NIH 3T3 Cells
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
Apoptosis Inducing Factor
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Fas Ligand Protein
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Reactive Oxygen Species
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Cytochrome c Group
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein
Gene Expression Regulation
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
bcl-Associated Death Protein
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cell Line, Transformed
Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Culture Media, Serum-Free
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Amino Acid Sequence
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Disease Models, Animal
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Receptors, Death Domain
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Transcription Factor CHOP
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
MAP Kinase Kinase 4
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Gene Expression Profiling
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic
Articles on conferences sponsored by NIH presenting summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus on a subject of interest. This heading is used for NIH consensus conferences as a means of scientific communication. In indexing it is viewed as a type of review article and as a tag for any article appearing in any publication of the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
E2F1 Transcription Factor
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
It also promotes the transition through G1 during the cell cycle and causes tumorgenic transformation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. ... FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. ... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621. PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase activation triggers p27Kip1 degradation independently of CDK2/cyclin E in NIH 3T3 cells". The ... Fouty BW, Rodman DM (Mar 2003). "Mevastatin can cause G1 arrest and induce apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells ... Human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells treated with fasudil showed a decrease in cell proliferation in a dose-dependent ... Cell Physiology. 278 (1): C57-65. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.2000.278.1.c57. PMID 10644512. Ocaranza MP, Rivera P, Novoa U, Pinto M, ...
"Localization of the mixed-lineage kinase DLK/MUK/ZPK to the Golgi apparatus in NIH 3T3 cells". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47 (10 ... The absence of DLK also protects cultured mice sensory neurons from apoptosis that would normally be triggered by a lack of NGF ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 7245-54. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.7245. PMC 84717. PMID 10490659. Merritt SE, Mata M, Nihalani D, Zhu C, Hu X ...
... coexpression of cDNAs encoding human IRR and human IR in NIH-3T3 cells". Biochemistry. 35 (45): 14326-30. doi:10.1021/bi9613032 ... "Coexpression of insulin receptor-related receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor correlates with enhanced apoptosis ... Cell Genet. 87 (1-2): 93-4. doi:10.1159/000015400. PMID 10640820. S2CID 36476566. Weber A, Huesken C, Bergmann E, et al. (2004 ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 54 (1-2): 80-1. doi:10.1159/000132963. PMID 2249481. "Entrez Gene: INSRR insulin receptor-related ...
Two alternative splicing products of mouse Naa10, mNaa10235 and mNaa10225, were reported in NIH-3T3 and JB6 cells that may have ... including cell migration, cell cycle control, DNA damage control, caspase-dependent cell death, p53 dependent apoptosis, cell ... Arnesen T, Gromyko D, Pendino F, Ryningen A, Varhaug JE, Lillehaug JR (2006). "Induction of apoptosis in human cells by RNAi- ... Cell. 146 (4): 607-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.050. PMC 3182480. PMID 21854985. Kuo HP, Lee DF, Chen CT, Liu M, Chou CK, Lee ...
Kolch W, Heidecker G, Lloyd P, Rapp UR (January 1991). "Raf-1 protein kinase is required for growth of induced NIH/3T3 cells". ... cell migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and cell differentiation. Hereditary gain-of-function mutations of c-Raf are ... Chen J, Fujii K, Zhang L, Roberts T, Fu H (July 2001). "Raf-1 promotes cell survival by antagonizing apoptosis signal- ... Romero F, Martínez-A C, Camonis J, Rebollo A (June 1999). "Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by ...
Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected ... In adult mice, MET is required to protect cardiomyocytes by preventing age-related oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis and ... Normally, only stem cells and progenitor cells express MET, which allows these cells to grow invasively in order to generate ... phagocytes and NK cells), thus forming a bridge between an effector and a target cells. This induces the effector cell ...
Accordingly, cotransfection of NIH 3T3 cells with gag-A-Raf and a kinase dead mutant of PKM2 reduced colony whereas ... inhibits T cell apoptosis, reduce multiple organ dysfunction and reduce septic death in Bmal1-deficient mice. PKM2 is a ... as well as in all cells with a high rate of nucleic acid synthesis, such as normal proliferating cells, embryonic cells, and ... Thus, PKM2 is a regulator of LPS- and tumor-induced PD-L1 expression on macrophages and dendritic cells as well as tumor cells ...
"Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells". Nature. 313 (5999): 241-3. ... leading to increased chemotherapeutic resistance and protection from apoptosis. An abundance of cyclin D1 can be caused by ... Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both ... Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30- ...
... factor-1 and the heat shock cognate 70 protein associate in high molecular weight complexes in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells ... In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies ... Hsp70 member proteins, including Hsp72, inhibit apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis- ... "Heat-shock protein 70 antagonizes apoptosis-inducing factor". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID ...
Aoyama A, Fröhli E, Schäfer R, Klemenz R (Mar 1993). "Alpha B-crystallin expression in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts: ... "Moonlighting cell-surface GAPDH recruits apotransferrin to effect iron egress from mammalian cells" (PDF). Journal of Cell ... The protein GAPDH has at least 11 documented functions, one of which includes apoptosis. Excessive apoptosis is involved in ... In wild type cells, this enzyme is present as enzymatically active AO octamers in the peroxisomal matrix. However, in cells ...
A similar in vitro decrease in proliferation occurred in NIH 3T3 cells and a human melanoma cell line expressing antisense ... In another study, hypoxia led to induction of genes associated with apoptosis and cell death, but repression of genes was not ... RT101 cells with perlecan knocked down by antisense did not show tumor formation in this system, however cells expressing the ... MeWo cells are characteristically less invasive than their clonal variant cell line 70W. One lab studied perlecan expression in ...
2006). "Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis". Proteomics. 5 (15): 3876- ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... Insulin-dependent redistribution of GDP dissociation inhibitor-2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (39): 23865-8. PMID ... 2003). "Global profiling of the cell surface proteome of cancer cells uncovers an abundance of proteins with chaperone function ...
"Entrez Gene: MDM4 Mdm4, transformed 3T3 cell double minute 4, p53 binding protein (mouse)". Strachan GD, Jordan-Sciutto KL, ... The human MDM4 gene, which plays a role in apoptosis, encodes a 490-amino acid protein containing a RING finger domain and a ... "MDMX stability is regulated by p53-induced caspase cleavage in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts". Oncogene. 21 (6): 867-77. doi:10.1038 ... regulates p53-induced growth arrest and neuronal cell death during early embryonic mouse development". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (15 ...
... and recurrence of prostate cancer Similar evidence also has been identified in experiment using A7FIL+ cells and NIH 3T3 cell ... "DRAL is a p53-responsive gene whose four and a half LIM domain protein product induces apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. 151 (3): 495- ... Cell Res. 263 (1): 131-44. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.5097. PMID 11161712. Ng EK, Chan KK, Wong CH, Tsui SK, Ngai SM, Lee SM, Kotaka ... Cell. Biol. 20 (22): 8613-22. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.22.8613-8622.2000. PMC 102166. PMID 11046156. Li HY, Ng EK, Lee SM, Kotaka M, ...
"IC261 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human cancer cells via CK1δ/ɛ and Wnt/β-catenin independent inhibition of ... Cobb MH, Rosen OM (October 1983). "Description of a protein kinase derived from insulin-treated 3T3-L1 cells that catalyzes the ... The NIH Xenopus initiative". Developmental Dynamics. 225 (4): 384-91. doi:10.1002/dvdy.10174. PMID 12454917. S2CID 26491164. ... Treatment of cancer cells with peptide δ-361 finally resulted to microtubule destabilization and cell death. Fine-mapping of ...
"BAG3 protein controls B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis". Cell Death and Differentiation. 10 (3): 383-5. doi: ... GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Myofibrillar Myopathy Human BAG3 genome location and BAG3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Potential role of Gab1 and phospholipase C-gamma in osmotic shock-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Horm. Metab. ... SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 ...
... found to be rearranged within a 3T3 fibroblast cell line following its transfection with DNA taken from human lymphoma cells.[6 ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2. *ret+Proto-Oncogene+Proteins at the US National Library ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Nickel-Refining Fumes Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis of NIH/3T3 Cells via Oxidative Stress
The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to nickel-refining fumes significantly reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptotic death in ... DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. ... In our research, NIH/3T3 cells were exposed to nickel-refining ... fumes at the concentrations of 0, 6.25, 12.50, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL for 24 h. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen ... DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. View Full-Text Keywords: nickel-refining fumes; NIH/3T3cell; DNA damage; apoptosis; ...
Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells.
Modes of cell death are usually defined by morphological criteria, and these include apoptosis, necrosis, autophagic cell death ... To establish cell lines with stable expression of GFP-LC3, control NIH/3T3 cells and NIH/3T3 cells overexpressing IRS-1 were ... Establishment of NIH/3T3 cells with stable overexpression of functional IRS-1. (A) Wild-type NIH/3T3 cells were serum starved ... Establishment of NIH/3T3 cells overexpressing functional IRS-1 We chose NIH/3T3 cells as an experimental model to investigate ...
