Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/5488)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel mouse cDNA, ES18, involved in apoptotic cell death of T-cells. (2/5488)

Using the modified screening approach in combination with expressed sequence tags, we have identified several novel cDNAs from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, whose expression is tissue-restricted and/or developmentally regulated. One of the cDNAs, ES18, is preferentially expressed in lymph node and thymus, and contains noteworthy features of transcriptional regulator. The expression of ES18 transcript was selectively regulated during the apoptosis of T-cell thymoma S49.1 induced by several stimuli. Interestingly, the ES18 transcript was differently regulated in the mutually antagonistic process, between dexamethasone- and A23187-induced cell death of T-cells. Moreover, the message level of ES18 was selectively enhanced by staurosporine, a broad protein kinase inhibitor, but not by other protein kinase inhibitors such as GF109203X and H89. In addition, ES18 transcript was induced by C2-ceramide, which is a mediator of both dexamethasone- and staurosporine-induced apoptotic signaling. We further showed that transient overexpression of ES18 in mouse T-cell lymphoma increased the apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that ES18 may be selectively involved in specific apoptotic processes in mouse T-cells.  (+info)

Functional analysis of TRAIL receptors using monoclonal antibodies. (3/5488)

mAbs were generated against the extracellular domain of the four known TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and tested on a panel of human melanoma cell lines. The specificity of the mAb permitted a precise evaluation of the TRAIL receptors that induce apoptosis (TRAIL-R1 and -R2) compared with the TRAIL receptors that potentially regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (TRAIL-R3 and -R4). Immobilized anti-TRAIL-R1 or -R2 mAbs were cytotoxic to TRAIL-sensitive tumor cells, whereas tumor cells resistant to recombinant TRAIL were also resistant to these mAbs and only became sensitive when cultured with actinomycin D. The anti-TRAIL-R1 and -R2 mAb-induced death was characterized by the activation of intracellular caspases, which could be blocked by carbobenzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) and carbobenzyloxy-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zIETD-fmk). When used in solution, one of the anti-TRAIL-R2 mAbs was capable of blocking leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R2-expressing cells and prevented TRAIL-induced death of these cells, whereas two of the anti-TRAIL-R1 mAbs could inhibit leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R1:Fc. Furthermore, use of the blocking anti-TRAIL-R2 mAb allowed us to demonstrate that the signals transduced through either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 were necessary and sufficient to mediate cell death. In contrast, the expression of TRAIL-R3 or TRAIL-R4 did not appear to be a significant factor in determining the resistance or sensitivity of these tumor target cells to the effects of TRAIL.  (+info)

Involvement of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (4/5488)

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been identified as a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but its physiological functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of TRAIL in human CD4+ T cell clones by utilizing newly established anti-human TRAIL mAbs. Human CD4+ T cell clones, HK12 and 4HM1, exhibited perforin-independent and Fas ligand (FasL)-independent cytotoxicity against certain target cells, including T lymphoma (Jurkat) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines, which are susceptible to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to FasL, the expression of which was inducible upon anti-CD3 stimulation, TRAIL was constitutively expressed on HK12 and 4HM1 cells, and no further increase was observed after anti-CD3 stimulation. Spontaneous cytotoxic activities of resting HK12 and 4HM1 cells against Jurkat and HaCaT cells were blocked by anti-TRAIL mAb but not by anti-FasL mAb, and bystander cytotoxic activities of anti-CD3-stimulated HK12 and 4HM1 cells were abolished by the combination of anti-TRAIL and anti-FasL mAbs. These results indicate a differential regulation of TRAIL and FasL expression on human CD4+ T cell clones and that TRAIL constitutes an additional pathway of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  (+info)

The cell death-promoting gene DP5, which interacts with the BCL2 family, is induced during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to amyloid beta protein. (5/5488)

DP5, which contains a BH3 domain, was cloned as a neuronal apoptosis-inducing gene. To confirm that DP5 interacts with members of the Bcl-2 family, 293T cells were transiently co-transfected with DP5 and Bcl-xl cDNA constructs, and immunoprecipitation was carried out. The 30-kDa Bcl-xl was co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged DP5, suggesting that DP5 physically interacts with Bcl-xl in mammalian cells. Previously, we reported that DP5 is induced during neuronal apoptosis in cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we analyzed DP5 gene expression and the specific interaction of DP5 with Bcl-xl during neuronal death induced by amyloid-beta protein (A beta). DP5 mRNA was induced 6 h after treatment with A beta in cultured rat cortical neurons. The protein encoded by DP5 mRNA showed a specific interaction with Bcl-xl. Induction of DP5 gene expression was blocked by nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggested that the induction of DP5 mRNA occurs downstream of the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration caused by A beta. Moreover, DP5 specifically interacts with Bcl-xl during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to A beta, and its binding could impair the survival-promoting activities of Bcl-xl. Thus, the induction of DP5 mRNA and the interaction of DP5 and Bcl-xl could play significant roles in neuronal degeneration following exposure to A beta.  (+info)

TWEAK induces angiogenesis and proliferation of endothelial cells. (6/5488)

TWEAK is a recently described member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) ligand family whose transcripts are present in a wide variety of human tissues (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410). TWEAK is a weak inducer of apoptosis in transformed cells when administered with interferon-gamma or cycloheximide (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410; Masters, S. A., Sheridan, J. P., Pitti, R. M., Brush, A. G., and Ashkenazi, A. (1998) Curr. Biol. 8, 525-528) and also promotes IL-8 secretion in cultured cells. We report here that picomolar concentrations of recombinant soluble TWEAK induce proliferation in a variety of normal human endothelial cells and in aortic smooth muscle cells and reduce culture requirements for serum and growth factors. Blocking antibodies to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) do not significantly inhibit TWEAK-induced proliferation, indicating that TWEAK does not function indirectly through up-regulation of VEGF. Pellets containing TWEAK induce a strong angiogenic response when implanted in rat corneas, suggesting a role for TWEAK in vasculature formation in vivo.  (+info)

The ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (p60) death domain and induces apoptosis. (7/5488)

The tumor necrosis factor receptor, p60 (TNF-R1), transduces death signals via the association of its cytoplasmic domain with several intracellular proteins. By screening a mammalian cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning technique, we isolated a ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic death domain of TNF-R1. Sequence analysis reveals that DAP-1 shares striking sequence homology with the yeast SMT3 protein that is essential for the maintenance of chromosome integrity during mitosis (Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 793-807). DAP-1 is nearly identical to PIC1, a protein that interacts with the PML tumor suppressor implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (Boddy, M. N., Howe, K., Etkin, L. D., Solomon, E., and Freemont, P. S. (1996) Oncogene 13, 971-982), and the sentrin protein, which associates with the Fas death receptor (Okura, T., Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Wada, T., Okura, I., Wei, C. F., Chang, H. M., and Yeh, E. T. (1996) J. Immunol. 157, 4277-4281). The in vivo interaction between DAP-1 and TNF-R1 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. In transient transfection assays, overexpression of DAP-1 suppresses NF-kappaB/Rel activity in 293T cells, a human kidney embryonic carcinoma cell line. Overexpression of either DAP-1 or sentrin causes apoptosis of TNF-sensitive L929 fibroblast cell line, as well as TNF-resistant osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. Furthermore, the dominant negative Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) protein blocks the cell death induced by either DAP-1 or FADD. Collectively, these observations highly suggest a role for DAP-1 in mediating TNF-induced cell death signaling pathways, presumably through the recruitment of FADD death effector.  (+info)

Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c. (8/5488)

We report on the molecular cloning of a novel human cDNA by its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This cDNA is predominantly expressed in muscle and encodes a protein that is present in the nucleoplasm and concentrated in nucleoli. It was therefore termed Nop30 (nucleolar protein of 30 kDa). We have also identified a related cDNA with a different carboxyl terminus. Sequencing of the NOP gene demonstrated that both cDNAs are generated by alternative 5' splice site usage from a single gene that consists of four exons, spans at least 1800 nucleotides, and is located on chromosome 16q21-q23. The alternative 5' splice site usage introduces a frameshift creating two different carboxyl termini. The carboxyl terminus of Nop30 is rich in serines and arginines and has been found to target the protein into the nucleus, whereas its isoform is characterized by proline/glutamic acid dipeptides in its carboxyl terminus and is predominantly found in the cytosol. Interaction studies in yeast, in vitro protein interaction assays, and co-immunoprecipitations demonstrated that Nop30 multimerizes and binds to the RS domain of SRp30c but not to other splicing factors tested. Overexpression of Nop30 changes alternative exon usage in preprotachykinin and SRp20 reporter genes, suggesting that Nop30 influences alternative splice site selection in vivo.  (+info)

The apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) family comprises three members, namely, ASPP1, ASPP2, and iASPP. They regulate the promotive effect of p53 on apoptosis. Breast cancer (BC) remains as one of the leading causes of cancer or cancer-related mortality among women. However, the relationship between the ASPP family members and p53, as well as the dissemination and expression pattern of ASPP family members in p53+ BC, has not been elucidated. Our objectives are to detect the expression of ASPP family members in p53+ BC cell lines and determine its significance in tumor cell apoptosis. The mRNA expression of ASPP family members in five p53+ BC cell lines was detected through RT-PCR and assayed using Quality-one software. The p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Afterward, the apoptosis indices of the five BC cell lines were detected by flow cytometry. The iASPP mRNA was expressed in Bcap-37, MCF-7, and HBL-100. Compared with the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells,
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Buy our Apoptosis repressor with CARD peptide. Ab8372 is a blocking peptide and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert…
References for Abcams Apoptosis repressor with CARD peptide (ab8372). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in circuits that convey reward and motivation, and abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been associated with mental illness. In particular, reduced function of the D2-type dopamine receptor (D2DR) is thought to contribute to schizophrenia, addiction, and mood disorders. Park et al. used a yeast two-hybrid screen to uncover prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) as a binding partner for D2DR. In striatal neurons from mice that expressed a mutant form of Par-4 (in which the domain mediating the interaction with D2DR had been deleted), activation of signaling through cAMP was disrupted. Furthermore, behavioral tests of the mutant mice showed a depression-like phenotype, but no effects on measures of anxiety. Beaulieu et al. examined another signaling pathway emanating from D2DR, and they find that β-arrestin 2 is important in mediating the behavioral effects of dopamine. In wild-type mice, β-arrestin 2 was shown to associate with protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) and ...
