Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.GizzardRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Smooth Muscle Tumor: A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Myoblasts, Smooth Muscle: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Escin: Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.ElastinCalcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Mice, Inbred C57BLCyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.ThymidineReceptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The plant forms a dense mat; pseudobulbs flattened-globose, 2-3 mm diam., smooth. The pseudobulbs are very small and turn red ...
The spores, themselves, are 7-10 x 4-6 µ; smooth; elliptical; inamyloid. Cystidia absent. Pileipellis without broom cells. This ... smooth; pale tan or buff, occasionally white, or reddish tan; usually changing color markedly as it dries out; the margin ...
... smooth(); // Improves the drawing quality of the SVG noLoop(); } void draw() { background(255); // Draw the full map shape(usa ...
In 2013, Millar released a further smooth jazz album, Fresh Air, on his own label, Warmday Records. Roberts, David (2006). ... Allder, Kevin (October 2001). "Smooth". Echoes: 65. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Anon. (October 1999). "Best Jazz Act ... Millar went on to release two smooth jazz albums on Instinct Records, N.Y.C. (Dream Your Dream and Good to Go ). He achieved a ...
Allder, Kevin (October 2001). "Smooth". Echoes: 65. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Anon. (October 1999). "Best Jazz Act ... and two smooth jazz albums on Instinct Records, N.Y.C., achieving a UK MOBO nomination as Best UK Jazz Act for the first of ...
Boric acid is sometimes used to make it have a very smooth texture or plastic sheen. Boric acid is banned for human consumption ... "smooth"). The actual noodle by itself doesn't have much taste, it is just as bland as plain white steamed rice. The fillings ...
the bearing of fruit The dictionary definition of glabrous at Wiktionary Smooth; having a surface without hairs or any ... having no hair or similar growth; smooth; "glabrous stems"; "glabrous leaves"; "a glabrous scalp" The dictionary definition of ...
Microscopic Features: Spores 11-16 x 6-10 µm; smooth; elliptical; without oil droplets. Asci eight-spored; up to 225 x 15 µm. ... In maturity flattened-irregular or bent backwards; 6-12 cm across; the margin often splitting; upper surface brown and smooth, ... and smooth, elliptical spores that lack oil droplets. The cup at first is pale brown or whitish overall; cup-shaped; the under ... surface minutely fuzzy and the upper surface smoother; with a tiny stem-like structure. ...
"Smooth Sounds". Profile Magazine. July-September 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013. "V-MODA Crossfade M-100 Headphones Review". ... "Smooth Sounds". Profile Magazine. July-September 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013. "iPhoneFAQ". iPhoneFAQ. Aug 2007. Retrieved ...
Thorax smooth. Abdomen with a tuft on basal segment. Legs slender and naked. Fore wings long and narrow with depressed and ...
"Burger Records and the Observatory: 5 Years of Fun in Orange County - Janky Smooth". Janky Smooth. Retrieved 2016-04-06. https ...
They are smooth, hyaline, and inamyloid, with dimensions of 20.8-38.4 by 4.8-10.4 μm. They have a clamp connection at base. ... The spores of M. nargan are roughly ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, and measure 7.4-10.4 by 4.8-7.1 μm. They have a small, oblique ... The gill tissue is made of smooth, thin-walled cylindrical to egg-shaped cells, up to 30.4 μm in diameter. The cells are ... The surface of the stem is made of filamentous hyphae, 2.2-4.0 μm in diameter, either smooth or with sparse to moderately dense ...
Bark smooth. Leaves larger, up to 8 cm long and 5.5 cm broad; stipules persistent. Seed winged at both ends. Cercidiphyllum ...
"Robbie Williams Announces 'Let Me Entertain You Tour'". Smooth Radio. Global Group. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015 ...
About Us , Almond Athletics "Smooth Shooter". Rice News. Rice University News & Media. Retrieved 21 February 2014. "Smooth ...
Holden, built strong, built right, with four coil springs for a jet-smooth ride... jet smooth. Wright (1998), pp. 207, 240-243 ... "jet-smooth ride" over rough roads. Notwithstanding persistent criticism from many motoring journalists, this policy persisted ...
"Smooth transition". Retrieved November 19, 2016. "Mariners promote North Eugene grad Andrew Moore to Double A". Retrieved ...
