Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/5488)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel mouse cDNA, ES18, involved in apoptotic cell death of T-cells. (2/5488)

Using the modified screening approach in combination with expressed sequence tags, we have identified several novel cDNAs from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, whose expression is tissue-restricted and/or developmentally regulated. One of the cDNAs, ES18, is preferentially expressed in lymph node and thymus, and contains noteworthy features of transcriptional regulator. The expression of ES18 transcript was selectively regulated during the apoptosis of T-cell thymoma S49.1 induced by several stimuli. Interestingly, the ES18 transcript was differently regulated in the mutually antagonistic process, between dexamethasone- and A23187-induced cell death of T-cells. Moreover, the message level of ES18 was selectively enhanced by staurosporine, a broad protein kinase inhibitor, but not by other protein kinase inhibitors such as GF109203X and H89. In addition, ES18 transcript was induced by C2-ceramide, which is a mediator of both dexamethasone- and staurosporine-induced apoptotic signaling. We further showed that transient overexpression of ES18 in mouse T-cell lymphoma increased the apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that ES18 may be selectively involved in specific apoptotic processes in mouse T-cells.  (+info)

Functional analysis of TRAIL receptors using monoclonal antibodies. (3/5488)

mAbs were generated against the extracellular domain of the four known TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and tested on a panel of human melanoma cell lines. The specificity of the mAb permitted a precise evaluation of the TRAIL receptors that induce apoptosis (TRAIL-R1 and -R2) compared with the TRAIL receptors that potentially regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (TRAIL-R3 and -R4). Immobilized anti-TRAIL-R1 or -R2 mAbs were cytotoxic to TRAIL-sensitive tumor cells, whereas tumor cells resistant to recombinant TRAIL were also resistant to these mAbs and only became sensitive when cultured with actinomycin D. The anti-TRAIL-R1 and -R2 mAb-induced death was characterized by the activation of intracellular caspases, which could be blocked by carbobenzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) and carbobenzyloxy-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zIETD-fmk). When used in solution, one of the anti-TRAIL-R2 mAbs was capable of blocking leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R2-expressing cells and prevented TRAIL-induced death of these cells, whereas two of the anti-TRAIL-R1 mAbs could inhibit leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R1:Fc. Furthermore, use of the blocking anti-TRAIL-R2 mAb allowed us to demonstrate that the signals transduced through either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 were necessary and sufficient to mediate cell death. In contrast, the expression of TRAIL-R3 or TRAIL-R4 did not appear to be a significant factor in determining the resistance or sensitivity of these tumor target cells to the effects of TRAIL.  (+info)

Involvement of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (4/5488)

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been identified as a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but its physiological functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of TRAIL in human CD4+ T cell clones by utilizing newly established anti-human TRAIL mAbs. Human CD4+ T cell clones, HK12 and 4HM1, exhibited perforin-independent and Fas ligand (FasL)-independent cytotoxicity against certain target cells, including T lymphoma (Jurkat) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines, which are susceptible to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to FasL, the expression of which was inducible upon anti-CD3 stimulation, TRAIL was constitutively expressed on HK12 and 4HM1 cells, and no further increase was observed after anti-CD3 stimulation. Spontaneous cytotoxic activities of resting HK12 and 4HM1 cells against Jurkat and HaCaT cells were blocked by anti-TRAIL mAb but not by anti-FasL mAb, and bystander cytotoxic activities of anti-CD3-stimulated HK12 and 4HM1 cells were abolished by the combination of anti-TRAIL and anti-FasL mAbs. These results indicate a differential regulation of TRAIL and FasL expression on human CD4+ T cell clones and that TRAIL constitutes an additional pathway of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  (+info)

The cell death-promoting gene DP5, which interacts with the BCL2 family, is induced during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to amyloid beta protein. (5/5488)

DP5, which contains a BH3 domain, was cloned as a neuronal apoptosis-inducing gene. To confirm that DP5 interacts with members of the Bcl-2 family, 293T cells were transiently co-transfected with DP5 and Bcl-xl cDNA constructs, and immunoprecipitation was carried out. The 30-kDa Bcl-xl was co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged DP5, suggesting that DP5 physically interacts with Bcl-xl in mammalian cells. Previously, we reported that DP5 is induced during neuronal apoptosis in cultured sympathetic neurons. Here, we analyzed DP5 gene expression and the specific interaction of DP5 with Bcl-xl during neuronal death induced by amyloid-beta protein (A beta). DP5 mRNA was induced 6 h after treatment with A beta in cultured rat cortical neurons. The protein encoded by DP5 mRNA showed a specific interaction with Bcl-xl. Induction of DP5 gene expression was blocked by nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggested that the induction of DP5 mRNA occurs downstream of the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration caused by A beta. Moreover, DP5 specifically interacts with Bcl-xl during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to A beta, and its binding could impair the survival-promoting activities of Bcl-xl. Thus, the induction of DP5 mRNA and the interaction of DP5 and Bcl-xl could play significant roles in neuronal degeneration following exposure to A beta.  (+info)

TWEAK induces angiogenesis and proliferation of endothelial cells. (6/5488)

TWEAK is a recently described member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) ligand family whose transcripts are present in a wide variety of human tissues (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410). TWEAK is a weak inducer of apoptosis in transformed cells when administered with interferon-gamma or cycloheximide (Chicheportiche, Y., Bourdon, P. R., Xu, H., Hsu Y. M., Scott, H., Hession, C., Garcia, I., and Browning, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32401-32410; Masters, S. A., Sheridan, J. P., Pitti, R. M., Brush, A. G., and Ashkenazi, A. (1998) Curr. Biol. 8, 525-528) and also promotes IL-8 secretion in cultured cells. We report here that picomolar concentrations of recombinant soluble TWEAK induce proliferation in a variety of normal human endothelial cells and in aortic smooth muscle cells and reduce culture requirements for serum and growth factors. Blocking antibodies to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) do not significantly inhibit TWEAK-induced proliferation, indicating that TWEAK does not function indirectly through up-regulation of VEGF. Pellets containing TWEAK induce a strong angiogenic response when implanted in rat corneas, suggesting a role for TWEAK in vasculature formation in vivo.  (+info)

The ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (p60) death domain and induces apoptosis. (7/5488)

The tumor necrosis factor receptor, p60 (TNF-R1), transduces death signals via the association of its cytoplasmic domain with several intracellular proteins. By screening a mammalian cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning technique, we isolated a ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic death domain of TNF-R1. Sequence analysis reveals that DAP-1 shares striking sequence homology with the yeast SMT3 protein that is essential for the maintenance of chromosome integrity during mitosis (Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 793-807). DAP-1 is nearly identical to PIC1, a protein that interacts with the PML tumor suppressor implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (Boddy, M. N., Howe, K., Etkin, L. D., Solomon, E., and Freemont, P. S. (1996) Oncogene 13, 971-982), and the sentrin protein, which associates with the Fas death receptor (Okura, T., Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Wada, T., Okura, I., Wei, C. F., Chang, H. M., and Yeh, E. T. (1996) J. Immunol. 157, 4277-4281). The in vivo interaction between DAP-1 and TNF-R1 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. In transient transfection assays, overexpression of DAP-1 suppresses NF-kappaB/Rel activity in 293T cells, a human kidney embryonic carcinoma cell line. Overexpression of either DAP-1 or sentrin causes apoptosis of TNF-sensitive L929 fibroblast cell line, as well as TNF-resistant osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. Furthermore, the dominant negative Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) protein blocks the cell death induced by either DAP-1 or FADD. Collectively, these observations highly suggest a role for DAP-1 in mediating TNF-induced cell death signaling pathways, presumably through the recruitment of FADD death effector.  (+info)

Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c. (8/5488)

We report on the molecular cloning of a novel human cDNA by its interaction with the splicing factor SRp30c in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This cDNA is predominantly expressed in muscle and encodes a protein that is present in the nucleoplasm and concentrated in nucleoli. It was therefore termed Nop30 (nucleolar protein of 30 kDa). We have also identified a related cDNA with a different carboxyl terminus. Sequencing of the NOP gene demonstrated that both cDNAs are generated by alternative 5' splice site usage from a single gene that consists of four exons, spans at least 1800 nucleotides, and is located on chromosome 16q21-q23. The alternative 5' splice site usage introduces a frameshift creating two different carboxyl termini. The carboxyl terminus of Nop30 is rich in serines and arginines and has been found to target the protein into the nucleus, whereas its isoform is characterized by proline/glutamic acid dipeptides in its carboxyl terminus and is predominantly found in the cytosol. Interaction studies in yeast, in vitro protein interaction assays, and co-immunoprecipitations demonstrated that Nop30 multimerizes and binds to the RS domain of SRp30c but not to other splicing factors tested. Overexpression of Nop30 changes alternative exon usage in preprotachykinin and SRp20 reporter genes, suggesting that Nop30 influences alternative splice site selection in vivo.  (+info)

The apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) family comprises three members, namely, ASPP1, ASPP2, and iASPP. They regulate the promotive effect of p53 on apoptosis. Breast cancer (BC) remains as one of the leading causes of cancer or cancer-related mortality among women. However, the relationship between the ASPP family members and p53, as well as the dissemination and expression pattern of ASPP family members in p53+ BC, has not been elucidated. Our objectives are to detect the expression of ASPP family members in p53+ BC cell lines and determine its significance in tumor cell apoptosis. The mRNA expression of ASPP family members in five p53+ BC cell lines was detected through RT-PCR and assayed using Quality-one software. The p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Afterward, the apoptosis indices of the five BC cell lines were detected by flow cytometry. The iASPP mRNA was expressed in Bcap-37, MCF-7, and HBL-100. Compared with the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells,
The transcription factor p53 mediates the apoptosis of post-mitotic neurons exposed to a wide range of stress stimuli. The apoptotic activity of p53 is tightly regulated by the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family members: ASPP1, ASPP2 and iASPP. We previously showed that the pro-apop …
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Apoptosis is often deregulated in a number of human diseases. Hyperthermia induced apoptosis is a model system for studying the consequences of protein misfolding and is mediated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This family consists of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members that control mitochondrial integrity. The BH3-only pro-apoptotic members are strong inducers of apoptosis. Our examination of the effect of hyperthermia on the BH3-only protein PUMA, found that although protein levels were rapidly depleted following exposure to heat shock, levels of PUMA mRNA increased. This suggests that post-transcriptional mechanisms control the translation of PUMA mRNA in heat-shocked cells. We therefore examined whether miRNA-mediated inhibition of PUMA translation was responsible for the loss of PUMA protein. We provide evidence for the role of miR-24-2 and miR-29a as mediators of this repression and that strategies directed at the inhibition of these miRNAs could be effective in sensitizing ...
