Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein: A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)PhosphoproteinsUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesU937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Mice, Inbred BALB CCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/5488)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel mouse cDNA, ES18, involved in apoptotic cell death of T-cells. (2/5488)

Using the modified screening approach in combination with expressed sequence tags, we have identified several novel cDNAs from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, whose expression is tissue-restricted and/or developmentally regulated. One of the cDNAs, ES18, is preferentially expressed in lymph node and thymus, and contains noteworthy features of transcriptional regulator. The expression of ES18 transcript was selectively regulated during the apoptosis of T-cell thymoma S49.1 induced by several stimuli. Interestingly, the ES18 transcript was differently regulated in the mutually antagonistic process, between dexamethasone- and A23187-induced cell death of T-cells. Moreover, the message level of ES18 was selectively enhanced by staurosporine, a broad protein kinase inhibitor, but not by other protein kinase inhibitors such as GF109203X and H89. In addition, ES18 transcript was induced by C2-ceramide, which is a mediator of both dexamethasone- and staurosporine-induced apoptotic signaling. We further showed that transient overexpression of ES18 in mouse T-cell lymphoma increased the apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that ES18 may be selectively involved in specific apoptotic processes in mouse T-cells.  (+info)

Functional analysis of TRAIL receptors using monoclonal antibodies. (3/5488)

mAbs were generated against the extracellular domain of the four known TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and tested on a panel of human melanoma cell lines. The specificity of the mAb permitted a precise evaluation of the TRAIL receptors that induce apoptosis (TRAIL-R1 and -R2) compared with the TRAIL receptors that potentially regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (TRAIL-R3 and -R4). Immobilized anti-TRAIL-R1 or -R2 mAbs were cytotoxic to TRAIL-sensitive tumor cells, whereas tumor cells resistant to recombinant TRAIL were also resistant to these mAbs and only became sensitive when cultured with actinomycin D. The anti-TRAIL-R1 and -R2 mAb-induced death was characterized by the activation of intracellular caspases, which could be blocked by carbobenzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) and carbobenzyloxy-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zIETD-fmk). When used in solution, one of the anti-TRAIL-R2 mAbs was capable of blocking leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R2-expressing cells and prevented TRAIL-induced death of these cells, whereas two of the anti-TRAIL-R1 mAbs could inhibit leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R1:Fc. Furthermore, use of the blocking anti-TRAIL-R2 mAb allowed us to demonstrate that the signals transduced through either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 were necessary and sufficient to mediate cell death. In contrast, the expression of TRAIL-R3 or TRAIL-R4 did not appear to be a significant factor in determining the resistance or sensitivity of these tumor target cells to the effects of TRAIL.  (+info)

Involvement of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (4/5488)

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been identified as a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but its physiological functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of TRAIL in human CD4+ T cell clones by utilizing newly established anti-human TRAIL mAbs. Human CD4+ T cell clones, HK12 and 4HM1, exhibited perforin-independent and Fas ligand (FasL)-independent cytotoxicity against certain target cells, including T lymphoma (Jurkat) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines, which are susceptible to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to FasL, the expression of which was inducible upon anti-CD3 stimulation, TRAIL was constitutively expressed on HK12 and 4HM1 cells, and no further increase was observed after anti-CD3 stimulation. Spontaneous cytotoxic activities of resting HK12 and 4HM1 cells against Jurkat and HaCaT cells were blocked by anti-TRAIL mAb but not by anti-FasL mAb, and bystander cytotoxic activities of anti-CD3-stimulated HK12 and 4HM1 cells were abolished by the combination of anti-TRAIL and anti-FasL mAbs. These results indicate a differential regulation of TRAIL and FasL expression on human CD4+ T cell clones and that TRAIL constitutes an additional pathway of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  (+info)

The cell death-promoting gene DP5, which interacts with the BCL2 family, is induced during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to amyloid beta protein. (5/5488)

DP5, which contains a BH3 domain, was cloned as a neuronal apoptosis-inducing gene. To confirm that DP5 interacts with members of the Bcl-2 family, 293T cells were transiently co-transfected with DP5 and Bcl-xl cDNA constructs, and immunoprecipitation was carried out. The 30-kDa Bcl-xl was co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged DP5, suggesting that DP5 physically interacts with Bcl-xl in mammalian cells. Previously, we reported that DP5 is induced during neuronal apoptosis in cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we analyzed DP5 gene expression and the specific interaction of DP5 with Bcl-xl during neuronal death induced by amyloid-beta protein (A beta). DP5 mRNA was induced 6 h after treatment with A beta in cultured rat cortical neurons. The protein encoded by DP5 mRNA showed a specific interaction with Bcl-xl. Induction of DP5 gene expression was blocked by nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggested that the induction of DP5 mRNA occurs downstream of the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration caused by A beta. Moreover, DP5 specifically interacts with Bcl-xl during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to A beta, and its binding could impair the survival-promoting activities of Bcl-xl. Thus, the induction of DP5 mRNA and the interaction of DP5 and Bcl-xl could play significant roles in neuronal degeneration following exposure to A beta.  (+info)

TWEAK induces angiogenesis and proliferation of endothelial cells. (6/5488)

TWEAK is a recently described member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) ligand family whose transcripts are present in a wide variety of human tissues (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410). TWEAK is a weak inducer of apoptosis in transformed cells when administered with interferon-gamma or cycloheximide (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410; Masters, S. A., Sheridan, J. P., Pitti, R. M., Brush, A. G., and Ashkenazi, A. (1998) Curr. Biol. 8, 525-528) and also promotes IL-8 secretion in cultured cells. We report here that picomolar concentrations of recombinant soluble TWEAK induce proliferation in a variety of normal human endothelial cells and in aortic smooth muscle cells and reduce culture requirements for serum and growth factors. Blocking antibodies to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) do not significantly inhibit TWEAK-induced proliferation, indicating that TWEAK does not function indirectly through up-regulation of VEGF. Pellets containing TWEAK induce a strong angiogenic response when implanted in rat corneas, suggesting a role for TWEAK in vasculature formation in vivo.  (+info)

The ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (p60) death domain and induces apoptosis. (7/5488)

The tumor necrosis factor receptor, p60 (TNF-R1), transduces death signals via the association of its cytoplasmic domain with several intracellular proteins. By screening a mammalian cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning technique, we isolated a ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic death domain of TNF-R1. Sequence analysis reveals that DAP-1 shares striking sequence homology with the yeast SMT3 protein that is essential for the maintenance of chromosome integrity during mitosis (Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 793-807). DAP-1 is nearly identical to PIC1, a protein that interacts with the PML tumor suppressor implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (Boddy, M. N., Howe, K., Etkin, L. D., Solomon, E., and Freemont, P. S. (1996) Oncogene 13, 971-982), and the sentrin protein, which associates with the Fas death receptor (Okura, T., Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Wada, T., Okura, I., Wei, C. F., Chang, H. M., and Yeh, E. T. (1996) J. Immunol. 157, 4277-4281). The in vivo interaction between DAP-1 and TNF-R1 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. In transient transfection assays, overexpression of DAP-1 suppresses NF-kappaB/Rel activity in 293T cells, a human kidney embryonic carcinoma cell line. Overexpression of either DAP-1 or sentrin causes apoptosis of TNF-sensitive L929 fibroblast cell line, as well as TNF-resistant osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. Furthermore, the dominant negative Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) protein blocks the cell death induced by either DAP-1 or FADD. Collectively, these observations highly suggest a role for DAP-1 in mediating TNF-induced cell death signaling pathways, presumably through the recruitment of FADD death effector.  (+info)

Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c. (8/5488)

We report on the molecular cloning of a novel human cDNA by its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This cDNA is predominantly expressed in muscle and encodes a protein that is present in the nucleoplasm and concentrated in nucleoli. It was therefore termed Nop30 (nucleolar protein of 30 kDa). We have also identified a related cDNA with a different carboxyl terminus. Sequencing of the NOP gene demonstrated that both cDNAs are generated by alternative 5' splice site usage from a single gene that consists of four exons, spans at least 1800 nucleotides, and is located on chromosome 16q21-q23. The alternative 5' splice site usage introduces a frameshift creating two different carboxyl termini. The carboxyl terminus of Nop30 is rich in serines and arginines and has been found to target the protein into the nucleus, whereas its isoform is characterized by proline/glutamic acid dipeptides in its carboxyl terminus and is predominantly found in the cytosol. Interaction studies in yeast, in vitro protein interaction assays, and co-immunoprecipitations demonstrated that Nop30 multimerizes and binds to the RS domain of SRp30c but not to other splicing factors tested. Overexpression of Nop30 changes alternative exon usage in preprotachykinin and SRp20 reporter genes, suggesting that Nop30 influences alternative splice site selection in vivo.  (+info)

*SIVA1

Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIVA1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with an ... 2000). "Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein ... Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that promotes HIV-1 envelope-induced apoptosis in T- ... 2003). "GITR interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva and induces apoptosis". Cell Death Differ. 9 (12): 1382-4. doi: ...

