inflammatory response known as peritonitis.

Intestinal perforation can be caused by various factors, including:

* Mechanical trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stab wounds)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
* Diverticulitis
* Appendicitis
* Intestinal obstruction
* Infections (e.g., typhoid fever, tuberculosis)
* Certain medications (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids)
* Radiation therapy
* Ischemic bowel disease (lack of blood flow to the intestines)

Symptoms of intestinal perforation may include sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and decreased bowel movements. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the perforation and remove any damaged tissue. Antibiotics are also administered to prevent infection. In severe cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy may be necessary.

"Acute abdomen" is a medical term used to describe a sudden and severe abdominal pain that requires immediate medical attention. This condition can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, obstruction, or perforation of the abdominal organs. Common causes of acute abdomen include appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, and perforated ulcers.

The symptoms of acute abdomen may include severe and localized or generalized abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, rebound tenderness, fever, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. The diagnosis of acute abdomen is usually made based on the patient's history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scan.

Treatment of acute abdomen depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, intravenous fluids, pain management, and surgery in severe cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute abdomen can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, peritonitis, and even death.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

A femoral hernia is a type of hernia that occurs when a portion of the abdominal wall tissue or intestine protrudes through a weakened area in the lower part of the abdominal wall, specifically at the opening of the femoral canal. This canal is located near the groin region and contains blood vessels that pass from the abdomen to the leg.

Femoral hernias are more common in women than men, particularly those who are pregnant, obese, or have a history of multiple pregnancies. Symptoms may include a visible bulge in the inner thigh or groin area, especially when standing, coughing, or straining. Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or groin region, particularly during physical activities, is also common.

While some femoral hernias may not cause any symptoms and can be left untreated, they have a higher risk of becoming incarcerated or strangulated compared to other types of hernias. Incarceration occurs when the protruding tissue becomes trapped and cannot be pushed back in, while strangulation happens when the blood supply to the trapped tissue is cut off, leading to tissue death if not treated promptly with surgery.

An enema is a medical procedure in which liquid is introduced into the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon or rectum, through the anus using a special device called an enema kit. The liquid used can be plain water, saline solution, or a medicated solution, and it is typically retained for a short period of time before being expelled.

The purpose of an enema may vary, but it is often used to relieve constipation, prepare the bowel for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, or administer medications or nutrients that cannot be taken by mouth. Enemas can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to stimulate the immune system or promote relaxation.

It is important to follow proper instructions when administering an enema to avoid injury or discomfort. Possible side effects of enemas may include cramping, bloating, nausea, or electrolyte imbalances. If you have any health concerns or conditions that may be affected by an enema, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using one.

Fecal impaction is a medical condition where a large mass of dry, hard stool becomes stuck in the rectum and cannot be expelled from the body. This can occur due to chronic constipation or other factors that affect normal bowel movements. Fecal impaction can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty having a bowel movement. In some cases, it may also lead to more serious complications, such as bowel obstruction or perforation. Treatment typically involves using medications to soften the stool and manual removal of the impaction by a healthcare professional.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine or colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of cecal neoplasms include adenomas (benign tumors that can become cancerous over time), carcinoids (slow-growing tumors that usually don't spread), and adenocarcinomas (cancers that start in the glands that line the inside of the cecum).

Symptoms of cecal neoplasms may include changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation; abdominal pain or cramping; blood in the stool; and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular screening is recommended for people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer, including those with a family history of the disease or certain genetic mutations.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a type of tumor that arises from the epithelial lining of a cyst, and it has the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects glandular organs such as the ovaries, pancreas, and salivary glands.

Cystadenocarcinomas can be classified into two types: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenocarcinomas produce a watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenocarcinomas produce a thick, mucus-like fluid. Both types of tumors can be benign or malignant, but malignant cystadenocarcinomas are more aggressive and have a higher risk of metastasis.

Symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown large enough to cause pain or other problems. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with any affected surrounding tissue. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used in some cases to help prevent recurrence or spread of the cancer.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Look up appendix or appendices in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Appendix (PL: appendices) may refer to: Addendum, an ... a part of the human digestive system Appendix (band), a Finnish punk rock group The Appendix, a quarterly journal of history ... a list of words or phrases with pointers to where related material can be found in a document Appendix (anatomy), ... and culture This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Appendix. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... are very rare cancers of the vermiform appendix. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors with malignant ... Almost 3 out of 4 of these tumors are associated with the region at the end of the appendix, and tend to be diagnosed in the ... Breast cancer, colon cancer, and tumors of the female genital tract may metastasize to the appendix. Carcinoid tumors are the ... most common tumors of the appendix. Other common forms are mucinous adenocarcinomas, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified ( ...
... , the American brook lamprey, is a common non-parasitic lamprey in North America. In adults their disc-like ... NatureServe (2015). "Lethenteron appendix". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T202624A76578331. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK. ... "American Brook Lamprey (Lethenteron appendix) - FactSheet". Nas.er.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-09-18. ...
Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum's Appendix Vergiliana: Links to Latin texts and English translations Appendix Vergiliana: The Minor ... The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of Latin poems traditionally ascribed as being the juvenilia (work written as a youth) ... Works in the Appendix Vergiliana at Perseus Digital Library (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... However, recent studies suggest that the Appendix contains a diverse collection of minor poems by various authors from the 1st ...
"The Appendix Archives". The Appendix. Retrieved July 19, 2020. Breen, Benjamin (August 25, 2013). "From the Lab to the Street: ... The Appendix was an online magazine of "narrative and experimental history." It was co-founded in the fall of 2012 by Benjamin ... Material from The Appendix has been featured on the websites of The Atlantic, Slate, Jezebel, and the Smithsonian Magazine. " ... Official website https://googletoday.in/2022/07/29/appendix-ko-door-karne-ke-liye-yoga/ v t e v t e (Use mdy dates from ...
Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: Appendix Probi The Appendix Probi ("Probus' Appendix") is the ... Hypercorrection in the Appendix Probi. Philologus 161(2). 350-353. doi:10.1515/phil-2016-0119 Transcription of the Appendix ... The Appendix was likely composed in Rome around the first half of the fourth century AD. It is specifically the third of the ... The Appendix Probi: A scholar's guide to text and context. Newark: Juan de la Cuesta. Quirk, Ronald J. 2017. ...
Westlaw abbreviates citations to the Federal Appendix as Fed. Appx. The Bluebook calls for citations to the Federal Appendix to ... 861 hardbound volumes of the Federal Appendix were issued. Publication of Federal Appendix ceased in 2021, but nonprecedential ... The Federal Appendix organizes court opinions within each volume by the date of the decision, and includes the full text of the ... The Federal Appendix was a case law reporter published by West Publishing from 2001 to 2021. It published judicial opinions of ...
The appendix (PL: appendices or appendixes; also vermiform appendix; cecal [or caecal] appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) ... appendix Ileo-cecal valve and vermiform appendix Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix tip Cross section of the appendix with ... is considered a thickened or inflamed appendix. The longest appendix ever removed was 26 cm (10 in) long. The appendix is ... The human appendix averages 9 cm (3.5 in) in length, ranging from 5 to 35 cm (2.0 to 13.8 in). The diameter of the appendix is ...
The Joint Appendix, commonly called the JA, accompanies the Petitioner's Merits Brief. The Joint Appendix allows the Supreme ... Similar to a merits brief, the Supreme Court requires a booklet-formatted and printed Joint Appendix. A Joint Appendix usually ... A Joint Appendix typically refers to a submission of legal documents in support of a brief to a United States federal court of ... "The Court, on its own motion or that of a party, may dispense with the requirement of a joint appendix and may permit a case to ...