Buy our Apoptosis repressor with CARD peptide. Ab8372 is a blocking peptide and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert…
References for Abcams Apoptosis repressor with CARD peptide (ab8372). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in circuits that convey reward and motivation, and abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been associated with mental illness. In particular, reduced function of the D2-type dopamine receptor (D2DR) is thought to contribute to schizophrenia, addiction, and mood disorders. Park et al. used a yeast two-hybrid screen to uncover prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) as a binding partner for D2DR. In striatal neurons from mice that expressed a mutant form of Par-4 (in which the domain mediating the interaction with D2DR had been deleted), activation of signaling through cAMP was disrupted. Furthermore, behavioral tests of the mutant mice showed a depression-like phenotype, but no effects on measures of anxiety. Beaulieu et al. examined another signaling pathway emanating from D2DR, and they find that β-arrestin 2 is important in mediating the behavioral effects of dopamine. In wild-type mice, β-arrestin 2 was shown to associate with protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) and ...
This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. It is localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, and regulates apoptosis and cell growth through interactions with other regulatory molecules including members of the p53 family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
PDCD4 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against PDCD4. This gene is a tumor suppressor and encodes a protein that binds to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and inhibits its function by preventing RNA binding. Alternative splicing re
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Key Points. Novel BET inhibitors PLX51107 and PLX2853 induce apoptosis via induction of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM.PLX51107 and PLX2853 are synergis
Alias: 53BP2, Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2, ASPP2, Bbp, BBP, Bcl2-binding protein, p53-binding protein 2, p53BP2, P53BP2, PPP1R13A, Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-51, Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 2 ...
Accelerates programmed cell death. Association to the apoptosis repressors Bcl-X(L), BHRF1, Bcl-2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein suppresses this death-promoting activity. Does not interact with BAX.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Die österreichischen Post-Black-Metaller HARAKIRI FOR THE SKY haben einen neuen Song ihres kommenden Albums „Mære veröffentlicht. Dabei handelt es sich um ein Cover des Placebo-Stücks „Song To Say Goodbye. „Mære erscheint am 19.02.21.. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for CIDEA gene (Protein Coding), Cell Death-Inducing DFFA-Like Effector A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Apoptosis is initiated when Bcl-2 and its prosurvival relatives are engaged by proapoptotic BH3-only proteins via interaction of its BH3 domain with a groove on the Bcl-2-like proteins ...
PDCD5兔多克隆抗体(ab75430)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Abstract. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) represent the majority of discovered kinases to date even though a few Food and Drug Administration approved STKs inhibitors are reported. The third millennium came with the discovery of an important group of STKs that reshaped our understanding of several biological signaling pathways. This family was named death-associated protein kinase family (DAPK family). DAPKs comprise five members (DAPK1, DAPK2, DAPK3, DRAK1, and DRAK2) and belong to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases domain. As time goes on, the list of biological functions of this family is constantly updated. The most extensively studied member is DAPK1 (based on the publications number and Protein Data Bank reported crystal structures) that plays fundamental biological roles depending on the cellular context. DAPK1 regulates apoptosis, autophagy, contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibits metastasis, mediates the body responses to viral ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is critical for inflammation and control of infection. The production of IL-1β depends on expression of pro-IL-1β and inflammasome component induced by inflammatory stimuli, followed by assembly of inflammasome to generate caspase-1 for cleavage of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) deficiency impaired IL-1β production in macrophages. Generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages, in contrast, was not affected by DAPK knockout. Two tiers of defects in IL-1β generation were found in DAPK-deficient macrophages: decreased pro-IL-1β induction by some stimuli and reduced caspase-1 activation by all inflammatory stimuli examined. With a normal NLRP3 induction in DAPK-deficient macrophages, the diminished caspase-1 generation is attributed to impaired inflammasome assembly. There is a direct binding of DAPK to NLRP3, suggesting an involvement of DAPK in inflammasome formation. We further illustrated that the formation of
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of DAPK was reported in lung cancers by methylation-specific PCR. However, we were unable to relate methylation with gene silencing with the same methodology. Our goals were to develop a methodology that related methylation with gene silencing and use it to study the state of the gene in lung cancers.. Using a semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, DAPK expression was lower in lung cancers than in corresponding nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells in five of six primary short-term cultures. In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 flanking region of DAPK by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfited DNA sequencing. Aberrant methylation ...
A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was utilized to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pre-treatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor HS38 decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca2+ without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of LC20 (myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains) but not of CPI-17 (protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa), Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) or MYPT1 (myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity towards PIM3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no ...
Negative regulator of epidermal barrier repair and innate immune responses to wounding (PubMed:19164535, PubMed:27661253). The role in epidermal tissue integrity and wound healing is established through the inhibition of epidermal microtubule stability, possibly via the negative regulation of the microtubule minus-end binding protein ptrn-1 (PubMed:27661253). In epidermis, prevents expression of specific unc-44 isoforms probably by promoting nuclear localization of pinn-1, which in turn may affect sydn-1-ssup-72-mediated regulation of alternative polyadenylation of unc-44 mRNA (PubMed:28087624). Appears to act downstream of or in parallel to muscarinic signaling in the regulation of autophagy (PubMed:17785524).
Beclin 1/Atg6 is an essential component of the evolutionary conserved PtdIns(3)-kinase (Vps34) protein complex that regulates macroautophagy (autophagy) in eukaryotic cells and also interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2, and Bcl-x(L). To elucidate the physiological function of Beclin 1, we generated transgenic mice producing a green fluorescent Beclin 1 protein (Beclin 1-GFP) under Beclin 1 endogenous regulation. The beclin 1-GFP transgene is functional because it completely rescues early embryonic lethality in beclin 1-deficient mice. The transgenic mice appear normal, with undetected change in basal autophagy levels in different tissues, despite the additional expression of functional Beclin 1-GFP. Staining of Beclin 1-GFP shows mostly diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in various tissues. Detailed analysis of the transgene expression by flow cytometry reveals a Bcl-2-like biphasic expression pattern in developing T and B cells, as well as differential regulation of expression in
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Albany, New York, Dec 1, 2017: Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) - Apoptosis regulator BAX or bcl-2-like protein 4 is a protein is encoded by the BAX gene. It accelerates programmed cell death by antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2. It promotes activation of CASP3, and thereby apoptosis. It undergoes a conformation change that causes translocation to the mitochondrion membrane, leading to the release of cytochrome c that then triggers apoptosis under stress conditions.. Request For Free Sample - Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) pipeline Target constitutes close to 7 molecules. Out of which approximately 3 molecules are developed by companies and remaining by the universities/institutes. The molecules developed by companies in Phase III, Phase II and Preclinical stages are 1, 1 and 1 respectively. Similarly, the universities portfolio in Preclinical and Discovery ...
Inhibitor for the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) has been reported to be correlated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) resistance in renal cell carci
Although most cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, one of the most common forms of adult leukemia) are sporadic, perhaps 10 to 20% are familial (see Debatin). Noting that aberrant DNA methylation--and thereby abnormal gene silencing--was emerging as a factor in CLL, Raval et al. performed quantitative high-throughput analysis to investigate DNA methylation in the CpG island of DAPK1 (death-associated protein kinase 1). DNA methylation of DAPK1 gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase implicated in promoting apoptosis in response to Fas, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD19+ B cells from people with CLL compared with that in cells from healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that DAPK1 expression was decreased in CD19+ CLL cells compared with that in B lymphocytes, and methylation reduced activity of a gene reporter containing a region of the DAPK1 promoter. Genome-wide linkage analysis ...
Recombinant human full-length DAPK2 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. APK2 or death-associated protein kinase 2 belongs to a family of proapoptotic Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinases.
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and tumor-suppressive functions. in regulating cell polarity during migration, which might work as well as its apoptotic function to suppress tumor development. Intro Cell migration is vital for many natural procedures, AZD4547 including embryonic advancement, wound curing, and immune monitoring. Migration is really a complicated and extremely coordinated process that will require a cell to polarize, expand protrusions in direction of motion, type adhesions at the best advantage, translocate the cell body, and, finally, detach through the substratum in the trailing advantage (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996; Ridley et al., 2003). Directed cell migration is normally initiated in response to extracellular cues such as for example chemoattractants, development factors, as well as the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of polarity during directed migration are ...
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a proliferative disorder of IgM-secreting, lymphoplasmacytoid cells that inhabit the lymph nodes and bone marrow. The disease carries a high prevalence of activating mutations in MyD88 (91%) and CXCR4 (28%). Because signaling through these pathways leads to Bcl-xL induction, we examined Bcl-2 family expression in WM patients and cell lines. Unlike other B-lymphocyte-derived malignancies, which become dependent on expression of anti-apoptotic proteins to counter expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, WM samples expressed both pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins at low levels similar to their normal B-cell and plasma cell counterparts. Three WM cell lines expressed pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bim or Bax and Bak at low levels, which determined their sensitivity to inducers of intrinsic apoptosis. In two cell lines, miR-155 upregulation, which is common in WM, was responsible for the inhibition of FOXO3a and Bim expression. Both antagonizing miR-155 to ...