... surface smooth; aperture at the umbilical margin of the chamber, beneath the platelike extension, or folium. Neoconorbina and ...
Sources Bentley, Mary (July 2005). "Armand Sabal Lecco". Smooth Views. Retrieved 2012-07-31. DeLancey, Mark D.; Mbuh, Rebecca ...
It impacted Smooth Jazz radio on November 22, 2011. The album's second single "Pretty Lil' Heart" featuring Lil Wayne, was ... "can find him self-consciously smooth at times, suggesting too much artful foreplay. Still, this is a consistent showcase for ... R&R :: Going For Adds™ :: Smooth Jazz ®". Gfa.radioandrecords.com. 2011-11-22. Retrieved 2012-02-29. https://www.webcitation. ...
"Mozez Praiz". Smooth FM. Retrieved 31 July 2012. "Star SuperFans Show Goes Tactical". Sports Day. Retrieved 31 July 2012. Remi ... Mozez Praiz is a Nigerian model and a sports TV/radio presenter who currently works under SuperSport and Smooth F.M. Best known ...
Silva-Espinosa, Aria (16 January 2017). "Ty Segall & The Freedom Band Blow Minds at Secret Show at The Griffin". Janky Smooth. ...
Woody, Todd (2011-03-01). "Smooth Agitator,". Sustainableindustries.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-09. Retrieved ...
Skin smooth. Reddish brown above, sides darker; a dark brown line from the tip of the snout through the eye along the side of ...
Law, Cally (30 July 2006). "Smooth Sailing". Times Online. Times Newspapers. Retrieved 19 June 2008. "Map of Devon Parishes" ( ...
QINGXIN, Liu et al. Apigenin inhibits cell migration through MAPK pathways in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Biocell [ ... To assess possible effects of apigenin on migration of bladder smooth muscle (SM) cell, we isolated SM cells from peri-cancer ... Results showed that overexpression of active human MEKK1 by adenoviruses infection induced migration of human bladder smooth ...
The goal of these studies was to evaluate the possibility that age- or disease-related alterations in human corporal smooth ... The goal of these studies was to evaluate the possibility that age- or disease-related alterations in human corporal smooth ... The goal of these studies was to evaluate the possibility that age- or disease-related alterations in human corporal smooth ... The goal of these studies was to evaluate the possibility that age- or disease-related alterations in human corporal smooth ...
The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC 17) exist as several different ... The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC 17) exist as several different ... The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC 17) exist as several different ... The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC 17) exist as several different ...
Dysfunction in smooth pursuit eye movements and history of childhood trauma. Harvey J. Irwin*, Melissa J. Green, Pamela J. ... Dysfunction in smooth pursuit eye movements and history of childhood trauma. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1999 Dec;89(3 PART 1 ... Dysfunction in smooth pursuit eye movements and history of childhood trauma. / Irwin, Harvey J.; Green, Melissa J.; Marsh, ... Irwin, H. J., Green, M. J., & Marsh, P. J. (1999). Dysfunction in smooth pursuit eye movements and history of childhood trauma ...
... muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 image, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery ... muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 photo, ... Tagged: function of muscle cell in human body, location of muscle cell in human body, muscle cell in human body, smooth muscle ... muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2. ...
The smooth newt, also known as the common newt (Lissotriton vulgaris; formerly Triturus vulgaris) is a species of amphibian, ... Smooth newts have paddle-like tails for increased swimming speeds.[3] The nominal subspecies, L. v. vulgaris, is found in the ... a b c Invasive Species Council; 2014; Biosecurity Failures in Australia: 12 Case Studies; Smooth Newts. Senate Submission to ... The smooth newt is the only newt native to Ireland, and it is protected there under the Wildlife Acts (1976 and 2000). It is an ...
M. canis can be known as smooth dogfish, Atlantic smooth dogfish, dusky smooth-hound, grayish, nurse shark, smooth dog, or ... The dusky smooth-hound (Mustelus canis), also called the smooth dogfish or the dog shark, is a species of houndshark in the ... "SMOOTH DOGFISH (Mustelus canis)". nefsc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-04.. *^ a b c d e Moss, S. A. (1972). "Tooth Replacement ... "Smooth Dogfishes, Mustelus canis". MarineBio.org. Retrieved 2016-03-14.. *^ a b Conrath, C.L.; Musick, J.A. (2002). " ...