Appendix is a Finnish punk rock band. It was founded in 1980 and has released five studio albums. Their debut album was ... In the spring 2015 Appendix had a West Coast Tour in United States and they performed at Manic Relapse festivals as the lead ... Olli Lindholm, the lead singer of one of Finland's highest selling rock groups Yö, is a former member of Appendix. ... "Appendix - Money Is Not My Currency". Discogs.com. Retrieved 12 February 2019. "Suomalaisen punkbändin keikka loppuunmyyty ...
Nant Clogwyn y Geifr (English: Devil's Appendix) is the tallest single-drop waterfall in Wales and one of the tallest in the ...
The epiploic appendices (or appendices epiploicae, or epiploic appendages, or appendix epiploica, or omental appendices) are ...
"National Electronic Sectional Appendix". Network Rail. Retrieved 14 January 2019. National Electronic Sectional Appendix ( ... The "National Electronic Sectional Appendix" (NESA) is an online alternative to hard copy Sectional Appendices, although the ... In Great Britain, the Sectional Appendix is a railway document compiled by Network Rail and is the official definition of ... Periodically updated electronic versions of the Sectional Appendix are available in PDF format from the Network Rail website. " ...
... is the name of an infamous appendix in Pentium Processor Family Developer's Manual, Volume 3. This appendix ... The appendix was referenced by the official chapters in the documentation, provoking irritation among the public who was not ... "The Creation of Appendix H" Archived 2014-12-26 at the Wayback Machine, Dr. Dobb's Journal, November 1997. Retrieved on 26 ... From the Pentium Pro, the information in Appendix H was moved to the main documentation chapters, making the features publicly ...
Torsion of the appendix of testis occurs at ages 0-15 years, with a mean at 10 years, which is similar to that of testicular ... The appendix testis (or hydatid of Morgagni) is a vestigial remnant of the Müllerian duct, present on the upper pole of the ... The appendix of testis can, occasionally, undergo torsion (i.e. become twisted), causing acute one-sided testicular pain and ... Jason S Chang (7 June 2022). "Torsion of the Appendices and Epididymis". Medscape. Updated: Oct 20, 2016. Citing: Nason, ...
... is an album by Norwegian musician Finn Coren, and is the follow-up to 1997's Spring. As with its ...
... is the fourth EP by indie band Okkervil River, released on November 22, 2005. This mini-album is a ... Stevens, Darcie (2005-10-28). "Okkervil River: Black Sheep Boy Appendix". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on ... Gitlin, Lauren (2006-01-12). "Okkervil River: Black Sheep Boy Appendix". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2008-02- ... Deusner, Stephen M. (2005-12-14). "Okkervil River: The Black Sheep Boy Appendix EP: Pitchfork Record Review". Pitchfork. ...
The appendix of the epididymis (or pedunculated hydatid) is a small stalked appendage (sometimes duplicated) on the head of the ... Appendix testis This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1242 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ... This structure is derived from the Wolffian duct (Mesonephric Duct) as opposed to the appendix testis which is derived from the ... MedEd at Loyola urology/torapx2.htm - Torsion of Appendix Epididymis Anatomy image:7754 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center ...
New South Wales on 1 February 1960 was in fact the first race to be staged for Appendix J cars. From January 1965, Appendix J ... Under Appendix J, eligibility was restricted to closed cars with seating for four persons and at least one hundred examples of ... Appendix J Touring Cars was an Australian motor racing category for modified, production based sedans. It was the premier form ... Prior to the introduction of Appendix J, there had been no national regulations for touring car racing in Australia with ...
There are no fungi listed in any appendix. List of species protected by CITES Appendix II List of species protected by CITES ... which is included in Appendix II, and the population of Ecuador, which is included in Appendix II and is subject to a zero ... This is a list of species of plants and animals protected by Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered ... Panthera leo persica - Remains listed in Appendix I under this name, but now classified by most authorities as a distinct ...
There are no fungi listed in any appendix. List of species protected by CITES Appendix I List of species protected by CITES ... Except the species included in Appendix I) Testudinidae spp. (Except the species included in Appendix I. A zero annual export ... Except the species included in Appendix I) Varanus spp. (Except the species included in Appendix I) Vicugna vicugna (Only the ... Except the species included in Appendix I) Ouroborus spp. Ovis ammon (Except the subspecies included in Appendix I) Ovis aries ...