The results above reveal that, in contrast to down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 by ER stress in a number of cell types ( 7, 15), these antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are transcriptionally up-regulated by ER stress in human melanoma cell lines. They show that the increase in Mcl-1 plays an essential role in antagonizing the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and Noxa, which are also up-regulated by transcriptional mechanisms in melanoma cell lines when subjected to ER stress.. Although up-regulated, Bcl-2 did not seem to be critical for protection of melanoma cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by the minimal effect of siRNA inhibition of Bcl-2 on sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by thapsigargin or tunicamycin, and the inability of overexpression of Bcl-2 to rescue melanoma cells with deficient Mcl-1 expression upon ER stress, although it did delay the onset of apoptosis. In contrast, siRNA inhibition of Mcl-1 readily enhanced ER ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physical and functional interaction between BH3-only protein Hrk and mitochondrial pore-forming protein p32. AU - Sunayama, J.. AU - Ando, Y.. AU - Itoh, N.. AU - Tomiyama, A.. AU - Sakurada, K.. AU - Sugiyama, A.. AU - Kang, D.. AU - Tashiro, F.. AU - Gotoh, Y.. AU - Kuchino, Y.. AU - Kitanaka, C.. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - Bcl-2 homology domain (BH) 3-only proteins of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 subfamily play a key role as initiators of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. To date, at least 10 mammalian BH3-only proteins have been identified, and it is now being realized that they have different roles and mechanisms of regulation in the transduction of apoptotic signals to mitochondria. Hrk/DP5 is one of the mammalian BH3-only proteins implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological apoptosis, yet the molecular mechanism involved in Hrk-mediated apoptosis remains poorly understood. In an attempt to identify cellular proteins participating in Hrk-mediated apoptosis, ...
DAPK1 / DAP Kinase Protein LS-G97367 is a Recombinant Human DAPK1 / DAP Kinase produced in Baculovirus Met 1-Leu 363 with His-GST tag(s). It is low in endotoxin; Less than 1.0 EU/µg protein (determined by LAL method).
The Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases provides an extremely dynamic environment for research into the aging process and its diseases.
Apoptosis regulator BAX TranslationBlocker™ siRNA. Tested in Human samples. The only siRNA validated in protein knockdown with detailed protocols. From: $219.
This is a phase I trial of the combination of the hypo-methylating agent guadecitabine and an anti-PD1 antibody (anti- programmed cell death protein 1) pembrolizumab. Patients will receive subcutaneous guadecitabine daily on Days 1-4 of each 21-day cycle. Patients will receive pembrolizumab intravenously once per 21-day cycle: on Day 8 of Cycle 2 and on Day 1 of each cycle from Cycle 3 onwards.. The rational for this design is that this pre-loading with Guadecitabine will sensitise the tumour to Pembrolizumab through the re-expression of genes that enhance tumour recognition, the increase in density of tumour infiltrating T-cells and stimulation of the adaptive immune response.. In Part A (Dose Escalation) the investigators will investigate escalating doses of Guadecitabine in combination with Pembrolizumab. Patients with advanced solid tumours will be recruited in cohorts of 3 to 6 patients to investigate the combination of 200 mg of pembrolizumab, administered as an intravenous injection, with ...
Goat anti Human Noxa antibody recognizes human Noxa, a mitochondrial localised protein and member of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein fam
UMass Medical School researcher Eric Baehrecke has identified a protein in Drosophila that plays an essential role in autophagy.
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title: 흰쥐의 배자배양에서 배양 온도의 변화에 의해 유도된 apoptosis II. 온도 변화가 배양 중인 발생 11일 배자에 미치는 영향, doi: none, category: Article
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"Cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) by CPP32 during apoptosis". The EMBO Journal. 15 (5): 1012-20. ... Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) also known as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 ( ... SREBF2 has been shown to interact with INSIG1 and CREB-binding protein. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein GRCh38: ... Nagoshi E, Imamoto N, Sato R, Yoneda Y (Jul 1999). "Nuclear import of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, a basic ...
Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIVA1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with an ... 2000). "Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein ... Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that promotes HIV-1 envelope-induced apoptosis in T- ... 2003). "GITR interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva and induces apoptosis". Cell Death Differ. 9 (12): 1382-4. doi: ...
2006). "Cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory protein-1 is involved in apoptosis signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor ... "Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... 2007). "Transactivator of transcription-tagged cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 peptides suppress the growth of ... Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCAR1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
"Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis ... Stratifin (also known as 14-3-3 protein sigma or 14-3-3σ protein) is a protein encoded by the SFN gene in humans. The protein ... A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. ...
Her lab is trying to determine the mode by which transcription, apoptosis, and transduction are controlled by viral regulatory ... Retroviruses within these genera cause disease by containing RNA sequences that code for proteins that promote oncogenesis ... contains sequences that encode for cyclin proteins, leading to the proliferation of normal cells and eventually giving a means ... proteins such as kinases. Studies focus on the walleye dermal sarcoma virus and inducing sarcomas. The retroviral cyclin of ...
... which is a regulatory protein in the process of apoptosis. This is hypothesized to contribute to some of the symptoms of SLE. ... Ifi202 gene encodes for p202 protein, which belongs to the p200-protein family. The IFI family of genes is inducible by type 1 ... The p202 protein has the following structure A 52kDa nuclear phosphoprotein Humans have an ifi202 and ifi204 similar gene known ... p202 seems to bind to p53 protein in the N-terminal region to inhibit p53 function. The expression of p53 appears to inhibit ...
This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that forms one of the central hubs in the apoptosis regulatory network. This protein ... The protein was identified in the lab of Xiaodong Wang as an activator of caspase-3 in the presense of cytochromeC and dATP. ... Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X (Aug 1997). "Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307 ...
As aforementioned, death associated protein 3 (DAP3) has regulatory roles in cell respiration and apoptosis. Both opposites and ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (Jun 2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nature ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat. ... 28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is ...
... apoptotic signals must cause regulatory proteins to initiate the apoptosis pathway. This step allows those signals to cause ... Database of proteins involved in apoptosis Apoptosis Video Apoptosis Video (WEHI on YouTube ) The Mechanisms of Apoptosis ... HIV may increase the level of cellular proteins that prompt Fas-mediated apoptosis. HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ...
Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R (2000). "Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate ... development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control". Gene. 260 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00454-6. PMID 11137286. ... Activating Protein 2 (AP-2) is a family of closely related transcription factors which plays a critical role in regulating gene ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 6, Genes on human chromosome 20, Genes on human chromosome 1, Gene ...
Henley SA, Dick FA (2012). "The retinoblastoma family of proteins and their regulatory functions in the mammalian cell division ... It also prevents apoptosis in several ways: it reduces mitochondrial ROS levels, and it prevents apoptosis-causing protein Bax ... This stops cytochrome C protein passing out through VDAC into the cytoplasm where it triggers apoptosis via a caspase protein ... In this state, Rb binds to a protein transcription factor E2F and prevents E2F from activating transcription of proteins ...
"The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory protein Vpu induces apoptosis by suppressing the nuclear factor kappaB- ... A viral regulatory and accessory protein is a type of viral protein that can play an indirect role in the function of a virus. ... Viral+regulatory+and+accessory+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Akari H, Bour S ... v t e (Viral proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
1 February 2009). "IFN regulatory factor 8 sensitizes soft tissue sarcoma cells to death receptor-initiated apoptosis via ... repression of FLICE-like protein expression". Cancer Research. 69 (3): 1080-8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2520. ISSN 0008- ... α cooperates with IFN-γ to repress Bcl-xL expression to sensitize metastatic colon carcinoma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis ...
Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP), is a protein that in ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 sensitizes soft tissue sarcoma cells to death receptor-initiated apoptosis via repression of FLICE-like ... Interferon Consensus Sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) ... "IFN regulatory factor 8 mediates apoptosis in nonhemopoietic tumor cells via regulation of Fas expression". J. Immunol. 179 (7 ...
... and proteins involved in development processes and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are activated by proteolysis too. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of phosphate groups to proteins, which is the most frequent regulatory modification mechanism ... The presence of a phosphoryl group in a part of a protein may depend on the folding of the enzyme (which can make the protein ... There are many strategies of activation and deactivation of regulatory enzymes. Regulatory enzymes require an extra activation ...
... a regulatory mechanism for apoptosis. It has also been predicted that SMIM14 interacts with LSM4, a glycine-rich protein that ... Small integral membrane protein 14, also known as SMIM14 or C4orf34, is a protein encoded on chromosome 4 of the human genome ... "small integral membrane protein 14 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-04-30. Brendel, V.; ... The predicted molecular weight (Mw) of the SMIM14 protein is 10710.34 Da. The SMIM14 protein carries no electrical charge at a ...
The regulatory role of this protein in cell death was demonstrated in epithelial cells which undergo apoptosis while integrin ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that ... functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase ... 2001). "Isolation of Bcl-2 binding proteins that exhibit homology with BAG-1 and suppressor of death domains protein". Biochem ...
... apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), regulatory proteins like pyrin or pyrin-only proteins (POPs), ... Proteins that possess a pyrin domain interact with the pyrin domains in other proteins to form of multi-protein complexes ... Bertin J, DiStefano PS (December 2000). "The PYRIN domain: a novel motif found in apoptosis and inflammation proteins". Cell ... Pyrin-only proteins are unlike other PYD-containing proteins which contain a pyrin domain with one or more other domains. ...
... protein-protein interactions, vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics, receptor signaling, apoptosis, adaptor/regulatory modules ... "neurobeachin-like protein 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". Retrieved 2017-02-24. "Pfam: Family: ... apoptosis, membrane dynamics and receptor signaling. This protein family is of great clinical importance currently because ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 2, Human gene pages with Wikidata item, Genes, Human proteins). ...
... and apoptosis. In DNA viruses and retroviruses, viral regulatory proteins can enhance viral gene transcription, likewise, these ... and groups of viral proteins include structural proteins, nonstructural proteins, regulatory proteins, and accessory proteins. ... Viral regulatory and accessory proteins have many functions. These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions ... Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. Class III: ...
Cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a regulatory protein which contains two DEDs. There are two isoforms of C-FLIP: C ... The activity of protein kinase C has a negative effect on Fas receptor mediated apoptosis. This is because it inhibits the ... Binding of TRAIL to death receptors four and five (DR4 and DR5) can lead to apoptosis by the same mechanism. Apoptosis can also ... As FADD has such an important role in apoptosis, loss of FADD can give cancer cells a proliferative advantage as apoptosis ...
... and thus plays an important regulatory role in cell apoptosis. This protein was identified by its selective association with ... Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein of the CARD-CC protein family, which in humans is encoded ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...
Later he studied regulatory mechanisms in the cells, including the regulation of apoptosis. He was a Research Professor of the ... "Protein Turnover and Gene Amplification". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (e1 2). 27 April 2007. (Articles with hCards, ... At Stanford he examined the effects of steroid hormones on the synthesis of certain proteins, leading to new techniques in ... The mechanism also found applications in biotechnology, for example in the production of proteins, including erythropoietin, of ...
... immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein ... this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ...
CHOP-induced apoptosis can also trigger cell death by inhibiting the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein, p21. The p21 ... Bag5 overexpression inhibited ER stress-induced apoptosis in the unfolded protein response by suppressing PERK-eIF2-ATF4 and ... July 2014). "Opposing unfolded-protein-response signals converge on death receptor 5 to control apoptosis". Science. 345 (6192 ... October 2010). "The endoplasmic reticulum stress-C/EBP homologous protein pathway-mediated apoptosis in macrophages contributes ...
... is a cytokine-induced inhibitor of apoptosis with no relation to apoptosis regulatory molecules of the BCL2 (MIM 151430 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs". Genome ... Anamorsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CIAPIN1 gene. ...
"Modeling Extrinsic Apoptosis Regulatory Network Pathways Using A Rules-based Framework". Retrieved 2022-01- ... Lopez, Carlos F.; Darst, Richard K.; Rossky, Peter J. (2008-05-01). "Mechanistic Elements of Protein Cold Denaturation". The ... Colegio San Carlos Yearbook Class of 1993, retrieved 2022-01-22 "Studies of membrane and membrane protein systems using ...
Isoprenoid lipids are necessary for post-translational modifications of small GTP-binding regulatory proteins like Rac, Rho and ... The function of osteoclasts depends on them for a variety of cellular processes like apoptosis. Bisphosphonates mimic the ... Coxon, F.P.; Rogers, M.J. (2003-01-01). "The Role of Prenylated Small GTP-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of Osteoclast ... The primary inhibiting action of the first generation of bisphosphonates on osteoclasts is by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism ...
In another study, betulin inhibited the maturation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBPs). Inhibition of SREBP ... Betulin causes some types of tumor cells to start a process of self-destruction called apoptosis, and can slow the growth of ...
2012). "The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors". Proc. ... However, apoptosis was not observed following culture with other anti-CD47 antibodies. The apoptosis inducing function of CD47 ... CD47 interacts with signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory transmembrane receptor present on myeloid cells. The ... Barclay AN (February 2009). "Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα)/CD47 interaction and function". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 21 (1 ...
In these cases where the G1 phase is affected, it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become ... "Atractylenolide II induces G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 136 (1): ... the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and protein that are required for DNA synthesis. Once the required proteins and ... In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. G1 ...
The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, ... signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function lead to reduced ... some key regulatory proteins fulfill their biological functions via selective degradation; furthermore, proteins are digested ... The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 37 kDa in size and composed of 324 amino acids. The ...
Heat shock 70kDa protein 1B is a chaperone protein, cooperating with other heat shock proteins and chaperone systems to ... August 2013). "The ubiquitin ligase Stub1 negatively modulates regulatory T cell suppressive activity by promoting degradation ... and inhibition of apoptosis in ovarian, bladder urothelial, and breast cancers. Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis ... Expression of heat shock protein 70kDa protein 2 in transformed tumor cells has been implicated in the rapid proliferation, ...
In immunology, clonal deletion is the removal through apoptosis of B cells and T cells that have expressed receptors for self ... This helps eliminate autoreactive T cells that recognize a protein from a specific body part. Complete clonal deletion results ... there are mechanisms in the periphery involving T regulatory cells to prevent the host from obtaining an autoimmune disease. ... Incomplete clonal deletion results in apoptosis of most autoreactive B and T lymphocytes. Complete clonal deletion can lead to ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. The effect of ... Binding of ISGF3 and other transcriptional complexes activated by IFN signaling to these specific regulatory elements induces ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... "BCR sequences essential for transformation by the BCR-ABL oncogene bind to the ABL SH2 regulatory domain in a non- ... "Interaction of c-Abl and p73alpha and their collaboration to induce apoptosis". Nature. 399 (6738): 809-13. Bibcode:1999Natur. ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ...
... and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene are associated with apoptosis defects seen in type II ... "The death effector domain-associated factor plays distinct regulatory roles in the nucleus and cytoplasm". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing proapoptotic proteins from mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (16): ... This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of ...
Checkpoints typically consist of a network of regulatory proteins that monitor and dictate the progression of the cell through ... Thus there is a net increase in cell number as the number of cells that die by apoptosis or senescence remains the same. The ... Henley SA, Dick FA (March 2012). "The retinoblastoma family of proteins and their regulatory functions in the mammalian cell ... Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ...
... factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand activates a lysosomal pathway of apoptosis that is regulated by Bcl-2 proteins". The ... Liu FT (April 2005). "Regulatory roles of galectins in the immune response". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. ... The protein has N- and C- terminal carbohydrate-binding domains connected by a link peptide. Multiple alternatively spliced ... However, it can also interact with other proteins (CLEC7A, CD137, CD40). For example, an interaction with CD40 on T-cells ...
However, this protein is considered a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily on the basis of sequence similarity rather than ... and interaction of transcriptional regulatory factor with its DNA element in the 5' flanking region". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... apoptosis inhibition, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thromboxane synthesis Eicosanoid synthesis Prostanoid 12- ... First, there is a fast initial binding to the protein and then a subsequent ligation to the heme iron. In the first step of the ...
PI(3,4)P2 plays another possible role at the PM, promoting cytoskeletal rearrangements through actin regulatory proteins like ... Akt activation causes downstream metabolism alterations, apoptosis suppression and a rise in cell proliferation. This pathway ... Following this release, T308 in the proteins activation loop and S437 in the proteins hydrophobic domain are phosphorylated by ... Characterization of a 3- phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Bα. ...
They hypothesized that RNA could be "druggable" by targeting the 3D structure in the same way as protein 3D structures are used ... Further, these compounds were shown to suppress the KRAS oncogene in pancreatic cancer cells and induce apoptosis by reducing ... They identified a hit compound that was selective for the regulatory sequence with micromolar binding affinity. In 2011, ... Zapp, Maria L; Stern, Seth; Green, Michael R (1993). "Small molecules that selectively block RNA binding of HIV-1 rev protein ...
... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... N-terminal regulatory domain C - DNA-binding domain (DBD) D - hinge region E - ligand-binding domain (LBD) F - C-terminal ... "RAP46 is a negative regulator of glucocorticoid receptor action and hormone-induced apoptosis". The Journal of Biological ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ...
... including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key regulatory protein components for dynamic biological ... signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function lead to reduced ... "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ... This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits that contribute to the complete assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. In ...
"Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human prostate cancer specimens with and without neo-adjuvant hormonal ... This region encompasses regulatory elements, non-coding genes, and the stem cell related POU5F1B gene. Roughly 4% of families ... Transport protein ZIP1 is responsible for the transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of zinc's important roles is to change ... X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is hypothesized to promote cancer cell survival and growth, the Macrophage inhibitory ...
... in the levels of Jun and Fos proteins and JNK activity have been reported in scenarios in which cells undergo apoptosis. For ... Due to the AP-1 regulatory functions in cancer cells, AP-1 modulation is studied as a potential strategy for cancer prevention ... Masuda A, Yoshikai Y, Kume H, Matsuguchi T (November 2004). "The interaction between GATA proteins and activator protein-1 ... "Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein activates AP-1 through a cellular protein kinase(s)". The Journal of General Virology. 80 ( ...
... nuclear protein - nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence ... apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic compound - arrestin - Arrhenius equation ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLAC8 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000145287 - ... Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Watson D, Munir M, Farzaneh F, Williams GT (2013). "Apoptosis suppression by candidate oncogene PLAC8 is ... Membrane of Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Regulates Cell Growth and Disease Progression through Critical Cell-Cycle Regulatory ... Uehara H, Takahashi T, Izumi K (2013). "Induction of retinol-binding protein 4 and placenta-specific 8 expression in human ...
In a topological transcriptome analysis, researchers profiled important proteins of the non-small cell lung cancer regulatory ... Additionally, its myristoylation sites suggests its involvement in signal transduction, apoptosis, and alternative ... Transmembrane protein 125 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TMEM125 gene. It has 4 transmembrane domains and is ... String Protein Interaction predicted 10 functional protein partners for TMEM125, but all were determined through textmining. ...
It is the first glucagon-like peptide receptor protein treatment approved for use in the United States that does not need to be ... "Regulatory Decision Summary - Ozempic". Health Canada. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 2 ... "Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling Modulates β Cell Apoptosis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (1): 471-478. ... "Regulatory Decision Summary - Rybelsus". Health Canada. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 June 2022. Retrieved 4 ...
However, the regulatory functions of the HPO can be disrupted due to the up or down regulation of certain hormones in the ... Adiponectin, the protein secreted in greatest amounts from adipocytes, functions to increase the sensitivity of cells to ... leading to apoptosis. This process is known as lipotoxicity. Lipotoxicity can impair follicular development, lead to errors in ... Adipocytes (fat cells) secrete proteins and signaling molecules known as adipokines. Certain adipokines have been implicated in ...
Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein ... 2000). "Leukemic HRX fusion proteins inhibit GADD34-induced apoptosis and associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 proteins". ... "Leukemic HRX fusion proteins inhibit GADD34-induced apoptosis and associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 proteins". Mol. Cell ... "Entrez Gene: PPP1R15A protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 15A". Zhan Q, Lord KA, Alamo I, Hollander MC, ...
A family of protein phosphatase 1 and actin regulatory proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... of the novel protein PHACTR-1 from human endothelial cells abolishes tube formation and induces cell death receptor apoptosis ... PHACTR1 is an actin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding protein that binds actin and regulates the reorganization of the ... PHACTR1 is a PP1 binding protein, which is reported to be highly expressed in brain and which controls PP1 activity and F-actin ...
"The homeotic protein Six3 is a coactivator of the nuclear receptor NOR-1 and a corepressor of the fusion protein EWS/NOR-1 in ... NR4A3 plays a central regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation, mitochondrial respiration, metabolism and ... apoptosis NR4A3 has been shown to interact with SIX3. NUR nuclear receptor family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119508 ... NR4A3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short ...
Cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1) CKLF: Chemokine-like factor CLUAP1: CMTM2: encoding protein CKLF-like MARVEL ... encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile severe, with ... encoding protein NIP30 protein NOB1: encoding protein RNA-binding protein NOB1 NOMO1: encoding protein Nodal modulator 1 NPW: ... encoding protein Zinc finger protein 23 ZNF200: encoding protein Zinc finger protein 200 ZNF263: encoding protein Zinc finger ...
... and the number of activating or repressing sequences present in the regulatory domain. Activating domains, regulatory domains ... Natural DNA binding proteins are commonly used because of their high affinity for their DNA target sequence, however currently ... and ATFs linked to activator domains can upregulate Bax gene expression causing cell apoptosis; however, these treatments ... The regulatory domain is responsible for activating or repressing the bound gene and accomplishes this regulation by either ...
Some key caretaker proteins that contribute to cell survival by acting in DNA repair processes when the level of damage is ... Cells defective in apoptosis tend to survive even with excessive DNA damage, thus permitting replication of the damaged DNA and ... This is because of the regulatory function associated with caretaker genes in maintaining the stability of the genome. The ... Gatekeeper genes regulate apoptosis. However, in instances where tissue growth or regrowth is warranted, these signals must be ...
... who jointly published a paper detailing their findings in May 1999 and named the protein TALL-1. The same protein was named ... Regulatory agencies recommend that patients be treated with an antihistamine prior to a belimumab infusion. Because belimumab ... When autoimmune B cells attack the body's own tissues, they are normally destroyed by cell suicide (apoptosis). Researchers ... BR3-Fc, a recombinant fusion protein built with the extracellular ligand-binding portion of BAFF-R, blocks activation of this ...
Translocation of the protein from the nucleus to mitochondria induces apoptosis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, ... "Identification of nerve growth factor-responsive element of the TCL1 promoter as a novel negative regulatory element". The ... Liu S, Wu Q, Ye XF, Cai JH, Huang ZW, Su WJ (June 2002). "Induction of apoptosis by TPA and VP-16 is through translocation of ... Wu Q, Liu S, Ye XF, Huang ZW, Su WJ (October 2002). "Dual roles of Nur77 in selective regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle by ...
Histones are proteins which are involved in the folding and compaction of the chromatin. There are several different types of ... MMP-9 is believed to be involved in cellular apoptosis, and is similarly downregulated, which may help to propagate the effects ... The final category of epigenetic mechanism is regulatory RNA. MicroRNAs are small, noncoding sequences that are involved in ... In general, DNA methylation attracts proteins which fold that section of the chromatin and repress the related genes. The ...
Aim2 protein, mouse * Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins * CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins * Cytokines * Cytoskeletal Proteins ... AIM2/ASC triggers caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in Francisella-infected caspase-1-deficient macrophages Cell Death Differ. 2012 ... Furthermore, we demonstrate that caspase-1-independent apoptosis requires the activation of caspase-9 and of the intrinsic ... Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularaemia, triggers AIM2/ASC-dependent caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in caspase-1- ...
Marchal J, Kambouchner M, Tazi A, Valeyre D, Soler P. Expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins in lesions of pulmonary ... Immunohistochemical detection of the apoptosis-related proteins FADD, FLICE, and FLIP in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. J ... Senechal B, Elain G, Jeziorski E, Grondin V, Patey-Mariaud de Serre N, Jaubert F. Expansion of regulatory T cells in patients ... Foxp3+ Tregs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis lesions co-express CD56 and have a definitively regulatory capacity. Clin ...
Bcl-2 is a key apoptosis regulatory protein of the mitochondrial death pathway whose function is dependent on its expression ... a novel antiapoptotic mechanism that suppresses apoptosis. ... Proteins; Chromium-compounds; Oxides; Cell-damage; Cancer; ...
Cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory protein-1 is involved in apoptosis signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor. ... Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including ... Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 98% * Caspases Medicine & Life Sciences 84% ... However, the mechanism by which Op-IAP inhibits apoptosis is unclear. Since some IAP proteins can bind and inhibit caspases, we ... However, the mechanism by which Op-IAP inhibits apoptosis is unclear. Since some IAP proteins can bind and inhibit caspases, we ... However, the mechanism by which Op-IAP inhibits apoptosis is unclear. Since some IAP proteins can bind and inhibit caspases, we ...
Krajewski SJ; Mai JK; Ashwell KW; Reed JC; Zapata JM, 1999, The dynamic of expression for apoptosis-regulatory proteins (BCL-2 ... Dyanmics of Expression of Apoptosis-Regulatory Proteins Bid, BC1-2, BC1-X, Bax and Bak during development of murine nervous ... Dynamics of expression of apoptosis-regulatory proteins Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Bax and Bak during development of murine nervous ... Expression of apoptosis-related proteins and structural features of cell death in explanted aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass ...
Moreover, compound I-33 (MY-875) could regulate the levels of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins in MGC-803 and SGC- ... Protein-protein interactions play a crucial role in microtubule dynamics. Microtubules are considered as a key target for the ... Moreover, the significant down-regulation in the levels of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulated levels of proteins, such as Bax, p53 ... indicated that 9e can induce apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Additionally, 9e can also cause ER stress ...
HspBP1 is a dual function regulatory protein that controls both DNA repair and apoptosis in breast cancer cells Authors: CK ... FBH1 promotes DNA double-strand breakage and apoptosis in response to DNA replication stress. Authors: Jeong Y, Rossi M, Cermak ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins 31% * Population 31% * Proteins 9% Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2023 ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.644.360.075]. *CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.644.360.075.358] ... CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins*CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins. *Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain Signaling Proteins ... Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain- ... "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
2017; BCL-2-LIKE PROTEIN 11 was indexed under MEMBRANE PROTEINS; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS; APOPTOSIS REGULATORY PROTEINS 2005- ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.644.360.075] * Apoptosis Inducing Factor [D12.644.360.075.311] * Bcl-2-Like Protein 11 [ ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.776.476.075] * Apoptosis Inducing Factor [D12.776.476.075.311] * Bcl-2-Like Protein 11 [ ... Proteins [D12.776] * Neoplasm Proteins [D12.776.624] * Oncogene Proteins [D12.776.624.664] * Proto-Oncogene Proteins [D12.776. ...
The prognostic significance of apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-X in clinical nephroblastoma. Ghanem, M. A., ... The estimation cut off point energy and protein intake to weight and length of birth based on maternal height. Azrimaidaliza, ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins 100% * Oligodendroglia 92% * Demyelinating Diseases 88% * Spinal Cord Injuries 81% ... Targeted expression of anti-apoptotic protein p35 in oligodendrocytes reduces delayed demyelination and functional impairment ...
Hypoxia-induced modulation of apoptosis and BCL-2 family proteins in different cancer cell types. Sermeus, A., Genin, M., ... ATF4 activation regulates autophagy and inhibits apoptosis. Notte, A., Rebucci, M., Fransolet, M., Roegiers, E., Genin, M., ... A p38MAPK/HIF-1 pathway initiated by UVB irradiation is required to induce Noxa and apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Nys, K., ... Hypoxia protects HepG2 cells against etoposide-induced apoptosis VIA a HIF-1-independent pathway. Piret, J-P., Cosse, J-P., ...
4A). This correlates with previous observations regarding the expression of the apoptosis regulatory protein Reaper (Nassif et ... Loss of Hedgehog function results in changes in apoptosis. To see if changes in apoptosis underlie the b1 dorsal midline ... Changes in apoptosis associated with brain patterning defects. All embryos are at late ES13, and are view dorsally at the level ... Changes in apoptosis associated with brain patterning defects. All embryos are at late ES13, and are view dorsally at the level ...
Protein, Apoptosis Regulatory Regulatory Protein, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Apoptosis Apoptosis Inducing Proteins - ... Apoptosis Inducing Proteins. Apoptosis Inhibiting Protein. Apoptosis Inhibiting Proteins. Apoptosis Regulatory Protein. Death ... Protein, Anti-Apoptotic. Protein, Apoptosis Inducing. Protein, Apoptosis Inhibiting. Protein, Apoptosis Regulatory. Protein, ... Proteins, Apoptosis Inhibiting. Proteins, Pro-Apoptotic. Regulatory Protein, Apoptosis. Regulatory Proteins, Apoptosis. ...
CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein [D12.644.360.024.500.024]. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [D12.644.360.075] ... CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein*CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein ... Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.644.360.024.285]. *CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein [ ... Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [D12.644.360.075.421]. *CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein [ ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences 18% * Diptera Medicine & Life Sciences 17% ... and anti-apoptotic proteins that are necessary for responding T cells to function as differentiated effector cells and survive ...