*CCAR1

2006). "Cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory protein-1 is involved in apoptosis signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor ... "Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... 2007). "Transactivator of transcription-tagged cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 peptides suppress the growth of ... Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCAR1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...

*Stratifin

"Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... Stratifin (also known as 14-3-3 protein sigma or 14-3-3σ protein) is a protein encoded by the SFN gene in humans. The protein ... A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi ...

*Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2

"Cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) by CPP32 during apoptosis". The EMBO Journal. 15 (5): 1012-20. ... Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) also known as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 ( ... SREBF2 has been shown to interact with INSIG1 and CREB-binding protein. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein GRCh38: ... Nagoshi E, Imamoto N, Sato R, Yoneda Y (Jul 1999). "Nuclear import of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, a basic ...

*Apoptosis

... apoptotic signals must cause regulatory proteins to initiate the apoptosis pathway. This step allows those signals to cause ... Database of proteins involved in apoptosis Apoptosis Video Apoptosis Video (WEHI on YouTube ) The Mechanisms of Apoptosis ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48. Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ... HIV may increase the level of cellular proteins that prompt Fas-mediated apoptosis. HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 ...

*Ifi202

... which is a regulatory protein in the process of apoptosis. This is hypothesized to contribute to some of the symptoms of SLE. ... Ifi202 gene encodes for p202 protein, which belongs to the p200-protein family. The IFI family of genes is inducible by type 1 ... The p202 protein has the following structure A 52kDa nuclear phosphoprotein Humans have an ifi202 and ifi204 similar gene known ... Ifi202 contains a STAT3 binding site (SBS) at the 5' regulatory region of the ifi202 gene. p202 expression is known to retard ...

*Sandra Quackenbush

Her lab is trying to determine the mode by which transcription, apoptosis, and transduction are controlled by viral regulatory ... Retroviruses within these genera cause disease by containing RNA sequences that code for proteins that promote oncogenesis ... contains sequences that encode for cyclin proteins, leading to the proliferation of normal cells and eventually giving a means ... proteins such as kinases. Studies focus on the walleye dermal sarcoma virus and inducing sarcomas. The retroviral cyclin of ...

*APAF1

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that forms one of the central hubs in the apoptosis regulatory network. This protein ... Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X (Aug 1997). "Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307 ... Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves Procaspase 9 ...

*DAP3

As aforementioned, death associated protein 3 (DAP3) has regulatory roles in cell respiration and apoptosis. Both opposites and ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (Jun 2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nature ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat. ... 28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is ...

*Activating protein 2

Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R (2000). "Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate ... development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control". Gene. 260 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00454-6. PMID 11137286. ... Activating Protein 2 (AP-2) is a family of closely related transcription factors which plays a critical role in regulating gene ... "Characterization of a dimerization motif in AP-2 and its function in heterologous DNA-binding proteins". Science. 251 (4997): ...

*TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator

Henley SA, Dick FA (2012). "The retinoblastoma family of proteins and their regulatory functions in the mammalian cell division ... It also prevents apoptosis in several ways: it reduces mitochondrial ROS levels, and it prevents apoptosis-causing protein Bax ... This stops cytochrome C protein passing out through VDAC into the cytoplasm where it triggers apoptosis via a caspase protein ... In this state, Rb binds to a protein transcription factor E2F and prevents E2F from activating transcription of proteins ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... apoptosis regulatory proteins MeSH D12.644.360.075.311 --- apoptosis inducing factor MeSH D12.644.360.075.405 --- caspases MeSH ... neuronal apoptosis-inhibitory protein MeSH D12.644.360.075.437.750 --- x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein MeSH D12.644. ... pii nitrogen regulatory proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.307 --- paxillin MeSH D12.644.360.024.311 --- protein inhibitors of ... rap gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.475.100 --- rap1 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.500 --- ras proteins ...

*Viral regulatory and accessory protein

"The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory protein Vpu induces apoptosis by suppressing the nuclear factor kappaB- ... A viral regulatory and accessory protein is a type of viral protein that can play an indirect role in the function of a virus. ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Akari H, Bour S ...

*IRF8

Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP), is a protein that in ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 sensitizes soft tissue sarcoma cells to death receptor-initiated apoptosis via repression of FLICE-like ... Interferon Consensus Sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 mediates apoptosis in nonhemopoietic tumor cells via regulation of Fas expression". J. Immunol. 179 (7 ...

*Regulatory enzyme

... and proteins involved in development processes and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are activated by proteolysis too. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of phosphate groups to proteins, which is the most frequent regulatory modification mechanism ... The presence of a phosphoryl group in a part of a protein may depend on the folding of the enzyme (which can make the protein ... There are many strategies of activation and deactivation of regulatory enzymes. Regulatory enzymes require an extra activation ...

*BAG4

The regulatory role of this protein in cell death was demonstrated in epithelial cells which undergo apoptosis while integrin ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that ... functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase ... 2001). "Isolation of Bcl-2 binding proteins that exhibit homology with BAG-1 and suppressor of death domains protein". Biochem ...

*NBEAL1

... protein-protein interactions, vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics, receptor signaling, apoptosis, adaptor/regulatory modules ... "neurobeachin-like protein 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-24. "Pfam: Family: ... apoptosis, membrane dynamics and receptor signaling. This protein family is of great clinical importance currently because ... NBEAL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NBEAL1 gene. It is found on chromosome 2q33.2 of Homo sapiens. Through the ...

*Viral protein

... and apoptosis. In DNA viruses and retroviruses, viral regulatory proteins can enhance viral gene transcription, likewise, these ... and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory, and accessory proteins. Viruses ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins have many functions. These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions ... Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. Class III: ...

*Robert Schimke

Later he studied regulatory mechanisms in the cells, including the regulation of apoptosis. He was a Research Professor of the ... At Stanford he examined the effects of steroid hormones on the synthesis of certain proteins, leading to new techniques in ... "Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007. ... The mechanism also found applications in biotechnology, for example in the production of proteins, including erythropoietin, of ...

*FADD

Cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a regulatory protein which contains two DEDs. There are two isoforms of C-FLIP: C ... The activity of protein kinase C has a negative effect on Fas receptor mediated apoptosis. This is because it inhibits the ... Binding of TRAIL to death receptors four and five (DR4 and DR5) can lead to apoptosis by the same mechanism. Apoptosis can also ... As FADD has such an important role in apoptosis, loss of FADD can give cancer cells a proliferative advantage as apoptosis ...

*MAPK10

... immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein ... this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ...

*CIAPIN1

... is a cytokine-induced inhibitor of apoptosis with no relation to apoptosis regulatory molecules of the BCL2 (MIM 151430 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ... Anamorsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CIAPIN1 gene. ...

*Protein phosphatase 1

PPP1R3G regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 7: PPP1R7 regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 8: PPP1R8 regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 9: ... apoptosis, protein synthesis, and regulation of membrane receptors and channels. Each PP1 enzyme contains both a catalytic ... protein kinase R is activated by the virus' double-stranded RNA, and protein kinase R then phosphorylates a protein called ... PPP1CC regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1: PPP1R1A, PPP1R1B, PPP1R1C regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2: PPP1R2 regulatory ( ...

*CARD9

... and thus plays an important regulatory role in cell apoptosis. This protein was identified by its selective association with ... Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD9 gene. CARD9 is a ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...

*CD47

... and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). This is because the protein IAP produced by CD-47 acts as a don't eat me signal to ... However, apoptosis was not observed following culture with other anti-CD47 antibodies. The apoptosis inducing function of CD47 ... 2012). "The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors". Proc. ... CD47 interacts with signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory transmembrane receptor present on myeloid cells. The ...