This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. It is localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, and regulates apoptosis and cell growth through interactions with other regulatory molecules including members of the p53 family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
PDCD4 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against PDCD4. This gene is a tumor suppressor and encodes a protein that binds to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and inhibits its function by preventing RNA binding. Alternative splicing re
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Key Points. Novel BET inhibitors PLX51107 and PLX2853 induce apoptosis via induction of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM.PLX51107 and PLX2853 are synergis
Alias: 53BP2, Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2, ASPP2, Bbp, BBP, Bcl2-binding protein, p53-binding protein 2, p53BP2, P53BP2, PPP1R13A, Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-51, Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 2 ...
Accelerates programmed cell death. Association to the apoptosis repressors Bcl-X(L), BHRF1, Bcl-2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein suppresses this death-promoting activity. Does not interact with BAX.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for CIDEA gene (Protein Coding), Cell Death-Inducing DFFA-Like Effector A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Apoptosis is initiated when Bcl-2 and its prosurvival relatives are engaged by proapoptotic BH3-only proteins via interaction of its BH3 domain with a groove on the Bcl-2-like proteins ...
PDCD5兔多克隆抗体(ab75430)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Abstract. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) represent the majority of discovered kinases to date even though a few Food and Drug Administration approved STKs inhibitors are reported. The third millennium came with the discovery of an important group of STKs that reshaped our understanding of several biological signaling pathways. This family was named death-associated protein kinase family (DAPK family). DAPKs comprise five members (DAPK1, DAPK2, DAPK3, DRAK1, and DRAK2) and belong to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases domain. As time goes on, the list of biological functions of this family is constantly updated. The most extensively studied member is DAPK1 (based on the publications number and Protein Data Bank reported crystal structures) that plays fundamental biological roles depending on the cellular context. DAPK1 regulates apoptosis, autophagy, contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibits metastasis, mediates the body responses to viral ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is critical for inflammation and control of infection. The production of IL-1β depends on expression of pro-IL-1β and inflammasome component induced by inflammatory stimuli, followed by assembly of inflammasome to generate caspase-1 for cleavage of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) deficiency impaired IL-1β production in macrophages. Generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages, in contrast, was not affected by DAPK knockout. Two tiers of defects in IL-1β generation were found in DAPK-deficient macrophages: decreased pro-IL-1β induction by some stimuli and reduced caspase-1 activation by all inflammatory stimuli examined. With a normal NLRP3 induction in DAPK-deficient macrophages, the diminished caspase-1 generation is attributed to impaired inflammasome assembly. There is a direct binding of DAPK to NLRP3, suggesting an involvement of DAPK in inflammasome formation. We further illustrated that the formation of
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of DAPK was reported in lung cancers by methylation-specific PCR. However, we were unable to relate methylation with gene silencing with the same methodology. Our goals were to develop a methodology that related methylation with gene silencing and use it to study the state of the gene in lung cancers.. Using a semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, DAPK expression was lower in lung cancers than in corresponding nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells in five of six primary short-term cultures. In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 flanking region of DAPK by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfited DNA sequencing. Aberrant methylation ...
A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was utilized to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pre-treatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor HS38 decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca2+ without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of LC20 (myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains) but not of CPI-17 (protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa), Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) or MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity towards PIM3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no ...
Beclin 1/Atg6 is an essential component of the evolutionary conserved PtdIns(3)-kinase (Vps34) protein complex that regulates macroautophagy (autophagy) in eukaryotic cells and also interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2, and Bcl-x(L). To elucidate the physiological function of Beclin 1, we generated transgenic mice producing a green fluorescent Beclin 1 protein (Beclin 1-GFP) under Beclin 1 endogenous regulation. The beclin 1-GFP transgene is functional because it completely rescues early embryonic lethality in beclin 1-deficient mice. The transgenic mice appear normal, with undetected change in basal autophagy levels in different tissues, despite the additional expression of functional Beclin 1-GFP. Staining of Beclin 1-GFP shows mostly diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in various tissues. Detailed analysis of the transgene expression by flow cytometry reveals a Bcl-2-like biphasic expression pattern in developing T and B cells, as well as differential regulation of expression in
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Albany, New York, Dec 1, 2017: Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) - Apoptosis regulator BAX or bcl-2-like protein 4 is a protein is encoded by the BAX gene. It accelerates programmed cell death by antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2. It promotes activation of CASP3, and thereby apoptosis. It undergoes a conformation change that causes translocation to the mitochondrion membrane, leading to the release of cytochrome c that then triggers apoptosis under stress conditions.. Request For Free Sample - Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) pipeline Target constitutes close to 7 molecules. Out of which approximately 3 molecules are developed by companies and remaining by the universities/institutes. The molecules developed by companies in Phase III, Phase II and Preclinical stages are 1, 1 and 1 respectively. Similarly, the universities portfolio in Preclinical and Discovery ...
Inhibitor for the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) has been reported to be correlated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) resistance in renal cell carci
Although most cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, one of the most common forms of adult leukemia) are sporadic, perhaps 10 to 20% are familial (see Debatin). Noting that aberrant DNA methylation--and thereby abnormal gene silencing--was emerging as a factor in CLL, Raval et al. performed quantitative high-throughput analysis to investigate DNA methylation in the CpG island of DAPK1 (death-associated protein kinase 1). DNA methylation of DAPK1 gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase implicated in promoting apoptosis in response to Fas, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD19+ B cells from people with CLL compared with that in cells from healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that DAPK1 expression was decreased in CD19+ CLL cells compared with that in B lymphocytes, and methylation reduced activity of a gene reporter containing a region of the DAPK1 promoter. Genome-wide linkage analysis ...
Recombinant human full-length DAPK2 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. APK2 or death-associated protein kinase 2 belongs to a family of proapoptotic Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinases.
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and tumor-suppressive functions. in regulating cell polarity during migration, which might work as well as its apoptotic function to suppress tumor development. Intro Cell migration is vital for many natural procedures, AZD4547 including embryonic advancement, wound curing, and immune monitoring. Migration is really a complicated and extremely coordinated process that will require a cell to polarize, expand protrusions in direction of motion, type adhesions at the best advantage, translocate the cell body, and, finally, detach through the substratum in the trailing advantage (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996; Ridley et al., 2003). Directed cell migration is normally initiated in response to extracellular cues such as for example chemoattractants, development factors, as well as the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of polarity during directed migration are ...
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a proliferative disorder of IgM-secreting, lymphoplasmacytoid cells that inhabit the lymph nodes and bone marrow. The disease carries a high prevalence of activating mutations in MyD88 (91%) and CXCR4 (28%). Because signaling through these pathways leads to Bcl-xL induction, we examined Bcl-2 family expression in WM patients and cell lines. Unlike other B-lymphocyte-derived malignancies, which become dependent on expression of anti-apoptotic proteins to counter expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, WM samples expressed both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins at low levels similar to their normal B-cell and plasma cell counterparts. Three WM cell lines expressed pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bim or Bax and Bak at low levels, which determined their sensitivity to inducers of intrinsic apoptosis. In two cell lines, miR-155 upregulation, which is common in WM, was responsible for the inhibition of FOXO3a and Bim expression. Both antagonizing miR-155 to ...