There are no fungi listed in any appendix. List of species protected by CITES Appendix I List of species protected by CITES ... This is a list of species of plants and animals protected by Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade in ... New Zealand) Xenochrophis piscator (India) Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri (India) Xenochrophis tytleri (India) "Appendices I, II ... Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Official CITES website Explanation of the Appendices Number of species on the Appendices ...
The appendices, which are delineated by pink paper in the original book, cover a number of different topics with some of the ... A Year with Swollen Appendices is a book by Brian Eno. The paperback book was published by Faber and Faber in 1996 and is ... The first part is a diary covering the year 1995, the second part, the 'swollen appendices' of the title is a collection of ... His publicist, Michelle Ferguson, who worked with him throughout the year suffered a burst appendix by the end of his busy year ...
... is the fifth album by Philadelphia, Pennsylvania rap group The Lost Children of ...
Appendix. Henry Bathurst, The Auxiliary Forces List: Staffordshire-Warwickshire-Worcestershire, Leamington: Bathurst, 1876, p. ...
"Appendix". Montreal Religious Sites Project. McGill University. Retrieved 25 April 2010. Demers, Pierre. "Decade 1950-59". ...
Curran, C.H. (1926). "Appendix. New Diptera from Jamaica. Pp. 102-114. In: Gowdey, C.C., Catalogus insectorum jamaicensis. ...
p. Appendix. "Kootenay National Park Chronology". www.pc.gc.ca. 11 March 2020. "Addison's Bungalows". www.radiumhotsprings.com ...
Appendix. R.J. Smith & C.R. Coogan, The Uniforms of the British Yeomanry Force 1794-1914, 15: Staffordshire Yeomanry, Feltham: ...
"Appendix. Egyptian Ministries since 1914" (PDF). Nasser Library. 8 October 1946. p. 51. Retrieved 24 February 2023. British ...
... Public Health Contacts for Laboratory Testing To Confirm Exposure During a Potential or Known Chemical Terrorism ...
Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website ...
Look up appendix or appendices in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Appendix (PL: appendices) may refer to: Addendum, an ... a part of the human digestive system Appendix (band), a Finnish punk rock group The Appendix, a quarterly journal of history ... a list of words or phrases with pointers to where related material can be found in a document Appendix (anatomy), ... and culture This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Appendix. If an internal link led you here, you ...
Learn some common medical abbreviations and acronyms from the Understanding Medical Words tutorial on MedlinePlus.
Celina Jin and others published Supplementary appendix , Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate ... This appendix formed part of the original submission and has been peer reviewed. ... see Appendix C). It has proven to be very useful for stochastic problems as well ...
Section 1. Directory Information College Office Organizational Chart Section 2. Arts & Sciences Governance Document Section 3. Course Schedule Preparation/Faculty
Appendix A: Intel® oneAPI Math Kernel Library Language Interfaces Support Appendix B: Support for Third-Party Interfaces ... Appendix C: Directory Structure in Detail. Tables in this section show contents of the Intel® oneAPI Math Kernel Library ( ...
"APPENDIX A - APPENDIX G." by Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii (1838-1917) From: Hawaiis Story by Hawaiis Queen. (1898) by ... APPENDIX A.. [From San Francisco Chronicle, Monday, Sept. 5, 1887.] THE government of the Sandwich Islands appears to have ... APPENDIX C.. FACTS AS TO SUBMISSION OF HAWAIIAN QUESTION TO THE DECISION OF THE UNITED STATES. ... APPENDIX B.. EXTRACTS FROM STATEMENT MADE BY THE QUEEN TO MINISTER BLOUNT. ...
Location: CTAN Topics Appendix Appendix. This topic contains packages to typset and use appendices. ...
Information in this appendix is not all inclusive. Complete and detailed prescribing and toxicity information on these drugs is ... Appendix -- Characteristics of Available Antiretroviral Drugs Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors * ** ...
1 Danz, Harold, ed., Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1991 revised ed.) p. 73.. 2 The rest of the management personnel information was taken from the Superintendents Monthly and Annual Reports, park press releases, and compiled with the help of Capitol Reef National Park Administrative Technician Donita Pace and former secretary Afton Taylor.. 3 Chief Ranger became Chief of Interpretation and Visitor Protection in September 1991.. 4 George Davidson was transferred to Management Assistant in September 1991. Robert Van Belle was hired as Administrative officer and was appointed Management assistant upon Davidsons retirement.. 5 The facilities manager position was abolished after Baldock left, and was re-established with Robkers arrival.. ...