*G1 phase

In these cases where the G1 phase is affected, it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become ... Ye, Yan; et alia (June 2011). "Atractylenolide II induces G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells". Journal of ... Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: inhibitory gene regulatory proteins suppress major cyclin genes ... Once the required proteins and growth are complete, the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. The duration of ...
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Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in circuits that convey reward and motivation, and abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been associated with mental illness. In particular, reduced function of the D2-type dopamine receptor (D2DR) is thought to contribute to schizophrenia, addiction, and mood disorders. Park et al. used a yeast two-hybrid screen to uncover prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) as a binding partner for D2DR. In striatal neurons from mice that expressed a mutant form of Par-4 (in which the domain mediating the interaction with D2DR had been deleted), activation of signaling through cAMP was disrupted. Furthermore, behavioral tests of the mutant mice showed a depression-like phenotype, but no effects on measures of anxiety. Beaulieu et al. examined another signaling pathway emanating from D2DR, and they find that β-arrestin 2 is important in mediating the behavioral effects of dopamine. In wild-type mice, β-arrestin 2 was shown to associate with protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) and ...
Accelerates programmed cell death. Association to the apoptosis repressors Bcl-X(L), BHRF1, Bcl-2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein suppresses this death-promoting activity. Does not interact with BAX.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for CIDEA gene (Protein Coding), Cell Death-Inducing DFFA-Like Effector A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
PDCD5兔多克隆抗体(ab75430)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
PDCD11小鼠单克隆抗体[158C1a](ab84852)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is critical for inflammation and control of infection. The production of IL-1β depends on expression of pro-IL-1β and inflammasome component induced by inflammatory stimuli, followed by assembly of inflammasome to generate caspase-1 for cleavage of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) deficiency impaired IL-1β production in macrophages. Generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages, in contrast, was not affected by DAPK knockout. Two tiers of defects in IL-1β generation were found in DAPK-deficient macrophages: decreased pro-IL-1β induction by some stimuli and reduced caspase-1 activation by all inflammatory stimuli examined. With a normal NLRP3 induction in DAPK-deficient macrophages, the diminished caspase-1 generation is attributed to impaired inflammasome assembly. There is a direct binding of DAPK to NLRP3, suggesting an involvement of DAPK in inflammasome formation. We further illustrated that the formation of
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of DAPK was reported in lung cancers by methylation-specific PCR. However, we were unable to relate methylation with gene silencing with the same methodology. Our goals were to develop a methodology that related methylation with gene silencing and use it to study the state of the gene in lung cancers.. Using a semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, DAPK expression was lower in lung cancers than in corresponding nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells in five of six primary short-term cultures. In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 flanking region of DAPK by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfited DNA sequencing. Aberrant methylation ...
A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was utilized to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pre-treatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor HS38 decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca2+ without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of LC20 (myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains) but not of CPI-17 (protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa), Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) or MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity towards PIM3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Albany, New York, Dec 1, 2017: Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) - Apoptosis regulator BAX or bcl-2-like protein 4 is a protein is encoded by the BAX gene. It accelerates programmed cell death by antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2. It promotes activation of CASP3, and thereby apoptosis. It undergoes a conformation change that causes translocation to the mitochondrion membrane, leading to the release of cytochrome c that then triggers apoptosis under stress conditions.. Request For Free Sample - https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=1389111. Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) pipeline Target constitutes close to 7 molecules. Out of which approximately 3 molecules are developed by companies and remaining by the universities/institutes. The molecules developed by companies in Phase III, Phase II and Preclinical stages are 1, 1 and 1 respectively. Similarly, the universities portfolio in Preclinical and Discovery ...
Inhibitor for the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) has been reported to be correlated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) resistance in renal cell carci
Although most cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, one of the most common forms of adult leukemia) are sporadic, perhaps 10 to 20% are familial (see Debatin). Noting that aberrant DNA methylation--and thereby abnormal gene silencing--was emerging as a factor in CLL, Raval et al. performed quantitative high-throughput analysis to investigate DNA methylation in the CpG island of DAPK1 (death-associated protein kinase 1). DNA methylation of DAPK1 gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase implicated in promoting apoptosis in response to Fas, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD19+ B cells from people with CLL compared with that in cells from healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that DAPK1 expression was decreased in CD19+ CLL cells compared with that in B lymphocytes, and methylation reduced activity of a gene reporter containing a region of the DAPK1 promoter. Genome-wide linkage analysis ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and tumor-suppressive functions. in regulating cell polarity during migration, which might work as well as its apoptotic function to suppress tumor development. Intro Cell migration is vital for many natural procedures, AZD4547 including embryonic advancement, wound curing, and immune monitoring. Migration is really a complicated and extremely coordinated process that will require a cell to polarize, expand protrusions in direction of motion, type adhesions at the best advantage, translocate the cell body, and, finally, detach through the substratum in the trailing advantage (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996; Ridley et al., 2003). Directed cell migration is normally initiated in response to extracellular cues such as for example chemoattractants, development factors, as well as the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of polarity during directed migration are ...
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a proliferative disorder of IgM-secreting, lymphoplasmacytoid cells that inhabit the lymph nodes and bone marrow. The disease carries a high prevalence of activating mutations in MyD88 (91%) and CXCR4 (28%). Because signaling through these pathways leads to Bcl-xL induction, we examined Bcl-2 family expression in WM patients and cell lines. Unlike other B-lymphocyte-derived malignancies, which become dependent on expression of anti-apoptotic proteins to counter expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, WM samples expressed both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins at low levels similar to their normal B-cell and plasma cell counterparts. Three WM cell lines expressed pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bim or Bax and Bak at low levels, which determined their sensitivity to inducers of intrinsic apoptosis. In two cell lines, miR-155 upregulation, which is common in WM, was responsible for the inhibition of FOXO3a and Bim expression. Both antagonizing miR-155 to ...
The results above reveal that, in contrast to down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 by ER stress in a number of cell types ( 7, 15), these antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are transcriptionally up-regulated by ER stress in human melanoma cell lines. They show that the increase in Mcl-1 plays an essential role in antagonizing the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and Noxa, which are also up-regulated by transcriptional mechanisms in melanoma cell lines when subjected to ER stress.. Although up-regulated, Bcl-2 did not seem to be critical for protection of melanoma cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by the minimal effect of siRNA inhibition of Bcl-2 on sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by thapsigargin or tunicamycin, and the inability of overexpression of Bcl-2 to rescue melanoma cells with deficient Mcl-1 expression upon ER stress, although it did delay the onset of apoptosis. In contrast, siRNA inhibition of Mcl-1 readily enhanced ER ...
The Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases provides an extremely dynamic environment for research into the aging process and its diseases.
Apoptosis regulator BAX TranslationBlocker™ siRNA. Tested in Human samples. The only siRNA validated in protein knockdown with detailed protocols. From: $219.
Goat anti Human Noxa antibody recognizes human Noxa, a mitochondrial localised protein and member of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein fam
UMass Medical School researcher Eric Baehrecke has identified a protein in Drosophila that plays an essential role in autophagy.
A meeting place of worldwide BIM managers and BIM professionals to gather information regarding BIM, BIM software, BIM classes, BIM conference, BIM...
3 ap3h1 24 signarrays apoptosis 3 ap3h1 24 signarrays | order 3 ap3h1 24 signarrays apoptosis 3 ap3h1 24 signarrays | How to use: 3 ap3h1 24 signarrays apoptosis 3 ap3
Try Oncomin for Apoptosis from Bagdara Farms to gain from its multifaceted abilities to prevent and treat various kinds of cancer.
Well its that time of year again and Springwatch wouldnt be Springwatch without you, the audience. So heres how you can get involved...
최적의 체온조절을 위해 땀이 증발하는 원리를 적용한 패브릭으로 제작된 X-BIONIC 컬렉션 퍼포먼스 의류.|br|
LA 기반의 떠오르는 스트릿웨어 브랜드 RHUDE 콜라보레이션.|br|레트로 감성에서 영감을 받은 플랫한 브림 쉐잎이 특징.|br| 뒷면에 플라스틱 버클이 있어 사이즈를 착장자에 맞게 조절이 가능함.|br| 자수처리 된 아일릿 디테일이 있어 통기성이 좋음.|br|
അമേരിക്കയിൽ കണ്ടു വരുന്ന, മാർജ്ജാരവർഗ്ഗത്തിൽപ്പെടുന്ന ഒരു വലിയ ജീവിയാണ്‌ പൂമ.(പുമ)[3] ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്:Puma. ഏറ്റവും അധികം പേരുകളുള്ള മൃഗം എന്ന ഗിന്നസ് റെക്കോഡുണ്ട് ഇതിന്. കൂഗർ, പാന്തർ, പ്യൂമ, മൗണ്ടൻ ലയൺ, മൗണ്ടൻ ക്യാറ്റ് തുടങ്ങി നാൽപ്പതോളം പേരുകളിൽ അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. കടുവ, സിംഹം, ജാഗ്വർ എന്നിവക്ക് പിന്നിലായി പുലിക്കൊപ്പം പൂച്ച കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ നാലാമത്തെ ജീവിയാണ് പൂമ. എങ്കിലും ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis (Journal of Neuroscience (March 22, 2006) (3299-3308)). AU - Song, Jin H.. AU - Bellail, Anita. AU - Tse, Margaret C.L.. AU - Yong, V. Wee. AU - Hao, Chunhai. PY - 2006/9/7. Y1 - 2006/9/7. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33748132489&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33748132489&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:33748132489. VL - 26. JO - Journal of Neuroscience. JF - Journal of Neuroscience. SN - 0270-6474. IS - 18. ER - ...
Tu, S. P., Sun, Y. W., Cui, J. T., Zou, B., Lin, M. C. M., Gu, Q., Jiang, S. H., Kung, H. F., Korneluk, R. G. and Wong, B. C. Y. (2010), Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to suppress colon cancer growth and trigger tumor regression. Cancer, 116: 1252-1263. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24814 ...
Background Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also called Apo-2 ligand, is a member of the TNF family that has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines, as well as in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. Among the family members, TRAIL displays highest homology to CD95 ligand, receptor of which may not only mediate apoptosis of T cells, but also mediate the proliferation of normal human fibroblasts. Considering structural and functional similarities between TRAIL and CD95 ligand, we examined the effects of soluble TRAIL on normal human lung fibroblasts. Collagen a2(I) mRNA expression in fibroblasts was measured by RT-PCR, with ribosomal protein S9 as an internal standard. Normalised collagen mRNA expression was increased in fibroblasts stimulated with TRAIL for 1 or 7 days, with peak response (, 5-fold increase) at 10 ng/ml TRAIL. The increased expression of collagen a2(I) gene was confirmed by cDNA microarray that also revealed 72 ...
TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5) and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2) receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral premalignancies (OPM), and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in OSCC specimens were determined by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Normal oral epithelia constitutively