3T3 NIH murine fibroblasts and B78 murine melanoma cells expressing the Escherichia coli N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I do...
By co-transfecting NIH3T3 murine fibroblast and murine B78 H1 melanoma cells with pSG5tag and pSV2neo, we obtained cl ... The role of alkylation of the N3 position of adenine in the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in mammalian cells is still ... 15107589 - Herg k channel conductance promotes h2o2-induced apoptosis in hek293 cells: cellular me.... 16175609 - Antioxidative ... 3T3 NIH murine fibroblasts and B78 murine melanoma cells expressing the Escherichia coli N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I do ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension...
Frontiers | Probing the Origins of 1,800 MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Immortalized...
... and GC2 cells (11.5 vs 16 %; p , 0.01), identifying Complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) as the potential source ... we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a ... we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a ... Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells. Electromagn Biol Med. (2015) 34 ...
Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Whole...
The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0 μg/mL. The extract inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation with ... AO/PI staining of HL-60 cells treated with the extract revealed that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. ... cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less ... fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell ...
US Patent # 8,703,736. Therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer cells - Patents.com
... treated NIH3T3. Inhibition of ROCK disrupts actin stress fibers but does not induce apoptosis in 3T3 cells. On the other hand, ... Cells can die either by necrosis or apoptosis depending on the type of environmental stimuli. Cell motility is yet another ... or specifically pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration. In addition to cell line cells, cells or samples ... 4A showed the cell survival at 96 hr time point after siRNA treatment in SU8686 cells. Panc-1 cell survival data over 0-100 hr ...
Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore
Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore ... Yamamura Y, Lee W, Inoue K, Ida H, Ito Y. RUNX3 cooperates with FoxO3a to induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. J Biol Chem ... Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore. Summary. Locale: Singapore, Central Singapore ... You are here: Locale , Singapore , Central Singapore , Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, ...
Immunosuppressive effects of tautomycetin in vivo and in vitro via T cell-specific apoptosis induction | Proceedings of the...
... cells were stimulated with NIH 3T3 transfectant stably expressing human FasL. (D) Jurkat T cells (3 × 106) stably expressing ... Primary B cells showed minimal cell death at high concentrations of TMC, and apoptosis was not observed in HeLa cells in the ... 106 cells), OKT3 mAb (1 μg/1 × 106 cells) and anti-CD28 mAb (0.5 μg/1 × 106 cells) or anti-BcR mAb (1 μg/1 × 106 cells), ... T cell-specific induction of apoptosis by TMC. (A) The primary T and B lymphocytes and HeLa cells were incubated for 10 h with ...
Frontiers | Impact of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast on the Radiation-Response of Solid Xenograft Tumors | Molecular Biosciences
... co-implantation of MPR31.4 cells with NIH-3T3 fibroblasts or of Py8119 cells with L929 fibroblasts led to increased tumor ... Indirect co-culture with L929 skin fibroblasts induced higher levels of apoptosis in irradiated MPR31.4 cells, while they ... In addition, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted long-term clonogenic survival of both tumor cell types upon irradiation in the 3D co- ... In addition, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted long-term clonogenic survival of both tumor cell types upon irradiation in the 3D co- ...
Transcription profiling of C/EBP targets identifies Per2 as a gene implicated in myeloid leukemia | Blood Journal
Characterization of NIH 3T3 cells carrying zinc-inducible CEBPA, CEBPB, CEBPD, or CEBPE genes. (A) NIH 3T3 cell lines stably ... Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and clonogenic assays. Cell proliferation was determined by methyl-thiazol ... Several C/EBP microarray studies using a number of cell types were previously reported.12,39-41 We elected to use NIH 3T3 cells ... Transcriptional profiling of C/EBP-inducible NIH 3T3 cells. To identify C/EBP target genes, we generated a series of cell lines ...
Reactive oxygen generated by Nox1 triggers the angiogenic switch | PNAS
Cell Lines.. NEF2 is a vector-control line developed from NIH 3T3 cells. YA28 and YA26 NIH 3T3 lines stably express Nox1 and ... possibly because of apoptosis balancing growth. The finding of mitotic activity in a poorly angiogenic dormant tumor is similar ... 2A) similar to what was seen previously for NIH 3T3 cells (1). DU-145 cells typically produce slow-growing tumors when injected ... 3C) and a similar increase in DU-145 cells (data not shown). Stable coexpression of catalase in Nox1-expressing NIH 3T3 cells ...
Upregulation of ECT2 is associated with transcriptional program of cancer stem cells and predicts poor clinical outcome in...
When expressed in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, ECT2 promotes their malignant transformation (9). Increased ECT2 expression has been ... prevents cell apoptosis and induces cancer cell metastasis (10). Conversely, ECT2 downregulation suppresses activation of the ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, are characterized by stem-like properties, including self- ... Hur W and Yoon SK: Molecular pathogenesis of radiation-induced cell toxicity in stem cells. Int J Mol Sci. 18:27492017. View ...
Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29)...
The IC,sub,50,/sub, for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a ... indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. ... NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC,sub,50,/sub, of ... Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and ...
c-Jun downregulation by HDAC3-dependent transcriptional repression promotes osmotic stress-induced cell apoptosis
NIH 3T3 Cells * Osmotic Pressure * Peptide Fragments / genetics * Peptide Fragments / metabolism * Promoter Regions, Genetic ... c-Jun downregulation by HDAC3-dependent transcriptional repression promotes osmotic stress-induced cell apoptosis Mol Cell. ... The cell apoptosis induced by the truncated HDAC3 or enhanced by c-Jun deficiency during osmotic stress was suppressed by ... downregulation of c-Jun by HDAC3-dependent transcriptional repression plays a role in regulating cell survival and apoptosis. ...
Phototherapy with LED light modulates healing processes in an in
... apoptosis in either cell type but promoted proliferation in all 3 cell types with significant effects in C2C12 and NIH/3T3 ... decreased proliferation and augmented apoptosis in all 3 cell types and increased necrosis rates in C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells. In ... NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and BICR10 keratinocytes were injured by mechanical scraping. Cells were illuminated on 5 consecutive days ... RESULTS: Illumination substantially affected cell viability and cell growth. Blue light strongly ...
Characterization and Cell Cycle Regulation of the Major Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8) Latent...
... promoter and a constitutively active CMV promoter in NIH 3T3 cells. Promoter-reporter constructs were transfected into NIH 3T3 ... 1994) A role for deregulated c-Myc expression in apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... 8). Unlike NIH 3T3 cells, PEL cells are resistant to arrest by serum starvation and continue to proliferate in the absence of ... Serum starvation for 60 h arrested 90% of NIH 3T3 cells in G0/G1, whereas 32% of cells were entering S phase 14 h after serum ...
Increased stability of nucleophosmin/B23 in anti-apoptotic effect of ras during serum deprivation. - Semantic Scholar
... added in the medium blocked the decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 and apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in NIH-3T3 cells. The ... RAS-3T3) cells was as stable as that in serum-supplemented NIH-3T3 or RAS-3T3 cells. Treatment of RAS-3T3 cells with ... noted in the lysate derived from serum-deprived RAS-3T3 cells compared with that in the lysate of serum-deprived NIH-3T3 cells ... promoted significant decrease of nucleolin/C23 in NIH-3T3 cells during serum deprivation. Unlike nucleolin/C23, down-regulation ...
Bortezomib Inhibits PKR-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Kinase and Induces Apoptosis via ER Stress in Human Pancreatic Cancer...
A previous study reported that thapsigargin-treated NIH 3T3 cells resume translation after several hours (41). Interestingly, ... Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 in Hodgkin disease cell lines is independent of ... Involvement of caspase-4 in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and Aβ-induced cell death. J Cell Biol 2004;165:347- ... Oyadomari S, Araki E, Mori M. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Apoptosis 2002;7:335-45. ...
FGD1 - Wikipedia
It also promotes the transition through G1 during the cell cycle and causes tumorgenic transformation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. ... FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. ... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621. PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ...
JCI - Volume 119, Issue 11
These mutants also transformed NIH 3T3 cells and led to an enhanced metastatic phenotype. Finally, murine RMS cell lines ... β cells. Remarkably, Sur1-/- β cells were less prone to apoptosis induced by H2O2 or an NO donor than WT β cells, despite an ... Moreover, after liver injury, DCs gained a marked capacity to induce hepatic stellate cells, NK cells, and T cells to mediate ... Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and reduced sensitivity of Sur1-/- cells to H2O2-induced apoptosis were mimicked by ...
AATF (Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription Factor)
Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription Factor), Authors: Deepak Kaul, Amit Khanna. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... Its over-expression activates DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH-3T3 cells through HFDAC1 displacement. Also, it is considered as a ... partner with MAP3K12/DLK which happens to be a protein kinase known to be involved in the induction of cell apoptosis. Its ... Protein AATF (Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor) (Rb-binding protein Che-1). Total gene size being 107.996 kb and ...