The average length of the appendix is 10 cm, but its length can range from 2 to 20 cm. The wall of the appendix consists of ... encoded search term (Inflammation of Vermiform Appendix) and Inflammation of Vermiform Appendix What to Read Next on Medscape ... Inflammation of Vermiform Appendix. Updated: Aug 23, 2023 * Author: Steven L Lee, MD; Chief Editor: John Geibel, MD, MSc, DSc, ... The appendix does not elongate as rapidly as the rest of the colon, thus forming a wormlike structure. [3] ...
Apart from as specified above, bulk access to the Whois data will be made available as specified in Appendix P and Appendix Q. ... This Appendix is subject to change by agreement of Registry Operator and ICANN during the design process as well as during the ... As described in Appendix C, the Registry Operator proposes to introduce services supporting for Internationalized Domain Names ... Upon conclusion of the Transition Process (as detailed in Appendix J), the .org Whois service (thick registry) will provide a ...
Appendix 1. U.S. Colleges and Universities that Award Masters Degrees in History. This is a count of institutions that offer ...
Appendix F: Suggestions for delivering the news of a congenital anomaly diagnosis to a family ... Appendix F: Suggestions for delivering the news of a congenital anomaly diagnosis to a family. Note: It is important to ...
... Back to Habituation page Conclusions reached References ...
This Background Paper and Statistical Appendix reviews the real economy and systemic reforms in the Republic of Kazakhstan ... The background paper and statistical appendix on the Republic of Kazakhstan were prepared by a staff team of the International ... This Background Paper and Statistical Appendix reviews the real economy and systemic reforms in the Republic of Kazakhstan ...
If you see anything in the documentation that is not correct, does not match your experience with the particular feature or requires further clarification, please use this form to report a documentation issue. ...
Appendix: Glossary. For now, this reference is a best-effort document. We strive for validity and completeness, but are not yet ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Appendix:Carib_language&oldid=66365358" ...
Where:. - Pump Price means the price paid at the pump for the relevant transaction. - BP List Price means the BP List Price which is:. a) notified by email by B2M (or such other method as B2M may determine) to the Customer every Friday which is applicable to all transactions during the following week (being the period which commences at 00:01am on the relevant Monday and ends at 23:59pm on the immediately following Sunday);. b) is based on the average pump price for the relevant fuel type for the preceding Friday to Thursday (such period commencing at 00:01am on the relevant Friday and ending at 23:59pm on the relevant Thursday, excluding weekends and bank holidays) at a selection of approximately 100 BP branded service stations (as chosen by B2M and which B2M may vary from time to time); and. c) is inclusive of all applicable duties and VAT at the relevant rate.. ...
Next: Appendix C: Adding Models Up: XspecManual Previous: Appendix A: The User ... Next: Appendix C: Adding Models Up: XspecManual Previous: Appendix A: The User ... Appendix B: Statistics in XSPEC Introduction There are two operations performed in XSPEC that require statistics. The first is ... A fuller discussion of many of the issues discussed in this appendix can be found in Siemiginowska (2011). Parameter Estimation ...
A preliminary draft of the Policy, is attached as Exhibit 3 to this Appendix, and is made a part of the ICANN-Accredited ... The Policy, is attached as Exhibit 1 to this Appendix, and is made a part of the ICANN-Accredited Registrar-registrant ... A preliminary draft of the Rules are attached as Exhibit 2 to this Appendix. Registry Operator has begun the process of ... A preliminary draft of the Rules are attached as Exhibit 4 to this Appendix. Registry Operator has begun the process of ...
  • Slightly more than 1 in 20 people get appendicitis, the potentially deadly inflammation of the appendix, according to the National Institutes of Health . (livescience.com)
  • The body's appendix has long been thought of as nothing more than a worthless evolutionary artifact, good for nothing save a potentially lethal case of inflammation. (livescience.com)
  • Darwin was also not aware that appendicitis, or a potentially deadly inflammation of the appendix, is not due to a faulty appendix, but rather to cultural changes associated with industrialized society and improved sanitation, Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • Appendicitis is caused by inflammation of the Appendix. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Necrosis of appendices causes pain and local inflammation of surrounding the tunica vaginalis and epididymis (acute hemiscrotum). (medscape.com)
  • The location of the tip of the appendix determines early signs and symptoms of appendicitis. (medscape.com)
  • The basic pathophysiology of appendicitis is obstruction of the lumen of the appendix followed by infection. (medscape.com)