The smooth, or scarlet, sumac (Rhus glabra), native to the eastern and central United States, is a common species. It grows to ... Other articles where Smooth sumac is discussed: sumac: ... Smooth, or scarlet, sumac (Rhus glabra).. Joan E. Rahn. Learn ... The smooth, or scarlet, sumac (Rhus glabra), native to the eastern and central United States, is a common species. It grows to ...
smooth muscle* The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory systems are composed mostly of hollow ... smooth muscle (involuntary muscle) (smooth) n. muscle that produces slow long-term contractions of which the individual is ... a neurotransmitter which stimulates the smooth muscle cells to shorten. The length of the smooth muscle cells, and therefore ... Another important difference between smooth and striated muscle is that smooth muscle never becomes fatigued, because it uses ...
Smooth Sailin taken from Leon Bridges new album Coming Home - available now. Get it on iTunes: http://smarturl.it/ ... 50+ videos Play all Mix - Leon Bridges - Smooth Sailin (Live)YouTube. * Leon Bridges: NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert - Duration: ... Music video by Leon Bridges performing Smooth Sailin. (C) 2015 LisaSawyer63, Inc. under exclusive license to Columbia Records ... Smooth Sailin" taken from Leon Bridges new album Coming Home - available now.. Get it on iTunes: http://smarturl.it/ ...
WERE playing in the big playground now," Bruno Mégret, the far-right National Fronts second-in-command proclaimed last autumn. "The regional elections will provide the ideal occasion to show that French politics is now divided into three main blocks: the right, the left and us." A slight exaggeration: the Front polled 15% in the regional elections on March 15th, about the same as it scored in last summers parliamentary elections, compared with 37% for the ruling coalition of Socialists, Communists, greens and other assorted left-wingers, and 36% for the mainstream right. Strategically, however, Mr Mégret has a point.. With the National Front holding the balance of power in 19 of Frances 22 regions (excluding the overseas territories), the party suddenly finds itself at centre-stage. Everyone is talking about it; no one, as usual, knows quite how to respond. With Front support, the moderate right, which has an absolute majority of seats in only one region, could hope to hold on to another ...
The color of this coneflower is too smooth to be all that rough to the touch! ... In this Yin & Yang challenge smooth faces off with rough. The image should contain competing subjects: one smooth, one rough. ... Smooth - Rough. Challenge #31 in the Yin and Yang: exploring themed opposites joined together series. Hosted by bebemaster. ... The color of this coneflower is too smooth to be all that rough to the touch! ...
Sure enough, the laser etched a smooth groove without damaging nearby tissue. That first cut is shown in two views above, to ... Smooth Groove. The excimer laser is no turkey-it gave us scarless eye surgery. ...
Even the of smooth muscle edited by classic volume on the structure and function Biilbring, Brading, Jones and Tomita (Smooth ... In this sense it is surprising that the highly popular topic of ever-growing importance, namely "pharmacology of smooth muscle ... Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Antihypertensive Agents Ca-Antagonists and K-Channel Openers on Vascular Smooth Muscle ... Neuropeptides (Neurokinins, Bombesin, Neurotensin, Cholecystokinins, Opioids) and Smooth Muscle D. Regoli, N. Rouissi, P. ...
In 1991, Ingrid Daubechies asked whether there exists a smooth basis satisfying the global uncertainty principle property. In ...
... traditional medicinals smooth move tea uk, chinese tradition for birthday, chinese herbs male fertility unit ... Please remember that Smooth Move products are not meant to be used for cleansing or as diet aids. If you have noticed a sudden ... Traditional medicinals smooth move tea uk,natural remedies for thyroid in dogs,cancer care jakarta barat - 2016 Feature. 07.02. ... I usually use the Smooth Movr Tea because it's less expensive, but when I travel the capsules are much more convenient.. A ...
John James Audubon and other early naturalists failed to find the Smooth-billed Ani in Florida, but it became a regular nesting ... John James Audubon and other early naturalists failed to find the Smooth-billed Ani in Florida, but it became a regular nesting ... John James Audubon and other early naturalists failed to find the Smooth-billed Ani in Florida, but it became a regular nesting ...
Language Selection - Samsung Smooth. English to Espanol *From the main screen, press OK to choose MENU. *Select Settings & ...
Smooth operators in space. How supercomputers help to overcome the technical challenge of keeping satellites working smoothly ...