The RASSF1A Tumor Suppressor Blocks Cell Cycle Progression and Inhibits Cyclin D1 Accumulation | Molecular and Cellular Biology
... another group has reported that RASSF1C may induce apoptosis when overexpressed in 293T cells and NIH 3T3 cells (36). Although ... This includes several epithelium-derived tumor cell lines, normal mammary epithelial cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and 293 cells ... H1299 cells were resistant to suspension-induced apoptosis up to the latest time point tested (72 h). As shown in Fig. 1, cells ... RASSF1A blocks proliferation but does not induce apoptosis in human lung carcinoma cells. (a) H1299 cells were transiently ...
Resistance of keratinocytes to TGFβ-mediated growth restriction and apoptosis induction accelerates re-epithelialization in...
Egr1 is induced by TGFβ in various cell lines such as the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3, the fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 and ... Cell culture and transfection of HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells ( Boukamp et al., 1988) were maintained in GC-Medium supplemented ... Immediate early gene responses of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and NMuMG epithelial cells to TGF beta-1. Growth Factors 5, 283-293. ... As TGFβ induces programmed cell death in various cell types ( Lomo et al., 1995; Nass et al., 1996), we tested if apoptosis was ...
p21-Activated Kinase 1 Phosphorylates the Death Agonist Bad and Protects Cells from Apoptosis | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Active PAK protects NIH 3T3 cells from apoptosis induced by ceramide. NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing PAK-T423E or PAK-K299R in ... Active PAK has an antiapoptotic effect in NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing Bad. NIH-3T3 cells stably expressing PAK-T423E or PAK- ... and NIH 3T3 cells (Fig. 8) from apoptosis and that the autoinhibitory domain of PAK increases cell death in FL5.12 cells (Fig. ... These data show that active PAK promotes cell survival in NIH 3T3 cells after induction of apoptosis either by direct ...
ER stress-induced apoptosis and caspase-12 activation occurs downstream of mitochondrial apoptosis involving Apaf-1 | Journal...
that Apaf-1-deficient immortalized MEFs, Sak2 cells, died just like wild type NIH/3T3 cells (Rao et al., 2002), Apaf-1-/- MEFs ... have reported that Sak-2 cells, Apaf-1-deficient immortalized MEFs, died comparably with NIH/3T3 cells and induced the ... Detection of cell death. MEFs were plated in a 24-well dish at 5×104 cells per well 1 day prior to treatment. The cells were ... The cells showed non-apoptotic features, such as many vacuoles. Non-apoptotic, necrosis-like cell death of Apaf-1-/- cells at ...
InducesFibroblastsInductionOverexpressionInhibitionFibroblastProteinsInduceViabilityTransforms NIH 3T3 cellsGenesKinaseSignaling pathwayEmbryonicUndergoPromotesCytotoxicityMiceProliferation and apoptosisOxidativeMalignantPhosphorylationMetastasisSurvival and apoptosisCellularAssayInhibitsReactive oxygenNeuronalVivoArrestTranscriptionalLigandMorphological changesDifferentiationCycle progressionEpithelialHeLaPathwaysTransformationBiologicalStablyBiolCytotoxicTumor cellDownstreamProgressionInhibitorPhorbol 12-myriSynthesisFully elucidatedNecrosisKeratinocytesGrowthLeukemicMitochondrialLinesEndothelialPC12ExtracellularContrastVascularEffector T celBasal
- In addition to inducing necrosis and apoptosis, ROS induces autophagic cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- Moreover, expression of Nox1 in these cells induces malignant transformation, rendering them highly tumorigenic in athymic mice ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- ECT2 upregulation significantly enhances the activity of RhoGPase, prevents cell apoptosis and induces cancer cell metastasis ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Our findings reveal a strategy by which Tat induces apoptosis by targeting the microtubule network. (nih.gov)
- We conclude that IL-3 deprivation activates 24p3 transcription, leading to synthesis and secretion of 24p3, which induces apoptosis through an autocrine pathway. (sciencemag.org)
- Secreted 24p3 induces and is required for apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- Induces G 1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells. (merckmillipore.com)
- Matalka LE, Ford A, Unlap MT (2012) The Tripeptide, GHK, Induces Programmed Cell Death in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells. (omicsonline.org)
- Because of its effect on p63, we tested the hypothesis that GHK induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y, and that modification of GHK by polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation, PEGylation, potentiates its effects. (omicsonline.org)
- Therefore, GHK induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells, an affect which was potentiated by PEGylation. (omicsonline.org)
- DRAK1 and DRAK2 are localized to the nucleus, and overexpression of both DRAK proteins in NIH/3T3 cells induces morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (scbt.com)
- We demonstrate that RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLCδ1, but not PLCβ3 or PLCϵ, induces a proliferation defect in Rat-1 and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. (portlandpress.com)
- Zhu M, Li W, Dong X, Chen Y, Lu Y, Lin B, Guo J, Li M. Benzyl-isothiocyanate Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells in vitro . (jcancer.org)
- CD262 is a receptor for TRAIL, its binding induces apoptosis by activating the NF-κB pathway. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- HA14-1 induces apoptosis in HL-60 leukemic cells overexpressing Bcl-2 and in NIH 3T3 cells via the activation of caspases by a mechanism that is distinct from Fas-mediated apoptosis. (scbt.com)
- In contrast, PKC-δ inhibits cell growth in fibroblasts ( 3 , 11 ) and induces differentiation in promyelocytic cells ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- PKC-δ, when overexpressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, induces apoptosis in response to PMA treatment, while PKC-ε does not ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The synthetic peptide inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer-derived cell lines Hep2 (IC(50)=1.5 mM) and HCT15 and, to a lesser extent, in non-cancerous NIH/3T3 cells. (mybiosource.com)
- 3T3 NIH murine fibroblasts and B78 murine melanoma cells expressing the Escherichia coli N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I do not become resistant to alkylating agents. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here, we investigated if and how fibroblasts/CAFs modulate the radiation response of malignant tumors by altering cancer cell radiosensitivity or radioresistance in vitro and in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
- The influence of fibroblasts on cancer cell proliferation, cell death induction and long-term survival after RT was studied using different sets of fibroblasts and cancer cells in an indirect co-culture (2D) system to analyse potential paracrine interactions or a 3D model to study direct interactions. (frontiersin.org)
- Paracrine signals from embryonic NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted MPR31.4 prostate and Py8119 breast cancer cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
- Indirect co-culture with L929 skin fibroblasts induced higher levels of apoptosis in irradiated MPR31.4 cells, while they promoted proliferation of irradiated Py8119 cells. (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted long-term clonogenic survival of both tumor cell types upon irradiation in the 3D co-culture system when compared to non-irradiated controls. (frontiersin.org)
- Also in vivo , co-implantation of cancer cells and fibroblasts resulted in different effects depending on the respective cell combinations used: co-implantation of MPR31.4 cells with NIH-3T3 fibroblasts or of Py8119 cells with L929 fibroblasts led to increased tumor growth and reduced radiation-induced tumor growth delay when compared to the respective tumors without co-implanted fibroblasts. (frontiersin.org)
- Taken together, the impact of fibroblasts on cancer cell behavior and radiation sensitivity largely depended on the respective cell types used as they either exerted a pro-tumorigenic and radioresistance-promoting effect, an anti-tumorigenic effect, or no effect. (frontiersin.org)
- We conclude that the plasticity of fibroblasts allows for such a broad spectrum of activities by the same fibroblast and that this plasticity is at least in part mediated by cancer cell-induced fibroblast activation toward CAFs. (frontiersin.org)
- Apart from cancer cells, the tumor stroma comprises fibroblasts, cells of the immune system, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal cells and adipocytes, as well as the extracellular matrix. (frontiersin.org)
- Although Nox1 modestly stimulates cell division in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, an increased mitogenic rate alone did not account fully for the marked tumorigenicity. (pnas.org)
- When expressed in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, ECT2 promotes their malignant transformation ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Monolayers of C2C12 myoblasts, NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and BICR10 keratinocytes were injured by mechanical scraping. (greenmedinfo.com)
- It also promotes the transition through G1 during the cell cycle and causes tumorgenic transformation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
- We investigated the involvement of the apoptosome in ER stress-induced cell death pathway using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and mice deficient for Apaf-1. (biologists.org)
- NIH 3T3 fibroblasts transfected with either SphK1 or SphK2 showed increased sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) production, although cells transfected with SphK1 produced higher levels than cells expressing SphK2. (sciencemag.org)
- SphK2 expression in mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in the S1P receptors S1P 2 and S1P 3 , and in which S1P 1 signaling was blocked by pertussis toxin, also promoted apoptosis, which further indicated that S1P is not mediating cell death by SphK2. (sciencemag.org)
- Initial studies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells show that GHK-Cu and GHK-PEG stimulate fibroblast proliferation while attenuating U937 cell proliferation. (omicsonline.org)
- Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. (oncotarget.com)
- Clinically there is no therapeutic strategy available that specifically attenuates maladaptive responses of cardiac fibroblasts, the effector cells of fibrosis in the heart. (stanford.edu)
- EIF3c overexpression can also transform NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, indicated by decreased doubling times, increased clonogenicity, increased viability, facilitated S-phase entry, attenuated apoptosis, formation of transformed foci, and anchorage-independent growth. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a classical mitogen and survival factor in fibroblasts and endothelial cells, it inhibits proliferation in breast cancer cells. (dtic.mil)