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Serine/threonine kinase which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis, autophagy, transcription, translation and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Regulates both type I (caspase-dependent) apoptotic and type II (caspase-independent) autophagic cell deaths signal, depending on the cellular setting. Involved in formation of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear body (PML-NB). Involved in apoptosis involving PAWR which mediates cytoplasmic relocation; in vitro phosphorylates PAWR (By similarity). Phosphorylates MYL12B in non-muscle cells leading to reorganization of actin cytoskeleton such as in regulation of cell polarity and cell migration. Positively regulates canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through interaction with NLK and TCF7L2; disrupts the NLK-TCF7L2 complex thereby influencing the phosphorylation of TCF7L2 by NLK. Phosphorylates STAT3 and enhances its transcriptional activity. Enhances transcription from AR-responsive promoters in a hormone- and kinase-dependent manner. Phosphorylates
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exhibits potent antitumor activity via membrane receptors on cancer cells without deleterious side effects for normal tissue. Unfortunately, breast cancer cells, as many other cancer types, develop resistance to TRAIL; therefore, TRAIL sensitizing agents are currently being explored. 2-Tellurium-bridged β-cyclodextrin (2-TeCD) is a synthetic organotellurium compound, with both glutathione peroxidase-like catalytic ability and thioredoxin reductase inhibitor activity. In the present study, we reported that 2-TeCD sensitized TRAIL-resistant human breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors to undergo apoptosis. In vitro, 2-TeCD efficiently sensitized MDA-MB-468 and T47D cells, but not untransformed human mammary epithelial cells, to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, as evidenced by enhanced caspase activity and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase cleavage. From a mechanistic standpoint, we showed that 2-TeCD treatment of breast ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Is An Endogenous Secreted Peptide And, In Preclinical Studies, Preferentially Induces Apoptosis In Tumor Cells Rather Than In Normal Cells. The Acquisition Of Resistance In Cells Exposed To
2104 It is envisioned that gene therapy approaches with viral vectors will be combined with radiation or chemotherapy. However, the success of tumor gene therapy is limited by the large size of viral vectors, which limits their penetration and distribution through the fine interstices of the interstitial matrix (IM) and the narrow spaces separating tumor cells. To by-pass these tissue barriers, we tested if the larger void spaces (poor in IM content) induced by tumor cell apoptosis enhance the distribution of replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) in tumors. In vitro, breast cancer cells (MCF-7, MCF-7-W9, MDA-MB-435S and MDA-MB-231) were treated with paclitaxel (100 nM), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, 100 mM) or paclitaxel (100 nM) plus TRAIL (100 mM). Apoptosis was measured with a DNA fragmentation assay. Paclitaxel plus TRAIL induced significantly higher level of apoptosis than treatment with paclitaxel or TRAIL alone. TRAIL induced apoptosis was ...
Purpose: Recent studies have indicated that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) driven by RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters can be transcribed into precursor mRNAs together with transgenes. It remains unclear, however, whether coexpression of shRNA and transgene from a single promoter is feasible for cancer therapy.. Experimental Design: In this study, we generated novel adenoviral vectors that permitted coexpression of shRNA against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) therapeutic gene from a cytomegalovirus promoter to evaluate whether silencing of COX-2 could increase the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to TRAIL.. Results: Our data showed that adenovirus vector Ad-TM, in which the shRNA was inserted into the 3′ untranslated region of the TRAIL gene, not only significantly suppressed COX-2 expression, but also expressed a high level of TRAIL. Moreover, infection with Ad-TM resulted in significant cytotoxicity in hepatocellular ...
DAP Kinase 1 (phospho Ser308) antibody [DKPS308] (death-associated protein kinase 1) for ELISA, IP, WB. Anti-DAP Kinase 1 (phospho Ser308) mAb (GTX10524) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Although it is well established that IFNγ causes cell death in a variety of cell types (Deiss et al., 1995; Ossina et al., 1997; Wen et al., 1997; Ruiz-Ruiz et al., 2000; Trautmann et al., 2000; Horiuchi et al., 2006), the signal transduction downstream of STAT1 remains largely unknown (Barber, 2000). Unraveling the role of IFNγ in apoptosis remains a challenge because IFNγ may prime cells to apoptosis and through induction of many genes can concomitantly elicit an antiproliferative and a proliferative state (Xiang et al., 2008). The decision between life and death may depend on possible costimuli or the cell type. Enhanced expression and translocation of Diablo into the cytosol play a critical role in the promotion of IFNγ-induced apoptosis of IFNγ-sensitive B cells (Yoshikawa et al., 2001). Th1 cells that secrete high levels of IFNγ are more susceptible to activation-induced cell death than Th2 cells because Th2 cells express Fas-associated phosphatase, FAP-1 (Zhang et al., 1997). In ...
APO-3039 Background AATF Antibody: AATF (apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor) was initially discovered as an interaction partner of ZIP kinase (ZIPK), a member of death-associated protein (DAP) kinase family of pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinases. AATF is a phosphoprotein containing an acidic region and a putative leucine zipper domain and nuclear localization signal, features which
As the leading cause of mortality in the United States, heart failure (HF) represents a disease state affected by a complex interplay between genetic, physiological, and environmental factors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression from normal cardiac function to ventricular dysfunction and overt HF will facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets. Specifics of the underlying ultrastructural and molecular determinants of the progression to ventricular dysfunction and HF are still incompletely elucidated. The early adaptive response to increasing myocardial load and functional demand is characterized by cell hypertrophy and angiogenesis before pathological hypertrophy develops. A balance between compensatory hypertrophy and apoptotic pathways exists in the early stages of ventricular dysfunction, whereas upregulation of apoptotic pathways leading to myocyte damage and apoptosis as well as subsequent myocardial fibrosis is indicative of the progression to ...
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
Mutations in the genes KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 are known to result in the formation of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although these genes have been known to be associated with CCMs since the 1990s, numerous discoveries have been made that better elucidate how they and their subsequent protein products are involved in CCM pathogenesis. Since our last review of the molecular genetics of CCM pathogenesis in 2012, breakthroughs include a more thorough understanding of the protein structures of the gene products, involvement with integrin proteins, and MEKK3 signaling pathways, and the importance of CCM2-PDCD10 interactions 1). Programmed cell death protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDCD10 gene. This gene encodes a protein, originally identified in a premyeloid cell line, with similarity to proteins that participate in apoptosis. Three alternative transcripts encoding the same protein, differing only in their 5 UTRs, have been identified for this gene. Loss of ...
This gene is specifically expressed in the thymus, and encodes a protein that is localized to the mitochondrion. The expression of this gene is inducible by p53, and it is thought to play an important role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
These studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of Apo2L/TRAIL in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer after i.v. administration, describe the disposition and safety of Apo2L/TRAIL in rodents and primates, and provide estimates of the disposition of Apo2L/TRAIL in humans.. In describing the disposition of Apo2L/TRAIL, we discovered that Apo2L/TRAIL was rapidly eliminated from both rodents and nonhuman primates following i.v. bolus administration. To better understand the reason for this rapid elimination, Apo2L/TRAIL clearance was compared with glomular filtration (GFR). A high correlation between Apo2L/TRAIL clearance and GFR was observed, suggesting that the kidney is a major player in the elimination of Apo2L/TRAIL. This was somewhat surprising since the size of trimeric Apo2L/TRAIL (60 kDa) should impede glomerular filtration. Interestingly, Apo2L/TRAIL clearance seen was similar to the clearance predicted for 20-kDa proteins (Clark et al., 1996), the subunit size of trimeric Apo2L/TRAIL. ...
The research, conducted in a preclinical model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), showed increased immune activation against tumors, increased immune cell infiltration into tumors, decreased metastasis and prolonged survival as a result of inhibited PD-L1 expression. Furthermore, this research demonstrated that PD-L1 expression is up regulated in the context of oncogene activation at the step of mRNA translation. PD-L1 is an immune-checkpoint protein that inhibits tumor immune suppression by signaling through its receptor on T cells, programed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The therapeutic benefit of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 signaling has been demonstrated by several FDA-approved inhibitors of PD-1 or PD-L1.. "This report of the molecular mechanism whereby tomivosertib inhibits translation of PD-L1 mRNA further substantiates previously presented results showing that tomivosertib selectively inhibits production of key immunosuppressive factors including PD-1, PD-L1, LAG3, TIM3 and IL-10 through ...
A BBC tovább szeretett volna terjeszkedni a digitális piacon, ezért elindult a BBC Knowledge. Eredetileg a Flextechhel való társulással akarta volna megvalósítani, a UKTV hálózaton. Csakhogy eltérő terveik voltak: a BBC márkás, míg a Flextech pedig kereskedelmi csatornát akart volna elindítani. A BBC ezt elutasította, mivel nem akarta, hogy reklámot tartalmazzon. Végül két csatorna indult el: a többnyire szórakoztató műsorokat tartalmazó BBC Choice és az ekkor még BBC Learning néven működő BBC Knowledge. 1999. június 1-jén indult el, ekkor még minden nap 6 órában sugárzott. Később a BBC úgy döntött, hogy változtat a csatornán, és így 2001. november 17-től 24 órás lett, témáját pedig dokumentumfilmzónákra cserélte. Végül a csatornatársaság amellett döntött, hogy átnevezik BBC Fourra, és a CBeebiesszel osztozkodik sávon. ...
DAXX(death-domain associated protein) also known as DAP6(Death-associated protein 6) or BING2, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic…
The enhanced expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) mediated by HBV X protein through NF-kappaB pathway is associated with cell apoptosis induced by (TNF-α related apoptosis inducing ligand) TRAIL in hepatoma ...
A20 ligase mediates ubiquitination to inhibit caspase-8 cleavage and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, according a study published online in Cancer Discovery.
It was beside me on the bed when I woke up - the little bag to pack my most cherished belongings before leaving to take the test. Our dorm has eight living in one great room and none of us heard anything in the night. No one ever does. This is the second time this week. The other bed is still empty.. The news of my test spreads like lightning. People are differential, but mostly avoiding me. What can they say? "Good on your test, bud. Wish it was my turn…not." We live for the test. Years go by, sometimes, before a person gets visited in the night by the bag messenger. Weve all heard stories of people spending their entire lives without taking the test. Thats the worse fate, I guess. But its not mine. Ill take mine today. I have a whole day to myself to say goodbye to my friends and teachers, to the only family Ive ever known, to the only place I remember ever living. I dont have much to pack. We are all issued identical uniforms and supplies. Thats why the bag is so little - I can only ...
TheInfoList.com - (Sciuromorpha) †Allomyidae APLODONTIIDAE † MYLAGAULIDAE SCIURIDAE Sciuridae †Reithroparamyidae GLIRIDAE Gliridae The term SCIUROMORPHA has referred to numerous groups of rodents , but the only family common to all variations is the Sciuridae, the squirrels . Most definitions also include the mountain beaver . Traditionally, the term has been defined on the basis of the shape of the infraorbital canal
Human LYRM5 full-length ORF (AAH71769.1, 1 a.a. - 88 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00144363-P01) - Products - Abnova
FAIM (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule) was identified as a protein that was inducibly expressed in B lymphocytes resistant to Fas-mediated…
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Copyright © 2017 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read about our approach to external linking. ...
