Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Inbred C57BLbcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.ChromonesMorpholinesProteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Pyrazines

Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF): a phylogenetically old, caspase-independent effector of cell death. (1/444)

Although much emphasis has been laid on the role of caspase in cell death, recent data indicate that, in many instances, mammalian cell death is caspase-independent. Thus, in many examples of mammalian cell death the 'decision' between death and life is upstream or independent of caspase activation. Similarly, it is unclear whether PCD of plants and fungi involves the activation of caspase-like enzymes, and no caspase-like gene has thus far been cloned in these phyla. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a new mammalian, caspase-independent death effector which, upon apoptosis induction, translocates from its normal localization, the mitochondrial intermembrane space, to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, AIF causes chromatin condensation and large scale DNA fragmentation to fragments of approximately 50 kbp. The AIF cDNA from mouse and man codes for a protein which possesses three domains (i) an amino-terminal presequence which is removed upon import into the intermembrane space of mitochondria; (ii) a spacer sequence of approximately 27 amino acids; and (iii) a carboxyterminal 484 amino acid oxidoreductase domain with strong homology to oxidoreductases from other vertebrates (X. laevis), non-vertebrate animals (C. elegans, D. melanogaster), plants, fungi, eubacteria, and archaebacteria. Functionally important amino acids involved in the interaction with the prosthetic groups flavin adenine nucleotide and nicotinamide adenine nucleotide are strongly conserved between AIF and bacterial oxidoreductase. Several eukaryotes possess a similar domain organisation in their AIF homologs, making them candidates to be mitochondrial oxidoreductases as well as caspase-independent death effectors. The phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Mitochondria and cell death. Mechanistic aspects and methodological issues. (2/444)

Mitochondria are involved in cell death for reasons that go beyond ATP supply. A recent advance has been the discovery that mitochondria contain and release proteins that are involved in the apoptotic cascade, like cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor. The involvement of mitochondria in cell death, and its being cause or consequence, remain issues that are extremely complex to address in situ. The response of mitochondria may critically depend on the type of stimulus, on its intensity, and on the specific mitochondrial function that has been primarily perturbed. On the other hand, the outcome also depends on the integration of mitochondrial responses that cannot be dissected easily. Here, we try to identify the mechanistic aspects of mitochondrial involvement in cell death as can be derived from our current understanding of mitochondrial physiology, with special emphasis on the permeability transition and its consequences (like onset of swelling, cytochrome c release and respiratory inhibition); and to critically evaluate methods that are widely used to monitor mitochondrial function in situ.  (+info)

The novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid can trigger apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway independent of the nucleus. (3/444)

The novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid (AHPN/CD437), a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)gamma activator, has been found to inhibit the growth and to induce apoptosis of a wide variety of malignant cell types including solid tumors and various leukemias. Interestingly, CD437 is able to induce apoptosis in some all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-resistant models. In a number of experimental systems, the early apoptotic stage that precedes nuclear chromatinolysis consists in mitochondrial alterations, including a disruption of the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta(psi)m) mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Similarly CD437 causes RPMI 8226, a human myeloma cell line, to undergo a rapid delta(psi)m disruption that precedes other apoptotic alterations such as the generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation. The same sequence of events is observed during the CD437-induced apoptosis in L363, a RARgamma-negative human myeloma cell line, as well as RPMI 8226 cytoplasts (anucleate cells). Indeed, RPMI 8226 cells and cytoplasts manifest a similar degree in delta(psi)m loss, phosphatidylserine exposure, and caspase activation in response to CD437, which indicates that nuclear effects cannot account for the apoptogenic potential of CD437. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspases as well as nuclear signs of CD437-induced apoptosis are fully prevented by the MPT inhibitory compound cyclosporin A. Purified mitochondria can be directly induced to undergo MPT with CD437 but not with ATRA. In a cell-free in vitro system consisting of exposing mitochondrial supernatants to isolated nuclei, only supernatants from CD437-treated mitochondria provoke chromatin condensation, whereas supernatants from mitochondria treated with ATRA, or with the combination of CD437 and cyclosporin A, remain inactive. In conclusion, these results suggest that the rapid execution of CD437-induced apoptosis is a nucleus-independent (and probably RARgamma-independent) phenomenon involving mitochondria and MPT.  (+info)

Mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of AIF in apoptosis and necrosis. (4/444)

Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a novel apoptotic effector protein that induces chromatin condensation and large-scale ( approximately 50 kbp) DNA fragmentation when added to purified nuclei in vitro. Confocal and electron microscopy reveal that, in normal cells, AIF is strictly confined to mitochondria and thus colocalizes with heat shock protein 60 (hsp60). On induction of apoptosis by staurosporin, c-Myc, etoposide, or ceramide, AIF (but not hsp60) translocates to the nucleus. This suggests that only the outer mitochondrial membrane (which retains AIF in the intermembrane space) but not the inner membrane (which retains hsp60 in the matrix) becomes protein permeable. The mitochondrio-nuclear redistribution of AIF is prevented by a Bcl-2 protein specifically targeted to mitochondrial membranes. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. fmk does not prevent the staurosporin-induced translocation of AIF, although it does inhibit oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and arrests chromatin condensation at an early stage. ATP depletion is sufficient to cause AIF translocation to the nucleus, and this phenomenon is accelerated by the apoptosis inducer staurosporin. However, in conditions in which both glycolytic and respiratory ATP generation is inhibited, cells fail to manifest any sign of chromatin condensation and advanced DNA fragmentation, thus manifesting a 'necrotic' phenotype. Both in the presence of Z-VAD. fmk and in conditions of ATP depletion, AIF translocation correlates with the appearance of large-scale DNA fragmentation. Altogether, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that AIF is a caspase-independent mitochondrial death effector responsible for partial chromatinolysis.  (+info)

Induction of metabolism-dependent and -independent neutrophil apoptosis by clozapine. (5/444)

Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia, causes neutropenia and agranulocytosis in 3 and 0.8% of patients, respectively. Clozapine undergoes bioactivation to a chemically reactive nitrenium ion, which has been shown to cause neutrophil cytotoxicity. To define further the mechanism of cell death, we have investigated the toxicity of clozapine, its stable metabolites, and its chemically reactive nitrenium ion to neutrophils and lymphocytes. Clozapine was able to induce neutrophil apoptosis at therapeutic concentrations (1-3 microM) only when it was bioactivated to the nitrenium ion. The parent drug caused apoptosis at supratherapeutic concentrations (100-300 microM) only. Neutrophil apoptosis induced by the nitrenium ion, but not by the parent drug itself, was inhibited by antioxidants and genistein and was accompanied by cell surface haptenation (assessed by flow cytometry) and glutathione depletion. Dual-color flow cytometry showed that neutrophils that were haptenated were the same cells that underwent apoptosis. No apoptosis of lymphocytes was evident with the nitrenium ion or the parent drug, despite the fact that the former caused cell surface haptenation, glutathione depletion, and loss of membrane integrity. Demethylclozapine, the major stable metabolite in vivo, showed a profile that was similar to, although less marked than that observed with clozapine. N-oxidation of clozapine or replacement of the nitrogen (at position 5) by sulfur produced compounds that were entirely nontoxic to neutrophils. In conclusion, the findings of the study expand on potential mechanisms of clozapine-induced cytotoxicity, which may be of relevance to the major forms of toxicity encountered in patients taking this drug.  (+info)

BNIP3 and genetic control of necrosis-like cell death through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (6/444)