- Our data confirmed that bFGF increased clonogenic survival of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts alone and prior to treatment with etoposide or 5-fluorouracil, two chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action, but decreased clonogenic survival of MCF-7 cells and increased their susceptibility to these chemotherapeutic agents in a dose and time dependent manner. (dtic.mil)
- Overexpressed PKC-ε stimulates growth and is oncogenic in mouse, rat, and human fibroblasts as well as in rat colon epithelial cells ( 3 -5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Autophagy usually serves as a survival mechanism in response to stress conditions, but excessive induction of autophagy results in cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- These findings show that RUNX3 cooperates with FoxO3a/FKHRL1 to participate in the induction of apoptosis by activating Bim and may play an important role in tumor suppression in gastric cancer. (labome.org)
- Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. (hindawi.com)
- In most cases, induction of T cell-mediated immune responses to the highly polymorphic MHC molecules on nucleated cells in the grafted organ is the major barrier to successful transplantation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- CsA and FK506 block T cell activation by preventing the induction of IL-2 gene expression, whereas rapamycin blocks the signaling pathway triggered by IL-2 receptor ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Being different from CsA and FK506 in its mechanism of action, TMC inhibited the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of T cell-specific signaling mediators in T cell receptor (TcR) proximal signal transduction pathway, leading to induction of apoptosis. (pnas.org)
- Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. (hindawi.com)
- Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. (hindawi.com)
- Induction of Per2 expression resulted in growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of clonogenic ability. (bloodjournal.org)
- Progression to a growing tumor is characterized by induction in the tumor tissue of angiogenic factors, particularly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and VEGF receptors (VEGFR) in the growing endothelial cells. (pnas.org)
- AATF was identified as an interacting partner with MAP3K12/DLK which happens to be a protein kinase known to be involved in the induction of cell apoptosis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- As an additional level of growth control, epithelial cells respond to loss of matrix adhesion by induction of programmed cell death (anoikis) even in the presence of growth factors that normally promote proliferation ( 16 ). (asm.org)
- In conclusion, we attribute the enhanced re-epithelialization in our transgenics to the resistance of keratinocytes to TGFβ-mediated growth restriction and apoptosis induction. (biologists.org)
- Despite comparable induction of ER stress in both wild type and Apaf-1-deficient cells, activation of caspase-3 was only observed in wild type, but not Apaf-1-deficient, MEFs. (biologists.org)
- In summary, in response to SFV, PKR exerts an early antiviral effect that delays virus protein production and release of infectious virus and, whilst PKR is not required for induction of apoptosis or activation of the type I IFN response, it strongly augments the type I IFN response and contributes to clearance of infectious virus from the mouse brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Using DNA microarrays to analyze interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine FL5.12 pro-B cells, we found that the gene undergoing maximal transcriptional induction after cytokine withdrawal is 24p3 , which encodes a secreted lipocalin. (sciencemag.org)
- Northern blots ( Fig. 1 ) revealed that transcriptional induction of 24p3 was first detectable in FL5.12 cells within 2 hours of IL-3 withdrawal and that 24p3 was similarly activated in IL-3-dependent murine 32D cells ( 18 ) and IL-3-dependent murine primary bone marrow cells ( 19 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions. (emf-portal.org)
- The decreased proliferation was not due to an induction of apoptosis or senescence, but was associated with an approx. (portlandpress.com)
- Induction of apoptosis by organotin compounds in vitro: neuronal protection with antisense oligonucleotides directed against stannin. (aspetjournals.org)
- 2004) Induction of tumor-specific T cell immunity by anti-DR5 antibody therapy. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Overexpression of IRS-1 resulted in inhibition of basal autophagy, and reduced oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that overexpression of IRS-1 promotes cells growth, inhibits basal autophagy, reduces oxidative stress-induced autophagy, and diminishes oxidative stress-mediated autophagy-dependent cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- 225+0.0875+1.827?g/mL for NIH3T3 cells, which are of low HER2 overexpression, after 24h incubation. (labome.org)
- Bad overexpression sensitizes NIH/3T3 cells to undergo apoptosis which involves caspase activation and ERK inactivation. (semanticscholar.org)
- Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Overexpression of a constitutively active PAK mutant (PAK1-T423E) promoted cell survival of FL5.12 and NIH 3T3 cells, while overexpression of the autoinhibitory domain of PAK (amino acids 83 to 149) enhanced apoptosis. (asm.org)
- We also demonstrated that caspase-12 was processed downstream of Apaf-1 and caspase-3, and neither overexpression nor knockdown of caspase-12 affected susceptibility of the cells to ER stress-induced cell death. (biologists.org)
- In support, overexpression of antisense IEX- 1L partially blocked TNF-induced expression of IEX -1L and sensitized normal cells to killing. (sciencemag.org)
- To investigate the effect of reducing high glucose (HG)-induced lysyl oxidase (LOX) overexpression and increased activity on retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
- Moreover, to determine whether diabetes-induced LOX overexpression alters AKT activation and promotes apoptosis, changes in LOX expression, AKT phosphorylation, caspase-3 activation, and Bax expression were assessed in retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and LOX heterozygous knockout (LOX +/− ) mice. (arvojournals.org)
- Findings from this study indicate that preventing LOX overexpression may be protective against HG-induced apoptosis in retinal vascular cells associated with diabetic retinopathy. (arvojournals.org)
- Overexpression of wild-type (WT) PIKE-A enhances NIH3T3 and U87MG cell growth, which is further increased by cancer cell-derived PIKE-A active mutants. (nih.gov)
- Overexpression of a kinase-activated mutant form of PAK1 induced the anchorage-independent growth of breast cell lines in vitro and breast carcinomas when transgenically expressed in the mouse mammary gland albeit with a long latency ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Overexpression of a kinase-activated mutant form of PAK4 transforms NIH-3T3 cells facilitating anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice ( 7 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of T cell proliferation with TMC was observed at concentrations 100-fold lower than those needed to achieve maximal inhibition with cyclosporin A (CsA). (pnas.org)
- Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) inhibition by tumor virus oncoproteins has been attributed to the need for these viruses to promote lytic viral nucleic acid synthesis by unscheduled entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
- We hypothesized that proteasome inhibition would lead to an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the cell resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. (aacrjournals.org)
- Necroptosis requires the serine-threonine kinase RIP1, and pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity by small-molecule inhibitors called necrostatins, such as Nec-1, promotes cell survival. (sciencemag.org)
- Inhibition of any of 666 genes increased cell survival, and 432 of these also passed a secondary validation screen. (sciencemag.org)
- To better understand the relationship between necroptosis and apoptosis, the authors screened the 666 genes that promoted survival of zVAD.fmk-treated L929 cells to find those that promoted survival of TNF-α-treated L929 cells, which also triggers necroptosis, or to find genes that when inhibited promoted the survival of NIH 3T3 cells in response to TNF-α and inhibition of protein translation, which triggers apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. (oncotarget.com)
- Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. (biomedcentral.com)
- Examination of Stat3 levels in certain NSCLC lines demonstrated that Src is a major Stat3 activator, transducing signals from EGFR and IL6 that lead to apoptosis inhibition [ 12 ], while in another report [ 13 ] Src inhibition in different NSCLC lines was found to actually increase Stat3-ptyr705. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hits were analyzed for dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of HCFs, for modulation of apoptosis and extracellular matrix expression. (stanford.edu)
- Mutant KRAS HCT116 colorectal cells were the most sensitive to PAK4 or PAK1 knockdown resulting in the potent inhibition of anchorage-dependent and -independent proliferation as well as the formation and proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer spheroids. (aacrjournals.org)
- Inhibition of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L with the pharmacologic inhibitor ABT-737 increased effector caspase activation and apoptosis, and reduced cell survival with PAK4 or PAK1 knockdown. (aacrjournals.org)
- PAK1 and PAK4 have been implicated in a number of cellular processes critical for oncogenic transformation including protection from apoptosis and programmed cell death ( 5, 6 ), inhibition of cell adhesion ( 7 ), and promotion of cell migration ( 8-10 ) and anchorage-independent growth ( 11, 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Pharmacologic inhibition of X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) increased effector capsase activation and apoptosis in NSCLC cells following PAK1 knockdown ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- By co-transfecting NIH3T3 murine fibroblast and murine B78 H1 melanoma cells with pSG5tag and pSV2neo, we obtained clones expressing the mRNA of the bacterial tag gene coding for N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I (Gly I), which specifically repairs N3-methyladenine. (biomedsearch.com)
- Methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora whole fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell lines by using the MTT assay. (hindawi.com)
- Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. (hindawi.com)
- CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in numerous cell types. (bloodjournal.org)
- C/EBP proteins play a key role in regulating proliferation and differentiation of many cell types including mammary epithelia cells, neuronal cells, granulocytes, hepatocytes, and adipocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
- The rapid elimination of targeted proteins is key to the activation or repression of many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- It localizes preferentially to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of mammalian cells and regulates, for example, the secretory transport of bone-specific proteins from the Golgi complex. (wikipedia.org)