The results above reveal that, in contrast to down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 by ER stress in a number of cell types ( 7, 15), these antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are transcriptionally up-regulated by ER stress in human melanoma cell lines. They show that the increase in Mcl-1 plays an essential role in antagonizing the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and Noxa, which are also up-regulated by transcriptional mechanisms in melanoma cell lines when subjected to ER stress.. Although up-regulated, Bcl-2 did not seem to be critical for protection of melanoma cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by the minimal effect of siRNA inhibition of Bcl-2 on sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by thapsigargin or tunicamycin, and the inability of overexpression of Bcl-2 to rescue melanoma cells with deficient Mcl-1 expression upon ER stress, although it did delay the onset of apoptosis. In contrast, siRNA inhibition of Mcl-1 readily enhanced ER ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physical and functional interaction between BH3-only protein Hrk and mitochondrial pore-forming protein p32. AU - Sunayama, J.. AU - Ando, Y.. AU - Itoh, N.. AU - Tomiyama, A.. AU - Sakurada, K.. AU - Sugiyama, A.. AU - Kang, D.. AU - Tashiro, F.. AU - Gotoh, Y.. AU - Kuchino, Y.. AU - Kitanaka, C.. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - Bcl-2 homology domain (BH) 3-only proteins of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 subfamily play a key role as initiators of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. To date, at least 10 mammalian BH3-only proteins have been identified, and it is now being realized that they have different roles and mechanisms of regulation in the transduction of apoptotic signals to mitochondria. Hrk/DP5 is one of the mammalian BH3-only proteins implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological apoptosis, yet the molecular mechanism involved in Hrk-mediated apoptosis remains poorly understood. In an attempt to identify cellular proteins participating in Hrk-mediated apoptosis, ...
DAPK1 / DAP Kinase Protein LS-G97367 is a Recombinant Human DAPK1 / DAP Kinase produced in Baculovirus Met 1-Leu 363 with His-GST tag(s). It is low in endotoxin; Less than 1.0 EU/µg protein (determined by LAL method).
The Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases provides an extremely dynamic environment for research into the aging process and its diseases.
Apoptosis regulator BAX TranslationBlocker™ siRNA. Tested in Human samples. The only siRNA validated in protein knockdown with detailed protocols. From: $219.
This is a phase I trial of the combination of the hypo-methylating agent guadecitabine and an anti-PD1 antibody (anti- programmed cell death protein 1) pembrolizumab. Patients will receive subcutaneous guadecitabine daily on Days 1-4 of each 21-day cycle. Patients will receive pembrolizumab intravenously once per 21-day cycle: on Day 8 of Cycle 2 and on Day 1 of each cycle from Cycle 3 onwards.. The rational for this design is that this pre-loading with Guadecitabine will sensitise the tumour to Pembrolizumab through the re-expression of genes that enhance tumour recognition, the increase in density of tumour infiltrating T-cells and stimulation of the adaptive immune response.. In Part A (Dose Escalation) the investigators will investigate escalating doses of Guadecitabine in combination with Pembrolizumab. Patients with advanced solid tumours will be recruited in cohorts of 3 to 6 patients to investigate the combination of 200 mg of pembrolizumab, administered as an intravenous injection, with ...
Goat anti Human Noxa antibody recognizes human Noxa, a mitochondrial localised protein and member of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein fam
UMass Medical School researcher Eric Baehrecke has identified a protein in Drosophila that plays an essential role in autophagy.
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Try Oncomin for Apoptosis from Bagdara Farms to gain from its multifaceted abilities to prevent and treat various kinds of cancer.
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title: 흰쥐의 배자배양에서 배양 온도의 변화에 의해 유도된 apoptosis II. 온도 변화가 배양 중인 발생 11일 배자에 미치는 영향, doi: none, category: Article
The PUMA 4100/5100 horizontal turning centers with milling have specific features and BMT tooling that will make your job a whole lot easier.
Well its that time of year again and Springwatch wouldnt be Springwatch without you, the audience. So heres how you can get involved...
അമേരിക്കയിൽ കണ്ടു വരുന്ന, മാർജ്ജാരവർഗ്ഗത്തിൽപ്പെടുന്ന ഒരു വലിയ ജീവിയാണ്‌ പൂമ.(പുമ)[3] ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്:Puma. ഏറ്റവും അധികം പേരുകളുള്ള മൃഗം എന്ന ഗിന്നസ് റെക്കോഡുണ്ട് ഇതിന്. കൂഗർ, പാന്തർ, പ്യൂമ, മൗണ്ടൻ ലയൺ, മൗണ്ടൻ ക്യാറ്റ് തുടങ്ങി നാൽപ്പതോളം പേരുകളിൽ അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. കടുവ, സിംഹം, ജാഗ്വർ എന്നിവക്ക് പിന്നിലായി പുലിക്കൊപ്പം പൂച്ച കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ നാലാമത്തെ ജീവിയാണ് പൂമ. എങ്കിലും ...
LA 기반의 떠오르는 스트릿웨어 브랜드 RHUDE 콜라보레이션.|br|레트로 감성에서 영감을 받은 플랫한 브림 쉐잎이 특징.|br| 뒷면에 플라스틱 버클이 있어 사이즈를 착장자에 맞게 조절이 가능함.|br| 자수처리 된 아일릿 디테일이 있어 통기성이 좋음.|br|
최적의 체온조절을 위해 땀이 증발하는 원리를 적용한 패브릭으로 제작된 X-BIONIC 컬렉션 퍼포먼스 의류.|br|
2006 ஆண்டு இஸ்ரேல் நாட்டிலுள்ள பென் கூரியன் பல்கலைக்கழகம் எலுமிச்சம் புல் சாறு அருந்துவதால் இதிலுள்ள சிட்ரால் என்னும் வேதிப் பொருளால் புற்று நோய் செல்கள் தற்கொலை (#Apoptosis) செய்து கொள்வதாக கூறியுள்ளனர். அதே சமயம் நல்ல செல்களுக்கு ஒன்றும் ஆவதில்லை என்றும் கண்டறிந்தனர். இதனால் இஸ்ரேல் நாட்டு விவசாயி ஒருவர் எலுமிச்சம் புல் விற்பனையில் பயனடைந்ததாக படித்தேன். நல்ல பயனுள்ள ...
Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIVA1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with an ... 2000). "Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein ... Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that promotes HIV-1 envelope-induced apoptosis in T- ... 2003). "GITR interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva and induces apoptosis". Cell Death Differ. 9 (12): 1382-4. doi: ...
2006). "Cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory protein-1 is involved in apoptosis signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor ... "Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... 2007). "Transactivator of transcription-tagged cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 peptides suppress the growth of ... Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCAR1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
"Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... Stratifin (also known as 14-3-3 protein sigma or 14-3-3σ protein) is a protein encoded by the SFN gene in humans. The protein ... A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi ...
Her lab is trying to determine the mode by which transcription, apoptosis, and transduction are controlled by viral regulatory ... Retroviruses within these genera cause disease by containing RNA sequences that code for proteins that promote oncogenesis ... contains sequences that encode for cyclin proteins, leading to the proliferation of normal cells and eventually giving a means ... proteins such as kinases. Studies focus on the walleye dermal sarcoma virus and inducing sarcomas. The retroviral cyclin of ...
TGF-ß is a paracrine regulatory protein responsible for embryonic processing, cell growth, apoptosis induction, and enhances ... protein binding. • hormone activity. • heparin binding. • identical protein binding. • macromolecular complex binding. ... protein kinase A signaling. • activation of protein kinase A activity. • glucose metabolic process. • cell adhesion mediated by ... ß protein binds with latency associated protein (LAP) at the N-terminal propertied and one of three latent TGF-ß binding ...
This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that forms one of the central hubs in the apoptosis regulatory network. This protein ... Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X (Aug 1997). "Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307 ... Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves Procaspase 9 ...
... which is a regulatory protein in the process of apoptosis. This is hypothesized to contribute to some of the symptoms of SLE. ... Ifi202 gene encodes for p202 protein, which belongs to the p200-protein family. The IFI family of genes is inducible by type 1 ... The p202 protein has the following structure A 52kDa nuclear phosphoprotein Humans have an ifi202 and ifi204 similar gene known ... Ifi202 contains a STAT3 binding site (SBS) at the 5' regulatory region of the ifi202 gene. p202 expression is known to retard ...
As aforementioned, death associated protein 3 (DAP3) has regulatory roles in cell respiration and apoptosis. Both opposites and ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (Jun 2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nature ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat. ... 28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is ...
... apoptotic signals must cause regulatory proteins to initiate the apoptosis pathway. This step allows those signals to cause ... Database of proteins involved in apoptosis Apoptosis Video Apoptosis Video (WEHI on YouTube ) The Mechanisms of Apoptosis ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48. Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ... HIV may increase the level of cellular proteins that prompt Fas-mediated apoptosis. HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 ...
Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R (2000). "Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate ... development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control". Gene. 260 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00454-6. PMID 11137286. ... Activating Protein 2 (AP-2) is a family of closely related transcription factors which plays a critical role in regulating gene ... "Characterization of a dimerization motif in AP-2 and its function in heterologous DNA-binding proteins". Science. 251 (4997): ...
"Cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) by CPP32 during apoptosis". The EMBO Journal. 15 (5): 1012-20. ... Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) also known as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 ( ... SREBF2 has been shown to interact with INSIG1 and CREB-binding protein. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein GRCh38: ... Nagoshi E, Imamoto N, Sato R, Yoneda Y (Jul 1999). "Nuclear import of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, a basic ...
Henley SA, Dick FA (2012). "The retinoblastoma family of proteins and their regulatory functions in the mammalian cell division ... It also prevents apoptosis in several ways: it reduces mitochondrial ROS levels, and it prevents apoptosis-causing protein Bax ... This stops cytochrome C protein passing out through VDAC into the cytoplasm where it triggers apoptosis via a caspase protein ... In this state, Rb binds to a protein transcription factor E2F and prevents E2F from activating transcription of proteins ...
"The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory protein Vpu induces apoptosis by suppressing the nuclear factor kappaB- ... A viral regulatory and accessory protein is a type of viral protein that can play an indirect role in the function of a virus. ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Akari H, Bour S ...
Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP), is a protein that in ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 sensitizes soft tissue sarcoma cells to death receptor-initiated apoptosis via repression of FLICE-like ... Interferon Consensus Sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 mediates apoptosis in nonhemopoietic tumor cells via regulation of Fas expression". J. Immunol. 179 (7 ...
... and proteins involved in development processes and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are activated by proteolysis too. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of phosphate groups to proteins, which is the most frequent regulatory modification mechanism ... The presence of a phosphoryl group in a part of a protein may depend on the folding of the enzyme (which can make the protein ... There are many strategies of activation and deactivation of regulatory enzymes. Regulatory enzymes require an extra activation ...
The regulatory role of this protein in cell death was demonstrated in epithelial cells which undergo apoptosis while integrin ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that ... functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase ... 2001). "Isolation of Bcl-2 binding proteins that exhibit homology with BAG-1 and suppressor of death domains protein". Biochem ...
... protein-protein interactions, vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics, receptor signaling, apoptosis, adaptor/regulatory modules ... "neurobeachin-like protein 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2017-02-24. "Pfam: Family: ... apoptosis, membrane dynamics and receptor signaling. This protein family is of great clinical importance currently because ... NBEAL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NBEAL1 gene. It is found on chromosome 2q33.2 of Homo sapiens. Through the ...
... and apoptosis. In DNA viruses and retroviruses, viral regulatory proteins can enhance viral gene transcription, likewise, these ... and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory, and accessory proteins. Viruses ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins have many functions. These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions ... Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. Class III: ...
Later he studied regulatory mechanisms in the cells, including the regulation of apoptosis. He was a Research Professor of the ... At Stanford he examined the effects of steroid hormones on the synthesis of certain proteins, leading to new techniques in ... "Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007. ... The mechanism also found applications in biotechnology, for example in the production of proteins, including erythropoietin, of ...
Cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a regulatory protein which contains two DEDs. There are two isoforms of C-FLIP: C ... The activity of protein kinase C has a negative effect on Fas receptor mediated apoptosis. This is because it inhibits the ... Binding of TRAIL to death receptors four and five (DR4 and DR5) can lead to apoptosis by the same mechanism. Apoptosis can also ... As FADD has such an important role in apoptosis, loss of FADD can give cancer cells a proliferative advantage as apoptosis ...
... immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein ... this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ...
... is a cytokine-induced inhibitor of apoptosis with no relation to apoptosis regulatory molecules of the BCL2 (MIM 151430 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ... Anamorsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CIAPIN1 gene. ...
PPP1R3G regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 7: PPP1R7 regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 8: PPP1R8 regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 9: ... apoptosis, protein synthesis, and regulation of membrane receptors and channels. Each PP1 enzyme contains both a catalytic ... protein kinase R is activated by the virus' double-stranded RNA, and protein kinase R then phosphorylates a protein called ... PPP1CC regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1: PPP1R1A, PPP1R1B, PPP1R1C regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2: PPP1R2 regulatory ( ...
... and thus plays an important regulatory role in cell apoptosis. This protein was identified by its selective association with ... Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD9 gene. CARD9 is a ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...
... and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). This is because the protein IAP produced by CD-47 acts as a don't eat me signal to ... However, apoptosis was not observed following culture with other anti-CD47 antibodies. The apoptosis inducing function of CD47 ... 2012). "The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors". Proc. ... CD47 interacts with signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory transmembrane receptor present on myeloid cells. The ...
... apoptotic signals must cause regulatory proteins to initiate the apoptosis pathway. This step allows those signals to cause ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48.. *^ Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ... Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ...
Recent studies have proved that betulin inhibited the maturation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBPs). ... Betulin causes some types of tumor cells to start a process of self-destruction called apoptosis, and can slow the growth of ...
... therefore eliciting a regulatory role in the function of this pathway which mediates proliferation, apoptosis and ... The protein's primary structure contains a PEST region, indicative of proteins that are highly susceptible to degradation in ... Tribbles homolog 1 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the TRIB1 gene. Orthologs of this protein pseudokinase ( ... 2004). "Human tribbles, a protein family controlling mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (41): 42703 ...
Suzuki Y, Nakabayashi Y, Takahashi R (July 2001). "Ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein ... Zhao LJ, Zhu H (December 2004). "Structure and function of HIV-1 auxiliary regulatory protein Vpr: novel clues to drug design ... One means of caspase inhibition is through the IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) protein family, which includes c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP ... Suzuki Y, Nakabayashi Y, Nakata K, Reed JC, Takahashi R (July 2001). "X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) inhibits ...
Regulatory GTPases. Ras protein. adenocarcinomas of the pancreas and colon, thyroid tumors, and myeloid leukemia[24]. involved ... Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead.[3] Most oncogenes began ... An increase in the amount of a certain protein (protein concentration), caused by *an increase of protein expression (through ... half of the protein). The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis. · activation of signaling protein activity involved in ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ...
The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ... Rituximab has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
"Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ... Rameshwar P (Nov 1997). "Substance P: a regulatory neuropeptide for hematopoiesis and immune functions". Clinical Immunology ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ...
protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ... Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ...
PDPR: encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit. *PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile ... CIAPIN1: Anamorsin (originally, Cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1). *CKLF: Chemokine-like factor ... UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ...
... gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... but for the very different purpose of mediating chromosome condensation during apoptosis.[101][102] This mark is not simply a ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ...
... regulatory genes - regulatory T cells - remission - renal - rescue therapy - resistance - retina - retinal detachment - ... apoptosis - approved drugs - ARC - Armenicum - ART - arthralgia - ASO - aspergillosis - assembly and budding - asymptomatic - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ...
ELF(2、4、5) · EGF · ELK(1、3、4) · ERF · ERG · ETS(1、2、SPIB) · ETV(1、4、5、6) · FLI1 · Interferon regulatory factors(1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8 ... Rb · RBL1(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 1) · RBL2(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2) ... 转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... protein homodimerization activity. · sequence-specific DNA binding. · metal ion binding. · protein heterodimerization activity ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... is strongly stimulated by calcium and is primarily under the control of a Cre regulatory component, suggesting a putative role ... neurotrophic signaling may trigger apoptosis rather than survival pathways in cells expressing the p75 receptor in the absence ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 31 March 2017.. *^ a b Goodfield MJ, Cox NH, Bowser A, McMillan JC, Millard ... Nelson AM, Gilliland KL, Cong Z, Thiboutot DM (October 2006). "13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ... Isotretinoin is primarily (99.9%) bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. Three metabolites of Isotretinoin are detectable in ... In 2001 the FDA announced a new regulatory scheme called SMART (the System to Manage Accutane Related Teratogenicity) that ...
2002). "EBV regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt's lymphoma". Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 258: 153-60. ... Bernstein PL, Herrick DJ, Prokipcak RD, Ross J (1992). "Control of c-myc mRNA half-life in vitro by a protein capable of ... chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered". Proc. ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex ...
After a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is recognized by the 19S regulatory particle in an ATP-dependent binding step.[15][ ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins.[88] However, some cell ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... 19S regulatory particleEdit. The 19S particle in eukaryotes consists of 19 individual proteins and is divisible into two ...
... protein degradation system used to maintain homeostasis and the findings that inhibition of autophagy often leads to apoptosis ... The end-products of autophagic digestion may also serve as a negative- feedback regulatory mechanism to stop prolonged activity ... WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and ... Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. (CDK4 in the (pink) nucleus) ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ...
transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • ... Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity ...