Many apoptotic signaling pathways are directed to mitochondria, where they initiate the release of apoptogenic proteins and open the proposed mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore that ultimately results in the activation of the caspase proteases responsible for cell disassembly. BNIP3 (formerly NIP3) is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in mitochondria and induces apoptosis without a functional BH3 domain. We report that endogenous BNIP3 is loosely associated with mitochondrial membrane in normal tissue but fully integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane with the N terminus in the cytoplasm and the C terminus in the membrane during induction of cell death. Surprisingly, BNIP3-mediated cell death is independent of Apaf-1, caspase activation, cytochrome c release, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. However, cells transfected with BNIP3 exhibit early plasma membrane permeability, mitochondrial damage, extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, and mitochondrial autophagy, yielding a morphotype that is typical of necrosis. These changes were accompanied by rapid and profound mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by opening of the mitochondrial PT pore, proton electrochemical gradient (Deltapsim) suppression, and increased reactive oxygen species production. The PT pore inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid blocked mitochondrial dysregulation and cell death. We propose that BNIP3 is a gene that mediates a necrosis-like cell death through PT pore opening and mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing protein derived from fish infected with Anisakis simplex, a causative nematode of human anisakiasis. (7/444)

While investigating the effect of marine products on cell growth, we found that visceral extracts of Chub mackerel, an ocean fish, had a powerful and dose-dependent apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of mammalian tumor cells. This activity was strikingly dependent on infection of the C. mackerel with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex. After purification of the protein responsible for the apoptosis-inducing activity, we cloned the corresponding gene and found it to be a flavoprotein. This protein, termed apoptosis-inducing protein (AIP), was also found to possess an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (C-terminal KDEL sequence) and H2O2-producing activity, indicating that we had isolated a novel reticuloplasimin with potent apoptosis-inducing activity. AIP was induced in fish only after infection with larval nematode and was localized to capsules that formed around larvae to prevent their migration to host tissues. Our results suggest that AIP may function to impede nematode infection.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a ubiquitous mitochondrial oxidoreductase involved in apoptosis. (8/444)

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is encoded by one single gene located on the X chromosome. AIF is ubiquitously expressed, both in normal tissues and in a variety of cancer cell lines. The AIF precursor is synthesized in the cytosol and is imported into mitochondria. The mature AIF protein, a flavoprotein (prosthetic group: flavine adenine dinucleotide) with significant homology to plant ascorbate reductases and bacterial NADH oxidases, is normally confined to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In a variety of different apoptosis-inducing conditions, AIF translocates through the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Ectopic (extra-mitochondrial) AIF induces nuclear chromatin condensation, as well as large scale ( approximately 50 kb) DNA fragmentation. Thus, similar to cytochrome c, AIF is a phylogenetically old, bifunctional protein with an electron acceptor/donor (oxidoreductase) function and a second apoptogenic function. In contrast to cytochrome c, however, AIF acts in a caspase-independent fashion. The molecular mechanisms via which AIF induces apoptosis are discussed.  (+info)

*Apoptosis-inducing factor

Apoptosis inducing factor is a flavoprotein. Apoptosis inducing factor is involved in initiating a caspase-independent pathway ... Human genes encoding apoptosis inducing factor isozymes include: AIFM1 AIFM2 AIFM3 Apoptosis Parthanatos PDB: 1M6I​; Ye H, ... Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) is a protein that triggers chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in a cell in order to ... Candé C, Cohen I, Daugas E, Ravagnan L, Larochette N, Zamzami N, Kroemer G (2002). "Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a novel ...

*Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3

... pylori-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells mediated via the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria ... Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3". Retrieved 2017-10-24. Xie Q, Lin T, Zhang Y, Zheng J, Bonanno JA (2005 ... induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro". Exp. Cell Res. 318 (8): 944-54. doi: ...

*David Siderovski

"Apoptosis-inducing factor CA 2352467 A1". Retrieved 9 August 2015. "Apoptosis-inducing factor CA 2352467 C". Retrieved 9 August ... Kimple, RJ; Kimple, ME; Betts, L; Sondek, J; Siderovski, DP (25 April 2002). "Structural determinants for GoLoco-induced ... the duration of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling was thought to be modulated by only two factors: the intrinsic GTP ... a Galphai/o binding motif and potential guanine-nucleotide exchange factor". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 24 (9): 340-1. doi ...

*AIFM1

"Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a ubiquitous mitochondrial oxidoreductase involved in apoptosis". FEBS Lett. 476 (3): 118-23. ... Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM1 gene on the X chromosome. This ... "Entrez Gene: AIFM1 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1". Ferreira P, Villanueva R, Martínez-Júlvez M, ... Candé C, Cohen I, Daugas E, Ravagnan L, Larochette N, Zamzami N, Kroemer G (2002). "Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a novel ...

*SIVA1

"Entrez Gene: SIVA1 SIVA1, apoptosis-inducing factor". Fortin A, MacLaurin JG, Arbour N, et al. (July 2004). "The proapoptotic ... a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces apoptosis and binds to Siva, a proapoptotic protein". Proc Natl ... is sufficient to bind to BCL-XL and sensitize cells to UV radiation induced apoptosis". Apoptosis. 9 (1): 83-95. doi:10.1023/B: ... Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that promotes HIV-1 envelope-induced apoptosis in T- ...

*HSPA1L

... apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF ... "Heat-shock protein 70 antagonizes apoptosis-inducing factor". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID ... "Heat shock protein 72 suppresses apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ... Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. It plays an important role during embryonal development as ...

*Susan Ackerman (neuroscientist)

The research centers on the Harlequin mice, who have a proviral insertion in the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) gene. The AIF ... "The harlequin mouse mutation downregulates apoptosis-inducing factor". Nature. 419 (6905): 367-374. doi:10.1038/nature01034. ... Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration". Science. 345 (6195): 455-459. doi: ... Her work has highlighted some of the genetic and biochemical factors that are involved in the development of the central ...

*Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

"Apoptosis-inducing factor mediates poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer-induced cell death". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (48): ... Also, it plays an integral role in cleavage-induced inactivation. The main role of PARP (found in the cell nucleus) is to ... ATP depletion in a cell leads to lysis and cell death (necrosis). PARP also has the ability to induce programmed cell death, ... In the presence of damaged DNA (base pair-excised), the DNA-binding domain will bind the DNA and induce a conformational shift ...

*HSPA1A

... apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF ... "HSP72 inhibits apoptosis-inducing factor release in ATP-depleted renal epithelial cells". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 285 (6 ... "Heat-shock protein 70 antagonizes apoptosis-inducing factor". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID ... "Heat shock protein 72 suppresses apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ...

*AIFM2

Apoptosis-inducing factor 2 (AIFM2), also known as apoptosis-inducing factor-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of ... an apoptosis-inducing factor-homologous mitochondrion-associated protein, induces caspase-independent apoptosis". J Biol Chem. ... "Entrez Gene: AIFM2 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2". Gong, M; Hay, S; Marshall, KR; Munro, AW; Scrutton ... The protein encoded by this gene has significant homology to NADH oxidoreductases and the apoptosis-inducing factor PDCD8/AIF. ...

*Shu Hongbing

... an apoptosis-inducing factor-homologous mitochondrion-associated protein, induces caspase-independent apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem ... "Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors signal NF-kappaB and JNK activation and apoptosis through ... They discovered that a signaling cascade can mediate TRAIL-induced NF-κB activation, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis cannot be ... It was named VISA (virus-induced signaling adaptor). It can also interact with TRIF and TRAF6, and plays an essential role in ...

*FAM162A

... "mHGTD-P mediates hypoxic neuronal cell death via the release of apoptosis-inducing factor". Neuroscience Letters. 416 (2): 144- ... Human growth and transformation-dependent protein (HGTD-P) is involved in intrinsic apoptosis. Apoptosis, an ancient Greek word ... This protein promotes intrinsic apoptosis in response to hypoxia via interactions with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). As ... "MiR-139-5p inhibits HGTD-P and regulates neuronal apoptosis induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats". Neurobiology of ...

