One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.

Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF): a phylogenetically old, caspase-independent effector of cell death. (1/444)

Although much emphasis has been laid on the role of caspase in cell death, recent data indicate that, in many instances, mammalian cell death is caspase-independent. Thus, in many examples of mammalian cell death the 'decision' between death and life is upstream or independent of caspase activation. Similarly, it is unclear whether PCD of plants and fungi involves the activation of caspase-like enzymes, and no caspase-like gene has thus far been cloned in these phyla. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a new mammalian, caspase-independent death effector which, upon apoptosis induction, translocates from its normal localization, the mitochondrial intermembrane space, to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, AIF causes chromatin condensation and large scale DNA fragmentation to fragments of approximately 50 kbp. The AIF cDNA from mouse and man codes for a protein which possesses three domains (i) an amino-terminal presequence which is removed upon import into the intermembrane space of mitochondria; (ii) a spacer sequence of approximately 27 amino acids; and (iii) a carboxyterminal 484 amino acid oxidoreductase domain with strong homology to oxidoreductases from other vertebrates (X. laevis), non-vertebrate animals (C. elegans, D. melanogaster), plants, fungi, eubacteria, and archaebacteria. Functionally important amino acids involved in the interaction with the prosthetic groups flavin adenine nucleotide and nicotinamide adenine nucleotide are strongly conserved between AIF and bacterial oxidoreductase. Several eukaryotes possess a similar domain organisation in their AIF homologs, making them candidates to be mitochondrial oxidoreductases as well as caspase-independent death effectors. The phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Mitochondria and cell death. Mechanistic aspects and methodological issues. (2/444)

Mitochondria are involved in cell death for reasons that go beyond ATP supply. A recent advance has been the discovery that mitochondria contain and release proteins that are involved in the apoptotic cascade, like cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor. The involvement of mitochondria in cell death, and its being cause or consequence, remain issues that are extremely complex to address in situ. The response of mitochondria may critically depend on the type of stimulus, on its intensity, and on the specific mitochondrial function that has been primarily perturbed. On the other hand, the outcome also depends on the integration of mitochondrial responses that cannot be dissected easily. Here, we try to identify the mechanistic aspects of mitochondrial involvement in cell death as can be derived from our current understanding of mitochondrial physiology, with special emphasis on the permeability transition and its consequences (like onset of swelling, cytochrome c release and respiratory inhibition); and to critically evaluate methods that are widely used to monitor mitochondrial function in situ.  (+info)

The novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid can trigger apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway independent of the nucleus. (3/444)

The novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid (AHPN/CD437), a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)gamma activator, has been found to inhibit the growth and to induce apoptosis of a wide variety of malignant cell types including solid tumors and various leukemias. Interestingly, CD437 is able to induce apoptosis in some all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-resistant models. In a number of experimental systems, the early apoptotic stage that precedes nuclear chromatinolysis consists in mitochondrial alterations, including a disruption of the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta(psi)m) mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Similarly CD437 causes RPMI 8226, a human myeloma cell line, to undergo a rapid delta(psi)m disruption that precedes other apoptotic alterations such as the generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation. The same sequence of events is observed during the CD437-induced apoptosis in L363, a RARgamma-negative human myeloma cell line, as well as RPMI 8226 cytoplasts (anucleate cells). Indeed, RPMI 8226 cells and cytoplasts manifest a similar degree in delta(psi)m loss, phosphatidylserine exposure, and caspase activation in response to CD437, which indicates that nuclear effects cannot account for the apoptogenic potential of CD437. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspases as well as nuclear signs of CD437-induced apoptosis are fully prevented by the MPT inhibitory compound cyclosporin A. Purified mitochondria can be directly induced to undergo MPT with CD437 but not with ATRA. In a cell-free in vitro system consisting of exposing mitochondrial supernatants to isolated nuclei, only supernatants from CD437-treated mitochondria provoke chromatin condensation, whereas supernatants from mitochondria treated with ATRA, or with the combination of CD437 and cyclosporin A, remain inactive. In conclusion, these results suggest that the rapid execution of CD437-induced apoptosis is a nucleus-independent (and probably RARgamma-independent) phenomenon involving mitochondria and MPT.  (+info)

Mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of AIF in apoptosis and necrosis. (4/444)

Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a novel apoptotic effector protein that induces chromatin condensation and large-scale ( approximately 50 kbp) DNA fragmentation when added to purified nuclei in vitro. Confocal and electron microscopy reveal that, in normal cells, AIF is strictly confined to mitochondria and thus colocalizes with heat shock protein 60 (hsp60). On induction of apoptosis by staurosporin, c-Myc, etoposide, or ceramide, AIF (but not hsp60) translocates to the nucleus. This suggests that only the outer mitochondrial membrane (which retains AIF in the intermembrane space) but not the inner membrane (which retains hsp60 in the matrix) becomes protein permeable. The mitochondrio-nuclear redistribution of AIF is prevented by a Bcl-2 protein specifically targeted to mitochondrial membranes. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. fmk does not prevent the staurosporin-induced translocation of AIF, although it does inhibit oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and arrests chromatin condensation at an early stage. ATP depletion is sufficient to cause AIF translocation to the nucleus, and this phenomenon is accelerated by the apoptosis inducer staurosporin. However, in conditions in which both glycolytic and respiratory ATP generation is inhibited, cells fail to manifest any sign of chromatin condensation and advanced DNA fragmentation, thus manifesting a 'necrotic' phenotype. Both in the presence of Z-VAD. fmk and in conditions of ATP depletion, AIF translocation correlates with the appearance of large-scale DNA fragmentation. Altogether, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that AIF is a caspase-independent mitochondrial death effector responsible for partial chromatinolysis.  (+info)