54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ... In normal physiology, lymphocytes that recognise human proteins (autoantigens) either undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis ... CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... The retroviral gag protein shows similarity to the La protein and is proposed as a possible example for molecular mimicry in ...
... often work together and have important regulatory functions. Two other regulatory endocrine axes are the hypothalamic-pituitary ... The abnormally high plasma ionized calcium concentrations cause conformational changes in many cell-surface proteins ( ... The liver also has many regulatory functions of the metabolism. An important function is the production and control of bile ... a short protein chain, 10 amino acids long) from a plasma α-2-globulin called angiotensinogen. This decapeptide is known as ...
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 302 (12): R1436-R1442. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00635.2011. PMC 3378342. PMID ... The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers.[54][56] For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death ... Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; their kidneys have a thin ... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ...
... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ... Apoptosis. *see apoptosis signaling pathway. GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ...
Apoptosis inhibition[edit]. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a ... p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ...
Suppressor population or Regulatory T cell theory, wherein regulatory T-lymphocytes (commonly CD4+FoxP3+ cells, among others) ... Induction of autoantibodies against tyrosinase-related proteins following DNA vaccination: Unexpected reactivity to a protein ... Dendritic cell apoptosis - immune system cells called dendritic cells present antigens to active lymphocytes. Dendritic cells ... The roles of specialized immunoregulatory cell types, such as regulatory T cells, NKT cells, γδ T-cells in the pathogenesis of ...
This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib, a small molecule drug.[119][120][121][122] ... This leads to a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis.[31][33] Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell ... effects on immuno-regulatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme pathways; reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines; and anti-proliferative ... As different proteins are utilised by different cancer types, the targeted therapy drugs are used on a cancer type specific, or ...
Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, and B cells all undergo apoptosis, whereas regulatory T ... Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) was originally introduced for severe sepsis (as identified by a high APACHE ... Liver: disruption of protein synthetic function manifests acutely as progressive disruption of blood clotting due to an ... Consequentially, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1, will up-regulate the expression ...
"Differential expression of the complement regulatory proteins in the human eye". 》Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci》 34 (13): 3579-84. ... Stuart, PM; Griffith, TS; Usu, N; Pepose, J; Yu, X; Ferguson, TA (1997). "CD95 ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis is necessary for ... A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular ... involvement of mitogenactivated protein kinases. J Cell Physiol 197: 453-462, 2003. ...
Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ... Many drugs are receiving regulatory approval for only a single crystal form or polymorph. For a long time, only one crystal ... "Aspirin inhibits camptothecin-induced p21CIP1 levels and potentiates apoptosis in human breast cancer cells". International ... Protein binding. 80-90%[1]. Metabolism. Liver, (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut ...
Rob M Ewing, Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, et al., Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions ... Ruf IK, Rhyne PW, Yang H, et al., EBV regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt's lymphoma, in Curr. Top. ... chromosome translocation is not altered in its putative regulatory regions (PDF), in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 84, nº ... Gazin C, Rigolet M, Briand JP, et al., Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1, in EMBO J., vol ...
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 286 (2): 398R-404. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00392.2003. Block, BA; Finnerty, JR ... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Most sharks are "cold- ... and are rapidly reabsorbed in a process involving the apoptosis of follicular cells. A degenerative process called follicular ...
Such 3'-UTRs often contain both binding sites for microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as for regulatory proteins. By binding to specific ... targeting the Lyn kinase induces apoptosis in primary, and drug-resistant, BCR-ABL1(+) leukemia cells". Nature Medicine. 10 (11 ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ...
Apoptosis and pruning are the two main methods of severing the undesired connections. In apoptosis, the neuron is killed and ... Regulatory pruning[edit]. At birth, the neurons in the visual and motor cortices have connections to the superior colliculus, ... Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ...
The catalytic activity of HATs is regulated by two types of mechanisms: (1) interaction with regulatory protein subunits and (2 ... Attacking these enzymes within cancer cells could lead to increased apoptosis due to high accumulation of DNA damage. One such ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ... Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67: 181-99. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(04)67007-0. ISBN 9780120342679. PMID 14969728. ...
Recombinant Protein and Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Shop Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein ELISA Kit, ... Protein type: Apoptosis; Protein phosphatase, regulatory ... Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 1. Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 1 ELISA Kit. Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein ... Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2. Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 ELISA Kit. Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein ...
Apoptosis regulatory proteins explanation free. What is Apoptosis regulatory proteins? Meaning of Apoptosis regulatory proteins ... Looking for online definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins in the Medical Dictionary? ... Apoptosis regulatory proteins , definition of Apoptosis regulatory proteins by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... apoptosis. (redirected from Apoptosis regulatory proteins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United States ... Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in United States*Experts and Doctors on humans in United States*Experts ... Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Summary. Locale: Boston, ... You are here: Locale , United States , Massachusetts , Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Boston, ...
Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin. Stephanie Zdanov, Fabio Klamt, ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ... Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin ...
The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells. ... 1996) The herpes simplex virus major regulatory protein ICP4 blocks apoptosis induced by the virus or by hyperthermia. Proc. ... The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells ... The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells ...
Recombinant Human Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva Protein 10μg enQuireBio™ Recombinant ... Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about enQuireBio™ ... A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva, was expressed in the hosts and tags ...
1 Abstracts with Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ... 3 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Pharmacological Actions : Apoptotic, Bcl-2 protein down-regulation, TRAIL sensitizer. Additional Keywords : Apoptosis ...
IBP is a novel p53 target gene which suppresses cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells via negative feedback ... Our previous work demonstrated that ectopic expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 binding protein (IBP) was correlated ... Interferon regulatory factor 4 binding protein is a novel p53 target gene and suppresses cisplatin-induced apoptosis of breast ... Interferon regulatory factor 4 binding protein is a novel p53 target gene and suppresses cisplatin-induced apoptosis of breast ...
You need info about Human Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva (SIVA1) ELISA Kit or any other Gentaur produtct? Contact us on Live ... We can assist you in finding the right ELISA kits, PCR kits, recombinant proteins, antibodies, provide you with datasheets, ...
Inhibition of apoptosis by the actin-regulatory protein gelsolin. Files in This Item: NK97Oht.pdf. 696.23 kB. PDF. View/Open. ... Gelsolin is an actin-regulatory protein that modulates actin assembly and disassembly, and is believed to regulate cell ... without changing the F-actin morphology or the levels of Fas or Bcl-2 family proteins. Upon the induction of apoptosis, an ... and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that the critical target responsible for the execution of apoptosis may ...
Apoptosis*. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism*. *Humans. *Neoplasms/metabolism*. *Neoplasms/pathology*. *Signal ... Different gene families such as caspases, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family of genes, tumor ... Major apoptotic mechanisms and genes involved in apoptosis.. Kiraz Y1,2, Adan A1, Kartal Yandim M2, Baran Y3,4. ... Apoptosis, a type of cell death mechanism, is controlled by the interactions between several molecules and responsible for the ...
Both were biologically active, inducing apoptosis of both hu … ... evaluate the utility of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins * FASLG protein, human * Fas Ligand Protein * Fasl protein, mouse ... Tumoricidal activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo Nat Med. 1999 Feb;5(2):157-63. doi: ... To evaluate the utility of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a cancer therapeutic, we created ...
PEA-15 is a small protein (15 kDa) that was first identified as an abundant phosphoprotein in brain astrocytes [Araujo et al., ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * PEA15 protein, human * Phosphoproteins ... The multifunctional protein PEA-15 is involved in the control of apoptosis and cell cycle in astrocytes Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 ... PEA-15 is a small protein (15 kDa) that was first identified as an abundant phosphoprotein in brain astrocytes [Araujo et al., ...
Amplification or overexpression of HER-2/neu in cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis and promotes cell growth. The ... The Cell-Cycle Regulatory Protein p21CIP1/WAF1 Is Required for Cytolethal Distending Toxin (Cdt)-Induced Apoptosis *Bruce J. ... Porter, A. G. Protein translocation in apoptosis. Trends Cell Biol. 9, 394-401 (1999). ... HER-2/neu blocks tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis via the Akt/NF-kB pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8027-8031 (2000). ...
To gain insight into the role and association of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins and telomerase activity in the ... "Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins and Telomerase in Melanocitic Lesions." Collegium antropologicum, ... "Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins and Telomerase in Melanocitic Lesions." Collegium antropologicum 31 ... 2007) Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins and Telomerase in Melanocitic Lesions, Collegium ...
Expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins. Cytosolic protein was extracted from L3.3 cells, L3.3 cells transfected with pLXSN ... it is possible that imbalanced expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins directly promotes in vitro survival of IκBαM- ... Altered expression of apoptosis-regulatory molecules in human pancreatic cells transfected with IκBαM. The effect of NF-κB ... Cytosolic and nuclear protein was isolated from control and transfected pancreatic cancer cells. Soluble protein was separated ...