  • Some might ask, 'If the appendix is a specially designed organ with a function, why do so many people suffer from appendicitis, which requires the appendix to be urgently removed to prevent death? (creation.com)
  • Now that scientists are uncovering the normal function of the appendix, Parker notes a critical question to ask is whether anything can be done to prevent appendicitis. (livescience.com)
  • The finding adds weight to the idea that the appendix helps protect our beneficial gut bacteria when a serious infection strikes. (creation.com)
  • In a way, the idea that the appendix is an organ whose time has passed has itself become a concept whose time is over. (livescience.com)
  • This definition distinguishes in precise terms a live birth from a fetal death (see the section on fetal deaths in the Technical Appendix of volume II, Vital Statistics of the United States). (cdc.gov)
  • Embryologically, the appendix is a continuation of the cecum and is first delineated during the fifth month of gestation. (medscape.com)
  • The base of the appendix is consistently located at the posteromedial wall of the cecum, about 2.5 cm below the ileocecal valve. (medscape.com)
  • I do find their argument for the positive correlation of appendix and cecum sizes to be a convincing refutation of Darwin's hypothesis. (creation.com)
  • The appendix is a small worm-shaped dead-end sac that juts out from the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine. (livescience.com)
  • No less than Charles Darwin first suggested that the appendix was a vestigial organ from an ancestor that ate leaves, theorizing that it was the evolutionary remains of a larger structure, called a cecum, which once was used by now-extinct predecessors for digesting food. (livescience.com)
  • Several living species, including several lemurs, certain rodents and the scaly-tailed flying squirrel, still have an appendix attached to a large cecum, which is used in digestion. (livescience.com)
  • He added, "If Darwin had been aware of the species that have an appendix attached to a large cecum, and if he had known about the widespread nature of the appendix, he probably would not have thought of the appendix as a vestige of evolution. (livescience.com)
  • Darwin theorized that the appendix in humans and other primates was the evolutionary remains of a larger structure, called a cecum, which was used by now- extinct ancestors for digesting food. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Appendix cancer are very rare cancers of the vermiform appendix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vermiform appendix is a slimy dead-end sac that hangs between the small and large intestines. (livescience.com)
  • As these ancestors evolved to rely on a fruit-based diet that was easier to digest, Darwin speculated the appendix no longer served a function, much like the small triangular coccyx bone at the base of the human spine, a remnant of tail bones found in our distant ancestors. (livescience.com)
  • Now researchers suggest the appendix is a lot more than a useless remnant. (livescience.com)
  • Writing in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology , Duke scientists and collaborators from the University of Arizona and Arizona State University conclude that Charles Darwin was wrong: The appendix is a whole lot more than an evolutionary remnant. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Two such appendages are the appendix testis, a remnant of the paramesonephric (müllerian) duct, and the appendix epididymis, a remnant of the mesonephric (wolffian) duct. (medscape.com)
  • However, "if Darwin knew then what scientists know now about the appendix, he would have never suggested it was a worthless vestige of evolution," William Parker, an associate professor of surgery atDuke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina, told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • When Smith, Parker and their colleagues investigated when the appendix evolved in the animal kingdom, they found the appendix has been around in mammalian evolution for at least 80 million years, much longer than expected if the appendix really was a vestige, they reported in 2009 in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology . (livescience.com)
  • The appendix has been around for at least 80 million years, much longer than we would estimate if Darwin's ideas about the appendix were correct," Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • Perhaps you remember having been taught the idea, first mooted by Charles Darwin, that the appendix is evidence of our evolutionary past, a 'vestigial organ' that we no longer need? (creation.com)
  • Charles Darwin suggested the appendix was a vestigial organ from ancestors that ate leaves, potentially helping them digest food. (livescience.com)
  • Maybe it's time to correct the textbooks," said researcher William Parker, an immunologist at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C. "Many biology texts today still refer to the appendix as a ' vestigial organ . (livescience.com)