Induction of metabolism-dependent and -independent neutrophil apoptosis by clozapine. (5/444)

Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia, causes neutropenia and agranulocytosis in 3 and 0.8% of patients, respectively. Clozapine undergoes bioactivation to a chemically reactive nitrenium ion, which has been shown to cause neutrophil cytotoxicity. To define further the mechanism of cell death, we have investigated the toxicity of clozapine, its stable metabolites, and its chemically reactive nitrenium ion to neutrophils and lymphocytes. Clozapine was able to induce neutrophil apoptosis at therapeutic concentrations (1-3 microM) only when it was bioactivated to the nitrenium ion. The parent drug caused apoptosis at supratherapeutic concentrations (100-300 microM) only. Neutrophil apoptosis induced by the nitrenium ion, but not by the parent drug itself, was inhibited by antioxidants and genistein and was accompanied by cell surface haptenation (assessed by flow cytometry) and glutathione depletion. Dual-color flow cytometry showed that neutrophils that were haptenated were the same cells that underwent apoptosis. No apoptosis of lymphocytes was evident with the nitrenium ion or the parent drug, despite the fact that the former caused cell surface haptenation, glutathione depletion, and loss of membrane integrity. Demethylclozapine, the major stable metabolite in vivo, showed a profile that was similar to, although less marked than that observed with clozapine. N-oxidation of clozapine or replacement of the nitrogen (at position 5) by sulfur produced compounds that were entirely nontoxic to neutrophils. In conclusion, the findings of the study expand on potential mechanisms of clozapine-induced cytotoxicity, which may be of relevance to the major forms of toxicity encountered in patients taking this drug.  (+info)

BNIP3 and genetic control of necrosis-like cell death through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (6/444)

Many apoptotic signaling pathways are directed to mitochondria, where they initiate the release of apoptogenic proteins and open the proposed mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore that ultimately results in the activation of the caspase proteases responsible for cell disassembly. BNIP3 (formerly NIP3) is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in mitochondria and induces apoptosis without a functional BH3 domain. We report that endogenous BNIP3 is loosely associated with mitochondrial membrane in normal tissue but fully integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane with the N terminus in the cytoplasm and the C terminus in the membrane during induction of cell death. Surprisingly, BNIP3-mediated cell death is independent of Apaf-1, caspase activation, cytochrome c release, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. However, cells transfected with BNIP3 exhibit early plasma membrane permeability, mitochondrial damage, extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, and mitochondrial autophagy, yielding a morphotype that is typical of necrosis. These changes were accompanied by rapid and profound mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by opening of the mitochondrial PT pore, proton electrochemical gradient (Deltapsim) suppression, and increased reactive oxygen species production. The PT pore inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid blocked mitochondrial dysregulation and cell death. We propose that BNIP3 is a gene that mediates a necrosis-like cell death through PT pore opening and mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing protein derived from fish infected with Anisakis simplex, a causative nematode of human anisakiasis. (7/444)

While investigating the effect of marine products on cell growth, we found that visceral extracts of Chub mackerel, an ocean fish, had a powerful and dose-dependent apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of mammalian tumor cells. This activity was strikingly dependent on infection of the C. mackerel with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex. After purification of the protein responsible for the apoptosis-inducing activity, we cloned the corresponding gene and found it to be a flavoprotein. This protein, termed apoptosis-inducing protein (AIP), was also found to possess an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (C-terminal KDEL sequence) and H2O2-producing activity, indicating that we had isolated a novel reticuloplasimin with potent apoptosis-inducing activity. AIP was induced in fish only after infection with larval nematode and was localized to capsules that formed around larvae to prevent their migration to host tissues. Our results suggest that AIP may function to impede nematode infection.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a ubiquitous mitochondrial oxidoreductase involved in apoptosis. (8/444)

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is encoded by one single gene located on the X chromosome. AIF is ubiquitously expressed, both in normal tissues and in a variety of cancer cell lines. The AIF precursor is synthesized in the cytosol and is imported into mitochondria. The mature AIF protein, a flavoprotein (prosthetic group: flavine adenine dinucleotide) with significant homology to plant ascorbate reductases and bacterial NADH oxidases, is normally confined to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In a variety of different apoptosis-inducing conditions, AIF translocates through the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Ectopic (extra-mitochondrial) AIF induces nuclear chromatin condensation, as well as large scale ( approximately 50 kb) DNA fragmentation. Thus, similar to cytochrome c, AIF is a phylogenetically old, bifunctional protein with an electron acceptor/donor (oxidoreductase) function and a second apoptogenic function. In contrast to cytochrome c, however, AIF acts in a caspase-independent fashion. The molecular mechanisms via which AIF induces apoptosis are discussed.  (+info)

The Genome Sciences Centre sequencing platform is a high-throughput large-scale DNA analysis facility that has been designed to maximize capacity while maintaining efficiency, scalability and flexibility. The platform is one of the largest platforms of its type in Canada and is well recognized internationally.. Current production scale capabilities of the capillary based platform include fosmid end sequencing, PCR amplicon sequencing, plasmid, and BAC end sequencing. We have two Applied Biosytems 3730xls yielding a capacity of 7680 lanes per week, or approx 6 million Q20 bases per week. The GSC sequencing platform prides itself on its flexibility and molecular biology enabling PCR, BAC, fosmid and plasmid DNA preps and several optimized reaction chemistries, allowing us to provide high-quality, high-yield, consistent data generation.. More information on the Illumina Platform.. Through our sequencing validation team we offer several high quality, high throughput targeted sequencing services. We ...
DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. To address this limitation, we have d
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
View mouse Siva1 Chr12:112644828-112649152 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
DNA sequence analysis is a multistage process that includes the preparation of DNA, its fragmentation and base analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information. New technological advances have led to the automation of certain steps in this process and have raised the possibility of large-scale DNA sequencing efforts in the near future [for example, 1 million base pairs (Mb) per year]. New sequencing methodologies, fully automated instrumentation, and improvements in sequencing-related computational resources may render genome-size sequencing projects (100 Mb or larger) feasible during the next 5 to 10 years. ...
Oxygen, Muscle, Skeletal Muscle, Apoptosis, Caspase-3, Cytochrome, Cytochrome C, DNA, DNA Fragmentation, Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis-inducing Factor, Calpain, Cell, Cell Death, Death, Heat, Heat Shock Protein, Heat Shock Protein 70, Membrane, Membrane Potential
There is a worldwide increasing concern over the neurological risks of thimerosal (ethylmercury thiosalicylate) which is an organic mercury compound that is commonly used as an antimicrobial preservative. In this study, we show that thimerosal, at nanomolar concentrations, induces neuronal cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. Thimerosal, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, decreased cell viability as assessed by calcein-ethidium staining and caused apoptosis detected by Hoechst 33258 dye. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis was associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytosol. Although thimerosal did not affect cellular expression of Bax at the protein level, we observed translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Finally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated in the absence of caspase-8 activation. Our data suggest that thimerosal ...
Myocyte death occurs in many inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies, including arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), a genetic heart disease plagued by the prevalence of sudden cardiac death. Individuals with ACM and harboring pathogenic desmosomal variants, such as desmoglein-2 (DSG2), often show myocyte necrosis with progression to exercise-associated heart failure. Here, we showed that homozygous Dsg2 mutant mice (Dsg2mut/mut), a model of ACM, die prematurely during swimming and display myocardial dysfunction and necrosis. We detected calcium (Ca2+) overload in Dsg2mut/mut hearts, which induced calpain-1 (CAPN1) activation, association of CAPN1 with mitochondria, and CAPN1-induced cleavage of mitochondrial-bound apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Cleaved AIF translocated to the myocyte nucleus triggering large-scale DNA fragmentation and cell death, an effect potentiated by mitochondrial-driven AIF oxidation. Posttranslational oxidation of AIF cysteine residues was due, in part, to a depleted ...
VARECHA, Miroslav et al. Knockdown of apoptosis-inducing factor disrupts function of respiratory complex I. Biocell [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.3, pp.121-126. ISSN 0327-9545.. Recent findings suggest that apoptotic protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) may also play an important non-apoptotic function inside mitochondria. AIF was proposed to be an important component of respiratory chain complex I that is the major producer of superoxide radical. The possible role of AIF is still controversial. Superoxide production could be used as a valuable measure of complex I function, because the majority of superoxide is produced there. Therefore, we employed superoxide-specific mitochondrial fluorescence dye for detection of superoxide production. We studied an impact of AIF knockdown on function of mitochondrial complex I by analyzing superoxide production in selected cell lines. Our results show that tumoral telomerase-positive (TP) AIF knockdown cell lines display significant increase in superoxide ...
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Synthetic Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1 (AIFM1) Peptide. Species: Mammalian. Source: Synthetic. Order product ABIN938567.
Different cell-death mechanisms control many physiological and pathological processes in humans. Mitochondria play important roles in cell death through the release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which activate caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death, respectively. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is emerging as an important activator of caspase-independent cell death. PARP-1 generates the majority of long, branched poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers following DNA damage. Overactivation of PARP-1 initiates a nuclear signal that propagates to mitochondria and triggers the release of AIF. AIF then shuttles from mitochondria to the nucleus and induces peripheral chromatin condensation, large-scale fragmentation of DNA and, ultimately, cytotoxicity. Identification of the pro-death and pro-survival signals in the PARP-1-mediated cell-death program might provide novel therapeutic targets in human diseases.
1)Xin Li#, Guizhong Zhang#, Qian Chen, Yingxue Lin, Junxin Li, Qinggguo Ruan, Youhai Chen, Guang Yu, and Xiaochun Wan*. CD317 Promotes the survival of cancer cells through apoptosis-inducing factor. Journal of Experimental& Clinical Cancer Research, 2016, 35:117; IF=4.357;. (2)Lulu Cui#, Jiacheng Bi#, Dehong Yan, Xiufeng Ye, Mingxing Zheng, Guang Yu, Xiaochun Wan*. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line. BBRC(Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications). 2017.01.29, 483(1):669-673, IF=2.466;. (3)Jiacheng Bi#, Lulu Cui#, Gang Yu, Xiaolu Yang, Youhai Chen, Xiaochun Wan*. NK cells alleviate lung inflammation by negatively regulating group 2 innate lymphoid cells. The Journal of Immunology. 2017.04.15, 198(8):3336- 3344. IF= 4.856;. (4)Hongling Zhang#, Jiacheng Bi#, Huqiang Yi, Tingting Fan, Qingguo Ruan, Lintao Cai, Youhai H Chen, Xiaochun Wan*. Silencing c-Rel in macrophages dampens Th1 and Th17 immune responses and alleviates experimental autoimmune ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mei Yang, Jialing Zhong, Mei Zhao, Jia Wang, Yuyu Gu, Xinghua Yuan, Jianli Sang, Changzhi Huang].