- Rare alleles of RASSF1A, isolated from tumor cell lines, encode proteins that fail to block cyclin D1 accumulation and cell cycle progression. (asm.org)
- Thus HIV-1 Tat joins a growing list of pathogen-derived proteins that target the cytoskeleton of host cells. (nih.gov)
- Bad is a critical regulatory component of the intrinsic cell death machinery that exerts its death-promoting effect upon heterodimerization with the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L . Growth factors promote cell survival through phosphorylation of Bad, resulting in its dissociation from Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L and its association with 14-3-3τ. (asm.org)
- Members of the Bcl-2 family are intracellular proteins that can either promote survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , Mcl-1, and A1) or augment cell death (Bad, Bax, Bak, and Bcl-x S ) ( 38 , 41 ). (asm.org)
- Bcl-2 family proteins homo- and heterodimerize, and it has been suggested that susceptibility to cell death is dictated by the relative levels and interactions of Bcl family members ( 57 ). (asm.org)
- Lipocalins are small secreted proteins that play a role in diverse biological processes through binding of small hydrophobic molecules, interaction with cell surface receptors, and formation of macromolecular complexes ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
- DRAK1 (DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase 1) and DRAK2 are DAP kinase related proteins. (scbt.com)
- Gap junctions are plasma membrane channels that provide a path of direct communication between the interiors of neighboring cells and are formed by the connexin (Cx) family of proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- The role mechanism of BITC might involve an up-regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and down-regulating the expression of metastasis-related proteins. (jcancer.org)
- In the present study, we found that BITC promotes apoptosis and suppresses the migration and invasion of HCC cells via regulating the expression of apoptosis- and metastasis-related proteins. (jcancer.org)
- Nickel-refining fumes may induce the changes in the state of ROS, which may eventually initiate oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. (mdpi.com)
- Yamamura Y, Lee W, Inoue K, Ida H, Ito Y. RUNX3 cooperates with FoxO3a to induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. (labome.org)
- The ability of bortezomib to induce ER stress and the unfolded protein response was investigated in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, L3.6pl. (aacrjournals.org)
- We show here that RASSF1A can induce cell cycle arrest by engaging the Rb family cell cycle checkpoint. (asm.org)
- HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative Bim. (nih.gov)
- This interaction does not affect the secretion and uptake of Tat, but is critical for Tat to induce apoptosis. (nih.gov)
- There are two major pathways that induce apoptotic cell death. (biologists.org)
- They effectively inhibit both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and induce apoptosis of H-ras(G12V)-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, which is accompanied by down-regulation of downstream molecules such as MEK/ERK, Akt, and RalA as well as an upstream molecule, Son of sevenless. (rcsb.org)
- Thus, TMT may induce apoptosis in sensitive cells, which is partly mediated by stannin. (aspetjournals.org)
- Although the mechanisms for the increased p53 observed in inflammatory cells are not fully delineated, many key inflammatory players have been shown to induce p53. (aacrjournals.org)
- Altogether, BITC was able to induce apoptosis and suppress the invasive and migratory abilities of Bel 7402 and HLE cells. (jcancer.org)
- NIH 3T3 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to induce endogenous mPer2 expression or transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-mPer2 and irradiated with 60Co-γ-rays, and then analyzed by several methods such as flow cytometry , colony formation assay, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry . (bvsalud.org)
- Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, the level of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were detected. (mdpi.com)
- The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to nickel-refining fumes significantly reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
- The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0 μ g/mL. (hindawi.com)
- Illumination substantially affected cell viability and cell growth. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Down-regulation of AATF gene expression is always accompanied by significant reduction in cell viability and down-regulation of gene coding for dicer which plays a crucial role in providing immunity at the nucleic acid level. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- However, only OB promoted cytotoxic effects, interfering with the cell viability even after interruption of the treatment. (springer.com)
- Viability-reducing activity of Coryllus avellana L. extracts against human cancer cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
- SH-SY5Y cells were treated with GHK or GHK-PEG at 1 and 10 nM for 24 hours followed by cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. (omicsonline.org)
- The treatments, while having no effects on cell cytotoxicity, reduced neuroblastoma cell viability and cell proliferation. (omicsonline.org)
- Why is trypan blue solution used to determine cell viability? (thermofisher.com)
- NAC-treatment improved cell viability and reduced tissue damage and the contraction was similar to control levels (50 ± 11%) in the NAC treated Cl2-exposed slices. (bvsalud.org)
Transforms NIH 3T3 cells1
- The reactive oxygen-generating enzyme Nox1 transforms NIH 3T3 cells, rendering them highly tumorigenic and, as shown herein, also increases tumorigenicity of DU-145 prostate epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
- To identify novel C/EBP-target genes, we performed transcriptional profiling using inducible NIH 3T3 cell lines expressing 1 of 4 members of the C/EBP family. (bloodjournal.org)
- 23 , 24 Many cell cycle-related genes are deregulated and cell cycle progression from S to M phase is impaired in mice lacking the Cry gene, a core component of the clock network. (bloodjournal.org)
- 25 Recent studies suggest that the murine Per2 gene, another key factor of the circadian system, is involved in tumor suppression by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes. (bloodjournal.org)
- Latently expressed viral genes have a particularly important role in maintaining the viral episome as well as in inducing immortalization of infected cells ( 23 ). (asm.org)
- A survey of KSHV gene transcription in BC-1 cells demonstrated that most KSHV genes are readily inducible by TPA treatment (class II or III transcripts). (asm.org)
- Binding to the pocket region of RB1 may displace HDAC1 from RB1/E2F complexes, leading to activation of E2F target genes and cell cycle progression. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Curcumin down-regulates transcription of genes responsible for the production of chemotactic cytokines in bone marrow stromal cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In contrast, apoptosis induced by genotoxic agents requires transcriptional activation of p53-dependent genes ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
- We used high-density DNA microarrays to search for death-promoting genes that are transcriptionally activated in IL-3-deprived hematopoietic cells. (sciencemag.org)
- We isolated polyadenylated [poly(A) + ] mRNA from these cells 8 hours after IL-3 withdrawal and used it to interrogate Affymetrix DNA microarrays representing ∼30,000 genes. (sciencemag.org)
- Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. (emf-portal.org)
- Transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB/rel (NF-κB) family may be important in cell survival by regulating unidentified, anti-apoptotic genes. (sciencemag.org)
- TNF-stimulated anti-death activity, unlike TNF-induced cell death, depends on de novo protein synthesis and the genes involved appear to be transcriptionally activated by transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB/rel (NF-κB) family ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- performed a genome-wide RNAi screen with L929 cells treated with zVAD.fmk to identify genes that when inhibited promoted cell survival. (sciencemag.org)
- Analysis of expression of the 432 genes in tissues and cells from normal mice suggested that some of the genes clustered into groups that were increased in either immune cells or neuronal cells and tissues. (sciencemag.org)
- Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals genes involved in necroptosis, a form of necrotic cell death. (sciencemag.org)
- For this effect, mPer2 may directly or indirectly regulate the expressions of cell proliferation - and apoptosis -related genes and DNA repair -related genes . (bvsalud.org)
- The EBV viral genes per- tween genetic and environmental factors (that include sist in conjunction with the host DNA in a subset of infectious agents) leading to a cascade of genotypic infected white cells and in the upper part of the throat and phenotypic changes that culminates in the for- for the remainder of the person's life. (who.int)
- Almost all in common the ability to either establish latency- that adults have had an EBV infection and are thus car- is, for the viral genes to persist in a subset of cells riers of these viral genes . (who.int)
- Zhao Z, Lim J, Ng Y, Lim L, Manser E. The GIT-associated kinase PAK targets to the centrosome and regulates Aurora-A. Mol Cell. (labome.org)
- Protein B23/nucleophosmin/numatrin nuclear dynamics in relation to protein kinase CK2 and apoptotic activity in prostate cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Microtubule-interfering agents activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase through both Ras and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
- FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell differentiation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is activated by IL-3 in FL5.12 cells, and this activation is reduced by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. (asm.org)
- A number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived growth factor, and nerve growth factor ( 46 , 51 ), and many cytokines (such as interleukin 3 [IL-3]) promote cell survival through pathways requiring the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) ( 8 , 11 , 60 ). (asm.org)
- The stress kinase pathway is also associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis. (biologists.org)
- The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a key regulator of protein translation, interferon (IFN) expression and cell survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). (cellsignal.com)
- report that sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), despite its sequence similarity to SphK1, promotes apoptosis instead of promoting proliferation as SphK1 does. (sciencemag.org)
- High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival ( P =0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor ( P =0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. (haematologica.org)
- Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. (haematologica.org)
- Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro , whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. (haematologica.org)