Those smooth-brained idiots voted for G.W. Bush twice!. #idiot#idiocy#imbecil#imbecilic#moron#retard#dumbass#dipshit#troglodyte ... smooth-brainedunknown. An insult referring to the absence of wrinkles present in the human telencephalon(cerebrum) -- the ...
It is generally associated with woodland habitats, including deciduous, coniferous, mixed forests and dry forests and woodlands. This is an adaptable species also present in meadows, bushlands, parks, fruit gardens, many damp habitats and rural and urban areas. The species breeds in still and slow moving shallow waters and irrigation ditches; females lay 200-300 eggs. It is often recorded from modified habitats. Several hybrids with L. helveticus have been reported while hybridization with L. montandoni is quite common in syntopic ...
It is designed specifically to create smooth transitions to existing finishes: a raised center ridge contains adhesive, while ... Smooth Transition Tape is a fast, simple way to virtually eliminate rework caused by hard paint lines. ... Our 3M™ Smooth Transition Tape is a fast, simple way to virtually eliminate rework caused by hard paint lines. It is designed ... Our 3M™ Smooth Transition Tape is yet another way that 3M applies science to make life easier for auto body repair technicians ...
While lawyers in Florida joust over dimples and chads, the transition clock is ticking toward zero hour, experts warned yesterday. With jobs to fill, Congress...
The purpose of Sec. of State John Kerrys recent trip to Germany is two-fold: Discuss a path to peace for Syria, and ease U.S.-German diplomatic tensions.
Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is ... Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is ... Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are not often seen in diseases other than autoimmune hepatitis. Therefore, it is helpful to make ... Other antibodies may be present, even when the anti-smooth muscle antibodies are absent. ...
  • The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC 17 ) exist as several different alternatively spliced isoforms with distinct contractile properties. (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of compensatory changes in other vasodilatory mechanisms, this may contribute to incomplete corporal smooth muscle relaxation and the etiology of erectile dysfunction in some patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Several commentators recently have advocated the view that a deficit in the performance of a smooth pursuit eye-movement task is a biological marker of the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. (edu.au)
  • This finding suggests that eye-tracking performance may not be governed entirely by genetic factors, a possibility that has implications for the use of indices of smooth pursuit eye movement as a purely genetic marker of proneness to schizophrenia. (edu.au)
  • It is designed specifically to create smooth transitions to existing finishes: a raised center ridge contains adhesive, while the paint feathers in naturally beneath the edges for virtually invisible paint lines. (3m.com)
  • For accelerated cycle times, improved productivity and for a consistent key indicator of high-quality paint jobs in auto body repair our 3M™ Smooth Transition Tape is designed specifically to eliminate hard paint lines and visible paint transitions. (3m.com)
  • 2. Nicky Clarke Smooth It Over Finishing Serum, £4.99. (cosmopolitan.com)
  • TRESemmé Keratin Smooth Weightless Shine Serum helps eliminate frizz, unlock shine and leave your locks gorgeously salon-smooth. (ulta.com)
  • Virtually all smooth muscle genes analyzed to date contain two or more essential binding sites for serum response factor (SRF) in their control regions. (pnas.org)
  • Smooth muscle genes share the property of being regulated by serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitous MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, SRF) box transcription factor that binds as a homodimer to the DNA consensus sequence CC(A/T) 6 GG, known as a CArG box ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These cultures were washed extensively to remove serum and infected with adenoviruses encoding lacZ or residues 128-935 of myocardin in serum-free medium at a multiplicity of infection of 100 for 2 h at 37°C. Cells were cultured for 14-21 days, fixed in 4% formaldehyde in PBS for 30 min, and stained for smooth muscle (SM)-α-actin as described below. (pnas.org)
  • Pureology Smooth Perfection Smoothing Serum gives flexible control and acts as a heat protectant for normal to thick, color treated hair. (ulta.com)
  • This smoothing hair serum provides anti-frizz protection, restores manageability, and leaves hair with a soft and shiny finish. (ulta.com)
  • Smooth Perfection Smoothing Serum includes Camellia Oil, Vitamin E Oil, and Pureology's AntiFade Complex to nourish, strengthen, and provide the ultimate color protection for color treated hair. (ulta.com)
  • Although blood and cardiac cells from hPSCs have been created before, this is the first time that all the major types of vascular smooth muscle cells have been developed and done so in a system which would be easy to scale up for clinical-grade production. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells originate from different tissues in the early embryo, and the scientists were able to reproduce three distinct types of embryonic tissue in the culture dish. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, there are many patients who have a genetic disorder, such as Marfans Syndrome, that affects their vascular smooth muscle cells and leads to premature death and disability. (cam.ac.uk)