*Angiogenin

Li S, Yu W, Hu GF (2012). "Angiogenin inhibits nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor in a Bcl-2-dependent manner ... which subsequently activates other angiogenic factors that induce angiogenesis. However, angiogenin is unique among the many ... The angiogenic factors associated with Ang may protect the central nervous system and MNs directly. Experiments with wild type ... activation of this complex inhibits cleavage of caspase 3 and apoptosis when cells are exposed to a Parkinson's-like inducing ...

*Parthanatos

PAR causes translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the nucleus where it induces DNA ... Apoptosis inducing factor Programmed cell death PARP1 David KK, Andrabi SA, Dawson TM, Dawson VL. 2009. Parthanatos, a ... 2004). Apoptosis-inducing factor substitutes for caspase executioners in NMDA-triggered excitotoxic neuronal death. J Neurosci ... 2002). The crystal structure of the mouse apoptosis-inducing factor AIF. Nat Struct Biol 9: 442-446. Kameshita I, Matsuda Z, ...

*Bufotalin

"Involvement of Caspases and Apoptosis-Inducing Factor in Bufotalin-Induced Apoptosis of Hep 3B Cells". Journal of Agricultural ... Bufotalin induces apoptosis in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells and might involve caspases and apoptosis ... Waiwut, P; Inujima, A; Inoue, H; Saiki, I; Sakurai, H (January 2012). "Bufotalin sensitizes death receptor-induced apoptosis ... inducing factor (AIF). The use of bufotalin as a cancer treating compound is still in the experimental phase. It also arrests ...

*Pardaxin

When the mitochondrial membrane potential changes, apoptosis-inducing factors (AIFs) are also released. These trigger apoptosis ... Pardaxin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. Its 33-amino acid structure contains many ... Cyt c activates the caspase chain that leads to apoptosis. ROS also activates the JNK pathway. JNK is phosphorylated, which ... Pardaxin triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production disrupts protein folding and induces the unfolded protein ...

*EIF3G

"Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (eIF3g) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3G gene. EIF3G ... Fraser CS, Lee JY, Mayeur GL, Bushell M, Doudna JA, Hershey JW (2004). "The j-subunit of human translation initiation factor ... Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130811 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...

*Apoptosis

Later studies linked this phenomenon to the release of AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) from the mitochondria and its ... Database of proteins involved in apoptosis Apoptosis Video Apoptosis Video (WEHI on YouTube ) The Mechanisms of Apoptosis ... The study of apoptosis brought on by Bunyaviridae was initiated in 1996, when it was observed that apoptosis was induced by the ... Susin SA, Lorenzo HK, Zamzami N (February 1999). "Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor". ...

*FL3 (flavagline)

This compound induces the death of cancer cells by an original mechanism that involves the apoptosis-inducing factor and ... Involvement of Apoptosis Inducing Factor and Caspase-12". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52: 5176-5187. doi:10.1021/jm900365v ...

*Neonatal stroke

Apoptosis involves the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which activate caspase- ... factor VIII deficiency (hemophilia A), and factor V Leiden mutation. Infectious disorders such as central nervous system (CNS) ... Many different risk factors play a role in causing a neonatal stroke. Some maternal disorders that may contribute to neonatal ... Apoptosis mechanisms may have a more prominent role in developing an ischemic brain injury in neonatal humans than in adult ...

*UBASH3A

"T-cell ubiquitin ligand affects cell death through a functional interaction with apoptosis-inducing factor, a key factor of ... 2008). "TULA proteins bind to ABCE-1, a host factor of HIV-1 assembly, and inhibit HIV-1 biogenesis in a UBA-dependent fashion ... caspase-independent apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (42): 30920-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M706870200. PMID 17709377. Bertelsen V, Breen ...

*ADP-ribosylation

Studies have shown poly-ADP-ribose drives the translocation of the apoptosis inducing factor protein to the nucleus where it ... PARPs have been shown to affect transcription factor structure and cause recruitment of many transcription factors to form ... During caspase-independent apoptosis, also called parthanatos, poly-ADP-ribose accumulation can occur due to activation of ... PARP1 uses NAD+ in order to perform its function in apoptosis. If a PARP becomes overactive the cell will have decreased levels ...

*Hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy

Apoptotic mechanisms including activation of caspases, translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome-c release are ... Many of the effects induced by mild hypothermia may help to reduce the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Experimental and ... Brain hypothermia, induced by cooling a baby to around 33 °C for three days after birth, is a treatment for hypoxic ischemic ... 1994). "Increased apoptosis in the cingulate sulcus of newborn piglets following transient hypoxia-ischaemia is related to the ...

*Lidia Rudnicka

... an apoptosis-inducing factor, on proliferation and activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with systemic ... Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta.J Clin Invest. 1994, 93, 1709-1715 Varga J, Rudnicka L, Uitto J.: Connective ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced pneumonia with Stevens-Johnson syndrome of acute atypical course. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2008, 118 (7 ... Acitretin decreases tumor cell-induced angiogenesis. Skin Pharmacol. 1991, 4, 150-153. Rudnicka L, Majewski S, Blaszczyk M, ...

*Caspase-activated DNase

"The Contribution of Apoptosis-inducing Factor, Caspase-activated DNase, and Inhibitor of Caspase-activated DNase to the Nuclear ... "The 40-kDa subunit of DNA fragmentation factor induces DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis". ... Besides, Caspase 3 induces DNA breaks in the promoter of the factor p21 and this strand breakup is related to p21 gene ... The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is caspase-3 protease. This was identified as the penultimate stage ...