After treatment, expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by using ... This study was designed to investigate effect of the etoposide on expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis- ... Expression of Cell Cycle Regulatory and Apoptosis-related Proteins in Etoposide-treated Human Skin Fibroblast / 대한암학회지 ... Expression of Cell Cycle Regulatory and Apoptosis-related Proteins in Etoposide-treated Hu ...
... lines as model systems to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby STI571 and FoxO3a regulate Bim expression and apoptosis ... 0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/Bcl-2-like protein 11; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/FOXO1 protein, human; 0 ... Apoptosis / drug effects*. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Base Sequence. Carrier Proteins / genetics*. Cell Line. Cell Line, ... Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / metabolism*. Humans. Membrane Proteins / genetics*. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Piperazines / ...
Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in ... Hyperglycaemia and the expression of related proteins such as nuclear factor-κB NF-κB, caspase-3 -8 -9, and Bcl-associated X ...
0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/PUMA protein, mouse; 0/Reactive Oxygen ... Apoptosis*. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / deficiency, genetics, metabolism*. DNA Damage. ... The DNA damage checkpoint protein ATM promotes hepatocellular apoptosis and fibrosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty ... EC Kinases; EC telangiectasia mutated protein ...
The Effects of Insulin and a PI3K Inhibitor on TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis and Regulatory Proteins of Procaspase-9.. To confirm the ... The effects of protein kinases on the level of proteins and apoptosis. A. The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on apoptosis ... X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a multifunctional protein involved in cell cycle regulation, protein ... Accordingly, we investigated regulatory proteins of caspase-9. Although we could observe that TNF-α cleaved procaspase-9 (Figs ...
identical protein binding - induction of apoptosis - integral to membrane - integral to mitochondrial outer membrane - ... The encoded protein interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, including the E1B 19 kDa protein and Bcl2. This gene is silenced in ... protein binding - protein heterodimerization activity - protein homodimerization activity - reactive oxygen species metabolic ... and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] and ROS related proteins [catalase, thioredoxinreductase ...
... increases PDCD2 protein expression and apoptosis, and knockdown of the PDCD2 protein in this cell line by PDCD2-specific small ... These findings suggest that PDCD2 has a novel regulatory role in human hematopoiesis and is essential for erythroid development ... PDCD2, a protein whose expression is repressed by BCL6, induces apoptosis in human cells by activation of the caspase cascade. ... suggesting that BCL6 regulates apoptosis by its effects on this protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ...
0 (Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins); 0 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21); 0 (DNA-Binding Proteins); 0 (TP53 protein, human ... ZNF509 protein, human); 9007-49-2 (DNA); EC (E1A-Associated p300 Protein); EC (EP300 protein, human). ... Interestingly, apoptosis due to transcriptional activation of PUMA by p53 is attenuated by ZNF509S1. Thus we investigated the ... Expression of the POK family protein ZNF509L, and -its S1 isoform, is induced by p53 upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Due to ...
0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins); 0 (Dioxolanes); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 493GZJ5T6I ( ... Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest for the best compound ZM90 were evaluated and similar mechanism of action with PL was ... Cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and flow cytometry ... Apoptotic-related proteins were assessed by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial ...
5,7-Dihydroxyflavone up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, attenuated the expression of anti-apoptotic ... We further investigated the mechanisms by which 5,7-dihydroxyflavone augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ... because it preferentially induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cells with little or no effect on normal cells. 5,7- ... weakening the anti-apoptotic signals thus facilitating the process of apoptosis. Moreover, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL were ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.644.360.075]. *Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins [D12.644.360.075.437] ... "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" ... A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and ... The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat. ...
Proteins [D12.776]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476]. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.776. ... "Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Neuronal Apoptosis- ... An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL ... "Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
Deactivation of regulatory proteins hnRNP A1 and A2 during SC-1 induced apoptosis ... We could also show that 24 hours after the induction of apoptosis the hnRNP A1 protein is cleaved into different cleavage ... The dephosphorylation of these proteins is important for apoptosis since the amount of apoptotic cell death can be decreased by ... We also investigated the effect of serine kinase inhibitor H7 on SC-1 induced apoptosis, which leads …to a dose dependent ...
Protein Coding), CASP8 And FADD Like Apoptosis Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CFLAR Gene. Promoters and enhancers for CFLAR Gene ... Protein Symbol:. O15519-CFLAR_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator. Protein Accession:. O15519. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of apoptosis and is structurally similar to caspase-8. However, the encoded ...
  • Inhibits the ability of APPBP1 to conjugate NEDD8 to CUL1, and thereby decreases APPBP1 ability to induce apoptosis. (
  • Also known as Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 1 (Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 13B). (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • Regulator that plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis via its interaction with p53/TP53. (
  • 53BP2: Regulator that plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis and cell growth via its interactions. (
  • Also known as Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (Bcl2-binding protein) (Bbp) (Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-51) (Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 2) (53BP2) (p53-binding protein 2) (p53BP2). (
  • s apoptosis-stimulating activity is inhibited by its interaction with DDX42. (
  • In particular, PEA-15 diverts astrocytes from TNFalpha-triggered apoptosis and regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. (
  • Downward, J. Mechanisms and consequences of activation of protein kinase B/Akt. (
  • Direct control of the forkhead transcription factor AFX by protein kinase B. Nature 398 , 630-634 (1999). (
  • Inhibition of Bcr-Abl kinase by STI571 results in FoxO3a activation, induction of Bim expression and apoptosis. (
  • Signaling pathways responsible for the inhibitory effects of insulin were investigated by using protein kinase inhibitors. (
  • Both phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase pathways mediate the ability of insulin to decrease the TNF-α-induced cleavage of procaspase-8. (
  • 16 also reported that Tan-IIA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. (
  • This form of chronic leukemia is also characterized by a disturbed balance between apoptosis regulating genes, which can be restored by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • Promising novel therapies directed at specific malfunctioning proteins, including anti-receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies [ 7 ], will no doubt greatly improve treatment outcomes. (
  • 1993 ). p35 (CDK5R1) was then characterized as a regulatory subunit of CDK5 to activate its kinase activity, with subsequent identification of its isoform p39 (CDK5R2) (Tsai et al. (
  • Inhibition of tau phosphorylating protein kinase cdk5 prevents β-amyloid-induced neuronal death. (
  • Treatment with prazosin (30μM) altered the expression of several cell stress-related proteins: elevating phospho-p38α and reducing S6 kinase in both cell lines. (
  • NOD2 associates with the caspase activation and recruitment domain of RIP-like interacting caspase-like apoptosis regulatory protein kinase (RICK)/RIP2 and activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in epithelial cells and macrophages, whereas NOD2 mutant 3020insC, which is associated with CD, shows an impaired ability to activate NF-κB. (
  • The interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been implicated in processes that rely on apoptosis as control mechanisms in vivo , including antiviral activities, cell growth regulation, and tumorigenesis. (
  • dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is an IFN-inducible, dsRNA-activated serine/threonine kinase and one of the best studied mediators of cellular responses to virus infections. (
  • Finally, to expand the biochemical toolbox for defining the spatial and temporal evolution of kinase-caspase networks, we investigated the impact of serine and phosphoserine determinants within caspase cleavage motifs and developed a number of prospective FRET biosensors to monitor the relationship between protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation and caspase-mediated proteolysis. (
  • MK08_HUMAN ] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. (
  • Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. (
  • HspB1 is a protein of 205 amino acids (22783 Da), which can be phosphorylated at serines 15, 78 and 82 by mitogen- activated protein kinases associated protein kinases ( MAPKAP kinase 2 , MAPKAP kinase 3 ). (
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an immediate-early or α protein which is essential for the optimal expression of late genes as well as the synthesis of viral DNA in cultures of Vero cells. (
  • The first viral genes expressed during infection were transcribed in the absence of de novo viral protein synthesis ( 4 ), and they were termed the α, or immediate-early (IE), genes. (
  • The α gene products ICP0, -4, -22, and -27 have regulatory functions, and they cooperatively act to regulate the expression of all classes of viral genes (reviewed in reference 36 ). (
  • The β, or early (E), genes were expressed next and encode many of the proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • This study evaluated the cell cycle regulatory genes, p16 INK4a and p14 ARF , for homozygous deletion, loss of heterozygosity, and mutation events in 20 PVL cases. (
  • Studies that have expressed certain mammalian genes in yeast have suggested that the basic machinery of apoptosis has been evolutionarily conserved. (