Day Three. Sadly this was the day that Eric Charette and I split, but it was, by far, my best day and the defining moment of the entire epic. As previously mentioned, Day Three was to be the longest day on the trail and I knew this ahead of time. The day culminates with two, difficult, 8 mile+ trail sections (Dugger Mountain and Oakey Mountain) that I absolutely did not want to have to traverse in the dark. So to accomplish that I had to really push the first 36 miles from the I-20 crossing to the Burns Trailhead, which I ended up covering in right around 9 hours (not too shabby). Unfortunately I felt great while Eric was not and, by our previous, pre-run, agreement we separated. I hated to split, but we knew full well that this was a possibility if not an inevitability so wed prepared to have two distinct crews in advance. It was also at the completion of this day that, though I still had days to go and tough miles ahead, I knew that I was going to make it to the finish of the Pinhoti trail. I ...
PDCD7 - Pdcd7 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral GFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Plasmid pDONR223-DAPK2 from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert DAPK2 and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biotium \ NUCVIEW488_MITOVIEW633 APOPTOSIS \ 30062 for more molecular products just contact us
Singer Rihanna has launched her latest Fenty collection for Puma and Adidas has announced a collaboration with upcoming reggae star Chronixx
We worked with Puma to develop their new running project, where we were in charge of the art direction, btl actions, stores dressing & window display.
In Extremis we find out a few unknown biological facts about the Doctor and Time Lords in general. We discover they have (or can...
Mahakama yaamuru mchekeshaji Babu Suwe anayedaiwa kufanya biashara haramu ya dawa za kulevya aachiliwe kwa dhamana ifikapo Ijumaa
Cursurile Allplan vă permit să descoperiți avantajele soluției BIM de proiectare în arhitectură, deasemenea să învățați soluția completă în proiectarea de arhitectură și să devii mai eficient folosind modul de lucru BIM ...
I have been wanting to write about this for a while but never got around to it - while listening to The World on NPR, which is produced in part by the BBC, I
DNA fragmentation factors 40 and 45 (DFF40/DFF45) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein are underexpressed in uterine leiomyosarcomas and may predict survival Tomasz Banas,1 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Krzysztof Okon,2 Aleksandra Czerw3,4 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, 2Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 3Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, 4Department of Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education, National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: DNA fragmentation factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) are responsible for final DNA-laddering during apoptosis, whereas Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is an apoptosis inhibitor. Our aim was to investigate the expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 in uterine leiomyosarcomas (uLMS), leiomyomas (uLM), and the normal myometrium. Furthermore, the correlation between DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression and
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, targets death receptors and selectively kills malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. However, unlike most cancers, many osteosarcomas are resistant to TRAIL. To investigate this resistance, we characterized the response of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells to TRAIL and agonist antibodies to death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). We found that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells show no or very little response to TRAIL or a DR4 agonist, but MG-63 cells undergo apoptosis in response to a DR5 agonist. Analysis of TRAIL receptor expression showed that normal osteoblastic and osteosarcoma cells express a variety of TRAIL receptors but this does not correlate to TRAIL responsiveness. Production of the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin also could not explain TRAIL resistance. We show that TRAIL activates the canonical
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells. AU - Oh, Yumin. AU - Jeon, Y. J.. AU - Hong, G. S.. AU - Kim, I.. AU - Woo, H. N.. AU - Jung, Y. K.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitment-yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not to DR5, through the DHHC and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a target for cancer therapy because of its ability to induce apoptosis in malignant cells while not in most normal cells and tissues. However, its potential toxicity on some normal human cells (e.g. hepatocytes) has been questioned, but the mechanism of the related toxicity still hangs in doubt. Furthermore, the physiological function of TRAIL is much less well understood. From a clinical point of view, one of the key issues in successfully implementing cancer gene therapies or biological therapies in the clinical setting is to be able to regulate gene expression strictly and consistently as and when it is needed.. In the present study, we introduced the Tet-On regulatable gene expression system into rAAV vector (AAV-TRE-TRAIL&AAV-Tet-On) to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficacy in cancer gene therapy. We observed that the expression and secretion of sTRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of lysophosphatidylcholine-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. AU - Kakisaka, Keisuke. AU - Cazanave, Sophie C.. AU - Fingas, Christian D.. AU - Guicciardi, Maria E.. AU - Bronk, Steven F.. AU - Werneburg, Nathan W.. AU - Mott, Justin L.. AU - Gores, Gregory James. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Isolated hepatocytes undergo lipoapoptosis, a feature of hepatic lipotoxicity, on treatment with saturated free fatty acids (FFA) such as palmitate (PA). However, it is unknown if palmitate is directly toxic to hepatocytes or if its toxicity is indirect via the generation of lipid metabolites such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). PA-mediated hepatocyte lipoapoptosis is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and a JNK-dependent upregulation of the potent proapoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Our aim was to determine which of these mechanisms of lipotoxicity are activated by PA-derived ...
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance of many cancers. We evaluated the role of peroxiredoxin (Prx) I in TRAIL resistance governed by coupling of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)-derived ROS signaling with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/caspase-signaling cascade in liver cancer cells. Upregulated Prx I expression was found in neoplastic regions of human patient liver, and Prx I knockdown resulted in accelerated TRAIL-induced cell death in SK-Hep-1 human hepatoma cells. The TRAIL cytotoxicity by Prx I knockdown was dependent on activation of caspase-8/3 cascades, which was ablated by addition of inhibitors for p38 MAPK, ROS or Nox, suggesting the association with Nox-driven redox signaling. Furthermore, we found that Nox4 was constitutively expressed in both SK-Hep-1 cells and tumor regions of patient livers, knockdown of Nox4 expression could alleviate ...
Mast cells are found in tissues throughout the body where they play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory responses. One characteristic feature of mast cells is their longevity. Although it is well established that mast cell survival is dependent on stem cell factor (SCF), it has not been described how this process is regulated. Herein, we report that SCF promotes mast cell survival through inactivation of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a (forkhead box, class O3A) and down-regulation and phosphorylation of its target Bim (Bcl-2 [B-cell lymphoma-2] interacting modulator of cell death), a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proapoptotic protein. SCF induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and FOXO3a. SCF treatment prevented up-regulation of Bim protein expression and led to increased Bim phosphorylation. Bim phosphorylation was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002 treatment, suggesting the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Factors that regulate the induction of apoptosis of tumour cells are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention for the majority of cancers. Studying modifiers of apoptotic responses, such as members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, may give clues as to how induction of apoptosis in tumours could be maximized to enhance the benefit of treatment regimes. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-tumour molecule since its activity is specific for tumour cell populations. TRAIL binds to death receptors, inducing apoptosis in susceptible cells. The mechanisms which determine whether tumour cells are susceptible to TRAIL are unclear, and several mechanisms have been proposed, including expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), decoy receptors, and factors that affect intracellular signalling of pro-apoptotic molecules, such as c-FLIP. Here we show that experiments to modulate the activity of one of these factors, OPG, by over-expression and also
PRKC, apoptosis, WT1, regulator, also known as PAWR or Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), is a human gene coding for a tumor-suppressor protein that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. The tumor suppressor WT1 represses and activates transcription. The protein encoded by this gene is a WT1-interacting protein that itself functions as a transcriptional repressor. It contains a putative leucine zipper domain which interacts with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of WT1. This protein is specifically upregulated during apoptosis of prostate cells. The active domain of the Par-4 protein has been found to confer cancer resistance in transgenic mice without compromising normal viability or aging, and may have therapeutic significance. PAWR has been shown to interact with: Apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor, DAPK3, Protein kinase Mζ, SLC5A1, THAP1, and WT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177425 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Factors that regulate the induction of apoptosis of tumour cells are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention for the majority of cancers. Studying modifiers of apoptotic responses, such as members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, may give clues as to how induction of apoptosis in tumours could be maximized to enhance the benefit of treatment regimes. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-tumour molecule since its activity is specific for tumour cell populations. TRAIL binds to death receptors, inducing apoptosis in susceptible cells. The mechanisms which determine whether tumour cells are susceptible to TRAIL are unclear, and several mechanisms have been proposed, including expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), decoy receptors, and factors that affect intracellular signalling of pro-apoptotic molecules, such as c-FLIP. Here we show that experiments to modulate the activity of one of these factors, OPG, by over-expression and also
of Silesia, "TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is an activator of apoptosis in tumor cells. However, some tumors are TRAIL-resistant. Cancer cells can be re-sensitized to TRAIL induced apoptosis by a combination of TRAIL and taxanes. The aim of this work was to analyze the enhancement of the anticancer effect of TRAIL by paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and docetaxel in the whole population of PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, but also in CD44+/CD24- prostate cancer stem cells. We examined the apoptotic effect of TRAIL and taxanes using flow cytometry and Annexin-V-PE staining. The co-treatment with taxanes and TRAIL enhanced significantly the apoptosis in CD44+/CD24- cells only in PC3 cell line but not in DU145 cells. We discovered also that taxanes can increase the expression of death receptor TRAIL-R2 in PC3 prostate cancer cells.". According to the news reporters, the research concluded: "The results of our study show that treatment with paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and ...
Apoptosis or programmed cell destruction is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. An imbalance between cell death and proliferation may result in tumor formation. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the engagement of the proapoptotic death receptor 4 (DR4, TNFRSF10A, TRAILR-1), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. DR4 consists of two extracellular cysteine-rich, ligand-binding pseudorepeats (50s and 90s loops), one single transmembrane helix as well as the apoptosis-triggering cytoplasmic death domain. Suppression of cell death signaling due to detrimental alterations in DR4 involves a deregulated cell proliferation and predisposes to cancer (1-6).. Immunohistochemical studies have shown extensive expression of DR4 both in sporadic and hereditary colorectal neoplasms together with a higher degree of apoptosis, suggesting neoplastic colorectal cells to be prone to TRAIL-induced apoptosis (5, ...
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2 ligand), along with FasL and TNFα, is one of three members of the TNF cytokine family that induce apoptosis. TRAIL can bind to several different receptors including those containing a cytoplasmic death domain and others that lack such a domain, termed decoy receptors. Here we found that TRAIL was preferentially expressed in Th2 cells, and, though exogenous TRAIL did not cause death in these cells, it did induce apoptosis of Th1 cells. Since it differentially induced apoptosis in Th1 and Th2 cells, TRAIL was likely to modulate the balance between them in determining the type of immune response. However, the regulation mechanism of TRAIL expression in T lymphocytes is not fully understood. We showed that A1.1 T hybridoma cells constitutively expressed TRAIL at a low level that could be boosted by adding IFN-γ. When Th2 cells were treated with high dosage of IFN-γ upon restimulation, TRAIL expression was boosted as well, whereas when Th1 cells ...