  • Many biology texts today still refer to the appendix as a 'vestigial organ. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The vestigial tissues forming the appendices are commonly pedunculated and are structurally predisposed to torsion. (medscape.com)
  • And thanks to a recent paper published in the journal Comptes Rendus Palevol by evolutionary biologist Heather Smith and immunologist William Parker and colleagues, 1 the challenge that the appendix presents to the evolutionary paradigm just got a whole lot harder. (creation.com)
  • In 2007, Parker and his colleagues found the appendix may serve as a reservoir of useful gut bacteria, the kind that help the body to digest food, they reported in the Journal of Theoretical Biology . (livescience.com)
  • If the appendix disappeared in a hunter-gatherer society "and a scientist from a spaceship or something watched what happened, you'd see a lot more people dying of infectious diseases than they would otherwise," Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • If the appendix vanished in a society with agriculture after people started living in settlements, "I think more people would die," Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • If the appendix disappeared in a modern society after the Industrial Revolution, people would have antibiotics to help them survive, Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • Everybody likely knows at least one person who had to get their appendix taken out - slightly more than 1 in 20 people do - and they see there are no ill effects, and this suggests that you don't need it," Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • However, Parker and his colleagues recently suggested that the appendix still served as a vital safehouse where good bacteria could lie in wait until they were needed to repopulate the gut after a nasty case of diarrhea. (livescience.com)
  • Now, in the first investigation of the appendix over the ages, Parker explained they discovered that it has been around much longer than anyone had suspected, hinting that it plays a critical function. (livescience.com)
  • When species are divided into groups called 'families,' we find that more than 70 percent of all primate and rodent groups contain species with an appendix," Parker said. (livescience.com)
  • Using a modern approach to evolutionary biology called cladistics, which utilizes genetic information in combination with a variety of other data to evaluate biological relationships that emerge over the ages, Parker and colleagues found that the appendix has evolved at least twice, once among Australian marsupials and another time among rats, lemmings and other rodents, selected primates and humans. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Second, Parker says the appendix is actually quite widespread in nature. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Appendix: Are bacteria capable of genuine habituation? (angelfire.com)
  • When diseases flush both good and bad microbes from the gut, good bacteria can emerge from the safe harbor of the appendix to help restore the gut to a healthy state. (livescience.com)
  • The appendix, they said, is a safe haven where good bacteria could hang out until they were needed to repopulate the gut after a nasty case of diarrhea, for example. (sciencedaily.com)
  • These tests are used for neuroendocrine tumors and not other types of appendix cancers. (cancer.net)
  • The appendix may not be useless after all. (creation.com)
  • The appendix is often thought of as a useless artifact of evolution, much like the remnants of hind leg bones seen in whales. (livescience.com)
  • Once thought to be useless, the appendix could be used to help battle diseases. (livescience.com)
  • The lowly appendix, long-regarded as a useless evolutionary artifact, won newfound respect two years ago when researchers proposed that it actually serves a critical function. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Darwin had thought appendices appeared in only a small handful of animals. (livescience.com)
  • Darwin had no way of knowing that the function of the appendix could be rendered obsolete by cultural changes that included widespread use of sewer systems and clean drinking water. (livescience.com)
  • Details for: First report from the Select Committee on Abortion, together with the proceedings of the Committee and appendices, session 1975-76. (who.int)
  • Roberts, an assistant professor of surgery at Yale, said there are some reports of this surgery being successfully performed outside of the United States but that previous attempts within the U.S. always necessitated at least one abdominal incision to either help remove the appendix or insert a camera to guide the surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • One could insert a telescope through the mouth and stomach and make a small incision to reach the abdominal cavity and appendix. (sciencedaily.com)
  • However, most often, appendix cancer is found unexpectedly during or after abdominal surgery for another reason. (cancer.net)