*G1 phase

Ye, Yan; et alia (June 2011). "Atractylenolide II induces G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells". Journal of ... In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein ... G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, ... The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the ...
The Genome Sciences Centre sequencing platform is a high-throughput large-scale DNA analysis facility that has been designed to maximize capacity while maintaining efficiency, scalability and flexibility. The platform is one of the largest platforms of its type in Canada and is well recognized internationally.. Current production scale capabilities of the capillary based platform include fosmid end sequencing, PCR amplicon sequencing, plasmid, and BAC end sequencing. We have two Applied Biosytems 3730xls yielding a capacity of 7680 lanes per week, or approx 6 million Q20 bases per week. The GSC sequencing platform prides itself on its flexibility and molecular biology enabling PCR, BAC, fosmid and plasmid DNA preps and several optimized reaction chemistries, allowing us to provide high-quality, high-yield, consistent data generation.. More information on the Illumina Platform.. Through our sequencing validation team we offer several high quality, high throughput targeted sequencing services. We ...
DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. To address this limitation, we have d
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
View mouse Siva1 Chr12:112644828-112649152 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Oxygen, Muscle, Skeletal Muscle, Apoptosis, Caspase-3, Cytochrome, Cytochrome C, DNA, DNA Fragmentation, Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis-inducing Factor, Calpain, Cell, Cell Death, Death, Heat, Heat Shock Protein, Heat Shock Protein 70, Membrane, Membrane Potential
There is a worldwide increasing concern over the neurological risks of thimerosal (ethylmercury thiosalicylate) which is an organic mercury compound that is commonly used as an antimicrobial preservative. In this study, we show that thimerosal, at nanomolar concentrations, induces neuronal cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. Thimerosal, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, decreased cell viability as assessed by calcein-ethidium staining and caused apoptosis detected by Hoechst 33258 dye. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis was associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytosol. Although thimerosal did not affect cellular expression of Bax at the protein level, we observed translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Finally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated in the absence of caspase-8 activation. Our data suggest that thimerosal ...
Different cell-death mechanisms control many physiological and pathological processes in humans. Mitochondria play important roles in cell death through the release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which activate caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death, respectively. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is emerging as an important activator of caspase-independent cell death. PARP-1 generates the majority of long, branched poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers following DNA damage. Overactivation of PARP-1 initiates a nuclear signal that propagates to mitochondria and triggers the release of AIF. AIF then shuttles from mitochondria to the nucleus and induces peripheral chromatin condensation, large-scale fragmentation of DNA and, ultimately, cytotoxicity. Identification of the pro-death and pro-survival signals in the PARP-1-mediated cell-death program might provide novel therapeutic targets in human diseases.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mei Yang, Jialing Zhong, Mei Zhao, Jia Wang, Yuyu Gu, Xinghua Yuan, Jianli Sang, Changzhi Huang].
My interests center on development of instrumentation for analyzing and synthesizing proteins and genes (e.g., protein, sequenator, DNA synthesizer, DNA sequenator, protein synthesizer), molecular immunology and autoimmunity, genomics, specifically, large-scale DNA sequence analysis of immune receptor gene families, molecular evolution, cancer biology, and HIV genome analysis.. ...
All of us at SDSC look forward to working with Dr. Subramaniam in his new role as a Distinguished Scientist," said Michael L. Norman, SDSCs interim director. "As a true pioneer in bioinformatics and systems biology, Dr. Subramaniam is uniquely qualified to identify new opportunities and propose innovative solutions as SDSC broadens its expertise in these exciting areas of scientific research.". Bioinformatics is the application of statistics and computer sciences to the field of molecular biology. It has been used widely in genomics and genetics, notably in research involving large-scale DNA sequencing.. "I am honored to be appointed as an SDSC Distinguished Scientist," said Subramaniam. "The new developments at SDSC, notably with its next generation of high-performance computing and data systems, are extraordinarily synergistic with my research plans, and I look forward to extremely valuable and productive collaborations.". In 2008, Subramaniam was awarded the Faculty Excellence in Research ...
Zhu C, Wang X, Deinum J, Huang Z, Gao J, Modjtahedi N, Neagu MR, Nilsson M, Eriksson PS, Hagberg H, Luban J, Kroemer G, Blomgren K. Cyclophilin A participates in the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor in neurons after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. J Exp Med. 2007 Aug 6; 204(8):1741-8 ...
HYD1 is a D-amino acid peptide that was previously shown to inhibit adhesion of prostate cancer cells to the extracellular matrix. In this study, we show that in addition to inhibiting adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to fibronectin, HYD1 induces cell death in MM cells as a single agent. HYD1-induced cell death was necrotic in nature as shown by: (a) decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), (b) loss of total cellular ATP, and (c) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HYD1 treatment does not result in apoptotic cell death because it did not trigger the activation of caspases or the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G from the mitochondria, nor did it induce double-stranded DNA breaks. HYD1 did initiate autophagy in cells; however, autophagy was found to be an adaptive response contributing to cell survival rather than the cause of cell death. We were further able to show that N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a thiol-containing free radical ...
The replication initiation factor Cdc6 is cleaved during apoptosis, and expression of a cleavage product is sufficient to induce apoptosis in otherwise unstressed cells. On page 77, Yim et al. report that the cleavage products can act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication and amplify pro-death signals.. In addition to the previously identified cleavage product, Yim et al. identified a second Cdc6 fragment produced by caspase-3. Both Cdc6 fragments were sufficient to induce cell death without additional pro-apoptotic signals. Moreover, in cells exposed to apoptosis-inducing factors, ectopic expression of the Cdc6 peptides increased the rate of cell death. In contrast, expression of noncleavable Cdc6 suppressed apoptosis, indicating that fragmentation of the protein plays a causal role in the process even in the presence of known triggers.. Truncated Cdc6 interferes with loading of Mcm2 on the chromatin and thus disrupts assembly of the prereplication complex on chromosomes. That in turn ...
I made this for those asking for it. Its easy! Let me know if you need anything else fellow dark souls. * Also you may not have to ... ...
Previous investigations suggest that DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a promising multifaceted drug for the treatment of stroke. It is not clear whether NBP can treat traumatic brain injury (TBI) and what could be the mechanisms of therapeutic benefits. To address these issues, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact in adult male mice. NBP (100 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally administered within 5 min after TBI. One day after TBI, apoptotic events including caspase-3/9 activation, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation into the nucleus in the pericontusion region were attenuated in NBP-treated mice compared to TBI-saline controls. In the assessment of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) pathway, NBP ameliorated the p65 expression and the p-IκB-α/IκB-α ratio, indicating reduced NF-κB activation. Consistently, NBP reduced the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor ...
Leroy E. Hood, will receive the 2017 NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society. Hood is a biotech visionary who has revolutionized biology and medicine in a career that spans five decades. Among his many accomplishments, Hood invented, commercialized, and developed multiple chemical tools that address biological complexity, including the automated DNA sequencer which spearheaded the Human Genome Project.. Hoods earlier research work at Caltech led to the development of four DNA and protein sequencers and synthesizers, all of which became core instruments for contemporary molecular biology. Later, Hoods lab developed the ink-jet oligonucleotide synthesizer, a core technology for DNA chip synthesis and large-scale DNA synthesis, and the first instrument capable of global single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA molecules.. Beyond these innovations, Hood shepherded a cross-disciplinary approach to chemistry and biology, which led to the establishment of the Science and Technology Center for ...
Author(s): Nisar R, Hanson PS, He L, Taylor RW, Blain PG, Morris CM. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Archives of Toxicology. Year: 2015. Volume: 89. Issue: 10. Pages: 1811-1825. Print publication date: 01/10/2015. Online publication date: 19/02/2015. Acceptance date: 06/01/2015. Date deposited: 01/07/2015. ISSN (print): 0340-5761. ISSN (electronic): 1432-0738. Publisher: Springer. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-015-1453-5. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-015-1453-5. PubMed id: 25693864. ...
Proper activation of DRs is critical in regulation of T cell development and function. However, the nature of functional receptors, which are expressed on T cells at stages characterized by resistance to the impact of FasL, TNF, and TRAIL, remains to be established. In this study, we have shown that engagement of distinct epitopes on CD99 induced rapid death signaling in the majority of immature T cell lines examined, apparently by a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, only a few T cell lines were distinctly responsive to apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas and TRAIL. Differences between the Ad20/CD99-mediated death pathway and other novel nonclassical apoptotic pathways were also observed. Thus, our data suggest that CD99 may be a major DR used by the immune system to control T cells at stages before they acquire susceptibility to the impact of death-mediating cytokines of the TNF superfamily.. Previous studies have shown that activation of the CD99 domain specified by mAbs O662, L129, and DN16 ...
LB-18 compound: synthetic drug closely related to lembehyne-A (derived from a marine sponge) induces caspase-independent cell death to human neuroblastoma cells; structure in first source
