Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.West VirginiaAcer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Balsams: Resinous substances which most commonly originate from trees. In addition to resins, they contain oils, cinnamic acid and BENZOIC ACID.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.MississippiStudents: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Libraries, NursingNelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Coal MiningOrthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.ExplosionsFossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Asclepias: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.KentuckyAmish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.OhioCensuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.MuseumsSerial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)History of DentistryFlight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.BiographyMedical Missions, Official: Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.BooksBooks, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)India

Breast and cervical cancer screening among Appalachian women. (1/161)

Medical service shortages, rural residence, and socioeconomic and cultural factors may pose barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among women living in the Appalachian region of the United States. This study determined the rates of breast and cervical cancer screening in Appalachia and identified factors associated with screening. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996 to 1998, for the Appalachian region were analyzed to determine the percentage of women > or =40 years of age who had had a mammogram or clinical breast examination (CBE) within the past 2 years and the percentage of women > or =18 years of age who had had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Screening rates were compared with those for women living elsewhere in the United States. Screening rates were further assessed according to demographic, socioeconomic, and physical and behavioral health factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictors of screening. Overall, 14,520 Appalachian women > or =18 years of age reported on Pap tests; 13,223 women > or =40 years of age reported on mammogram screening, and 13,124 women reported on CBE screening. Among Appalachian women, 68.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 67.8-69.9] had a mammogram, 75.1% (95% CI, 74.1-76.1) had a CBE in the past 2 years, and 82.4% (95% CI, 81.5-83.3) had a Pap test in the past 3 years. These rates were at most approximately 3% lower than those for women living elsewhere in the United States, but these differences were statistically significant. Older women and women with less education or income were screened less commonly. Women who had visited a doctor within the past year were more likely to have been screened. Additional interventions are needed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening rates for Appalachian women to meet the goals of Healthy People 2010, targeting in particular population groups found to have lower screening rates.  (+info)

Cancer death rates--Appalachia, 1994-1998. (2/161)

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Although descriptive analyses of mortality data are used often to identify variations by time and person, analyses that focus on regional variations are less common. Appalachia is a U.S. region with a high prevalence of risk factors for cancer (e.g., tobacco use, physical inactivity, and inadequate access to medical care). Analyses that focus on Appalachia provide valuable information for cancer control, research, and intervention. To assess the impact of cancer in Appalachia, researchers from the University of Kentucky and Pennsylvania State University, in collaboration with CDC, analyzed mortality data from CDC's National Center for Health Statistics for 1994-1998. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate elevated cancer mortality, underscoring the need for ongoing cancer prevention and control programs as a major public health priority in this region.  (+info)

Costs of providing dental services for children in public and private practices. (3/161)

This study compares the costs of providing children's dental services in three practice settings: private practices, public mobile clinics, and public fixed clinics. Some 15,000 children were provided comprehensive dental care over a three-year period. Results indicate that costs per visit and per child were lowest in mobile clinics and highest in private practices. The differential was partially explained by differences in productivity but mostly by the fact that the price of services in public practices represented costs of production, whereas in private practices they represented market values.  (+info)

Improving the oral health knowledge of osteopathic medical students. (4/161)

Due to a complex set of circumstances including culture, poverty, low educational achievement, and limited access to dental care, the oral health of rural Appalachians is poorer than that of people in other parts of Kentucky. Limited health care dollars go to primary medical care which may be the only contact these individuals have with the health care system. Consequently, primary care physicians can help improve oral health. The University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) and the Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine (PCSOM) developed an oral health education block for third-year PCSOM students. Eleven UKCD faculty and one PCSOM faculty participated in the two-day, sixteen-hour oral health curriculum. Knowledge retention data from the post-tests was collected four months after the educational program. Students significantly improved their performance in six of the topic areas, with performance staying the same in one area and dropping significantly in one area. Focus groups were conducted with sixteen (two groups of eight) randomly selected students one year after the educational program. Students reported using the knowledge and oral exam techniques included in the course and felt that it was a valuable addition to their curriculum.  (+info)

Underserved region recruitment and return to practice: a thirty-year analysis. (5/161)