Using the STITCH database, this protein was found to be related to apoptosis, corresponding to the previous report in the UDTs ... Western blot analysis was used to verify protein expression. Protein sequence was affirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass ... A number of markedly expressed proteins from GeLC-MS/MS were identified, including the multifunctional tumor necrosis factor ... The present study revealed the specific PMFs and clusters for porcine cryptorchidism, and a novel protein, TNFRSF18, associated ...
We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that ... The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, ... V. Modur, R. Nagarajan, B. M. Evers, and J. Milbrandt, "FOXO proteins regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ... as well as REDOX regulatory systems that recycle/reactivate the ROS scavenging proteins and other REDOX sensitive proteins (e.g ...
The influence of the remaining ECM proteins on proliferation and apoptosis of leukaemia cells did not show a unique regulatory ... In an analysis of 10 cultures of leukaemia cells isolated from patients, the effect of ECM proteins on late apoptosis was noted ... The results of this study suggest the regulatory effect of fibronectin, collagens, and laminin from ECM proteins on acute ... Apoptosis induction. The assay of early apoptosis based on annexin V staining did not show differences between medium and ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. M. A. Eller, Blom, K. G., Gonzalez, V. D., Eller, L. A., Naluyima, P., Laeyendecker, O., Quinn, ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Molecular Targeted Therapy ...
"Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins", "type": "DefinedTerm" }, { "inDefinedTermSet": "", "name": "Bcl-2- ... ", "protein kinase MEK1", "pro-apoptotic protein Bim", "Bcl-2 family member Bim", "caspase-dependent apoptosis", "apoptotic ... and antiprogestin-induced apoptosis in ER+ breast cancer cells by MEK1 regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim ... and antiprogestin-induced apoptosis in ER+ breast cancer cells by MEK1 regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim", " ...
Inhibition of apoptosis by normal and aberrant Fli-1 and erg proteins involved in human solid tumors and leukemias. Yi, H. K., ... HD-PTP: A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase gene on human chromosome 3p21.3. Toyooka, S. I., Ouchida, M., Jitsumori, Y., ... Proteomics-based analysis of invasion-related proteins in malignant gliomas. Maruo, T., Ichikawa, T., Kanzaki, H., Inoue, S., ... Recent progress in the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 gene: the significant correlation of the SHP1 gene silencing with the ...
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins 10% * National Cancer Institute (U.S.) 10% * Organelles 8% ... Dive into the research topics of Expression and location of pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family protein BAD in normal human tissues and ... Expression and location of pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family protein BAD in normal human tissues and tumor cell lines. ...
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (
  • Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that caspase-1-independent apoptosis requires the activation of caspase-9 and of the intrinsic pathway in a typical type II cell manner. (
  • This work underscores the crosstalk between inflammasome components and the apoptotic machinery and highlights the versatility of the pathway, which can switch from pyroptosis to apoptosis. (
  • Bcl-2 is a key apoptosis regulatory protein of the mitochondrial death pathway whose function is dependent on its expression levels. (
  • In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. (
  • The Op-IAP protein from the baculovirus Orgyia pseudotsugata M nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) is highly effective at inhibiting apoptosis triggered by a variety of different stimuli in lepidopteran cells as well as in several different mammalian cell types, suggesting that it functions at a highly conserved step in the apoptotic pathway. (
  • Meshki J, Caino MC, von Burstin VA, Griner E, Kazanietz MG. Regulation of prostate cancer cell survival by protein kinase Cepsilon involves bad phosphorylation and modulation of the TNFalpha/JNK pathway. (
  • The working hypothesis of this proposal is that sustained activation of the alternative NFkB pathway in proliferating T cells in response to late costimulatory signals induces and maintains expression of the cytokines, cytokine receptors, and anti-apoptotic proteins that are necessary for responding T cells to function as differentiated effector cells and survive as memory cells. (
  • Importantly, small-molecule inhibitors of MEK1 circumvented the prosurvival action of IGF-1 by restoring Bim to levels that more effectively mediated apoptosis in ER+ breast cancer cells.Conclusionhis study provides strong support for the use of MEK1 inhibitors in combination with hormonal therapy to effectively affect cytostasis and activate a Bim-dependent apoptotic pathway in ER+ breast cancer cells. (
  • Death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) is an important component of the external apoptosis pathway. (
  • L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induces the apoptosis of B16 murine melanoma cells via a caspase-8-independent pathway. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that activation of the PI3K signaling pathway by zinc stimulates the intestinal iron uptake and transport by stimulating the expression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) dependent divalent metal iron transporter 1 (DMT1, apical iron transporter) expression and caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) dependent hephaestin (HEPH, basolateral ferroxidase required for iron oxidation) expression, respectively. (
  • In conclusion, Res inhibited cardiac hypertrophy via downregulation of the apoptosis signaling pathway and upregulating the autophagy pathway. (
  • cep-1 acts as a transcription activator in a primordial p53 pathway that involves CEP-1 activation and the CEP-1 dependent transcriptional induction of the worm BH3 only domain encoding genes egl-1 and ced-13 to induce germ cell apoptosis. (
  • RASSF1A elicits apoptosis through an MST2 pathway directing proapoptotic transcription by the p73 tumor suppressor protein. (
  • In the poster section, Joanna Shisler (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [UIUC], Urbana) reported that the modified virus, Ankara, activates nuclear factor κB through the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, possibly facilitating the host immune response. (
  • The replication of adenovirus in cells activates the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway. (
  • Most patients with atypical HUS have mutations in one or more of the genes that encode proteins involved in the alternate pathway of complement, which creates a predisposition to the disorder. (
  • Interference of STAT 5b expression by siRNA targeting enhanced the chemo-sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to gefitinib by promoting mitochondrial pathway-mediated cell apoptosis. (
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (
  • Co-expression analysis of these DEGs represented a complex regulatory network, including the jasmonic acid and gibberellin pathway, involved in drought stress tolerance in H471. (
  • The photoconjugation of psoralens with DNA produces an antiproliferative reaction in the skin, generates programmed cell death (apoptosis), and induces down-regulation of the cutaneous immune system. (
  • FasL induces early apoptosis of activated T cells by interfering with anti-apoptotic signals. (
  • Dysregulation of apoptosis induces a variety of diseases, including cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Details] Repetitive exposure to a 60-Hz time-varying magnetic field induces DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human cells [med. (
  • The various markers that enable assessment of the progression of preneoplastic lesions to spindle cell carcinoma include the p16 protein, which halts the cell cycle and induces apoptosis by pRb-mediated phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). (
  • Whether sustained normocortisolism induced by medical therapy induces re-expression of functional sst 2 protein in corticotroph adenomas and whether this increases the ACTH-lowering potency of octreotide remains to be established. (
  • H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. (
  • PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. (
  • U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. (
  • As Bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET) protein inhibitors promote pro-apoptotic rebalancing, we evaluated the potential of the BET inhibitor JQ1 in combination with ABT-199, A-1331852 or S63845 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. (
  • Cystatin A (Cys A), a cysteine protease inhibitor, is a precursor of proteins involves in keratinocyte keratinization, and is expressed during the late phase of differentiation of these cells. (
  • In normal cells, each stage of the cell cycle is tightly regulated, however in cancer cells many genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle are mutated or over expressed. (
  • We performed genome-wide gene expression analyses which indicate that only a surprisingly small number of genes are regulated by CEP-1 and that DNA damage induced apoptosis via the transcriptional induction of BH3 domain proteins is likely to be an ancient DNA damage response function of the p53 family. (
  • We showed that loss of Dmp18 disrupted eye and wing development, up-regulated transcription of pro-apoptotic genes, and induced apoptosis. (
  • Transcriptional induction of pro-apoptotic genes is sufficient to induce apoptosis in Drosophila . (
  • In the current study, we identified that Dmp18, the homolog of Znhit1, regulates apoptosis by mediating the histone variant H2Av incorporation and H3K4me3 as well as H3K27me3 modifications around the transcription start site (TSS) regions of pro-apoptotic genes. (
  • The E2F family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication and apoptosis. (
  • We show here that E2F-1 binds in vivo the promoters of ASPP1 and ASPP2 genes, two activators of p53-mediated apoptosis, E2F-1, E2F-2 and E2F-3 all activate the isolated ASPP1 and ASPP2 promoters. (
  • The identification of ASPP1 and ASPP2 genes as transcriptional targets of E2F provides another mechanism by which E2F cooperates with p53 to induce apoptosis. (
  • These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are part of essential chemical signaling pathways within cells. (
  • The STAT proteins bind to regulatory regions near genes, which allows the proteins to control whether these genes are turned on or off. (
  • Changes in the STAT3 gene that cause AD-HIES alter the structure and function of the STAT3 protein, impairing its ability to control the activity of other genes. (
  • This domain occurred 318 times on human genes ( 726 proteins). (
  • 12]. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are brief, non-coding RNAs that work as detrimental regulators of appearance of protein-encoding genes by annealing to complementary sequences in 3 untranslated locations (3UTRs) of mRNAs and inhibiting additional steps of proteins synthesis [13]. (
  • Chk2 and REGgamma-dependent DBC1 regulation in DNA damage induced apoptosis. (
  • Surprisingly, Op-IAP expression in S2 cells enhanced apoptosis caused by baculovirus infection, but did not cause increased sensitivity to either actinomycin D or UV damage-induced apoptosis. (
  • Caenorhabditis elegans protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT-5 negatively regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (
  • Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of mammalian type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 negatively regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (
  • Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region. (
  • 14.3.3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism , protein trafficking, signal transduction , apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. (
  • Functions in integrin signal transduction, but also in signaling downstream of numerous growth factor receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), EPHA2, netrin receptors and LDL receptors. (
  • This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES . (
  • A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. (
  • 14.3.3 proteins are regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, and by the binding of cofactors. (
  • Phosphorylation sites on 14.3.3 proteins are not conserved between family members and thus enable selective isoform regulation. (