My interests center on development of instrumentation for analyzing and synthesizing proteins and genes (e.g., protein, sequenator, DNA synthesizer, DNA sequenator, protein synthesizer), molecular immunology and autoimmunity, genomics, specifically, large-scale DNA sequence analysis of immune receptor gene families, molecular evolution, cancer biology, and HIV genome analysis.. ...
All of us at SDSC look forward to working with Dr. Subramaniam in his new role as a Distinguished Scientist, said Michael L. Norman, SDSCs interim director. As a true pioneer in bioinformatics and systems biology, Dr. Subramaniam is uniquely qualified to identify new opportunities and propose innovative solutions as SDSC broadens its expertise in these exciting areas of scientific research.. Bioinformatics is the application of statistics and computer sciences to the field of molecular biology. It has been used widely in genomics and genetics, notably in research involving large-scale DNA sequencing.. I am honored to be appointed as an SDSC Distinguished Scientist, said Subramaniam. The new developments at SDSC, notably with its next generation of high-performance computing and data systems, are extraordinarily synergistic with my research plans, and I look forward to extremely valuable and productive collaborations.. In 2008, Subramaniam was awarded the Faculty Excellence in Research ...
Zhu C, Wang X, Deinum J, Huang Z, Gao J, Modjtahedi N, Neagu MR, Nilsson M, Eriksson PS, Hagberg H, Luban J, Kroemer G, Blomgren K. Cyclophilin A participates in the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor in neurons after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. J Exp Med. 2007 Aug 6; 204(8):1741-8 ...
HYD1 is a D-amino acid peptide that was previously shown to inhibit adhesion of prostate cancer cells to the extracellular matrix. In this study, we show that in addition to inhibiting adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to fibronectin, HYD1 induces cell death in MM cells as a single agent. HYD1-induced cell death was necrotic in nature as shown by: (a) decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), (b) loss of total cellular ATP, and (c) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HYD1 treatment does not result in apoptotic cell death because it did not trigger the activation of caspases or the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G from the mitochondria, nor did it induce double-stranded DNA breaks. HYD1 did initiate autophagy in cells; however, autophagy was found to be an adaptive response contributing to cell survival rather than the cause of cell death. We were further able to show that N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a thiol-containing free radical ...
The replication initiation factor Cdc6 is cleaved during apoptosis, and expression of a cleavage product is sufficient to induce apoptosis in otherwise unstressed cells. On page 77, Yim et al. report that the cleavage products can act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication and amplify pro-death signals.. In addition to the previously identified cleavage product, Yim et al. identified a second Cdc6 fragment produced by caspase-3. Both Cdc6 fragments were sufficient to induce cell death without additional pro-apoptotic signals. Moreover, in cells exposed to apoptosis-inducing factors, ectopic expression of the Cdc6 peptides increased the rate of cell death. In contrast, expression of noncleavable Cdc6 suppressed apoptosis, indicating that fragmentation of the protein plays a causal role in the process even in the presence of known triggers.. Truncated Cdc6 interferes with loading of Mcm2 on the chromatin and thus disrupts assembly of the prereplication complex on chromosomes. That in turn ...
I made this for those asking for it. Its easy! Let me know if you need anything else fellow dark souls. * Also you may not have to ... ...
Previous investigations suggest that DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a promising multifaceted drug for the treatment of stroke. It is not clear whether NBP can treat traumatic brain injury (TBI) and what could be the mechanisms of therapeutic benefits. To address these issues, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact in adult male mice. NBP (100 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally administered within 5 min after TBI. One day after TBI, apoptotic events including caspase-3/9 activation, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation into the nucleus in the pericontusion region were attenuated in NBP-treated mice compared to TBI-saline controls. In the assessment of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) pathway, NBP ameliorated the p65 expression and the p-IκB-α/IκB-α ratio, indicating reduced NF-κB activation. Consistently, NBP reduced the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor ...
The Ingvarsson research group is focused on understanding what factors govern the distribution of genetic variation across plant genomes, and how this drives phenotypic variation in traits that are of adaptive or economic importance. We mainly rely on computational analyses of large-scale DNA sequencing data sets but also use data on gene expression and traditional genetic mapping in combination with field and greenhouse experiments. We are especially interested in understanding the genetic architecture of local adaptation in phenology and the relative importance of genetic drift, recombination and natural selection in driving genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity.. The Ingvarsson research group is located at the Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, although a few people remain at the Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University where we were located from 2002 to 2016.. ...
Leroy E. Hood, will receive the 2017 NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society. Hood is a biotech visionary who has revolutionized biology and medicine in a career that spans five decades. Among his many accomplishments, Hood invented, commercialized, and developed multiple chemical tools that address biological complexity, including the automated DNA sequencer which spearheaded the Human Genome Project.. Hoods earlier research work at Caltech led to the development of four DNA and protein sequencers and synthesizers, all of which became core instruments for contemporary molecular biology. Later, Hoods lab developed the ink-jet oligonucleotide synthesizer, a core technology for DNA chip synthesis and large-scale DNA synthesis, and the first instrument capable of global single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA molecules.. Beyond these innovations, Hood shepherded a cross-disciplinary approach to chemistry and biology, which led to the establishment of the Science and Technology Center for ...