- KN-93, CAS 139298-40-1, is a cell-permeable, reversible and competitive inhibitor of CaM kinase II (Ki = 370 nM). (merckmillipore.com)
- A cell-permeable, reversible and competitive inhibitor of rat brain CaM kinase II (K i = 370 nM). (merckmillipore.com)
- DAP (death associated protein) kinase and ZIP kinase are members of a novel protein kinase family, the members of which have the capacity to mediate apoptosis through their catalytic activities. (scbt.com)
- DAP kinase contains a "death domain" and has been shown to mediate gamma interferon-induced apoptosis. (scbt.com)
- The introduction of DAP kinase into highly metastatic carcinoma clones lacking DAP kinase expression was shown to result in the suppression of metastasis, thus linking suppression of apoptosis to metastasis. (scbt.com)
- This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The catalytic domain of overexpressed protein kinase C (PKC)-δ mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced differentiation or apoptosis in appropriate model cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- The p21-activated kinase (PAK) serine/threonine kinases are important effectors of the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42, and play significant roles in controlling cell growth, motility, and transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Conversely, ECT2 downregulation suppresses activation of the ERK signaling pathway and impairs the migration of cancer cells ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- They are members of the activator protein-1 family that regulates diverse processes, including cell proliferation, embryonic development, vascular smooth muscle cell growth, and apoptosis. (alliedacademies.org)
- To study different effects (e.g. different transcript levels, genotoxicity , proliferation , apoptosis , cytotoxicity , mitochondrial function) of radiofrequency (1.71 GHz ) and extremely low frequency ( 50 Hz ) electromagnetic fields on mouse embryonic stem cells (ES). (emf-portal.org)
- For differentiation of neural cells , ES cells were cultivated in "hanging drops" as embryonic bodies (EB). (emf-portal.org)
- It offers performance comparable to that of our standard, serum-containing cryopreservation medium for cyropreserving a variety of cell types including human keratinocytes, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
- Tissue culture B-cell lines derived from PELs also have limited viral gene expression, although in some lines a minority population of cells can undergo spontaneous lytic replication ( 27 , 35 , 48 ). (asm.org)
- G 1 includes a restriction point beyond which the cell is committed to undergo division, independent of extracellular growth regulatory signals. (asm.org)
- Many hematopoietic cells undergo apoptosis when deprived of specific cytokines, and this process requires de novo RNA/protein synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
- About 6 hours after IL-3 withdrawal, the cells begin to undergo apoptosis in the absence of cytokine ( 11 , 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Under certain conditions, such as when apoptotic cell death is blocked, some cells will undergo an alternate form of cell death that has distinctive characteristics and is called necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death with characteristics of necrosis (see Galluzzi and Kroemer). (sciencemag.org)
- Can Recovery Cell Culture Freezing Medium undergo multiple freeze thaw cycles? (thermofisher.com)
- However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. (oncotarget.com)
- We have shown that the Kep1 protein is phosphorylated in ovaries induced to undergo apoptosis following treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. (biochemj.org)
- FGD1 promotes nucleotide exchange on the GTPase Cdc42, a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. (cellsignal.com)
- The role of alkylation of the N3 position of adenine in the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in mammalian cells is still undefined. (biomedsearch.com)
- As regards the cytotoxic activity of methylating agents (N-methylnitrosourea, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, dimethylsulfate and temozolomide) and other alkylators with different structure and different interactions with DNA such as CC-1065 and FCE-24517 (minor groove binders known to bind to N3 of adenine), 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-L-phenylalanine and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, cytotoxicity was the same for tag-expressing and non-expressing cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- It is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors cells, and no mature granulocytes are found in C/EBPα-deficient mice. (bloodjournal.org)
- YA28 and YA26 NIH 3T3 lines stably express Nox1 and are highly tumorigenic in nude mice ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- report that the endogenous anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) is able to cross the blood-spinal cord barrier in mice and signal to both neuronal and non-neuronal cells (see the related article beginning on page 3437). (jci.org)
- Furthermore, in the kidneys of Apaf-1-deficient mice, apoptosis induced by in vivo administration of tunicamycin was remarkably suppressed as compared with wild type mice. (biologists.org)
- Furthermore, decreased levels of LOX in the LOX +/− mice was protective against diabetes-induced apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
- We used isogenic p53 +/+ and p53 −/− inflammatory cell lines as well as primary CD4 + /CD25 − effector T cells from p53 +/+ and p53 −/− mice to show that AG drives apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes is elevated in p53 +/+ mice consuming DSS + AG but not in p53 −/− mice consuming DSS + AG. (aacrjournals.org)
- 2005) TRAIL-transduced dendritic cells protect mice from acute graft-versus-host disease and leukemia relapse. (miltenyibiotec.com)
Proliferation and apoptosis1
- An effective way of modulating wound healing processes, including proliferation and apoptosis, is low-level light therapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Wang Y, Wang S-Y, Jia L, Zhang L, Ba J-C, Han D, Yu C-P, Wu Y-H. Nickel-Refining Fumes Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis of NIH/3T3 Cells via Oxidative Stress. (mdpi.com)
- Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Knockdown of autophagy-related gene 5 inhibited basal autophagy and diminished oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- Tumor cells may be inherently more resistant to oxidative stress than normal cells, or oxidative stress may provide a selective advantage in tumor growth. (pnas.org)
- Beta-Amyloid (betaA)-induced oxidative stress is a well-established pathway of neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells. (emf-portal.org)
- Because malignant cells have higher protein synthesis rates than normal cells, they may be more prone to protein aggregation and proteotoxicity and possess increased sensitivity to bortezomib-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. (oncotarget.com)
- CLL was believed for long time to be the result of the clonal accumulation of resting and apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. (oncotarget.com)
- These results suggested that BITC is able to suppress the malignant behaviors of HCC cells. (jcancer.org)
- These observations may underlie reported effects of active PAK on cells, including histone H3 phosphorylation, alterations in centrosome number, and progression through mitosis. (labome.org)
- TMC specifically blocked tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signal mediators downstream of Src tyrosine kinases in a T cell-specific manner, leading to apoptosis due to cleavage of Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, but not caspase-1. (pnas.org)
- Our findings indicate that PAK inhibits the proapoptotic effects of Bad by direct phosphorylation and that PAK may play an important role in cell survival pathways. (asm.org)
- Hypertonicity increases transcription of c-fos and c-jun in cultured cells [ 6 , 7 , 8 ] phosphorylation of c-jun, and nuclear abundance of the phosphorylated, active form of c-jun [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Interestingly, when cells grown in HG were transfected with LOX siRNA or exposed to BAPN, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly decreased concomitant with increased AKT phosphorylation. (arvojournals.org)
- Membrane blebbing during the apoptotic execution phase results from caspase-mediated cleavage and activation of ROCK I. Here, we show that ROCK activity, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, MLC ATPase activity, and an intact actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubular cytoskeleton, are required for disruption of nuclear integrity during apoptosis. (rupress.org)
- Thus, apoptotic nuclear disintegration requires actin-myosin contractile force and lamin proteolysis, making apoptosis analogous to, but distinct from, mitosis where nuclear disintegration results from microtubule-based forces and from lamin phosphorylation and depolymerization. (rupress.org)
- The roles of proteasome in regulating cell growth, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells make it an attractive therapeutic target ( 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
Survival and apoptosis2
- The cell apoptosis induced by the truncated HDAC3 or enhanced by c-Jun deficiency during osmotic stress was suppressed by exogenous expression of c-Jun, indicating that the downregulation of c-Jun by HDAC3-dependent transcriptional repression plays a role in regulating cell survival and apoptosis. (nih.gov)
- Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). (cellsignal.com)
- Cell cycle regulation of KSHV vCYC expression mimics cellular D cyclin regulation and may maintain infected cell cycling. (asm.org)
- This is consistent with an alternative hypothesis that tumor viruses have developed specific responses to innate cellular defenses against latent virus infection that include pRB-induced cell cycle arrest. (asm.org)
- These functions are essential to cell survival, such that their perturbation can result in cellular damage, ER stress, and apoptosis ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- AATF dependent cross talk between cellular apoptosis and proliferation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The ability of multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis is critically dependent on a balance between cell survival and cell death (apoptosis). (asm.org)
- Protein-carbohydrate interactions are central to many biological processes (e.g. cell-cell interaction, cellular signaling and differentiation, immune response) that are at the core of important diseases. (uio.no)
- Cells expressing SphK2 exhibited increased basal apoptosis and enhanced apoptosis in response to various cellular stresses compared with control cells. (sciencemag.org)
- This study demonstrates a key role of IEX- 1L in cellular resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- J. Hitomi, D. E. Christofferson, A. Ng, J. Yao, A. Degterev, R. J. Xavier, J. Yuan, Identification of a molecular signaling network that regulates a cellular necrotic cell death pathway. (sciencemag.org)
- The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
- Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. (emf-portal.org)