  • Because many 14.3.3 interactions are phosphorylation dependent, 14.3.3 proteins have been integrated into the core regulatory pathways that are crucial for normal growth and development. (
  • this leads to the phosphorylation of additional tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for scaffold proteins, effectors and substrates. (
  • The effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on amyloid precursor protein phosphorylation in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. (
  • In addition, expression of Op-IAP was unable to inhibit apoptosis triggered by either actinomycin D or UV light in D. melanogaster S2 cells. (
  • Moreover, futher mechanism analysis demonstrated that 4k caused G2/M arrest, induced cells apoptosis in HeLa cells, and manifested significant tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 4.9 µM, which is comparable to CA-4 (IC50 = 4.2 µM). (
  • Novel benzylidene-thiazolidine-2,4-diones inhibit Pim protein kinase activity and induce cell cycle arrest in leukemia and prostate cancer cells. (
  • The basic role of these proteins is the promotion of proliferation, maturation, and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with nutrient-rich microenvironment and growth factors. (
  • It is noteworthy that, from ECM proteins, collagens and laminin enhance the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells not only in bone marrow but also in the extramedullary localisation [9]. (
  • Regulation of apoptosis and caspase-8 expression in neuroblastoma cells by isoforms of the IG20 gene. (
  • CM1 ligation initiates apoptosis in a caspase 8-dependent manner in Ramos cells and in a mitochondria-controlled manner in Raji cells. (
  • However the molecular mechanism by which the junctional pool of YAP proteins is released and activated in epithelial cells remains unknown. (
  • Here we report that the tumour suppressor ASPP2 forms an apical-lateral polarity complex at the level of tight junctions in polarised epithelial cells, acting as a scaffold for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and junctional YAP via dedicated binding domains. (
  • 14.3.3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed and self assemble into homo- and heterodimers, with the exception of 14.3.3σ, which exclusively forms homodimers and is found in cells of epithelial origin only. (
  • Identification of protease serine S1 family member 53 as a mitochondrial protein in murine islet beta cells, Islets, Vol.14, No.1, 1-13, 2021. (
  • Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. (
  • Although somatic (developmental) apoptosis was unaffected, ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis of germ cells was obliterated upon inactivation of ceramide synthase and restored upon microinjection of long-chain natural ceramide. (
  • Apoptosis is an important biological process in the development and stress context by removing unwanted or damaged cells. (
  • Programmed Cell Death (PCD) or apoptosis plays essential roles both in the development and stress context by removing unwanted or damaged cells to keep the balance [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Standard-of-care paclitaxel (PTX), combined with birinapant (BRP), a bivalent mimetic of the apoptosis antagonist SMAC (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases), exerts synergistic killing of PANC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. (
  • To investigate potential mechanisms underlying this synergistic pharmacodynamic interaction, data capturing PANC-1 cell growth, apoptosis kinetics, and cell cycle distribution were integrated with high-quality IonStar-generated proteomic data capturing changes in the relative abundance of more than 3300 proteins as the cells responded to the two drugs, alone and combined. (
  • The model, consistent with the observed reduction in the Bcl2/BAX ratio, suggests that BRP-induced apoptosis of mitotically-arrested cells is a major contributor to the synergy between BRP and PTX. (
  • Clinical manifestations of the disease, the presence of histiocytic infiltrate in the epidermis and dermis during the histological study and immunohistochemical detection of langerin infiltrate cells and S-100 protein were all consistent with the diagnosis of LCH. (
  • It helps control cell growth and division (proliferation), cell movement (migration), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • In the immune system, the STAT3 protein transmits signals for the maturation of immune system cells, especially T cells and B cells. (
  • In the skeletal system, the STAT3 protein is involved in the formation of specialized cells that build and break down bone tissue. (
  • A shortage of functioning STAT3 protein prevents cells from reacting to signals that trigger allergic reactions, which explains why people with AD-HIES do not have an increased risk of allergies, despite having high levels of IgE. (
  • Aside from its anticoagulant action, heparin binds to various growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular proteins and consequently is able to affect migration of cancer cells and angiogenesis in tumors. (
  • Extremely low frequency magnetic fields regulate differentiation of regulatory T cells: potential role for ROS-mediated inhibition on AKT [med. (
  • In non-replicating cells, retinocytoma protein (pRB) can bind to gene regulatory protein E2F, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. (
  • Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. (
  • Data show that BACH2 and STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence. (
  • ABL-N administration induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, along with the enhanced activity of caspases and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. (
  • Background: Galectin-9 is a member of the family of lectin proteins and crucially regulates human immune responses, particularly because of its ability to suppress the anticancer activities of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (
  • Spatiotemporal in vivo tracking of polyclonal human regulatory T cells (Tregs) reveals a role for innate immune cells in Treg transplant recruitment. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (
  • Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. (
  • We evaluated receptor mRNA and protein expression levels and effects of octreotide, pasireotide, and cabergoline on ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenoma cells. (
  • PDCD6, a new HL gene, plays an important role in apoptosis and has widespread inner ear expression, particularly in the inner hair cells. (
  • CCAR2) is a protein implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, transcription and histone modifications. (
  • Like cytokines, the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are another group of signalling molecules taking part in complex regulation of haematopoiesis [3]. (
  • Fibronectin, collagens, laminin, thrombospondin, and vitronectin are a group of ECM proteins with lesser known function in haematopoiesis regulation. (
  • To date, H 2 O 2 -dependent signaling has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of many cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis [ 3 , 7 - 9 ]. (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that quercetin, a polyphenolic compound, inhibits the transport of iron by down-regulation of ferroportin (FPN1), an iron export protein. (
  • this effect may be associated with regulation of autophagy and apoptosis. (
  • Arginine methylation of histone and non-histone proteins is involved in transcription regulation and many other cellular processes. (
  • We show that inactivation of C. elegans prmt-5 leads to excessive apoptosis in germline following ionizing irradiation, which is due to a CEP-1/p53-dependent up-regulation of the cell death initiator EGL-1. (
  • Importantly, down-regulation of cbp-1 significantly suppresses DNA damage-induced egl-1 expression and apoptosis in prmt-5 mutant worms. (
  • These results indicate that Dmp18 negatively regulates apoptosis by mediating H2Av incorporation and histone H3 modifications at pro-apoptotic gene loci for transcriptional regulation. (
  • Through its regulation of gene activity, the STAT3 protein is involved in many cellular functions. (
  • In addition, the protein is involved in the regulation of inflammation, which is one way the immune system responds to infection or injury, and it plays a role in cellular processes that promote allergic reactions. (
  • aPKCs are involved in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, apoptosis, polarity maintenance and cytoskeletal regulation. (
  • Conclusion: p63, p16, MIB, Cal A, Cys A are markedly expressed and p16 is strongly suppressed in oral cavity tumors, which suggests that the latter protein may play a role in negative regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • Another protein, calgranulin A (Cal A), is involved in the regulation of several cell processes, including the cell cycle and cell differentiation. (
  • Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses. (
  • The main cellular antioxidant systems responsible for recycling REDOX sensitive proteins are the thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems that reduce active cysteine residues present in ROS scavenging proteins (reestablishing their antioxidant function) and other proteins, whose functions are regulated by the oxidative status of key reactive cysteine residues (e.g., protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), transcription factors, and the phosphatase and tensin homolog, PTEN) (Figure 1 ). (
  • 14.3.3 proteins are phospho-serine/-threonine binding proteins that have a diverse array of partners including transcription factors, biosynthetic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins , signaling molecules, apoptosis factors and tumor suppressors. (
  • HCV core and NS5A proteins appear to be the most important molecules with regulatory functions that modulate transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. (
  • STAT proteins are called transcription factors on the basis of this action. (
  • Adenovirus E2 promoter can be divided into early and late promoters, used to regulate the E2 transcription unit, the late E2 promoter region contains Y-box, the binding site of transcription factor YB-1 (Y-box binding protein-1). (
  • Clone REA516 recognizes the human and mouse interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) antigen, a 50 kDa transcription factor, which is also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP). (
  • IRF-8 belongs to the family of interferon regulatory transcription factors, which consists of nine members in both human and mice and is characterized by a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain with a unique tryptophan pentad repeat. (
  • A number of markedly expressed proteins from GeLC-MS/MS were identified, including the multifunctional tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18), in DTs at 1-2 and 6 weeks and in UDTs at 15 and 20 weeks of age. (
  • We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that have been shown to be positively associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. (
  • Here we found that the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 2 (ASPP2), a host tumor suppressor and an important CagA target, contributes to the survival of cagA-positive H. pylori in the lumen of infected gastric organoids. (
  • our data suggest that overexpression of peroxiredoxin-2, annexin A2, and heat shock protein beta-1 was correlated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis, and therefore, these proteins may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. (
  • The p63 protein, a homologue of p53, may be associated with tumor formation in the epithelial tissue, acting as an oncogene 11,12 . (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the chromatin remodeler Dmp18, the homolog of mammalian Znhit1, plays a crucial role in regulating apoptosis in eye and wing development. (
  • Neuronal apoptosis induced by selective inhibition of Rac GTPase versus global suppression of Rho family GTPases is mediated by alterations in distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades. (
  • JQ1/A-1331852 and JQ1/S63845 co-treatment enhanced this pro-apoptotic rebalancing and triggered BAK- and BAX-dependent apoptosis since a) genetic silencing of BIM, BAK or BAX, b) inhibition of caspase activity with zVAD.fmk and c) overexpression of BCL-2 all rescued JQ1/A-1331852- and JQ1/S63845-induced cell death. (
  • 14.3.3 proteins are directly involved in cellular processes such as cytokinesis, cell-contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth and cell adhesion , and it is these pathways that often become dysregulated in disease states such as cancer . (