  • Additionally, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR was carried out to determine the cell cycle regulatory genes. (
  • Amplification or overexpression of HER-2/neu in cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis and promotes cell growth. (
  • Here, we find that neurons acquire an additional, inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-independent resistance to apoptosis as they mature. (
  • IBP is a novel p53 target gene which suppresses cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells via negative feedback regulation of the p53 signalling pathway, suggesting IBP may serve as a target for pharmacologic intervention of breast cancer resistant to cisplatin therapy. (
  • Our results demonstrate that IBP is a novel p53 target gene which suppresses cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells via negative feedback regulation of the p53 signaling pathway. (
  • Our data suggest that insulin decreases the TNF-α-induced cleavage of procaspase-9 and subsequent apoptosis by regulating XIAP via the PI3K/Akt pathway. (
  • Although apoptosis has been extensively studied in developing neurons, the dynamic changes in this pathway after neuronal maturation remain largely unexplored. (
  • Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a positive-feedback circuit in which BFV utilizes the host's NF-?B pathway through the RelB protein for efficient viral transcription. (
  • Apoptosis (programmed cell death), triggers an extrinsic (death receptor-mediated signaling) or an intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated signaling) pathway to activate caspase-3, leading to morphological alterations (e.g. (
  • This study reports that dietary nutrients, particularly proteins and carbohydrates, modulate the developmental timing through the CDK8/CycC/EcR pathway. (
  • Using redox-proteomics, we found that the actin-binding protein cofilin is a key target of oxidation that mediates induction of apoptosis by taurine chloramine, a physiological oxidant produced by activated neutrophils. (
  • Upon the induction of apoptosis, an increase in CPP32(-like) protease activity was observed in the control vector transfectants, while it was strongly suppressed in the gelsolin transfectants. (
  • We find that conditional activation of FoxO3a leads to induction of Bim expression and apoptosis. (
  • Conversely, silencing of FoxO3a in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells abolishes STI571-mediated Bim induction and apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis occurs in response to different cellular stresses, including viral infection, inflammatory cytokines, growth factor deprivation, and UV light, but it is unclear whether these inducers share a common mechanism of induction. (
  • The mechanism underlying the suppression of apoptosis in the Pkr o/o cells could be attributed to defects in the activation of DNA-binding activity for the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 and in Fas mRNA induction. (
  • Our present experiments have tested the possible involvement of gelsolin in the regulation of apoptosis, which is significantly affected by growth. (
  • 20 Accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests an important role for NF-κB in the regulation of apoptosis, cell adhesion and oncogenesis. (
  • Direct transcriptional regulation of Bim by FoxO3a mediates STI571-induced apoptosis in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. (
  • Actin-depolymerization factor (ADF)/cofilin, a family of actin-binding proteins, are critical for the regulation of actin reorganization in response to various signals. (
  • We show that as neurons mature, cytochrome c - mediated apoptosis progresses from inhibitor of apoptosis protein-dependent to -independent regulation because of a complete loss of Apaf-1 expression. (
  • Whether other fundamental differences exist in the regulation of apoptosis between developing and mature sympathetic neurons remains unclear. (
  • 1996). "Sterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. (
  • 1998). "Parallel regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and the enzymes of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis but not ceramide synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. (
  • Little is known about the regulation of caspase activity during apoptosis. (
  • However, little is known about the molecular regulation of apoptosis in muscle cells. (
  • Our data suggest, for the first time, that a physiological link exists between actin regulation and cAMP signalling that regulates apoptosis in yeast. (
  • Immunostaining of tissues revealed many examples of cell-type-specific expression of BAD, suggesting dynamic regulation of BAD protein levels in vivo. (
  • Our results indicated that 5,7-dihydroxyflavone increased the expression of Bax and decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in HepG2 cells. (
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Chen KW, Lawlor KE, von Pein JB, Boucher D, Gerlic M, Croker BA, Bezbradica JS, Vince JE, Schroder K. Cutting Edge: Blockade of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins Sensitizes Neutrophils to TNF- but Not Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Cell Death and IL-1ß Secretion. (
  • Derakhshan A, Chen Z, Van Waes C. Therapeutic Small Molecules Target Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins in Cancers with Deregulation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cell Death Pathways. (
  • Therefore, persistent expression of c-FLIP(L) is necessary and sufficient to regulate sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. (
  • Gelsolin is an actin-regulatory protein that modulates actin assembly and disassembly, and is believed to regulate cell motility invivo through modulation of the actin network. (
  • In this study, we have used the human BV173 and the mouse BaF3/Bcr-Abl-expressing cell lines as model systems to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby STI571 and FoxO3a regulate Bim expression and apoptosis. (
  • The aim of the present thesis was to investigate neutrophil SIRPα expression in response to inflammatory activation or apoptosis, and how this receptor can regulate neutrophil adhesion and cell migration. (
  • The mechanisms and signaling mediators that regulate virus-induced apoptosis are less well understood, but it has long been established that a combination of interferon (IFN) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is cytotoxic to cell cultures in vitro ( 6 ). (
  • However, the signals that regulate expression of synaptic proteins in the mature brain are incompletely understood. (
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction. (
  • Hyperglycaemia and the expression of related proteins such as nuclear factor-κB NF-κB, caspase-3 -8 -9, and Bcl-associated X protein Bax were markedly decreased by LGP1 treatment. (
  • In examining another regulator of cleaved caspase-9, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), we observed that TNF-α treatment induced fragmentation of XIAP, which was also enhanced by the PI3K inhibitor. (
  • In type I cells, active caspase-8 directly cleaves downstream procaspase-3 (9) , whereas a small amount of caspase-8 activated in type II cells truncates the BH3 domain-containing proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein (BID). (
  • Activate caspase-8 and caspase-10 then cleave caspase-3, which in turn cleaves its substrates and eventually executes apoptosis [ 3 ]. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of apoptosis and is structurally similar to caspase-8. (
  • However, the encoded protein lacks caspase activity and appears to be itself cleaved into two peptides by caspase-8. (
  • The results indicate that caspase-2 is necessary for Aβ 1-42 -induced apoptosis in vitro . (
  • FLIP interacts with adapter protein FADD and caspase-8 and -10, and potently inhibits apoptosis induced by all known death receptors CD95, DR3, TRAIL-R and TNFR1. (
  • Multiple cellular stressors cause activation of the caspase proteases and apoptosis in neurons ( Putcha and Johnson, 2004 ). (
  • We have identified and characterized ARC, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (CARD). (
  • ARC inhibited apoptosis induced by caspase-8 and CED-3 but not that mediated by caspase-9. (
  • Consistent with the inhibition of caspase-8, ARC attenuated apoptosis induced by FADD and TRADD and that triggered by stimulation of death receptors coupled to caspase-8, including CD95/Fas, tumor necrosis factor-R1, and TRAMP/DR3. (
  • Likewise, Apaf-1, a human protein that resembles C. elegans CED-4, interacts with caspase-9, a step that is required for the activation of the downstream protease caspase-3 ( 11 ). (
  • The CARD has been proposed to play a regulatory role in apoptosis by allowing proteins such as Apaf-1 to associate with caspase-9 ( 13 ). (
  • The resistance of the cells to undergo apoptosis upon treatment with SRJ09 was mainly attributed to the unchanged levels of Bax, Bid, caspase 8 and 9, otherwise activated in the parental cells. (
  • In addition, we observed the immunofluorescence of intracellular ROS and measured lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis-related proteins by using Western blotting. (
  • Initially, cell death caused by the complete blockage of protein synthesis induced during infection was shown to be inhibited by the product of the γ 1 34.5 gene ( 7 ), which functions to block the phosphorylation of the eIF-2α translation factor ( 8 , 13 ). (
  • In this review, we discuss the basic features of apoptosis and have focused on the gene families playing critical roles, activation/inactivation mechanisms, upstream/downstream effectors, and signaling pathways in apoptosis on the basis of cancer studies. (
  • Jun proteins modulate the ovary-specific promoter of aromatase gene in ovarian granulosa cells via a. (
  • What does this gene/protein do? (
  • This gene encodes a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of tissues. (
  • Expression of this gene has been shown to be repressed by B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor required for lymph node germinal center development, suggesting that BCL6 regulates apoptosis by its effects on this protein. (
  • CFLAR (CASP8 And FADD Like Apoptosis Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • HLTF is a tumor suppressor gene - In cancer, two mechanisms of HLTF inactivation are reported: (i) hypermethylation of its promoter and (ii) expression of truncated protein forms that have lost domains involved in DNA repair. (
  • FBN1 is a 230-kb gene with 65 coding exons that encode a 2,871-amino-acid long proprotein called profibrillin which is proteolytically cleaved near its C-terminus by the enzyme furin convertase to give fibrillin-1, a member of the fibrillin family, and the 140-amino-acid long protein hormone asprosin . (
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SREBF2 gene . (
  • 1995). "Structure of the human gene encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBF1) and localization of SREBF1 and SREBF2 to chromosomes 17p11.2 and 22q13. (
  • 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene. (
  • Structure of the human gene encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBF2). (