The purpose of this investigation was a retrospective analysis of a select group of graduates from the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) over a thirty-year history to determine how many of these individuals came from the Appalachian Region of Eastern Kentucky, which historically has been economically depressed and underserved by health care practitioners including dentists. This same group of dental school graduates was then tracked to see if they established dental practices in the Appalachian region of the state. Recruiting trends were investigated by reviewing student records regarding county of origin from targeted classes at UKCD in 1969, 1979, and 1989 to gain ten-year incremental, historical perspectives. To identify more recent trends, classes graduating in 1994 through 1999 were reviewed. Once identified, the databank of the Kentucky Board of Dentistry was used to determine if these individuals reported practicing in counties of Kentucky designated by the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). The findings of this study indicate an alarming decline both in numbers of students being recruited from this underserved area and a concomitant decline in those recruits returning to ARC-designated counties in the state. This study establishes the need for persistent diligence in recruitment of students from underserved areas and challenges dental schools to create strategies that will encourage their graduates to establish practices in these regions.  (+info)

van der Waals and hygroscopic forces of adhesion generated by spider capture threads. (6/161)

Cribellar thread is the most primitive type of sticky prey capture thread found in aerial spider webs. Its outer surface is formed of thousands of fine fibrils that issue from a cribellum spinning field. The fibrils of primitive cribellar thread are cylindrical, whereas those of derived threads have nodes. Cribellar threads snag on insect setae but also adhere to smooth surfaces. A previous study showed empirically that cylindrical fibrils use only van der Waals forces to stick to smooth surfaces, as their stickiness is the same under different humidity. By contrast, noded fibrils are stickier under high humidity, where they are presumed to adsorb atmospheric water and implement hygroscopic (capillary) adhesion. Here, we model thread stickiness according to these two adhesive mechanisms. These models equate stickiness with the force necessary to overcome the adhesion of fibril contact points in a narrow band along each edge of the contact surface and to initiate peeling of the thread from the surface. Modeled and measured thread stickiness values are similar, supporting the operation of the hypothesized adhesive forces and portraying an important transition in the evolution of spider threads. Cribellar threads initially relied only on van der Waals forces to stick to smooth surfaces. The appearance of fibril nodes introduced hydrophilic sites that implemented hygroscopic force and increased thread stickiness under intermediate and high humidity.  (+info)

Appalachian teen smokers: not on tobacco 15 months later. (7/161)

High school smokers from 2 central Appalachian states received the American Lung Association's 10-session Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) program or a 15-minute brief self-help intervention. Our study compared the efficacy of N-O-T with that of the brief intervention by examining group differences in the 15-month-postbaseline (12-month-postprogram) smoking quit rates. N-O-T youths had higher overall quit rates. Review of end-of-program (3-month-postbaseline) and 3-month-postprogram (6-month-postbaseline) follow-up data showed state-level differences and positive cessation trends over time, regardless of treatment intensity. Quit rates were lower than rates found in other N-O-T studies of nonrural youths, suggesting that Appalachian youths are a recalcitrant smoking sample. Findings suggest that N-O-T is one option for long-term smoking cessation among rural teens.  (+info)

Gender differences among long-distance backpackers: A prospective study of women Appalachian Trail backpackers. (8/161)

OBJECTIVE: Backpacking is a popular recreational activity, yet the differential experiences of women are unknown. The objective was to compare women with men backpackers to determine the extent to which injuries and illnesses limit endurance outdoor recreational activities. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort surveillance survey of 334 persons who hiked the Appalachian Trail for > or =7 days. At the end of their hike, 280 subjects completed a questionnaire. Male hikers served as controls for injury and illness. RESULTS: Women comprised 26% (72 of 280) of the sample. The mean (+/-SD) duration of hiking was 144 +/- 66 days covering 1570 +/- 680 miles. Fifty-seven percent (41 of 72) of women and 72% (150 of 208) of men attained their goal (P = .02). The occurrence of individual musculoskeletal problems, such as strains, sprains, arthralgias, tendonitis, and fractures, were similar (P = .9) between sexes. The occurrence of diarrhea (56%) was also similar (relative risk [RR] 1.0; P = .9) between sexes. Of regularly menstruating women, 87% (43 of 49) had menstrual changes while hiking, such as change in frequency (45%) or character (43%) (RR 3.1; 95% CI, 2.0-4.8; P < .001). Shortened duration of menses was most common (41%). Amenorrhea occurred in 22% (11 of 49) of women, including 5 of 25 taking oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Breakthrough, midcycle bleeding occurred in 20% (10 of 49) of women. CONCLUSIONS: Women had similar experiences as compared with men when backpacking. Menstrual changes were very common including amenorrhea. Prolonged amenorrhea raises concern for potential bone mineral density loss, and OCPs should be considered to prevent such loss.  (+info)