  • L-type calcium channel expression depends on the differentiated state of vascular smooth muscle cells," The FASEB Journal , vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 593-601, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Nanomolar potency and selectivity of a Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel inhibitor against store-operated Ca2+ entry and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells," British Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 382-393, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Human diabetes is associated with hyperreactivity of vascular smooth muscle cells due to altered subcellular Ca2+ distribution," Diabetes , vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1323-1330, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition of Ca2+ uptake into A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells by farnesol: Lack of effect on membrane fluidity and Ca2+-ATPase activities," Journal of Hypertension , vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1723-1728, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • K. D. Wu, D. Bungard, and J. Lytton, "Regulation of SERCA Ca2+ pump expression by cytoplasmic Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells," The American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , vol. 280, no. 4, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • This is accomplished by the shortening or lengthening of the individual smooth muscle cells, which occurs in a co-ordinated fashion because the cells are electrically coupled by intercellular connections, known as gap junctions . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cells are termed 'smooth' because they lack the regular bands or striations which are prominent in skeletal muscle fibres and cardiac muscle cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Smooth muscle cells are capable of contracting dramatically, to half or less of their relaxed length. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Contraction may be sustained, as in the smooth muscle cells present in the blood vessels or airways, or rhythmic, as in the cells of the myometrium and gastrointestinal tract. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rather, they exist in a dynamic state of partial constriction, regulated by the smooth muscle cells which form much of the vascular wall, where they are arranged in multiple layers embedded in a tough and elastic matrix of connective tissue . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The layers of smooth muscle cells are separated from the blood by a monolayer of flat, polygonal endothelial cells . (encyclopedia.com)
  • These remarkable cells carry out multiple vital tasks, which include controlling the clotting of blood and releasing substances which influence the contraction and also the growth of the smooth muscle cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This text also explains how smooth muscle cells regulate their contractile activity through regulation of calcium ion fluxes and the interaction, at the molecular level, of calcium ions with regulatory proteins associated with the contractile apparatus. (elsevier.com)
  • Development of cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle cells is accompanied by transcriptional activation of overlapping but distinct sets of muscle-specific genes. (pnas.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells. (istockphoto.com)
  • This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Lead author of the research, Dr Sanjay Sinha, Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellow at the University of Cambridge said: "This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • M. F. Navedo, Y. Takeda, M. Nieves-Cintrón, J. D. Molkentin, and L. F. Santana, "Elevated Ca2+ sparklet activity during acute hyperglycemia and diabetes in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells," American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , vol. 298, no. 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The stylists at Fred Segal Salon in Santa Monica were doing about two Brazilian Blowouts a day after the hair-smoothing product first came on the market six years ago. (latimes.com)
  • The North Hollywood company that manufactures and distributes the Brazilian Blowout Acai Professional Smoothing Solution has been under fire from the U.S. government, individual states (including California and Oregon), cosmetics trade groups and independent hair stylists for more than a year. (latimes.com)
  • Even so, consumers and salons alike are demanding alternatives, and they're finding them in products with names that trumpet their environmentally friendly, chemical-free cred, including Farouk Systems' Chi Enviro American Smoothing Treatment and Anevolve's Control Zero American hair straightening. (latimes.com)
  • Chi Enviro uses low-pH silk fibers to rearrange the amino acids in the hair and smooth curls, Shami said. (latimes.com)
  • The salon also offers keratin-activated smoothing treatments and heat-activated Japanese Yuko hair straightening. (latimes.com)
  • In order for your hair to stay soft and smooth, it needs the natural conditioning of sebum, the oil that your scalp produces to keep your hair strong. (wikihow.com)
  • If you wash your hair every day, you rinse away this nourishing oil, leaving your strands feeling dry and coarse instead of smooth and silky. (wikihow.com)