1. Lipid-induced cell death - Investigation of the mechanism leading to lipotoxicity. 2. Meiotic Processes within the regulation of aging - characterization of the mechanism leading to longevity in yeast and mammalian cells. 3. Autophagy (self-eating) in dying cells - Interconnection of apoptosis and autophagy via a new Bcl-2 family-protein. 4. Identification of a novel yeast caspase - Functional analysis of the raptor- protein regarding the regulation of autophagy and apoptosis. 5. Yeast as a model for neurodegeneration - Parkinson´s, Alzheimer`s, and Huntington`s disease. 6. Caspase independent regulation of cell death - implications of apoptosis-inducing factor AIF1 and its interactom in aging and apoptosis. Contact: Prof. Dr. Frank Madeo. ...
Author(s): Nisar R, Hanson PS, He L, Taylor RW, Blain PG, Morris CM. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Archives of Toxicology. Year: 2015. Volume: 89. Issue: 10. Pages: 1811-1825. Print publication date: 01/10/2015. Online publication date: 19/02/2015. Acceptance date: 06/01/2015. Date deposited: 01/07/2015. ISSN (print): 0340-5761. ISSN (electronic): 1432-0738. Publisher: Springer. URL: DOI: 10.1007/s00204-015-1453-5. PubMed id: 25693864. ...
Proper activation of DRs is critical in regulation of T cell development and function. However, the nature of functional receptors, which are expressed on T cells at stages characterized by resistance to the impact of FasL, TNF, and TRAIL, remains to be established. In this study, we have shown that engagement of distinct epitopes on CD99 induced rapid death signaling in the majority of immature T cell lines examined, apparently by a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, only a few T cell lines were distinctly responsive to apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas and TRAIL. Differences between the Ad20/CD99-mediated death pathway and other novel nonclassical apoptotic pathways were also observed. Thus, our data suggest that CD99 may be a major DR used by the immune system to control T cells at stages before they acquire susceptibility to the impact of death-mediating cytokines of the TNF superfamily.. Previous studies have shown that activation of the CD99 domain specified by mAbs O662, L129, and DN16 ...
LB-18 compound: synthetic drug closely related to lembehyne-A (derived from a marine sponge) induces caspase-independent cell death to human neuroblastoma cells; structure in first source
Parthanatos (a programmed necrosis from PARP1 hyperactivation) is an untapped death mechanism in oncology, and it offers some ideal features for cancer treatments including immunogenicity and its independence from the drug resistance-ridden p53-apoptosis ...
This affordable Grim Reaper scythe lets everyone know their hourglass has run out. Molded plastic High Scythe features a classic silver scythe on a black pole.
This affordable Grim Reaper scythe lets everyone know their hourglass has run out. Molded plastic High Scythe features a classic silver scythe on a black pole.
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Biomatik CorporationHuman Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) ELISA Kit, 96 tests.
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Natural stone from the Slovakian Mala-Fatra Mountains. High density and very small material removal, for drawing out the cutting edge For honing du...
Sequencing-based approaches have led to new insights about DNA methylation. While many different techniques for genome-scale mapping of DNA methylation have been employed, throughput has been a key limitation for most. To further facilitate the mapping of DNA methylation, we describe a protocol for gel-free multiplexed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (mRRBS) that reduces the workload dramatically and enables processing of 96 or more samples per week. mRRBS achieves similar CpG coverage to the original RRBS protocol, while the higher throughput and lower cost make it better suited for large-scale DNA methylation mapping studies, including cohorts of cancer samples. ...
Among the candidate cancer-prognostic genes is the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which, when mutated, plays an important role in the development of many types of cancers. To facilitate robust large-scale DNA analysis of microdissected tumor biopsies, we describe a multiplex/nested PCR approach for a simultaneous outer amplification of exons 4-9 of the human p53 gene with parallel amplification of the HLA-DQB1 locus, involving a total of 14 primers. This approach reduces the required number of cells for analysis and avoids any variation in the amplifications of the individual p53 exons during the common outer amplification step. The HLA sequencing allows sample identification because the DQB1 locus is highly polymorphic and is thereby patient-specific. The p53 and HLA amplicons are analyzed by solid-phase sequencing in a semiautomated format. To improve the DNA sequence quality, we used 2-deoxyribonucleoside 5-O-1-thiotriphosphates in the sequencing reactions.. ...
The Genome Sciences Centre sequencing platform is a high-throughput large-scale DNA analysis facility that has been designed to maximize capacity while maintaining efficiency, scalability and flexibility. The platform is one of the largest platforms of its type in Canada and is well recognized internationally.. Current production scale capabilities of the capillary based platform include fosmid end sequencing, PCR amplicon sequencing, plasmid, and BAC end sequencing. We have two Applied Biosytems 3730xls yielding a capacity of 7680 lanes per week, or approx 6 million Q20 bases per week. The GSC sequencing platform prides itself on its flexibility and molecular biology enabling PCR, BAC, fosmid and plasmid DNA preps and several optimized reaction chemistries, allowing us to provide high-quality, high-yield, consistent data generation.. More information on the Illumina Platform.. Through our sequencing validation team we offer several high quality, high throughput targeted sequencing services. We ...
Expression of AIF1 (AIF-1, Em:AF129756.17, IBA1, IRT-1) in liver tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049234 in immunohistochemistry.
Looks like i did it guys! I finally made a build on my own that did a GR 70! (Note i have never done a GR 70 before but specifically wanted to design my own build to do it) I know it might share some similarities to other builds but ultimately the only thing other builds influenced is choosing Mirinae over Bane of the powerful. I needed the healing to keep me alive. I manged to do a GR70 with just over 5 minutes remaining and only 3 deaths. I dont really know how to do a build guide but i just focoused on CHC and CHD as well as max essence. Beyond that the skills and items speak for themselves.. ...