  • The first project was held in the fall of 2001 and emerged from a number of meetings of members of the Consortium of Appalachian Centers with the Appalachian Regional Commission staff. (etsu.edu)
  • The Consortium of Appalachian Centers is currently composed of thirteen (13) colleges, universities, and community colleges from the Appalachian region that are dedicated to working more closely together in service to the Appalachian region to improve the quality of life for its residents. (etsu.edu)
  • He began his career in the Appalachian region of Tennessee and Kentucky administering community owned primary health care centers. (cspinet.org)
  • The share of Appalachian households with a computer device (desktop, laptop, smartphone, tablet, or other device) in 2013-2017 was five percentage points below the national average (82 percent compared with 87 percent), the report shows. (prb.org)
  • During the 2013-2017 period, 72 percent of Appalachian households had a broadband internet subscription, roughly six percentage points below the national average. (prb.org)
  • The region's vast coalfield covers 63,000 square miles (160,000 km2) between northern Pennsylvania and central Alabama, mostly along the Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Plateau regions. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The Energy Information Administration said in a 2011 outlook statement that the region's coal is "extensively mined" and its higher-cost coal will slowly be "supplanted by lower cost coal from other supply regions. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In fact, median household income rose faster than the national average in more than half of the Region's counties, and it increased by 5 percent or more in 140 counties scattered throughout the Region. (prb.org)
  • The report compares health indicators of the Appalachian Region to those of the nation as a whole, and found substantial disparities in health outcomes and other health-related factors in Ohio's Appalachian Region. (senate.gov)
  • However, future geographic or neighborhood-level studies with larger sample size are needed to delineate further the consistency of these results in the Central Appalachian population. (etsu.edu)
  • The overall goal of the CARERC PhD/DNP OEHN training program is to equip doctoral-prepared nurses to conduct interdisciplinary occupational and environmental focused research or evidence-based programs in rural and Appalachian areas that will inform and influence nursing practice and policy development, research, and education in the rural and Appalachian regions. (uky.edu)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - Today, U.S. Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) reinforced his support for rural Ohio and hospitals in the region following a new report that found the Appalachian region faces unique health challenges and lack of access to care and doctors. (senate.gov)
  • In July, Brown released a report outlining devastating impacts repealing the Affordable Care Act would have had on rural communities in the Appalachian Region, including health care coverage loss, hospital closures, job loss and cuts to opioid and substance abuse treatment services. (senate.gov)
  • The Occupational Environmental Health Nursing (OEHN) training program at the University of Kentucky's (UK) Central Appalachian Region Educational and Research Center (CARERC) initially aimed to educate PhD-prepared nurses to conduct interdisciplinary occupational and environmental health (OEH) research to inform and influence nursing practice, research, and education in the rural and Appalachian regions. (uky.edu)
  • What I was planning was quitting my newspaper job, packing up the belongings in my apartment, and giving up my permanent address to strap 50 pounds on my back and hike the entire length of the Appalachian Trail. (outdoors.org)
  • Ever since college, hiking the Appalachian Trail had been a goal I kept on the proverbial "things to do" list that decorated my refrigerator. (outdoors.org)
  • Brown has pushed to expand resources to Ohio's Appalachian Region, and helped secure federal funds for research, infrastructure and economic development projects across the Appalachian Region. (senate.gov)
  • Although labor force participation rates were slightly lower in the Region, the unemployment rate matched the national average of 5.4 percent. (prb.org)
  • The vision of the Occupational Therapy Program is to be innovative and a national leader in occupational therapy graduate education and to transform the lives of others in order to promote a positive change in the region, nation and world communities. (ehc.edu)
  • The Occupational Therapy Program at Emory & Henry believes that the learning environment needs to be occupation centered and learning takes place through activities provided on campus but also off campus in the Appalachian region and/or around the nation. (ehc.edu)
  • Given that high-speed internet access is credited with enhancing economic growth and development, these are signs that many communities in the Region may be at risk of being left behind," Pollard warns. (prb.org)
  • The handmade soap tradition is still well known in the Appalachian region, with many families still sharing first-hand memories of family members making their own soap in this geographically isolated and financially poor region. (soapshed.com)