  • Inhibition of apoptosis suppressed the eye defects caused by Dmp18 deletion. (
  • Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis. (
  • Inhibition of AKT or MEK1/2 increased total and nuclear PR protein in OSIS. (
  • DBC1 shares many highly conserved protein domains with its paralog cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1, CARP-1). (
  • Programmed Cell Death (PCD) or apoptosis is a highly conserved biological process and plays essential roles both in the development and stress context. (
  • A better understanding of the interactions of these molecules with other pathways relevant to carcinogenesis could further our understanding of apoptosis and autophagy, and their role in breast carcinogenesis. (
  • 14.3.3 proteins represent an integration point for proliferative, survival, apoptotic and stress signaling pathways . (
  • This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate. (
  • This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues. (
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α and GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, with crucial roles in coordinating fundamental biological processes during neural development. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α or GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, especially in the CNS but poorly described in the retina. (
  • One of these methods is the use of intracellular factors in the treatment of stroke, which can control various cellular pathways, such as apoptosis, division, and other pathways. (
  • The Cold War: A New History cytokines display from popular and lovely to on-line and regulatory, but what remains them not appears their Purchase to have, protect, induce, Sign, choose, Join, and use findings. (
  • ABT-199, A-1331852, S63845) they shift the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in favor of apoptosis. (
  • The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, survival, and proliferation. (
  • Nanosecond pulsed electric fields activate AMP-activated protein kinase: implications for calcium-mediated activation of cellular signaling [med. (
  • Kinases can cause posttranslational modifications of the progesterone receptor (PR) to influence cellular localization and protein stability. (
  • Ischemic stroke is followed by a series of events, such as inflammation, increased oxidative stress, and the spread of damage, that can lead to mitochondrial damage, protein degradation, and cellular apoptosis. (
  • Workplace exposures equivalent to no or low observable proteins and other molecular chaperones (valosin-containing pro- adverse effect concentrations in animals: Step by step tein or VCP) are up-regulated to handle the increase of misfolded approach and damaged proteins which are causing oxidative stress. (
  • Changes in the levels of cell regulatory proteins were observed thereafter, in particular, Chk2 was activated upon DNA cleavage initiated by the foregoing onset of apoptosis,and this correlated with the S phase cell arrest after 24 hours. (
  • Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, adhesion, spreading, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, formation and disassembly of focal adhesions and cell protrusions, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • A regulator of APOPTOSIS that functions as an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. (
  • Several NSAIDs indeed trigger increases in mobile [Ca2+] and oxidant tension (Tanaka research with cultured enterocytes, where high concentrations of diclofenac could actually trigger cyclosporin ACsensitive adjustments in calcein/Co2+ fluorescence, a recognized indicator from the mPT (LoGuidice by focusing on cyclophilin D (CypD), a mitochondrial matrix proteins and important regulator from the mPT. (
  • In summary, JQ1/A-1331852 and JQ1/S63845 co-treatment represent new promising therapeutic strategies to synergistically trigger mitochondrial apoptosis in RMS. (
  • S-nitrosylation of Bcl-2 inhibits its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation - a novel antiapoptotic mechanism that suppresses apoptosis. (
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. (
  • P104-012 stopped protein degradation. (
  • Inhibits PCSK9-enhanced LDLR degradation, probably reduces PCSK9 protein levels via a translational mechanism but also competes with LDLR for binding with PCSK9. (
  • Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo . (
  • By combining ligand titrations with genetic crosses to generate animals with different allelic combinations, we show that degradation kinetics depend upon the dose of the tagged protein, ligand, and the E3 ligase substrate receptor TIR1. (
  • Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1, CCAR2, KIAA1967) is a large, predominantly nuclear, multidomain protein that modulates gene expression by inhibiting several epigenetic modifiers, including the deacetylases SIRT1 and HDAC3, and the methyltransferase SUV39H1. (
  • Recent research has also demonstrated an involvement of 14.3.3 proteins as 'reader' domains of epigenetic marks. (
  • Our study uncovers the role of Dmp18 in regulating apoptosis in Drosophila eye and wing development and provides insights into chromatin remodeling regulating apoptosis at the epigenetic levels. (
  • and immunoblot analysis to determine the levels of cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and lamin A that result from caspase-dependent apoptosis. (
  • EGL-1 and CED-13 proteins inactivate Bcl-2 like CED-9 to trigger CED-4 and CED-3 caspase dependent germ cell apoptosis. (
  • Furthermore, we established knocked-down sub-lines of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, in which we studied the effects of knock-down of DAP1 and DAP3 on cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion, as well as the expression of molecules related to apoptosis (caspase 8, caspase 9, IPS1 and DELE) and the cell cycle (p21WAF1 and cyclin Dl). (
  • Together, this study reveals the mechanism by which Dmp18 regulates apoptosis in the eye and wing discs. (
  • Since some IAP proteins can bind and inhibit caspases, we tested whether Op-IAP could inhibit the activity of caspases from Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • We found that recombinant Op-IAP protein was not able to bind or directly inhibit the activity of the Drosophila caspases DRONC, DrICE, or DCP-1 in vitro. (
  • Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. (
  • CASP3_HUMAN ] Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (
  • Small molecule inhibitors of the dual-specificity protein kinase MEK1, MEK1 siRNA, Bim siRNA, and vectors overexpressing MEK1 wild type and mutant, dominant negative cDNA were used to identify key IGF-1 downstream prosurvival effectors.ResultsIGF-1, at physiologically relevant levels, blocked the cytotoxic action(s) of the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) and tamoxifen (TAM) when used as single agents or in combination with the antiprogestin MIF. (
  • Several derivatives of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1--d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, were identified as transcriptional activators of the DDT gene. (
  • Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Atypical Protein Kinase C. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. (
  • The aPKC subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein may be detected in most cases (60-70%) of systemic ALCL by immunohistochemistry. (
  • PAPbeta, a protein that binds to and is phosphorylated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2, contains several modular signaling domains including a pleckstrin homology domain, an SH3 domain, ankyrin repeats and an ARF-GAP domain. (
  • Most of the mutations involved in this condition change single amino acids in the STAT3 protein. (
  • They change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the STAT3 protein, resulting in an altered protein that is abnormally active. (
  • However, the mechanism by which Op-IAP inhibits apoptosis is unclear. (
  • One mechanism whereby these defects occur is a disruption of normal apoptosis in the brain. (
  • The present study revealed the specific PMFs and clusters for porcine cryptorchidism, and a novel protein, TNFRSF18, associated with the disease mechanism. (
  • The expression of protein markers could possibly be utilized not only for unveiling the aberrant mechanism underlying the disease, but also for selection of suitable sires from the GGPs and GPs, which might reduce the incidence of cryptorchidism in fattening pigs. (
  • These findings suggest that PRMT-5 likely represses CEP-1 transcriptional activity through CBP-1, which represents a novel regulatory mechanism of p53-dependent apoptosis. (
  • A multi-scale, mechanism-based mathematical model was developed to investigate integrated birinapant/paclitaxel effects on temporal profiles of key proteins involved in kinetics of cell growth, death, and cell cycle distribution. (
  • Background: Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) has recently been implicated in the control of autophagy. (
  • Further, quercetin down-regulated the protein and mRNA expression of HEPH and FPN1 but not that of IRP2 or DMT1. (
  • After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the cytoplasm of the host cell and forms membrane-associated replication complexes along with non-structural proteins. (
  • Overexpression or deregulation of E2F-1 increased the expression levels of ASPP1 and ASPP2 mRNA and proteins. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sst 5 and D 2 R mRNA expression or in sst 2 , sst 5 , and D 2 R protein expression between both groups of corticotroph adenomas. (
  • After achieving normocortisolism induced by medical therapy, cortisol-mediated sst 2 downregulation on corticotroph adenomas appears to be a reversible process at the mRNA but not at the protein level. (
  • Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of cartonectin. (
  • Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. (
  • Retinoic DAPK Substrate Peptide acidity, a ligand for RAR can be an analogue of supplement A (retinol) that has important function in legislation of growth, apoptosis and DAPK Substrate Peptide differentiation. (
  • Whereas BRP or PTX alone produced no change in the pro-apoptotic protein pJNK, and a slight increase in the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, the drug combination increased pJNK and decreased Bcl2 significantly compared to the vehicle control. (
  • Hence, we decided to explore a panel of novel peptide and protein expression, using proteomic approaches. (
  • The CycLex Cdc25A Combo Fluorometric Assay Kit is a fluorometric and non-radioactive assay designed to measure the activity of Cdc25A protein phosphatase. (
  • Mechanistic studies revealed that JQ1 upregulated BIM and NOXA accompanied by downregulation of BCL-xL, promoting pro-apoptotic rebalancing of BCL-2 proteins. (
  • Thus, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of apoptotic process can provide insights into disease treatment and prevention [ 3 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • The anti proliferative properties of the C. morifolia petroleum ether extract turned out to be attributable to the induction of cell death as the apoptotic executioner protein caspase 3 was already activated within 2 hours of incubation. (
  • Recombinant Murine IFN- λ2 is a 19.8 kDa protein containing 175 amino acid residues. (
  • In addition, 14.3.3 proteins can act as a scaffold molecule to anchor target proteins within close proximity of one another. (
  • bcl-Associated Death Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Radiation-induced increase in the concentration of ceramide localized to mitochondria and was required for BH3-domain protein EGL-1-mediated displacement of CED-4 (an APAF-1-like protein) from the CED-9 (a Bcl-2 family member)/CED-4 complex, an obligate step in activation of the CED-3 caspase. (
  • Apoptosis can be driven by either activating Bax or by activation of MST kinases. (
  • PKCs are classified into three groups (classical, atypical, and novel) depending on their mode of activation and the structural characteristics of their regulatory domain. (
  • Promotes localized and transient activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and thereby modulates the activity of Rho family GTPases. (
  • Most of these mutations have a dominant-negative effect, which means that the altered protein produced from one copy of the STAT3 gene interferes with the function of the normal protein produced from the other copy of the gene. (
  • The role of STAT3 protein in the formation and maintenance of bone tissue may help explain why STAT3 gene mutations lead to the skeletal and dental abnormalities characteristic of this condition, but it is unclear what causes blood vessel abnormalities in AD-HIES. (