  • Trimming off the dry, coarse ends of your hair will keep it looking lighter, smoother, and softer. (wikihow.com)
  • Your hair will be smooth and silky in the morning. (wikihow.com)
  • Getting a smooth, frizz-controlled style shouldn't mean settling for limp locks or poker straight hair that barely moves. (tesco.com)
  • Then prep hair for styling with the Keratin Smooth Heat Protect Spray and finish with the Keratin Smooth Shine Oil to give your look professional-quality polish. (tesco.com)
  • Daily-use shampoo makes hair smooth and glossy. (jcpenney.com)
  • Life doesn't always run smooth, but there's no reason why your hair can't. (ulta.com)
  • Although they're just as simple as shaving, depilatories leave hair stubble with a smoother tip rather than the sharp edges a razor provides so it looks like your hair is taking longer to grow back in. (latina.com)
  • Apply to damp hair and blow-dry for a perfected, smooth finish. (ulta.com)
  • Our NeurIPS 2018 paper, " Optimal Algorithms for Non-Smooth Distributed Optimization in Networks ," explores the much more delicate question of non-smooth optimization. (microsoft.com)
  • Our 3M™ Smooth Transition Tape is yet another way that 3M applies science to make life easier for auto body repair technicians. (3m.com)
  • In addition, you enjoy complementary services that will make your trip smoother, such as: extra baggage allowance, preferred treatment and the use of dedicated Elite transfer desks. (klm.com)
  • Run your router smoothly and steadily, trying to make the entire cut in one smooth motion. (ehow.com)
  • Because SRF is expressed in a wide range of cell types, it alone cannot account for smooth muscle-specific gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • These findings identify myocardin as a master regulator of smooth muscle gene expression and explain how SRF conveys smooth muscle specificity to its target genes. (pnas.org)
  • Virtually every smooth muscle gene analyzed to date contains at least two CArG boxes in its control region, which act cooperatively to govern smooth muscle-specific transcription ( 5 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The promyogenic activity of myocardin requires association with SRF and is augmented by homodimerization, which provides a molecular basis for the cooperativity among CArG boxes that is required for smooth muscle gene activation. (pnas.org)
  • The Swedish natural historian Carl Linnaeus, known as the "father of taxonomy", originally described the smooth hammerhead as Squalus zygaena in the 1758 tenth edition of Systema Naturae, without designating a type specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • John James Audubon and other early naturalists failed to find the Smooth-billed Ani in Florida, but it became a regular nesting bird there during the 1930s and was fairly common for several decades. (audubon.org)
  • Unfortunately, many of these workers are soon going to come off at the next slip road straight onto Spaghetti Junction, where they will have to find an alternative route for their pension saving - a route that will offer anything but a smooth ride. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models - A Survey Of Recent Developments ," Econometric Reviews , Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 1-47. (repec.org)
  • Another important difference between smooth and striated muscle is that smooth muscle never becomes fatigued, because it uses metabolic energy much more efficiently than does striated muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This book is organized into six chapters and begins with an introduction to the complexities of energy metabolism and how metabolic events can be correlated with a simultaneous quantitative assessment of smooth muscle mechanics and the contractile machinery at the molecular level. (elsevier.com)
  • The next two chapters offer the reader a view of smooth muscle membrane properties in terms of the distribution, transport, and metabolic control of electrolytes and specific aspects of ion conductance and electrical activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum, or smooth ER, performs functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of steroids, lipids and phospholipids, as well as the metabolism of carbohydrates, elimination of drugs from the system and attachment of receptors to cell membrane proteins. (reference.com)
  • While covering the smooth but busy 5km stretch, including the 1.5km between Tata Steel s general office gate and L-town gate, is quite a challenge during the daytime, at night minor accidents are routine on the two-way artery that is burdened with 1.5 lakh vehicles daily. (telegraphindia.com)
  • The Smooth-Action ™ Body Massager can be used with TimeWise Body ™ Smooth-Action ™ Cellulite Gel Cream to help enhance microcirculation. (marykay.com)
  • In this Essay, I discuss the relative advantages of smooth and bumpy legal relationships and explain how the choice of an input-output relationship differs from the choice between rules and standards. (ssrn.com)
  • The smooth hammerhead differs from other large hammerheads in the shape of its cephalofoil, which has a curved front margin without an indentation in the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be triggered by an impressive array of chemical signals, that differ depending on the type of smooth muscle involved, including a variety of neurotransmitters released at autonomic nerve endings. (encyclopedia.com)