Ibutamoren MK-677 je silný tabletkový stimulant tvorby vlastného rastového hormónu (endogénneho HGH) a silne anabolického hormónu IGF-1 v tele. Športovci tento suplement využívajú predovšetkým pre jeho excelentnú schopnosť pomáhať budovať nové svalové prírastky (dosahovať pozitívnu dusíkovú bilanciu.
Sea icicles forming on undercut lip of the Drygalski Ice Tongue from wave action and freezing seawater, Ross Sea, Antarctica District, Antarctica Region, Antarctica stock photo. Quality New Zealand images by well known photographer Rob Suisted, Natures Pic Images.
Discover how to get to The Westin Trillium House, Blue Mountain. Learn more about taxis, airport shuttles, parking and other means of transportation in Blue Mountains.
Its rare that we add a pony into our line-up, but the beautiful type that Harlequin gives his foals caught our attention. At just 12.2 hands, Woodburys Harlequin is an adorable option for sport pony breeders that are looking to emphasize jumping ability. His pedigree includes a high percentage of Welsh and Arabian blood, strongly consolidating his type and expression. Grandsire Neron stood in Holland and was approved with the NRPS. Neron was a very trainable and versatile talent, training both in dressage and jumping. Harlequins dam is herself a graded sports mare who has earned a Ster predicate. She was successful in both dressage, showjumping, and working hunter pony. Her sire, Moelview Mohawk, was highly successful showing in-hand and has produced both in-hand and undersaddle winners.. Harlequin was lightly shown in 2009 and 2010 with resounding success. He won 11 Champion or Reserve Champion placings in-hand and finished second at PoniesUK. Now being shown by a very young junior rider, ...
The SEA/GATOR complex is an essential regulator of the mTORC1 pathway. In mammals the GATOR1 complex is composed of the proteins DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3. GATOR1 serves as an mTORC1 inhibitor and activates the mTORC1-modulating RagA GTPase. However, several GATOR members have mTORC1 independent functions. Here we characterize mammalian cells overexpressing the GATOR1 component NPRL2. We demonstrate that, in the cells with active p53, ectopic expression of NPRL2 induces NOX2-dependent production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Overexpressed NPRL2 accumulates in the nucleus, together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). These events are accompanied by phosphorylation of p53, activation of a DNA-damage response and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, followed by apoptosis. In the cells negative for active p53, NPRL2 ectopic expression leads to activation of CHK1 or CHK2 kinases and cell cycle arrest in S or G2/M phases. Combined, these results demonstrate a new role for the NPRL2, distinct from its
Interest in potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of dietary ingredients, which are generally more tolerable in the human body ( 15), has increased in recent years, especially for the cancers that usually do not respond well to currently available therapies ( 17). Therefore, it is not surprising that chemoprevention of colon cancer, the leading cancer-related death in Western countries, is becoming more attractive. One of the dietary ingredients that possess anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties is curcumin. Epidemiologic data suggest that curcumin may be responsible for the lower colon cancer rate in India and Southeast Asia ( 39). Based on that and its long history of consumption without any adverse health effects, curcumin is considered to be a safe chemopreventative agent ( 15).. Although it was suggested previously that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated through the impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ( 40), the exact mechanism was not fully ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced cytotoxicity: Induction of apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species, down-regulation of Bcl-X,sub,L,/sub, and IAP, the release of cytochrome c and inhibition of Akt. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Precisely blended botanicals to emulate Harlequins flavor & attributes found in nature!. Channel the all-day fun of the pantomiming street jester without losing too much edge on the sense of humor, with the sativa Harlequin. Super-high Myrcene counts allow for a focused and light-hearted experience without too much psychoactive, fast-thinking side effects, making it ideal for novice users or those looking for pain relief. ...
Expression of AIF1 (AIF-1, Em:AF129756.17, IBA1, IRT-1) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049234 in immunohistochemistry.
|b|The truth will set you free—if it doesnt get you killed|/b||Br||Br|Savannah Slade is not the person she thought she was. The reading of her fathers will has led her to a world-shattering...|/em||/strong||/b||/i|
|strong|Rowan Summerwaite is ready to finish what she started in |/strong||strong||em|Blood and Blade|/em||/strong||strong|, the next installment in the Goddess with a Blade series by...|/em||/strong||/b||/i|
I just built GIGABYTE GA-P35-DS3R Intel Core 2 Duo E6750 Scythe Infinity HSF eVGA 8800GTS 320MB Superclocked 2x1GB Crucial Ballastix (MicronD9GMH)...
2003). "Pancreatic-derived factor (FAM3B), a novel islet cytokine, induces apoptosis of insulin-secreting beta-cells". Diabetes ... Pander, when active, causes the beta cells to be blocked at S phase, which induces apoptosis. This loss of beta cell mass ... With the availability of the stem cell growth factors GM-CSF and G-CSF, most hematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedures ... With that being said, beta cells experience apoptosis early and thus are destroyed within a normal-functioning pancreas. The ...
Enhanced pro-apotptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on temozolomide-resistant ... glioma cells produced using embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes expressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ... mediated transgene delivery induces growth suppression, apoptosis, radiosensitization, and overcomes temozolomide resistance in ... "Footprint-free" human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived astrocytes for in vivo cell-based therapy. Stem Cells and Dev [in ...
"Depletion of the cap-associated isoform of translation factor eIF4G induces germline apoptosis in C. elegans". Cell Death and ... Eukaryotic initiation factors Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) EIF4G2 EIF4G3 Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris ... This particular initiation factor binds to the PABPI (PolyA binding protein I), which is in turn binds the messenger RNA's poly ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G (eIF4G) is a protein involved in eukaryotic translation initiation and is a ...
"Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces leukocyte apoptosis, modulates nuclear factor-kappa B and suppresses acute inflammation". ... April 1996). "Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor ... a chemical that induced skin papillomas. CAPE significantly reduced the number of papillomas. Demestre M, Messerli SM, Celli N ... "Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is a potent and specific inhibitor of activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B". Proc ...
It targets Tumour Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL), whose receptors are found on the surface of many ...
"The mitochondrial protein Bak is pivotal for gliotoxin-induced apoptosis and a critical host factor of Aspergillusfumigatus ... Gliotoxin also activates a member of the Bcl-2 family called Bak in order to mediate cell apoptosis. Activated Bak then causes ... These pores allow the release of cytochrome C and AIF, which initiate apoptosis within the cell. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the ... Gliotoxin possesses immunosuppressive properties that may suppress and cause apoptosis in certain cells of the immune system, ...
... potentiates TNF-induced apoptosis through modulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway". Blood. 110 (10): 3517-25 ... Results supported the hypothesis that gambogic acid works to suppress nuclear factor-κΒ (NF-κΒ) activation that is induced by ... Gambogic acid has also been found to bind to transferrin receptor1 (TfR) and rapidly induce cell apoptosis without competing ... A brief exposure to this compound resulted in a rapid start to apoptosis, including membrane blebbing within 15 minutes. The ...
"Inactivation of nuclear factor kB by soy isoflavone genistein contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic ... "Apoptosis-inducing effect of chemotherapeutic agents is potentiated by soy isoflavone genistein, a natural inhibitor of NF-[ ...
... an apoptosis-inducing factor, on proliferation and activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with systemic ... Regulation by transforming growth factor-beta.J Clin Invest. 1994, 93, 1709-1715 Varga J, Rudnicka L, Uitto J.: Connective ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced pneumonia with Stevens-Johnson syndrome of acute atypical course. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2008, 118 (7 ... Acitretin decreases tumor cell-induced angiogenesis. Skin Pharmacol. 1991, 4, 150-153. Rudnicka L, Majewski S, Blaszczyk M, ...
AAV-2-TRAIL: The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been studied when delivered by AAV ... This induces the cell and bystander toxicity to the neighboring cells. When cultured with MCF-7 cancer cells, AAV2 delivery of ...
"Involvement of Protein Kinase C-β and Ceramide in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced but Not Fas-induced Apoptosis of Human ... "The Immunosuppressor Mycophenolic Acid Kills Activated Lymphocytes by Inducing a Nonclassical Actin-Dependent Necrotic Signal ...
Doxorubicin (DOX) is embedded onto the graphene sheet, while the molecules of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ... Laser-induced graphene was produced on both sides of a polymer sheet. The sections were then stacked, separated by solid ... The sensors were based on the Hall effect, in which a magnetic field induces a Lorentz force on moving electric charge carriers ... TRAIL on the cell surface triggers the apoptosis while DOX attacks the nucleus. These two drugs work synergistically and were ...
... receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand protein have been ...
... an expeditionary force during World War II Apoptosis-inducing factor, a flavoprotein Arm Image Format, an object code format in ... computer programming .aif, the Audio Interchange File Format Author Impact Factor, an author-level metric American Indoor ...
Castedo M, Perfettini JL, Andreau K, Roumier T, Piacentini M, Kroemer G (Dec 2003). "Mitochondrial apoptosis induced by the HIV ... Upon release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, the protein binds apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1).[5] ... Role in apoptosis[edit]. Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill ... Inhibition of apoptosis[edit]. One of the ways cell apoptosis is activated is by release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria ...
Executioner caspases degrade over 600 cellular components[18] in order to induce the morphological changes for apoptosis. ... There is evidence where it promotes transcription of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that assists in ... Apoptosis[edit]. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death where the cell undergoes morphological changes, to minimize its ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ...
Gupta S (2002). "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in T cells from aged humans: a role of TNFR-I and downstream ... "TRAF1 is a substrate of caspases activated during tumor necrosis factor receptor-alpha-induced apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... Cowling V, Downward J (October 2002). "Caspase-6 is the direct activator of caspase-8 in the cytochrome c-induced apoptosis ... Guo Y, Srinivasula SM, Druilhe A, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES (April 2002). "Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing ...
In animals apoptosis is induced by caspases and in fungi and plants, apoptosis is induced by arginine and lysine-specific ... There is evidence where it promotes transcription of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that assists in ... Executioner caspases degrade over 600 cellular components[18] in order to induce the morphological changes for apoptosis. ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ...
Fork head domain factors (FKHD) RNA Polymerase II transcription factor II B (TF2B) TGF-beta induced apoptosis proteins (TAIP) ... Histone nuclear factor P (HNFP) NKX homeodomain factors (NKXH) C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) X-box binding factors (XBBF) ... The predictions included the following transcription factors: Sine oculis homeodomain factors (SIXF) p53 tumor suppressor (P53F ... A total of 428 transcription factor binding sites were predicted to be located within the predicted promoter sequence. ...
... the number of inoculated virus particles is the significant factor that leads to apoptosis from avian reovirus. Induced ... intracellular viral uncoating is the significant process that induces apoptosis. The ability of avian reovirus to induce ... Apoptosis can also be induced in cells that are infected with UV-irradiated reovirus virions and cells infected with ribavirin- ... to a distinct cell type of virus strain due to the fact that several different isolates of this pathogen could induce apoptosis ...