Characterization of programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of lung cancer.2019-05-25T08:02:17-08:00 Characterization of programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of lung cancer.. ...
(HealthDay)-Lexatumumab, an agonistic, full human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2, is well tolerated and may lessen certain clinical symptoms in some pediatric ...
The p53 tumor suppressor pathway limits oncogenesis by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A key p53 target gene is PUMA, which encodes a BH3-only proapoptotic protein. Here we demonstrate that Puma deletion in the Emu-Myc mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma accelerates lymphomagenesis and that approximately 75% of Emu-Myc lymphomas naturally select against Puma protein expression. Furthermore, approximately 40% of primary human Burkitt lymphomas fail to express detectable levels of PUMA and in some tumors this is associated with DNA methylation. Burkitt lymphoma cell lines phenocopy the primary tumors with respect to DNA methylation and diminished PUMA expression, which can be reactivated following inhibition of DNA methyltransferases. These findings establish that PUMA is silenced in human malignancies, and they suggest PUMA as a target for the development of novel chemotherapeutics.. ...
Vol 8: DRP-1, ezrin and E-cadherin expression and the association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.. This article is from Oncology Letters, volume 8.AbstractIt has been shown that death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) fa. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adipose tissue of an organism plays a major role in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes such as metabolism and immunity by producing and secreting a variety of bioactive molecules termed adipokines. One highly conserved family of adipokines is adiponectin/ACRP30 and its structural and functional paralogs, the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related proteins (CTRPs) 1-7. Unlike adiponectin, which is expressed exclusively by differentiated adipocytes, the CTRPs are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. These proteins are thought to act mainly on liver and muscle tissue to control glucose and lipid metabolism. An analysis of the crystal structure of adiponectin revealed a structural and evolutionary link between TNF and C1q-containing proteins, suggesting that these proteins arose from a common ancestral innate immunity gene. CTRP5 has been suggested to be involved in age-related macular degeneration.
The BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and an orally bioavailable compound of the same class, navitoclax (ABT-263), have shown promising antitumor efficacy in preclinical and early clinical studies. Although both drugs avidly bind Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w in vitro, we find that Bcl-2 is the critical target in vivo, suggesting that patients with tumors overexpressing Bcl-2 will probably benefit. In human non-Hodgkin lymphomas, high expression of Bcl-2 but not Bcl-xL predicted sensitivity to ABT-263. Moreover, we show that increasing Bcl-2 sensitized normal and transformed lymphoid cells to ABT-737 by elevating proapoptotic Bim. In striking contrast, increasing Bcl-xL or Bcl-w conferred robust resistance to ABT-737, despite also increasing Bim. Cell-based protein redistribution assays unexpectedly revealed that ABT-737 disrupts Bcl-2/Bim complexes more readily than Bcl-xL/Bim or Bcl-w/Bim complexes. These results have profound implications for how BH3-mimetics induce apoptosis and how the use of these compounds ...
Recent research1 conducted by Robert H. Pierce, MD, and his colleagues investigating why PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) inhibitors result in remarkably durable clinical remissions in some patients with melanoma, whereas others reap a short-term benefit or no benefit at all is showing that response is likely dependent on the presence of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the patients tumor. Termed "adaptive immune resistance," this compensatory upregulation of PD-L1-the ligand that "turns off" antigen-specific CD8-positive T cells by activating the PD-1 receptor-may be the potential biomarker researchers have been looking for to accurately predict response to anti-PD-1 therapy.. Dr. Pierce, Chief Scientific Officer at OncoSec Medical, a biopharmaceutical company developing DNA-based intratumoral cancer immunotherapies, is planning on using the information gained from this research to investigate whether combining anti-PD-1 drugs, such as pembrolizumab (Keytruda), with therapies ...
Treatments that target immune checkpoints, such as the one mediated by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been approved for treating human cancers with durable clinical benefit(1,2). However, many cancer patients fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, and the underlying mechanism(s) is not well understood(3-5). Recent studies revealed that response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade might correlate with PD-L1 expression levels in tumor cells(6,7). Hence, it is important to mechanistically understand the pathways controlling PD-L1 protein expression and stability, which can offer a molecular basis to improve the clinical response rate and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cancer patients ...
In patients with stage III/IV melanoma, immunologically "cold" tumors were rendered immunologically active through intratumoral injections of plasmid interleukin-12 (IL-12) combined with pembrolizumab (Keytruda).1 Describing the approach at the 2017 ASCO-SITC Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium, Alain Algazi, MD, of the University of California, San Francisco, said, "We think we are inducing a systemic immunologic effect with this treatment." The combined strategy produced responses in almost half the patients treated on this phase II study, he reported.. The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the tumor microenvironment and the proportion of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) high expressors plus CTLA-4 high expressors on CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are presumed measures of immune activity. A low frequency of these markers seems to indicate a "cold" tumor that will not respond well to immune checkpoint inhibition. One way to boost immunologic response may ...
This site contains the BBC listings information which the BBC printed in Radio Times between 1923 and 2009. You can search the site for BBC programmes, people, dates and Radio Times editions. We hope it helps you find information about that long forgotten BBC programme, research a particular person or browse your own involvement with the BBC. Through the listings, you will also be able to use the Genome search function to find thousands of radio and TV programmes that are already available to view or listen to on the BBC website. There are more than 5 million programme listings in Genome. This is a historical record of the planned output and the BBC services of any given time. It should be viewed in this context and with the understanding that it reflects the attitudes and standards of its time - not those of today. To read scans of the Radio Times magazines from the 1920s, 30s, 40s and 50s, you can navigate by issue. ...
This site contains the BBC listings information which the BBC printed in Radio Times between 1923 and 2009. You can search the site for BBC programmes, people, dates and Radio Times editions. We hope it helps you find information about that long forgotten BBC programme, research a particular person or browse your own involvement with the BBC. Through the listings, you will also be able to use the Genome search function to find thousands of radio and TV programmes that are already available to view or listen to on the BBC website. There are more than 5 million programme listings in Genome. This is a historical record of the planned output and the BBC services of any given time. It should be viewed in this context and with the understanding that it reflects the attitudes and standards of its time - not those of today. ...
Elders, R C and Baines, S J and Catchpole, B (2009) Susceptibility of the C2 canine mastocytoma cell line to the effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY, 130 (1-2). pp. 11-16. ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor α family of cytokines that preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells, making it a promising cancer therapy. However, many neoplasms are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin (but not other heat shock proteins or apoptosis-regulating proteins) correlates with TRAIL resistance in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Stable expression of wild-type αB-crystallin, but not a pseudophosphorylation mutant impaired in its assembly and chaperone function, protects cancer cells from TRAIL-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, selective inhibition of αB-crystallin expression by RNA interference sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL. In addition, wild-type αB-crystallin promotes xenograft tumor growth and inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis in vivo in nude
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, because it preferentially induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cells with little or no effect on normal cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone is a dietary flavonoid commonly found in many plants. Here we show that the combined treatment with 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL at subtoxic concentrations induced strong apoptotic response in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, acute leukemia Jurkat T cells, and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We further investigated the mechanisms by which 5,7-dihydroxyflavone augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, attenuated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and IAPs, and reduced the phosphorylation levels of Akt and STAT3, weakening the anti-apoptotic signals thus facilitating the process of apoptosis. Moreover, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL were well tolerated
OBJECTIVES:. I. Determine the feasibility, tolerability, and toxicities, in terms of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), of the sequential combination of vorinostat (SAHA) followed by cytarabine and etoposide in patients with relapsed and/or refractory acute leukemia or transforming myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative disorders.. II. Determine whether the addition of SAHA to cytarabine and etoposide chemotherapy improves outcome, in terms of complete response rate, duration of response, and overall survival, in these patients.. III. Determine the effects of SAHA on induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-death receptors DR4 and DR5 and other pro-apoptotic mediators in patient-derived cancer cells (leukemia blast cells) and somatic cells (buccal mucosa cells, using pre-SAHA and on SAHA treatment samples).. IV. Determine the ability of SAHA to block leukemia blast cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (leukemia blast cells, using pre-SAHA and on ...
OBJECTIVES:. I. Determine the feasibility, tolerability, and toxicities, in terms of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), of the sequential combination of vorinostat (SAHA) followed by cytarabine and etoposide in patients with relapsed and/or refractory acute leukemia or transforming myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative disorders.. II. Determine whether the addition of SAHA to cytarabine and etoposide chemotherapy improves outcome, in terms of complete response rate, duration of response, and overall survival, in these patients.. III. Determine the effects of SAHA on induction of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-death receptors DR4 and DR5 and other pro-apoptotic mediators in patient-derived cancer cells (leukemia blast cells) and somatic cells (buccal mucosa cells, using pre-SAHA and on SAHA treatment samples).. IV. Determine the ability of SAHA to block leukemia blast cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle (leukemia blast cells, using pre-SAHA and on ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), as an anticancer protein with tumor-selective apoptotic activity, has been examined for use in clinical application. Melittin, an antibacterial peptide isolated from the bee Apis mellifera, has shown strong cytotoxicity to both tumor and normal cells. To ameliorate the cytotoxicity of melittin on cells and enhance the activity of TRAIL on cancer cells, we constructed a novel fusion protein, sTRAIL-melittin, containing a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) tag and expressed this fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Data showed that expression of the soluble fusion protein with the SUMO tag was approximately 85 % of total target protein which was much higher than that without the SUMO tag (approximately 10 %); sTRAIL-melittin was easily purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and the tag was removed easily using SUMO-specific protease. To assay anticancer activity and side effects, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, hemolytic, ...