This affordable Grim Reaper scythe lets everyone know their hourglass has run out. Molded plastic High Scythe features a classic silver scythe on a black pole.
This affordable Grim Reaper scythe lets everyone know their hourglass has run out. Molded plastic High Scythe features a classic silver scythe on a black pole.
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Sequencing-based approaches have led to new insights about DNA methylation. While many different techniques for genome-scale mapping of DNA methylation have been employed, throughput has been a key limitation for most. To further facilitate the mapping of DNA methylation, we describe a protocol for gel-free multiplexed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (mRRBS) that reduces the workload dramatically and enables processing of 96 or more samples per week. mRRBS achieves similar CpG coverage to the original RRBS protocol, while the higher throughput and lower cost make it better suited for large-scale DNA methylation mapping studies, including cohorts of cancer samples. ...
Among the candidate cancer-prognostic genes is the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which, when mutated, plays an important role in the development of many types of cancers. To facilitate robust large-scale DNA analysis of microdissected tumor biopsies, we describe a multiplex/nested PCR approach for a simultaneous outer amplification of exons 4-9 of the human p53 gene with parallel amplification of the HLA-DQB1 locus, involving a total of 14 primers. This approach reduces the required number of cells for analysis and avoids any variation in the amplifications of the individual p53 exons during the common outer amplification step. The HLA sequencing allows sample identification because the DQB1 locus is highly polymorphic and is thereby patient-specific. The p53 and HLA amplicons are analyzed by solid-phase sequencing in a semiautomated format. To improve the DNA sequence quality, we used 2-deoxyribonucleoside 5-O-1-thiotriphosphates in the sequencing reactions.. ...
The Genome Sciences Centre sequencing platform is a high-throughput large-scale DNA analysis facility that has been designed to maximize capacity while maintaining efficiency, scalability and flexibility. The platform is one of the largest platforms of its type in Canada and is well recognized internationally.. Current production scale capabilities of the capillary based platform include fosmid end sequencing, PCR amplicon sequencing, plasmid, and BAC end sequencing. We have two Applied Biosytems 3730xls yielding a capacity of 7680 lanes per week, or approx 6 million Q20 bases per week. The GSC sequencing platform prides itself on its flexibility and molecular biology enabling PCR, BAC, fosmid and plasmid DNA preps and several optimized reaction chemistries, allowing us to provide high-quality, high-yield, consistent data generation.. More information on the Illumina Platform.. Through our sequencing validation team we offer several high quality, high throughput targeted sequencing services. We ...
Expression of AIF1 (AIF-1, Em:AF129756.17, IBA1, IRT-1) in liver tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049234 in immunohistochemistry.
Looks like i did it guys! I finally made a build on my own that did a GR 70! (Note i have never done a GR 70 before but specifically wanted to design my own build to do it) I know it might share some similarities to other builds but ultimately the only thing other builds influenced is choosing Mirinae over Bane of the powerful. I needed the healing to keep me alive. I manged to do a GR70 with just over 5 minutes remaining and only 3 deaths. I dont really know how to do a build guide but i just focoused on CHC and CHD as well as max essence. Beyond that the skills and items speak for themselves.. ...
Ibutamoren MK-677 je silný tabletkový stimulant tvorby vlastného rastového hormónu (endogénneho HGH) a silne anabolického hormónu IGF-1 v tele. Športovci tento suplement využívajú predovšetkým pre jeho excelentnú schopnosť pomáhať budovať nové svalové prírastky (dosahovať pozitívnu dusíkovú bilanciu.
Sea icicles forming on undercut lip of the Drygalski Ice Tongue from wave action and freezing seawater, Ross Sea, Antarctica District, Antarctica Region, Antarctica stock photo. Quality New Zealand images by well known photographer Rob Suisted, Natures Pic Images.
Discover how to get to The Westin Trillium House, Blue Mountain. Learn more about taxis, airport shuttles, parking and other means of transportation in Blue Mountains.
Interest in potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of dietary ingredients, which are generally more tolerable in the human body ( 15), has increased in recent years, especially for the cancers that usually do not respond well to currently available therapies ( 17). Therefore, it is not surprising that chemoprevention of colon cancer, the leading cancer-related death in Western countries, is becoming more attractive. One of the dietary ingredients that possess anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties is curcumin. Epidemiologic data suggest that curcumin may be responsible for the lower colon cancer rate in India and Southeast Asia ( 39). Based on that and its long history of consumption without any adverse health effects, curcumin is considered to be a safe chemopreventative agent ( 15).. Although it was suggested previously that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated through the impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ( 40), the exact mechanism was not fully ...
Precisely blended botanicals to emulate Harlequins flavor & attributes found in nature!. Channel the all-day fun of the pantomiming street jester without losing too much edge on the sense of humor, with the sativa "Harlequin". Super-high Myrcene counts allow for a focused and light-hearted experience without too much psychoactive, fast-thinking side effects, making it ideal for novice users or those looking for pain relief. ...
Expression of AIF1 (AIF-1, Em:AF129756.17, IBA1, IRT-1) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049234 in immunohistochemistry.
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I just built GIGABYTE GA-P35-DS3R Intel Core 2 Duo E6750 Scythe Infinity HSF eVGA 8800GTS 320MB Superclocked 2x1GB Crucial Ballastix (MicronD9GMH)...
Mice and primary neuronal cultures. Hq, Apaf1-/-, and Bax-/- mice were maintained and genotyped as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2002). Cortical neurons and cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were cultured from cortices of E15.5 mice and cerebellums of postnatal day 7 mice, respectively, as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001). Recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying human AIF or LacZ expression cassettes were prepared and used at 50 multiplicity of infection as described previously (Cregan et al., 2002).. Camptothecin treatment and cell viability assays. Neurons were treated with 10 μm camptothecin with or without 10 μm Boc-aspartyl (Ome)-fluoromethylketone (BAF) (Enzyme System Products, Livermore, CA) after 2 d in vitro (DIV). Cell survival was measured by the following: live/dead staining (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), Hoechst staining, MTT assay (Cell Titer kit; Promega, Madison, WI), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end ...
These two grants laid the groundwork for investment from four additional awards. In October 2009, UW Medicine received a large-scale DNA sequencing project award from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), made under the auspices of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The lions share, $25 million, has been used to launch the Northwest Genomics Center at UW Medicine. An additional $2 million grant from the states Life Sciences Discovery Fund is supporting the new centers infrastructure. Deborah A. Nickerson, professor of genome sciences and one of the centers principal investigators, says the grant recognizes UW Medicines expertise in genomics. "Weve been working in the area of medical sequencing for quite some time, particularly in cardiovascular disease," says Nickerson.. The lions share, $25 million, has been used to launch the Northwest Genomics Center at UW Medicine. An additional $2 million grant from the states Life Sciences Discovery Fund is ...
Large-scale DNA molecular studies require reliable and efficient tools for DNA extractions. However, for some plant species and brown algae, isolation of high-quality DNA is difficult. We developed a novel method for isolating high-quality DNA from the polysaccharide-rich and polyphenol-rich brown algae based on a commercial kit and protocol (Qiagen) by optimizing the lysis step and including a chloroform/isoamyl alcohol supplementary purification step. DNAs from 24 brown algal species extracted using the original and the modified Qiagen protocol were compared for yield, quality, and effectiveness in PCR amplification. There was no significant difference in the yields between protocols. However, a statistically significant increase in DNA purity was obtained with the modified protocol, for which the A260/A280 and A260/A230 absorbance ratios averaged 1.66 ± 0.05 and 1.31 ± 0.01, respectively, compared to 1.37 ± 0.04 and 0.52 ± 0.04 with the original protocol. DNAs extracted by the modified ...
Parkinsons disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and the Dawson lab is studying the genetic basis of PD by investigating the mechanisms by which mutations in familial-linked genes cause PD, with hopes of identifying potential therapeutic targets for developing PD treatments. Current projects include the study of alpha-synuclein, LRRK2, parkin and PINK1.. Nitric oxide is a major player in neuronal cell death and the Dawson team has discovered parthanatos, a caspase-independent programmed cell death pathway involving apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) downstream of NO and its major target poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The team now is further characterizing that pathway to identify targets of AIF and the roles of other cell death effectors with the hope of identifying new signaling pathways that might be amenable to therapeutic intervention. In addition they are investigating the role of poly (ADP-ribose) as signaling molecule.. Representative Publications:. ...
... Stock Vector Conceptual Abstract Suit Card Magician Games Leisure Joker Juggler Juggling Pandora GraphicRiver Joker Harlequin Card 4438184 Stock Vec
About two weeks ago, I came a across a Tweet that said Harlequin was having a pitch challenge for its Blaze line. If you dont know Harlequin, its a company...
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University-parallel introductory chemistry sequence. Structure of matter, bonding, reactions, and changes of state. 3 class/3 lab/1 rec hours ...
Lapin AIF1 Polyclonal anticorps AA 116-147 pour IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB. Publier en 3 références Pubmed. Commandez anti-AIF1 anticorp. | Numéro de produit ABIN685477
As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the apoptotic machinery (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C. elegans proteins (i.e. caspases, Apaf-1 and multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family) participate in cell death-unrelated processes. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations of ced-4 compromise the mitotic arrest of DNA-damaged germline cells from adult nematodes, even in a context in which the apoptotic machinery is inoperative (for instance due to mutations of egl-1 or ced-3). Moreover, EGL-1 is required for the activation of autophagy in starved nematodes. Finally, the depletion of caspase-independent death effectors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G, provokes cell death-independent ...