  • A Protein Encoded by the Latency-Related Gene of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 " by Yunquan Jiang, Ashfaque Hossain et al. (
  • LR gene products inhibit S-phase entry, and binding of the LR protein (LRP) to cyclin A was hypothesized to block cell cycle progression. (
  • By analyzing the cdk8 and cyclin C (cycC) mutant larvae in Drosophila, it was previously reported that the CDK8-CycC complex coordinately regulates lipogenesis by repressing dSREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein)-activated transcription and developmental timing by activating EcR (ecdysone receptor)-dependent gene expression. (
  • Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 , also known as SREBF2 , is a human gene . (
  • Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIVA1 gene. (
  • This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCAR1 gene. (
  • In humans, this protein is encoded by the gene SIVA1. (
  • Bim depletion substantially blocks apoptosis and significantly restores Shp2 null TS cell proliferation, thereby establishing a key mechanism by which FGF4 controls stem cell survival. (
  • Accordingly, it has been demonstrated to modulate signaling pathways that control apoptosis and cell proliferation. (
  • Through exogenous expression analyses, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can decrease proliferation, and increase apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, in GIST-derived cells. (
  • Using CD4 + Jurkat T cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens on T proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. (
  • We aimed to investigate whether jejunal microbial metabolite butyrate modulates the apoptosis/proliferation balance and immune response in piglets during the post-weaning period of the first 3 weeks of life. (
  • 0.01), leading to the inhibition of cell apoptosis and the stimulation of cell proliferation via decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and thereby the improvement of intestinal development and function. (
  • The findings suggest that strategies to promote butyrate production can maintain the apoptosis/proliferation balance via minimizing intestinal inflammation, and thereby improving post-weaning jejunal adaptation toward gut health. (
  • The mechanisms involved included changes in a number of proliferation and apoptosis regulatory proteins. (
  • Methods The impact of MLN4924 on renal cancer cells was determined by measuring viability (MTS), proliferation cell count test and clonogenic assays, cell cycle progression (flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining), apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling) and DNA damage (immunofluorescent staining). (
  • Rocco J, Leong C, Kuperwasser N, DeYoung M, Ellisen L. p63 mediates survival in squamous cell carcinoma by suppression of p73-dependent apoptosis. (
  • Pipoxolan Exhibits Antitumor Activity Toward Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Apoptosis. (
  • BTat, a trans-acting regulatory protein, contributes to bovine immunodeficiency virus-induced apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis, a type of cell death mechanism, is controlled by the interactions between several molecules and responsible for the elimination of unwanted cells from the body. (
  • Tan-IIA also induced ER stress in prostate cancer cells: activation and nuclear translocation of GADD153/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) were identified, and increased expression of the downstream molecules GRP78/BiP, inositol-requiring protein-1α and GADD153/CHOP were evidenced. (
  • BCL2, MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1), and BCL-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra-large) are prosurvival proteins that are prime targets for anticancer therapy, and molecules targeting each are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. (
  • Normally, these proteins interact with Bax and Bak, which are effector molecules that can kill the tumor cell, but because BCL2 is abundant, it can "soak up" these proapoptotic BH3-only proteins, explained Dr. Davids, who recently published an article reviewing this biology. (
  • The cell cycle regulatory mol- ecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. (
  • We conclude that cofilin is a major intracellular redox-sensor that, when oxidized at critical cysteine residues, activates mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. (
  • Zhang X, Jin T, Yang H, DeWolf W, Khosravi Far R, Olumi A. Persistent c-FLIP(L) expression is necessary and sufficient to maintain resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer. (
  • Moreover, over-expression of wild-type cofilin causes a 2-fold increase in the sensitivity of cells to oxidant-induced apoptosis. (
  • Our previous work demonstrated that ectopic expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 binding protein (IBP) was correlated with the malignant behaviour of human breast cancer cells. (
  • 2007) 'Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins and Telomerase in Melanocitic Lesions', Collegium antropologicum , 31 - Supplement 1(1), str. (
  • Batinac T, Hadžisejdić I, Brumini G, Ružić A, Vojniković B, Zamolo G. Expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins and Telomerase in Melanocitic Lesions. (
  • To gain insight into the role and association of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins and telomerase activity in the course of progression of melanocitic lesions we have examined immunohistochemicaly, expression and the distribution of p53, bcl-2, Ki-67 and telomerase in 25 samples of common and dysplastic nevi, and 45 samples of primary invasive melanomas. (
  • This study was designed to investigate effect of the etoposide on expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins in human skin fibroblast (HSF). (
  • After treatment, expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by using Immunoprecipitation-Western blot method and RT-PCR. (
  • Lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Mediated Hypoglycaemia and Its Influence on Apoptosis-Regulatory Protein Expression in the Injured Kidneys of Streptozotocin-Induced Mice - Descarga este documento en PDF. (
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (
  • Expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were determined after Tan-IIA treatment. (
  • In head and neck, thyroid and uterus (cervix) cancers, an increased expression of two HLTF protein forms truncated in the carboxyl-terminal domain following alternative mRNA splicing was reported. (
  • Expression of S-phase regulatory proteins (cyclin A, for example) leads to neuronal apoptosis. (
  • Western blot was performed to determine the expression of cell cycle, apoptosis regulatory and cell signaling proteins. (
  • RT-PCR confirmed the findings that protein expression of p21 was not up-regulated and CDK4 was not down-regulated, contrary to the parental cells. (
  • GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. (
  • Protein expression is influenced by many factors that may vary between experiments or laboratories. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the human BAD protein and used to evaluate its expression by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in normal human tissues and by immunoblot analysis of the National Cancer Institute anti-cancer drug screening panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. (
  • The relative levels of BAD protein varied widely among established human tumor cell lines, with colon, lung, and melanomas generally having the highest expression. (
  • 2006). Increased expression of HspB1 in response to the aggregation of proteins specific for conformational diseases have been reported by several authors (Outeiro et al. (
  • Accordingly, most current research efforts in this area have focused on limiting the synthesis of viral proteins in an attempt to reduce cell toxicity ( 17 , 18 , 38 , 39 , 46 ). (
  • Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. (
  • These results suggest that concerted action between the PP1 binding domain and the effector domain of ICP34.5 is crucial for eIF2alpha dephosphorylation and viral protein synthesis. (
  • Together, the results presented clearly confirm FoxO3a as a key regulator of apoptosis induced by STI571, and show that Bim is a direct transcriptional target of FoxO3a that mediates the STI571-induced apoptosis. (
  • PKR can mediate inhibition of protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), which, in the course of a viral infection, represents a defensive mechanism for restricting viral protein translation and, ultimately, viral replication. (
  • A truncated form of p35, p25, was purified with CDK5 as a hetero-dimer exhibiting activity in vitro and regarded as a novel regulatory subunit of CDK5 (Lew et al. (
  • In addition to its actin-regulatory function, gelsolin has also been proposed to affect cell growth. (
  • The actin regulatory proteins Sla1p and End3p are important in maintaining a rapid turnover of F-actin in cortical patches. (
  • Alternative splicing.Helicase-Like Transcription Factor (HLTF/SMARCA3) belongs to the family of SWI/SNF proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin in a variety of cellular processes. (
  • Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cellular process essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis. (
  • Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. (
  • Because Cdk4/6 phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein (pRb) family members that then modulate the transcriptional activity of E2F/DP1 complexes, we examined the involvement of these components in DNA damage-evoked neuronal death. (
  • Although apoptosis occurs extensively during neuronal development, it is rarely observed and presumably no longer desired in the mature brain (for review see Benn and Woolf, 2004 ). (
  • Effects of chronic exposure to cocaine are regulated by the neuronal protein Cdk5. (
  • Thus, developing sympathetic neurons engage a XIAP-mediated "safety brake" that ensures they do not undergo apoptosis unless required. (
  • Xenoestrogen - CM, BPA, DDT, and TCDD - exposure suppressed bcl-2 protein and mRNA transcript levels but augmented p53 protein and mRNA transcripts. (
  • Homo sapiens CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (
  • Pan troglodytes SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor (SIVA1), transcript variant X1, mRNA. (
  • The functional neutrophil response relies on exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules, each containing membrane proteins, which are thereby mobilized to the plasma membrane. (
  • 2007). "The potential role of sterol regulatory element binding protein transcription factors in renal injury. (
  • Cleavage site for sterol-regulated protease localized to a leu-Ser bond in the lumenal loop of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. (
  • Dendrite formation in these CIVda neurons additionally requires functional sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) , a crucial regulator of fatty acid production. (
  • Although degeneration of the axon terminal is dependent on neural activity, activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is both necessary and sufficient to cause synaptic vesicle loss. (