Apoptosis regulatory proteins | definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins by Medical dictionaryApoptosis regulatory proteins | definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins by Medical dictionary

Apoptosis regulatory proteins explanation free. What is Apoptosis regulatory proteins? Meaning of Apoptosis regulatory proteins ... Looking for online definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? ... Apoptosis regulatory proteins , definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... apoptosis. (redirected from Apoptosis regulatory proteins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Apoptosis+regulatory+proteins

Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United StatesExperts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Locale about Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United States ... Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in United States*Experts and Doctors on humans in United States*Experts ... Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Summary. Locale: Boston, ... You are here: Locale , United States , Massachusetts , Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/united/massachusetts/experts-and-doctors-on-apoptosis-regulatory-proteins-in-boston--massachusetts--united-states-723674.html

Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in...Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in...

Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Hyperglycaemia and the expression of related proteins such as nuclear factor-κB NF-κB, caspase-3 -8 -9, and Bcl-associated X ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun8/149832244932-Lyoniresinol-3-O-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated-Hypoglycaemia-and-Its-Influence-on-Apoptosis-Regulatory-Protein-Expression-in-the-Injured-Kidneys-of-.php

Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin | Cancer ResearchOxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin | Cancer Research

Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin. Stephanie Zdanov, Fabio Klamt, ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/9_Supplement/3405

Major apoptotic mechanisms and genes involved in apoptosis.  - PubMed - NCBIMajor apoptotic mechanisms and genes involved in apoptosis. - PubMed - NCBI

Apoptosis*. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism*. *Humans. *Neoplasms/metabolism*. *Neoplasms/pathology*. *Signal ... Different gene families such as caspases, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family of genes, tumor ... Major apoptotic mechanisms and genes involved in apoptosis.. Kiraz Y1,2, Adan A1, Kartal Yandim M2, Baran Y3,4. ... Apoptosis, a type of cell death mechanism, is controlled by the interactions between several molecules and responsible for the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27059734

NF-κB activity blockade impairs the angiogenic potential of human pancreatic cancer cells - Xiong - 2003 - International...NF-κB activity blockade impairs the angiogenic potential of human pancreatic cancer cells - Xiong - 2003 - International...

Expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins. Cytosolic protein was extracted from L3.3 cells, L3.3 cells transfected with pLXSN ... it is possible that imbalanced expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins directly promotes in vitro survival of IκBαM- ... Altered expression of apoptosis-regulatory molecules in human pancreatic cells transfected with IκBαM. The effect of NF-κB ... Cytosolic and nuclear protein was isolated from control and transfected pancreatic cancer cells. Soluble protein was separated ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.11562/full

The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells |...The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells |...

The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells. ... 1996) The herpes simplex virus major regulatory protein ICP4 blocks apoptosis induced by the virus or by hyperthermia. Proc. ... The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells ... The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/73/4/2803?ijkey=82aabef4004d69964932dba29e2497f7cf5c21e5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

BNIP3 | Cancer Genetics WebBNIP3 | Cancer Genetics Web

identical protein binding - induction of apoptosis - integral to membrane - integral to mitochondrial outer membrane - ... The encoded protein interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, including the E1B 19 kDa protein and Bcl2. This gene is silenced in ... protein binding - protein heterodimerization activity - protein homodimerization activity - reactive oxygen species metabolic ... and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] and ROS related proteins [catalase, thioredoxinreductase ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/BNIP3.htm

Direct transcriptional regulation of Bim by FoxO3a mediates STI571-induced apoptosis in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells.Direct transcriptional regulation of Bim by FoxO3a mediates STI571-induced apoptosis in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells.