Im a Harlequin veteran, long-time association. Ive written more than 60 books for them and was sent on publicity tours (no pay but nice digs), trotted out for interviews, touted at parties, the whole nine yards. I know Harlequin rather well. All this financial stuff aside, and its sadly true, what about how they treat their authors otherwise? After a long association and many books on various bestseller lists as well as beaucoup awards all over the place, I was thrown away like a rotten fish. No nice phone call about how my numbers were down. (If they were, because I dont know if that was a problem for sure and certainly if Id known it, Id have taken a different and more favorable course in my writing for them.) I got along with everyone I ever met at Harlequin. I made it my business not to make enemies and not to burn bridges. My editor (my 15th or 16th there) got fired one day and emails to her went unanswered by anyone. Another author finally told me she was gone. I wasnt assigned a ...
As a forum for professional feedback, submissions of letters are open to all. You do not need to be a subscriber. To avoid redundancy, we urge you to read other peoples letters before submitting your own. Name, current appointment, place of work, and email address are required to send a letter, and will be published with your review. We also require that you declare any competing financial interests. Unprofessional submissions will not be considered or responded to.. ...
Stock Photo of Harlequin Ghost Pipefish. High Quality Harlequin Ghost Pipefish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Harlequin Ghost Pipefish. High Quality Harlequin Ghost Pipefish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
These Harlequin thigh highs are great for various costumes. Make a DIY Alice in Wonderland costume, or even a fabulous Queen of Hearts!
Our friends the Merle Australian Shepherds are not the only dogs who are an intersection of two different lethal semi-dominant alleles; Harlequin Great Danes share this problematic status as both […]
AIF1L produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 170 amino acids (1-150a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 19.2kDa.AIF1L is fused to a 20 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary technologyary technonl
AbeBooks.com: Ambon - Island of Mist - 2/21st Battalion AIF ( Gull Force ) Prisoners of War 1941 - 45 (9780731647514) by Courtney T. Harrison and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
The Central Bank of Ireland AIF Rulebook was introduced with effect from 22 July, 2013 to coincide with the implementation of the AIFMD as transposed in Ireland by the EU (AIFM) Regulations 2013 (SI257/2013). Ireland Finance and Banking Dillon Eustace 13 Jan 2016
July 19, 1983... The Kinards, the Richardses and the Webbers -- Seattles Kennedys. Their compound -- elegant Forrester Square... until the fateful
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Preferred Name: Obinutuzumab Definition: A glycoengineered, humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Obinutuzumab, a third generation type II anti-CD20 antibody, selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of the human CD20 antigen on malignant human B cells. The Fc region carbohydrates of the antibody, enriched in bisected non-fucosylated glycosylation variants, contribute to its higher binding affinity for human FcgammaRIII receptors compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and caspase-independent apoptosis. In addition, modification of elbow hinge sequences within the antibody variable framework regions may account for the strong apoptosis-inducing activity of R7159 upon binding to CD20 on target cells. Display Name: Obinutuzumab Label: Obinutuzumab NCI Thesaurus Code: C70741 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C2742503 (see NCI Metathesaurus ...
It is recognized by both the British Rabbit Council[1] and American Rabbit Breeders Association. The Harlequin rabbit is playful, docile, and intelligent. Like most breeds the rabbit can respond to its own name and even be litter box trained. They are gentle, but like all other rabbits, are high maintenance. Rabbits are exotic and require consistent care by responsible and financially capable individuals. Harlequin rabbits come in two types: Japanese and Magpie. Japanese Harlequins are generally orange and either black, blue, chocolate, or lilac, while Magpie Harlequins are white (instead of orange) and either black, blue, chocolate, or lilac. A "perfect" Harlequin will be split between the two colors on the head, ears, feet, and body. It kind of looks like a perfect stripe between the two colors. Some Harlequins will have orange or white bellies. The current American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) Standard of Perfection calls for a 3 part frontal alternation. The ears are two different ...
The mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) is involved in protein transport, lipid homeostasis and metal ion exchange, while further acting in signalling pathways such as apoptosis. Regulation of these processes involves protein modifications, as well as stress-induced import or release of proteins …
Cette publication a donnée lieu à un commentaire dans la revue Immunity, 2008, 29(1): 1-2. Kazama H, Ricci JE, Herndon JM, Hoppe G, Green DR and Ferguson TA. Induction of immunological tolerance by apoptotic cells requires caspase-dependent oxidation of high-mobility group box-1 protein. Immunity, 2008, 29(1): 21-32.. Mastino A, Basu S, Brunner T, Ricci JE and Diederich M. Long live the cell death! Cell Death Differ, 2008, 15(8): 1330-1332. 2007 Colell, A.,* Ricci, J. E.,* Tait, S., Milasta, S., Maurer, U., Bouchier-Hayes, L., Fitzgerald, P., Guio-Carrion, A., Waterhouse, N. J., Wei Li, C., Mari, B., Barbry, P., Newmeyer, D. D.,. Beere, H. and Green, D. R. (2007) GAPDH and autophagy preserve cellular survival during caspase-independent cell death Cell, 129(5):983-997. *co-first author.. Cette publication a donnée lieu à des commentaires dans les revues Cell et Nature Cell Biology (Cell. 2007 Jun 1;129(5):861-3 -- Nat Cell Biol. (2007) Aug;9(8):869-70). Ricci, JE, Munoz-Pinedo, C, Fitzgerald, ...
THC 5% CBD 15% Harlequin is a hybrid of several landrace strains, including Thai, Colombian Gold, Swiss, and Nepalese. The mix itself makes for a unique plant. The Thai, Columbian, and Swiss provide sativa lineage to the plant. Yet, the Nepalese adds in some indica traits. Harlequin is high in non-psychoactive CBD...
Zaidi AU, McDonough JS, Klocke BJ, Latham CB, Korsmeyer SJ, Flavell RA, Schmidt RE, Roth KA. Chloroquine-induced neuronal cell death is p53 and Bcl-2 family-dependent but caspase-independent ...
I went through hell to return to you! Dina was overcome by guilt when she heard her husbands words. But she couldnt welcome him back with open a
The effects against tumors exerted by marine active compounds have been highlighted and investigated. mitochondrial depolarization. Western blot analysis showed that HA nanoparticles-aggregated HET further increased mitochondrial-associated, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent, as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors in comparison with ...
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This gene is specifically expressed in the thymus, and encodes a protein that is localized to the mitochondrion. The expression of this gene is inducible by p53, and it is thought to play an important role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
Anyway, as I came up with the title for this post I was reminded of that song by Engelbert Humperdinck (if youre too young to know who he is, dont tell me!). "Please Release Me, Let Me Go..." it goes on to tell about a love affair thats ended. For a romance reader and author its a sad song. UNLESS we look at it as the stepping stone to the greater love. The One ...
There could be little in the way of challenging the weekends stand-out result and Ballynahinchs triumph over Terenure College, in Division 1A, took all the plaudits even though, down
Charlie Hodgson has spent his entire career fending off accusations of defensive frailty, but on Friday night he produced one of the most telling tackles of the season.
Если у вас в жизни мало романтики , то вам неприменно нужно почитать книжки-малышки издательства Harlequin. Малышки от Ареликино полностью оправдают все ваши романтические ожидания. Предлагаем вашему вниманию небольшую поэму навеянную романтическими заголовками книжек-малышек. Каждая строфа поэмы Попутчики состоит из названия Read More › ...
Yes, thats likely. The harlequins seem to gather around the window frames in surprisingly large numbers, Ive heard they can be quite a nuisance indoors too. We see an increasing number of different coloured ones, theyre bigger than the native ones too.. LikeLike. Reply. ...
It is now well established that chemotherapy-induced reduction in tumor load is a function of apoptotic cell death, orchestrated by intracellular caspase proteases. However, the effectiveness of some of these therapies is blunted by mutations affecting specific effectors genes controlling and/or regulating apoptotic signaling. Therefore, there has been a surge of activity around identification of novel pathways of cell death, which could function in tandem with or in the absence of efficient apoptotic machinery. In this regard, recent evidence has highlighted the existence of a novel, caspase-independent cell death pathway, termed autophagy, which is activated in response to growth factor deprivation or upon exposure to genotoxic compounds. It should be noted that autophagy has been described as a cell survival mechanism as well as a death execution pathway. Using a novel small molecule 1,3-dibutyl-2-thiooxo-imidazolidine-4,5-dione (C1), which is a strong inducer of intracellular hydrogen ...
In the present study, evodiamine was found to exhibit significant antitumor activity against human leukemic cancer cells. Evodiamine-induced apoptosis was mediated by two different types of pathways (e.g., caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways) in human U937 leukemia cells. We also found that evodiamine significantly induced apoptosis in both human leukemia and renal cancer cells that are overexpressed antiapoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Akt, and cFLIPs, whereas evodiamine did not cause significant normal PBMC death.. Multiple myeloma and acute myelogenous leukemia are cancers with high mortality rates, where novel strategies are required to improve on current treatment standards (38). To overcome drug resistance and improve clinical outcomes, identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic agents that have less toxicity in normal cells for treatment of multiple myeloma and acute myelogenous leukemia are important and challenging tasks.. Evodiamine is an alkaloidal component ...
The astonishing success of the alien invasive harlequin ladybird in Britain has given a team of scientists a unique opportunity to investigate a key ecological theory - the Enemy Release Hypothesis.
Finding Isabella Montenegro and her young daughter and bringing them back to testify should have been easy. But one look at Isabella and Texas Confide
Bagnjuk, K.; Blohberger, J.; Tiefenbacher, A.; Kunz, Lars; Mayr, D.; Mayerhofer, A. (2017): Necroptosis - an unexplored form of cell death in the ovary. In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Vol. 52, No. S1: p. 7 ...

Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to...Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to...

XAF1 mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis cleavage by acting through the ... Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to ... Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to ... inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor-1 as an interferon-stimulated gene that augments TRAIL Apo2L-induced apoptosis. J Biol ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.24814/references

TRAIL-R3 elisa kit | Cavy Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand 3 ELISA Kit-NP 001177872.1TRAIL-R3 elisa kit | Cavy Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand 3 ELISA Kit-NP 001177872.1

Cavy Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand 3 ELISA Kit-NP_001177872.1 (MBS019114) product datasheet at ... Apoptosis Pathway antibodies. Apoptosis Pathway Diagram. Apoptosis Modulation And Signaling Pathway antibodies. Apoptosis ... tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand splice variant delta UniProt Protein Name Tumor necrosis factor ligand ... Cavy Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand 3 ELISA Kit. Product Gene Name TRAIL-R3 elisa kit. [Similar ...
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Erratum: Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced...Erratum: Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced...

T2 - Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis ... Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis ( ... Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis ( ... Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis ( ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/erratum-human-astrocytes-are-resistant-to-fas-ligand-and-tumor-ne

Apoptosis-inducing factor - WikipediaApoptosis-inducing factor - Wikipedia

Apoptosis inducing factor is a flavoprotein. Apoptosis inducing factor is involved in initiating a caspase-independent pathway ... Human genes encoding apoptosis inducing factor isozymes include: AIFM1 AIFM2 AIFM3 Apoptosis Parthanatos PDB: 1M6I​; Ye H, ... Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) is a protein that triggers chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in a cell in order to ... Candé C, Cohen I, Daugas E, Ravagnan L, Larochette N, Zamzami N, Kroemer G (2002). "Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a novel ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis-inducing_factor

Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 - WikipediaApoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 - Wikipedia

... pylori-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells mediated via the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria ... Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3". Retrieved 2017-10-24. Xie Q, Lin T, Zhang Y, Zheng J, Bonanno JA (2005 ... induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro". Exp. Cell Res. 318 (8): 944-54. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis_inducing_factor,_mitochondria_associated_3

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): caspase-independent after all.  - PubMed - NCBIApoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): caspase-independent after all. - PubMed - NCBI

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): caspase-independent after all.. Candé C1, Vahsen N, Garrido C, Kroemer G. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15017385?dopt=Abstract

Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor.  - PubMed - NCBIMolecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. - PubMed - NCBI

Here we report the identification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, which is sufficient to induce apoptosis of ... Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor.. Susin SA1, Lorenzo HK, Zamzami N, Marzo I, Snow BE, ... it is normally confined to mitochondria but translocates to the nucleus when apoptosis is induced. Recombinant AIF causes ... It induces purified mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. Microinjection of AIF into the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9989411?dopt=Abstract

SIVA1 (SIVA1, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor)SIVA1 (SIVA1, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor)

Apoptosis-Inducing Factor), Authors: João Agostinho Machado-Neto, Fabiola Traina. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... SIVA1 (SIVA1, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor). Written. 2013-10. João Agostinho Machado-Neto, Fabiola Traina. ... CD27, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces apoptosis and binds to Siva, a proapoptotic protein.. ... SIVA1 overexpression induces apoptosis (Py et al., 2004), while SIVA1 inhibition reduces apoptosis (Resch et al., 2009).. ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/SIVA1ID42301ch14q32.html

Anti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibody Products | BiocompareAnti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibody Products | Biocompare

Compare Anti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... Anti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibody Products. Anti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor antibodies are available from ... Your search returned 130 SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibodies across 24 suppliers. ... The protein may also be known as CD27BP, Siva-1, Siva-2, apoptosis regulatory protein Siva, and CD27-binding (Siva) protein. ...
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AIFM2 (apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2)AIFM2 (apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2)

... apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2), Authors: Miroslav Varecha. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... AIFM2 (apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2). Written. 2009-06. Miroslav Varecha. ... A novel p53-inducible apoptogenic gene, PRG3, encodes a homologue of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF).. ... The human apoptosis-inducing protein AMID is an oxidoreductase with a modified flavin cofactor and DNA binding activity.. ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_AIFM2.html

Siva1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1353606 - SIVA1, apoptosis-inducing factorSiva1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1353606 - SIVA1, apoptosis-inducing factor

J:117434 Prasad KV, et al., CD27, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces apoptosis and binds to Siva, a ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1353606

apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comapoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Your search returned 112 apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 13 suppliers. ... Background: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a rational target... read more ...
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AIFM1 - Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrial - Homo sapiens (Human) - AIFM1 gene & proteinAIFM1 - Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrial - Homo sapiens (Human) - AIFM1 gene & protein

Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrialImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,E9PRR0,E9PRR0_HUMAN Apoptosis-inducing factor 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=AIFM1 PE=4 SV=1 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E9PRR0

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer CellsIJMS | Free Full-Text | Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cells

... and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also ... In conclusion, montelukast induced lung cancer cell death via the nuclear translocation of AIF. This study confirmed the chemo- ... Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further ... apoptosis-inducing factor; asthma cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists; montelukast; lung cancer; apoptosis-inducing ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/7/1353

Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms |...Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms |...

Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms. ... Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms ... Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms ... Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-Dependent and BAX-Independent Mechanisms ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/6/1324.long

Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondriaThimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria

... * ... Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. ... Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. ... Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijmm/16/6/971

Poly(ADP-Ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical for PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)...Poly(ADP-Ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical for PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)...

Poly(ADP-ribose) binds to apoptosis-inducing factor to trigger its release from mitochondria and induce cell death. ... Poly(ADP-ribose) binds to apoptosis-inducing factor to trigger its release from mitochondria and induce cell death. ... The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)- ... Poly(ADP-Ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical for PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos) ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/4/167/ra20

Overexpression of nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 altered the proteomic profile of human gastric cancer cell MKN45 and...Overexpression of nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 altered the proteomic profile of human gastric cancer cell MKN45 and...

Nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (NAIF1) was previously reported to induce apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of NAIF1 was ... Overexpression of nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 altered the proteomic profile of human gastric cancer cell MKN45 and ... However, the mechanism by which the NAIF1 gene induces apoptosis is not fully understood. Our results show that NAIF1 was ... We also discovered that NAIF1 could induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase by altering the expression of cell cycle proteins ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24926661

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leukocyte elastase inhibitor/L-DNase II (LEI/LDNaseII), can interact to conduct caspase...Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leukocyte elastase inhibitor/L-DNase II (LEI/LDNaseII), can interact to conduct caspase...

Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2013-5-16 Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leukocyte elastase ... namely apoptosis-inducing factor and leukocyte elastase inhibitor derived DNase II interact and can cooperate to induce cell ... Programmed cell death is an important factor in tissue homeostasis. Lot of work has been performed to characterize the caspase- ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/23673989

Primary Antibodies-Anti-Human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) IgG aff pure-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc.Primary Antibodies-Anti-Human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) IgG aff pure-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc.

Anti-Human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) IgG aff pure Primary Antibodies AIF12-A Anti-human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) ... Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF); isolated nuclei. AIF translocates to the nucleus; bacterial ferredoxins , mitochondrial ... Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF); isolated nuclei. AIF translocates to the nucleus; bacterial ferredoxins , mitochondrial ... IgG aff pure Primary Antibodies AIF12-A Anti-human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) IgG #1 , aff pure; Mitochondria programmed ...
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Defining NADH-Driven Allostery Regulating Apoptosis-Inducing Factor. - Folding@homeDefining NADH-Driven Allostery Regulating Apoptosis-Inducing Factor. - [email protected]

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is critical for mitochondrial respiratory complex biogenesis and for mediating necroptotic ... Defining NADH-Driven Allostery Regulating Apoptosis-Inducing Factor.. December 6, 2016. by Anton Thynell ...
more infohttps://foldingathome.org/2016/12/06/defining-nadh-driven-allostery-regulating-apoptosis-inducing-factor/

Translocation of apoptosis‐inducing factor in cerebellar granule cells exposed to neurotoxic agents inducing oxidative stress,...Translocation of apoptosisinducing factor in cerebellar granule cells exposed to neurotoxic agents inducing oxidative stress,...

... inducing factor in cerebellar granule cells exposed to neurotoxic agents inducing oxidative stress, European Journal of ... Translocation of apoptosisinducing factor in cerebellar granule cells exposed to neurotoxic agents inducing oxidative stress. ... Translocation of apoptosisinducing factor in cerebellar granule cells exposed to neurotoxic agents inducing oxidative stress. ... Apoptosisinducing factor (AIF): a ubiquitous mitochondrial oxidoreductase involved in apoptosis. Daugas, Daugas; Nochy, Nochy ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/translocation-of-apoptosis-inducing-factor-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-8E01rvIjXc/1

Cowchock Syndrome Is Associated with a Mutation in Apoptosis-Inducing Factor - Physiology, Anatomy and GeneticsCowchock Syndrome Is Associated with a Mutation in Apoptosis-Inducing Factor - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics

Cowchock Syndrome Is Associated with a Mutation in Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Rinaldi C., Grunseich C., Sevrioukova IF., ...
more infohttps://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/689041

The harlequin mouse mutation downregulates apoptosis-inducing factor. by J A. Klein, Guess C. Longo et al.The harlequin mouse mutation downregulates apoptosis-inducing factor." by J A. Klein, Guess C. Longo et al.

We have identified the Hq mutation as a proviral insertion in the apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) gene, causing about an 80% ... Mutant cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to exogenous and endogenous peroxide-mediated apoptosis, but can be rescued by ... retina of Hq mutant mice re-enter the cell cycle before undergoing apoptosis. Our results provide a genetic model of oxidative ... We have identified the Hq mutation as a proviral insertion in the apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) gene, causing about an 80% ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/stfb2000_2009/413/

Critical Roles of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Type 1 Diabetes | DiabetesCritical Roles of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Type 1 Diabetes | Diabetes

TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand ( ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not most ... Apoptosis induced in normal human hepatocytes by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.Nat Med6:564-567,2000 ... Thomas WD, Hersey P: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in Fas ligand-resistant melanoma cells and ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/9/2274
  • Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) in the Drosophila Visual System Zachary Lemmon and Joseph E. O'Tousa. (slideplayer.com)
  • Presentation on theme: "Characterization of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) in the Drosophila Visual System Zachary Lemmon and Joseph E. O'Tousa. (slideplayer.com)
  • In humans, TRAIL interaction with either of two death-domain containing receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) or TRAIL-R2 (DR5), leads to apoptosis in target cells [ 4 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite this potential, TRAIL use as a stand-alone therapeutic has been hampered by the fact that many primary tumor cells are inherently resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, despite expressing extracellular TRAIL receptors [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The reasons for this are unclear, but may include a combination of the following: reduced expression of the death-inducing receptors TRAIL -R1 and -R2, reduced expression of downstream caspase 8, or overexpression of antiapoptotic molecules such as FLIP. (hindawi.com)
  • However, only colchicine triggers the activation of caspases, suggesting that factors other than caspase‐activated DNase (CAD) are responsible for DNA cleavage in the other two models. (deepdyve.com)
  • TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1 or death receptor 4) ( 6 ) and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2, death receptor 5, TRICK2, or KILLER) ( 7 , 8 ) have cytoplasmic death domains, and can activate both caspases and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The combined use of apigenin and TRAIL at suboptimal concentrations induces Bcl-2-interacting domain cleavage and the activation of caspases-8, -10, -9, and -3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary Antibodies-Anti-Human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) IgG aff pure-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • Their intermembrane space contains several proteins that are liberated through the outer membrane in order to participate in the degradation phase of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment with HDACi at nontoxic doses, followed by incubation with TRAIL, resulted in a marked increase in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of T24 cells but showed no significant increase in toxicity to SV40 immortalized normal human uroepithelial cell-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NO-mediated toxicity is the predominant mechanism responsible for β cell dysfunction and apoptosis induced by soluble mediators. (rupress.org)
  • In the second model, we treated normal and TRAIL-deficient C57BL/6 mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin to induce diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cyclophosphamide (CY)-accelerated diabetes and the low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes are putative mouse models of human type 1 diabetes ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes was induced by five consecutive daily injections of low-concentration (50 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ) in C57 black mice ( n = 24). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitocho‌ndrial toxicity and oxidative stress. (ac.ir)
  • Apo-2L) is a TNF family member capable of inducing apoptosis and has recently received great attention because of its therapeutic potential for cancer. (aacrjournals.org)