  • When we looked in species that have an appendix, we didn't find any commonalities in diet or how social they are or where they lived, but species that did have an appendix had a concentration of immune tissue there, so given this common theme, one might presume a common function," Smith said. (livescience.com)
  • Breast cancer, colon cancer, and tumors of the female genital tract may metastasize to the appendix. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many tests used for diagnosing appendix cancer. (cancer.net)
  • In that case, another surgery may be recommended to remove another margin of tissue around the area where the tumor began, depending on the type of appendix cancer (such as a neuroendocrine or adenocarcinoma tumor) and size of tumor (if it is a neuroendocrine tumor). (cancer.net)
  • Appendix cancer may also be discovered by accident when a CT scan is done for another reason. (cancer.net)
  • If the diagnosis is appendix cancer, these results also help the doctor describe the cancer. (cancer.net)
  • In addition, the appendix possesses a high concentration of lymphoid tissue. (livescience.com)
  • Welcome to the Appendices section of our guide. (ign.com)
  • Torsion of testicular appendices is the leading cause of acute scrotum in children. (medscape.com)
  • Past studies had also found the appendix can help make, direct and train white blood cells . (livescience.com)
  • 3. I compared the type of turkey described in the purchase invoices and/or summary sheets listing these invoices, reviewed above, to the types permitted in Items 105 to 1113 of the Import Control List detailed in Appendix 7 of the Notice and found that the type of turkey described was of a type included in the ICL. (gc.ca)
  • Often, a patient will have an appendectomy, which is the surgical removal of the appendix. (cancer.net)
  • Some cases of persistent pain due to torsion of the testicular appendix have required surgical excision for relief or often for diagnostic surgical exploration. (medscape.com)
  • That's because the appendix now joins a long list of other features in living things (e.g. the capacity for powered flight) that evolutionists say arose independently not just once (a big enough stretch to credulity on its own) but multiple times. (creation.com)
  • 8. I enquired of [name and title of individual responsible for the application] whether all related applicants and all related persons as defined in Appendix 8 to the Notice were described in the application. (gc.ca)
  • The appendix does not elongate as rapidly as the rest of the colon, thus forming a wormlike structure. (medscape.com)
  • The appendix is a closed ended narrow tube connecting to the Colon. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Appendix is a small finger shaped pouch structure present connected to the colon, on the right side of abdomen. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • If separately bound, six copies of the appendix shall be filed with the trial court, and one shall be served on counsel for each party separately represented, unless the court shall order or direct the filing or service of a lesser number and except as otherwise provided in subdivision (e) of this rule. (mass.gov)
  • Holst-Ekström, M 1996, ' Raphael's Madonna of the Goldfinch, Copies and the Abbey of Vallombrosa Reconsidered, appendix: 1867-70, the Vallombrosa Arguments in Letters and Publications ', Licentiat, Avdelningen för konsthistoria och visuella studier. (lu.se)
  • Upon conclusion of the Transition Process (as detailed in Appendix J), the .org Whois service (thick registry) will provide a central, openly accessible system for information regarding a particular second level domain name registration in the .org TLD. (icann.org)
  • The conclusion that the appendix has appeared 32 times is amazing. (creation.com)
  • Even using evolutionary assumptions, the appendix cannot be a degenerate evolutionary structure . (creation.com)
  • The appendix was removed through a small incision in the patient's vagina. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In fact, about 1 in 100,000 people are born without an appendix, according to a report in the journal Case Reports in Surgery . (livescience.com)
  • This appendix contains information on how to make sure you can install or upgrade bullseye packages before you upgrade to bookworm. (debian.org)
  • But some might ask, if an organ such as the appendix has a function, why can it be removed without ill effects? (creation.com)
  • Thus there are a number of organs which everybody agrees have a definite function, but we can still cope without them, such as the appendix and the gall bladder. (creation.com)
  • Now, some of those same researchers are back, reporting on the first-ever study of the appendix through the ages. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Online Appendix to 'Entrepreneurs, managers and inequality' ," Online Appendices 18-331, Review of Economic Dynamics. (repec.org)