- LOX expression, AKT activation, and caspase-3 activity were determined by Western blot (WB) analysis and apoptosis by differential dye staining assay. (arvojournals.org)
- They exert their pharmacological effects by binding to the immunophilins, and the immunophilin and drug complex binds and inhibits the Ser/Thr phosphatase calcineurin, which is activated when intracellular calcium ion level rises on T cell activation ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
- RASSF1A inhibits accumulation of native cyclin D1, and the RASSF1A-induced cell cycle arrest can be relieved by ectopic expression of cyclin D1 or of other downstream activators of the G 1 /S-phase transition (cyclin A and E7). (asm.org)
- Ectopic expression of RASSF1A, but not RASSF1C, potently inhibits tumorigenicity of lung cancer cell lines, H1299 and A549 ( 5 , 6 ), and an RCC line, KRC/Y ( 10 ). (asm.org)
- Combined effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and ferrous chloride on reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. (emf-portal.org)
- Immortalized cell lines and primary neuronal cultures were used to characterize the selective toxicity of trimethyltin (TMT),triethyltin (TET) and tributyltin (TBT). (aspetjournals.org)
- Primary neuronal cell cultures were very sensitive to organotins (TC50 values, 1-10nM), and showed patterns of selective toxicity with respect to neuronal and glial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- 13 Although it is unclear if a drug's ability to inhibit NMDA receptor activity correlates with risk of neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain, it is obviously important to investigate the differences in neurodegenerative potencies of these anesthetics. (asahq.org)
- Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that AG drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo , providing a mechanism by which AG protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. (aacrjournals.org)
- Selective targeting of PAK1 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited breast and NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- Activities of both KSHV LT1/LT2 and huCYC D1 luciferase promoter reporters transfected into NIH 3T3 cells increase 11- and 4-fold, respectively, after release from cell cycle arrest by serum starvation. (asm.org)
- Further, vCYC and huCYC D2 mRNA levels are low in naturally infected BCBL-1 cells arrested in late G 1 with l -mimosine but increase in parallel during a 24-h period after release from cell cycle arrest. (asm.org)
- PAK4 or PAK1 knockdown initially induced growth arrest in HCT116 cells followed by cell death at later time points. (aacrjournals.org)
- Characterization of the transcriptome profiles of ECT2 upregulated gastric tumors indicated that ECT2 upregulation may be associated with transcriptional features of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (spandidos-publications.com)
- In addition to the constitutively expressed latent transcripts LT1 and LT2, other class I KSHV transcripts in PEL cell lines include LT3 ( 40 ) and a transcript from the g block region of the KSHV genome that was not identified during the whole genome transcriptional mapping survey of Sarid et al. (asm.org)
- Hypertonicity elevates both NF-kB DNA binding and transcriptional activity in intestinal cells, increasing IL-8 production [ 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor promote cell death by recruiting and activating caspases at the plasma membrane and do not require macromolecular synthesis ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- 2010) Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells as stable source of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand delivery for cancer therapy. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- 2008) Treating metastatic solid tumors with bortezomib and a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor agonist antibody. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- HA14-1 is a small, cell-permeable nonpeptidic ligand that binds to the Bcl-2 surface pocket and blocks its biological action. (scbt.com)
- Cysteine-proteases called caspases are responsible for the apoptotic "execution" phase, which is characterized by morphological changes including cell contraction, dynamic membrane blebbing, and nuclear disintegration. (rupress.org)
- PKC-δ/εV5 failed to mediate PMA-induced differentiation of 32D cells, showing the essential nature of the V5 domain for PKC-δ's functionality. (aacrjournals.org)
- As major mediators of signal transduction pathways, PKCs have been shown to regulate a diverse set of biological functions, such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, transformation, and tumorgenicity ( 1 -5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Using PKC-δ/ε and -ε/δ chimeras in which regulatory and catalytic domains from PKC-δ and -ε had been exchanged, we showed that the catalytic domain of PKC-δ determined the macrophage differentiation of mouse promyelocytes induced by PMA ( 14 ) and that the catalytic domain of PKC-ε was responsible for its tumorgenicity in NIH 3T3 cells ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Conversely, displacement of HDAC1 from SP1 bound to the CDKN1A promoter leads to increased expression of this CDK inhibitor and blocks cell cycle progression. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- These results strongly suggest that RASSF1A is an important human tumor suppressor protein acting at the level of G 1 /S-phase cell cycle progression. (asm.org)
- The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) in gastric cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) is a proto-oncogene gene encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho GTPases ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Regulation of cyclin D1 is responsive to native RASSF1A activity, because RNA interference-mediated downregulation of endogenous RASSF1A expression in human epithelial cells results in abnormal accumulation of cyclin D1 protein. (asm.org)
- Two major splice forms of RASSF1, RASSF1A, and RASSF1C are expressed in normal human epithelial cells that derive from two different promoter regions ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
- Normal epithelial cells require cell adhesion and the presence of appropriate growth factors to promote cell proliferation. (asm.org)
- Upregulation of AQP 5 by osmotic stress has been reported in a mouse lung epithelial (MLE-15) cell line and in hyperosmolar rats, suggesting possible roles for AQP 5 in regulating alveolar surface liquid tonicity and/or maintaining cell volume [ 23 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- A key molecule involved in apoptosis (mainly in the intrinsic pathway) is p53, which is activated in epithelial and inflammatory cells during the process of colitis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Consistent with this hypothesis is that patients with ulcerative colitis have an elevated p53 mutation load in noncancerous colon epithelial cells ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6) had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
- On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cell lines HeLa, Jurkat, and CD8-ζ Jurkat transfectant were cultured in standard medium containing FBS. (pnas.org)
- Cardim Pires TR, Albanese JM, Schwab M, Marette A, Carvalho RS, Sola-Penna M, Zancan P (2017) Phosphofructokinase-P Modulates P44/42 MAPK Levels in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
- A) Inducible expression of NS5A 1B in HeLa 1B cells. (asm.org)
- Extracts (50 μg) prepared from Tet − (lane 1) and Tet + (lane 2) cultures of HeLa 1B cells were analyzed by immunoblotting using a MAb specific to NS5A. (asm.org)
- B) Expression of NS5A supports viral mRNA translation in IFN-treated HeLa 1B cells infected with VSV. (asm.org)
- Viral protein synthesis in HeLa 1B (upper panel) and HeLa 1B-5 (lower panel) cell lines, cultured in the absence of Tet and treated with increasing concentrations of IFN, was determined by biosynthetic labeling and autoradiography as described in Materials and Methods. (asm.org)
- RUNX2 and TAZ-dependent signaling pathways regulate soluble E-Cadherin levels and tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells. (labome.org)
- These pathways are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), and they are required for cell survival in the face of ER stress. (aacrjournals.org)
- These compounds may protect the cells from betaA(1-42) insult through antioxidant pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Apoptosis can proceed through two major pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results support a role for the PAKs in the proliferation of mutant KRAS-driven colorectal carcinoma cells via pathways not involving RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, whether PIKE-A itself can mediate cell transformation, proliferation and migration remains unknown. (nih.gov)
- Here, we show that PIKE-A is overexpressed in various human cancer samples, escalates U87MG glioblastoma invasion and provokes NIH3T3 cell transformation. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, PIKE-A WT and its active mutants significantly elicit NIH3T3 cell transformation. (nih.gov)
- Thus, our findings support the concept that PIKE-A acts as a proto-oncogene, promoting cell transformation through Akt activation. (nih.gov)
- PAK4 knockdown has an opposing effect on cell transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death that has been implicated in diverse biological processes, including normal development, tissue homeostasis, and defense against pathogens ( 1-3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- NIH 3T3 cells that stably express Nox1 exhibit modestly increased growth rates, but increased growth alone may be insufficient to account for the marked tumorigenicity of these cells. (pnas.org)
- To investigate the function of IEX- 1L and IEX- 1S, we stably transfected Jurkat cells with the IEX- 1L or IEX- 1S coding frame inserted into a pRc/CMV plasmid. (sciencemag.org)
- This study has shown that the methanolic extract of C. cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less cytotoxic towards NIH/3T3 cells. (hindawi.com)
- The unfractionated aqueous leaf extracts of OB and OG were chemically characterized and tested for their cytotoxic, cytostatic and anti-proliferative properties against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. (springer.com)
- Acidic polysaccharides (10,000-150,000 MW) have been observed to have immunomodulating and antiproliferative effects in tumor cell lines. (kanker-actueel.nl)
- CD262 is a 55 kDa protein expressed on leukocytes, placenta cells, liver cells and some tumor cells and tumor cell lines (such as NIH-3T3). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The PAKs function as major downstream effectors of the Rho family of small GTPases such as Rac and Cdc42 ( 3, 4 ), and therefore play a major role in modulating changes to the actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, thereby controlling cell shape and motility in response to extracellular stimuli. (aacrjournals.org)
- ii) gene amplification, detected by comparing ROCK1 gene copy number in the sample from the subject to a control sample free of pancreatic cancer cell or a control sample having pancreatic cancer non-responding to the ROCK1 inhibitor treatment. (patents.com)
- Peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA targeting ER-resident caspase-4 blocked DNA fragmentation, establishing a central role for caspase-4 in bortezomib-induced cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
- The translation inhibitor cycloheximide abrogated bortezomib-induced protein aggregation, caspase-4 processing, and all other characteristics of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Hence, cells lacking NF-κB subunit RelA (p65) or overexpressing a mutated inhibitor IκBα gene showed enhanced susceptibility to TNF-mediated killing ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- However, p27, a Cip/Kip family CKI (CDK inhibitor)-binding partner, was elevated and showed increased association with CDK2 in PLCδ1-knockdown cells. (portlandpress.com)
- B ) Jurkat cell lysates prepared at various times after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (50 ng/ml) were analyzed as in (A) with an IEX- 1-specific Ab ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
- NIH 3T3 cells transformed with constitutively active Ras show elevated ROS, and antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine reduce the abnormally rapid DNA synthesis in these cells ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Its over-expression activates DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH-3T3 cells through HFDAC1 displacement. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Alphavirus infection results in shutoff of host-cell protein synthesis, which is usually apparent 2-4 h post-infection ( Frolov & Schlesinger, 1994a ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Viral protein synthesis in cells treated with increasing concentrations of IFN was determined by biosynthetic labeling and autoradiography as described in Materials and Methods. (asm.org)
- However, the precise molecular mechanisms of ER stress-induced apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. (biologists.org)
- Effects of light on in vitro wound healing were evaluated by analyzing time to closure, proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis rates. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Blue light strongly decreased proliferation and augmented apoptosis in all 3 cell types and increased necrosis rates in C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- One such gene that protects cells from apoptosis induced by Fas or tumor necrosis factor type α (TNF), IEX- 1L, is described here. (sciencemag.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor type α (TNF), a major inflammatory cytokine, simultaneously activates a cell suicide program and an anti-death activity that results in resistance of many cancer cells to TNF-mediated killing, thus limiting its use in cancer therapy ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Furthermore, we show that impaired TGFβ signaling in keratinocytes reduces apoptosis in re-epithelialized wounds of transgenic animals. (biologists.org)
- low dosages of GO promoted cell growth, while high doses induced cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
- Genetic and cell-biology studies indicate that tumor growth is not just determined by cancer cells themselves, but it is also suppoted by the tumor's stromal microenvironment ( Pietras and Östman, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA becomes markedly up-regulated by Nox1 both in cultured cells and in tumors, and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) are highly induced in vascular cells in Nox1-expressing tumors. (pnas.org)
- However, recent evidence implicates lower levels of ROS as an intracellular mediator of growth, apoptosis, and senescence ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Reactive oxygen may play a role in neoplastic growth, because a variety of cell lines derived from human cancers demonstrate significantly elevated H 2 O 2 ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Decreased expression of endogenous Nox1 decreases proliferation of vascular smooth muscle, implicating Nox1 in normal cell growth. (pnas.org)
- Coexpression of catalase along with Nox1 reverses the growth phenotype, rendering these cells poorly tumorigenic and indicating that one of the signaling species generated by Nox1 is H 2 O 2 ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
- AATF affects cell growth by interfering with the recruitment of HDAC1 by retinoblastoma protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Both extracts presented cytostatic effects with an 80% decrease in MCF-7 cell growth at 1 mg/mL. (springer.com)
- The mouse pro-B lymphocytic cell line FL5.12 is dependent on IL-3 for growth. (sciencemag.org)
- Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). (cellsignal.com)
- Furthermore, SphK2 expression increased cell death even in the presence of nuclear growth factor. (sciencemag.org)
- Recovery Cell Culture Freezing Medium is meant for general cell culture applications where a wide range of growth media will be used. (thermofisher.com)
- In this study, we aim to explore the effects of BITC on the growth, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro. (jcancer.org)
- Recently, we reported that BITC plays a role in inhibiting the growth of HCC cells through arresting cell cycle[ 15 ]. (jcancer.org)
- On other side its over-expression has been observed in various leukemic cell lines and is considered to be important for maintaining leukemic state. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- AATF plays a major role in immortalization of leukemic cells through up-regulation of Bcl2 gene expression. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. (oncotarget.com)
- The uncomplexed Bcl-xL is then capable of suppressing cell death responses by blocking the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c ( 24 ). (asm.org)
- These data collectively demonstrated that Apaf-1 and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis play significant roles in ER stress-induced apoptosis. (biologists.org)
- To explore the effect of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a waveguide generating continuous wave RF-EMR (1.8 GHz, 0.15 and 1.5 W/kg). (frontiersin.org)
- Per2 levels were reduced in lymphoma cell lines and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cell Lines. (pnas.org)
- TPA (12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) or sodium butyrate treatment of PEL cell lines substantially increases the proportion of KSHV-producing cells ( 27 , 35 ). (asm.org)
- KSHV transcription in PEL cell lines has been divided into three classes based on responsiveness to phorbol ester treatment ( 40 ). (asm.org)
- Expression of RASSF1A is sufficient to revert the tumorigenicity of human cancer cell lines. (asm.org)
- This includes 80 to 100% of SCLC cell lines and tumors ( 5 , 6 ), 30 to 40% of NSCLC cell lines and tumors ( 5 ), 49 to 62% of breast cancers ( 5 , 7 ), 67 to 70% of primary nasopharyngeal cancers (NPCs) ( 26 ), 91% of primary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and 100% of RCC lines ( 10 ). (asm.org)
- We confirmed that PKR was efficiently expressed in both cell lines in the presence and absence of Tet (not shown). (asm.org)
- Stannin was expressed in several TMT-sensitive cell lines (PC12, T, B cells) and in primary neurons in culture. (aspetjournals.org)
- Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, Src's contribution to GJIC suppression in NSCLC lines and primary cells which may express other oncogenes in addition to Src, or different levels of Src effectors, remains to be determined. (biomedcentral.com)
- PubMed ID: 26260683) determined HA14-1 enhanced BIRD-2-evoked Ca2+ release from the ER and apoptosis in both BIRD-2-sensitive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines and in primary B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (scbt.com)
- PAK4 upregulation has been identified in a variety of human cancer cell lines and amplification of the chromosome region containing PAK4 has been frequently observed in pancreatic ( 18 ), colorectal ( 19 ), and ovarian cancer ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This group had previously reported that homocysteine impairs endothelial cell surface plasminogen activation by posttranslationally modifying annexin A2, the coreceptor for plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator. (jci.org)
- 2 Three curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.), including curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were found to protect PC12 rat pheochromocytoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells from betaA(1-42) insult. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Rat retinal endothelial cells (RRECs) were grown in normal (N) or HG (30 mM glucose) medium for 7 days. (arvojournals.org)
- 13 - 15 Our recent study suggests that lysyl oxidase (LOX), a cross-linking enzyme critical for the development and maturation of the BM, is upregulated in rat retinal endothelial cells (RRECs) grown in high-glucose (HG) medium and in diabetic rat retinas. (arvojournals.org)
- 16 Moreover, excess LOX has been shown to be involved in promoting endothelial cell monolayer permeability. (arvojournals.org)
- Naringin protects against high glucose-induced human endothelial cell injury. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Consistent with SphK2 acting as a BH3 only proapoptotic protein, SphK2 coimmunoprecipitated with the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X L , and a fragment of SphK2 containing only the BH3 domain and not the catalytic domain was able to stimulate apoptosis of PC12 and NIH 3T3 cells. (sciencemag.org)
- The responsiveness of individual cells to death signals can vary greatly depending on the presence of continuous survival cues from the extracellular environment. (asm.org)
- In contrast, red light did not alter apoptosis in either cell type but promoted proliferation in all 3 cell types with significant effects in C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells and shortened time to closure in all 3 cell types. (greenmedinfo.com)
- In contrast, nucleophosmin/B23 in serum-deprived ras-transformed (RAS-3T3) cells was as stable as that in serum-supplemented NIH-3T3 or RAS-3T3 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- In contrast, both the dominant-negative mutant and the phosphoinositide lipids interaction-defective mutant antagonize cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
- Studies suggest that retinal vascular basement membrane (BM) thickening, a histologic hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, 9 - 12 may promote apoptosis and thus lead to vascular cell loss. (arvojournals.org)
- 16 However, the involvement of LOX in mediating HG-induced apoptosis and subsequent retinal vascular cell loss is not well understood. (arvojournals.org)
Effector T cel1
- A key mechanism for immune suppression is apoptosis of overly aggressive effector T cells, and defects in mucosal T-cell apoptosis are likely to be critical in the pathogenesis of colitis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PKC-δV5 and -ε/δV5 in A7r5 cells showed substantial basal nuclear localization, while GFP-tagged PKC-ε and -δ/εV5 showed significantly less, indicating that the V5 region of PKC-δ contains determinants critical to its nuclear distribution. (aacrjournals.org)
- In HCT116 cells, knockdown of PAK4 or PAK1 caused changes to the actin cytoskeleton resulting in reduced basal spread and cell elongation and increased cell rounding. (aacrjournals.org)