... lines as model systems to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby STI571 and FoxO3a regulate Bim expression and apoptosis ... 0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/Bcl-2-like protein 11; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/FOXO1 protein, human; 0 ... Apoptosis / drug effects*. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Base Sequence. Carrier Proteins / genetics*. Cell Line. Cell Line, ... Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / metabolism*. Humans. Membrane Proteins / genetics*. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Piperazines / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Direct-transcriptional-regulation-Bim-by/15688014.html

PDCD2 | Cancer Genetics WebPDCD2 | Cancer Genetics Web

... increases PDCD2 protein expression and apoptosis, and knockdown of the PDCD2 protein in this cell line by PDCD2-specific small ... These findings suggest that PDCD2 has a novel regulatory role in human hematopoiesis and is essential for erythroid development ... PDCD2, a protein whose expression is repressed by BCL6, induces apoptosis in human cells by activation of the caspase cascade. ... suggesting that BCL6 regulates apoptosis by its effects on this protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/PDCD2.htm

A whole-genome massively parallel sequencing analysis of BRCA1 mutant oestrogen receptor-negative and -positive breast cancers.A whole-genome massively parallel sequencing analysis of BRCA1 mutant oestrogen receptor-negative and -positive breast cancers.

BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle ... 0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/BRCA1 Protein; 0/BRCA1 protein, human; 0/DNA, Neoplasm; 0/GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0/ ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. BRCA1 Protein / genetics*, metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis, genetics*, ... 0/TP53 protein, human; 0/Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0/Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1/DAPK3 protein, human; EC 2.7 ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/whole-genome-massively-parallel-sequencing/22362584.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins); 0 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21); 0 (DNA-Binding Proteins); 0 (TP53 protein, human ... ZNF509 protein, human); 9007-49-2 (DNA); EC 2.3.1.48 (E1A-Associated p300 Protein); EC 2.3.1.48 (EP300 protein, human). ... Interestingly, apoptosis due to transcriptional activation of PUMA by p53 is attenuated by ZNF509S1. Thus we investigated the ... Expression of the POK family protein ZNF509L, and -its S1 isoform, is induced by p53 upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Due to ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B01.050.150.900.649.313.750.377.750.630

Caspase 8
      - Caspase-8
     Summary Report | CureHunterCaspase 8 - Caspase-8 Summary Report | CureHunter

... can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. ... Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme ... Proteins: 90489*Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: 22*Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: 520*Caspases: 1746*Initiator ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: 520*Caspases: 1746*Initiator Caspases: 29*Caspase 8: 1477*human CASP8 protein ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD053181.do

NAD+ treatment induces delayed autophagy in Neuro2a cells partially by increasing oxidative stress. | CureHunterNAD+ treatment induces delayed autophagy in Neuro2a cells partially by increasing oxidative stress. | CureHunter

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. *Becn1 protein, mouse. *MAP1LC3 protein, mouse. *Microtubule-Associated Proteins ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed21833846.do

Telomeric DNA induces apoptosis and senescence of human breast carcinoma cells | Breast Cancer Research | Full TextTelomeric DNA induces apoptosis and senescence of human breast carcinoma cells | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text

The same regulatory proteins are activated in MCF-7 cells resistant or not resistant to adriamycin, leading to their apoptosis ... T-oligo and TRF2DNactivate cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins. MCF-7 and NME cells were treated as above and total ... and apoptosis-regulatory proteins in breast cancer cells. (a) Compared with control oligo (C) and diluent (D) alone, T-oligo (T ... In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, T-oligos activate and induce DNA damage response proteins that cause apoptosis and senescence of ...
more infohttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr1646

Effect of CCl4 with or without prior administration of  | Open-iEffect of CCl4 with or without prior administration of | Open-i

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism. *Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity. *Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism. *Dose-Response ... 0.11 units/mg protein), 52 (1.48 ± 0.10 units/mg protein) and 57 (2.10 ± 0.25 units/mg protein) % respectively due to the ... 0.11 units/mg protein), 52 (1.48 ± 0.10 units/mg protein) and 57 (2.10 ± 0.25 units/mg protein) % respectively due to the ... 0.14 units/mg protein), 37% (2.47 ± 0.15 units/mg protein) and 36% (3.79 ± 0.23 units/mg protein) respectively. The activity of ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2967507_1471-2210-10-13-4&req=4

CFLAR Gene - GeneCards | CFLAR Protein | CFLAR AntibodyCFLAR Gene - GeneCards | CFLAR Protein | CFLAR Antibody

Protein Coding), CASP8 And FADD Like Apoptosis Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CFLAR Gene. Promoters and enhancers for CFLAR Gene ... Protein Symbol:. O15519-CFLAR_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator. Protein Accession:. O15519. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of apoptosis and is structurally similar to caspase-8. However, the encoded ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CFLAR

B7-DC and anti-CD28 mAb synergize for costimulation of  | Open-iB7-DC and anti-CD28 mAb synergize for costimulation of | Open-i

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. *Lymphocyte Activation. *Mice. *Mice, Inbred BALB C. *Mice, Inbred C57BL ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2196092_20030242f5b&req=4

FLIP Antibody
		        
	FLIP Antibody

Caspase-like apoptosis regulatory protein; caspase-related inducer of apoptosis; Casper; Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein ... Protein Aliases: c-FLIP; c-FLIPL; c-FLIPR; c-FLIPS; CASH; CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator; CASP8AP1; Caspase homolog; ... protein complex binding. cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis. ... execution phase of apoptosis negative regulation of myoblast fusion regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CFLAR-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA1-30106

p53 and p21 Determine the Sensitivity of Noscapine-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells | Cancer Researchp53 and p21 Determine the Sensitivity of Noscapine-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells | Cancer Research

Noscapine treatment alters levels of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins. We next examined the effect of noscapine on ... Liu S, Bishop WR, Liu M. Differential effects of cell cycle regulatory protein p21WAF/Cip1 on apoptosis and sensitivity to ... An increasing ratio of BAX/Bcl-2 proteins thus plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis by noscapine in p53-wt ... the expression of some cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins in all four isogenic HCT116 cell lines. The time-dependent ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/8/3862

Caspase-9 has a nonapoptotic function in Xenopus embryonic primitive blood formation | Journal of Cell ScienceCaspase-9 has a nonapoptotic function in Xenopus embryonic primitive blood formation | Journal of Cell Science

2012). Non-apoptotic functions of apoptosis-regulatory proteins. EMBO Rep. 13, 322-330. doi:10.1038/embor.2012.19. ... Two main evolutionarily conserved protein families are involved in apoptosis, namely members of the Bcl-2 protein family, which ... Addition of casp9 to the IL2R-LEHD-GAL4VP16 protein generated a 30 kDa protein (Fig. 1C). The control IL2R-DEVA-GAL4VP16 ... a paradigm shift has occurred as it became clear that proteins involved in the induction of apoptosis or apoptotic dismantling ...
more infohttps://jcs.biologists.org/content/130/14/2371

Payam Mohammadgharibani - Fingerprint
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityPayam Mohammadgharibani - Fingerprint - Johns Hopkins University

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Vagus Nerve Stimulation Creatine Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction gamma-Aminobutyric Acid ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/payam-mohammadgharibani/fingerprints/

Rosalyn Irby, PhD - Fingerprint
     - Penn StateRosalyn Irby, PhD - Fingerprint - Penn State

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Sphingolipids Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase Caspases Dinoprost ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/rosalyn-irby/fingerprints/

Caspase 8 | Profiles RNSCaspase 8 | Profiles RNS

Proteins [D12.776]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476]. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.776. ... Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the ... RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity. Mol Cell. 2014 Nov 20; 56(4):481-95. ... RIPK1 maintains epithelial homeostasis by inhibiting apoptosis and necroptosis. Nature. 2014 Sep 04; 513(7516):90-4. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/104612

adenoma of alveoli 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadenoma of alveoli 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Body Weight. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Cell Proliferation / drug ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BNip3 protein, mouse; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / biosynthesis. TOR Serine- ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenoma+of+alveoli+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0
  • Rocco J, Leong C, Kuperwasser N, DeYoung M, Ellisen L. p63 mediates survival in squamous cell carcinoma by suppression of p73-dependent apoptosis. (labome.org)
  • In this scenario, the role played by p21 is particularly intriguing because this protein can be activated by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms and can assume proapoptotic or antiapoptotic functions, depending on the cellular context ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we have used the human BV173 and the mouse BaF3/Bcr-Abl-expressing cell lines as model systems to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby STI571 and FoxO3a regulate Bim expression and apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This gene encodes a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of tissues. (cancerindex.org)
  • BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of this gene has been shown to be repressed by B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor required for lymph node germinal center development, suggesting that BCL6 regulates apoptosis by its effects on this protein. (cancerindex.org)
  • Accordingly, most current research efforts in this area have focused on limiting the synthesis of viral proteins in an attempt to reduce cell toxicity ( 17 , 18 , 38 , 39 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct proteins have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. (curehunter.com)