2000), Activation-induced cell death in B lymphocytes. Cell Res. 10(3):179-92 Nagata S. (1997), Apoptosis by death factor. Cell ... The AICD effector cell is one that expresses FasL, and apoptosis is induced in the cell expressing the Fas receptor. Both ... 1999é, The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem 274:1541-1548. ... However, overexpression of the protein CFLAR (caspase and FADD-like apoptosis regulator) inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis. ...
"Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. Evidence for an alternate ... gene are associated with basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced transcription in monocytes". European Journal of ... Due to its position on chromosome 18 close to the bcl-2 protooncogene and several other serpins, PAI-2's role in apoptosis has ... PAI-2 provides protection for cancer cells against plasmin-induced cell death, which can exert a lethal effect on tumors. This ...
Bucur O, Ray S, Bucur MC, Almasan A (May 2006). "APO2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in ... In the field of cell biology, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is a protein functioning as a ligand that induces ... These artificial TRAIL mimics bind to DR4/DR5 on cancer cells and induce cell death via both apoptosis and necrosis, which ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ...
The function of this transcription factor is to increase the number and function of mitochondria, as well as to induce a switch ... May 2012). "Influenza induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase-12-dependent apoptosis, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase- ... fenretinide and bortezomib (Velcade), each acting via different cellular mechanisms, induce ER stress, leading to apoptosis in ... Dengue virus induces PERK dependent ER stress as part of virus induced response in infected cells to favor replication. ...
Nerve growth factor (50 ng/ml) induced functional differentiation in PC12 cells has been reported. The studies have been ... Monocrotophos Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells: Role of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s Monocrotophos in the Pesticide ... Monocrotophos-induced translocation of BAX and cytochrome-c proteins between the cytoplasm and mitochondria confirmed the role ... Mitochondria mediated apoptosis induction was confirmed by the increased activity of caspase cascade. These apoptotic changes ...
... and that this function contributes to E2F1-induced apoptosis. As of 2015, Professor Dyson has 140 publications in leading peer- ... Dyson's group has shown that the transcription factor E2F1 is a potent and specific inhibitor of beta-catenin/T-cell factor ( ...
Dörr J., Bechmann I., Waiczies S., et al. Lack of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand but presence of its ... Kuang A.A., Diehl G.E., Zhang J., Winoto A. FADD is required for DR4- and DR5-mediated apoptosis: lack of trail-induced ... Miyazaki, T; Reed J C. A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins (англ.) // Nat. ... Miyazaki T., Reed J.C. A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins. (англ.) // Nat. ...
On the molecular level, calcium influx is not the only factor responsible for apoptosis induced by excitoxicity. Recently,[20] ... October 1995). "Glutamate-induced neuronal death: A succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function". ... October 1997). "Absence of excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus of mice lacking the Jnk3 gene". Nature. 389: 865 ... The main aim in induced comas is to reduce the intracranial pressure, not brain metabolism).[citation needed] ...
"Krüppel-like factor 4 induces apoptosis and inhibits tumorigenic progression in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells". FEBS Open Bio. 5 ... Effect of Krüppel-like factor 4 overexpression on heat stress-induced apoptosis of Raw264.7 macrophages]". Zhong Nan da Xue Xue ... "Resveratrol-induced apoptosis is mediated by early growth response-1, Krüppel-like factor 4, and activating transcription ... "Krüppel-like factor 4 is a radioprotective factor for the intestine following γ-radiation-induced gut injury in mice". American ...
Modur V, Nagarajan R, Evers BM, Milbrandt J, FOXO proteins regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand ... Mahmud DL, G-Amlak M, Deb DK, et al., Phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factors by erythropoietin and stem cell factor ... The BH3-only protein Puma plays an essential role in cytokine deprivation induced apoptosis of mast cells, in Blood, vol. 110, ... Dansen TB, Kops GJ, Denis S, et al., Regulation of sterol carrier protein gene expression by the forkhead transcription factor ...
An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Alpha-lactose reverses liver injury via blockade of Tim-3-mediated CD8 apoptosis in sepsis. Clinical Immunology. July 2018, 192 ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ...
While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... resulting in apopotosis of the beta cells.[52] ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ...
Polysaccharide K can promote apoptosis by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which is normally up-regulated, and inhibiting apoptosis ... It has been shown that HIF-1α can induce the EMT pathway, as well as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, thus enhancing the ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... There are other physiological factors that are associated with cancer development through their interactions with catenins. For ...
HMB supplementation may be useful in the prevention of muscle atrophy induced by bed rest or other factors. Further studies are ... apoptosis, and the regenerative process), whereas it is hypothesized to strongly affect the fourth (mitochondrial dynamics and ... Another factor that contributes to the sustaining of muscle strength in hibernating bears is the occurrence of periodic ... Therefore, one way in which not exercise induces an increase in muscle mass is to down regulate the pathways which have the ...
"Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced ... SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors.[14] ... Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomitingEdit. Further information: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and Aprepitant ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ... Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ... "The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically ... "The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically ...
NMDA induces a calcium flux that allows for synaptic plasticity which is crucial for AHN. ... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... "Relative potency of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in preventing atrophy and apoptosis in the prostate of the castrated ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... Schroeter EH, Kisslinger JA, Kopan R (May 1998). "Notch-1 signalling requires ligand-induced proteolytic release of ... "Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ...
DNA damage-induced oocyte apoptosis depends on the efficiency of the DNA repair machinery that in turn declines with age. ... Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Welch C, Chen Y, Stallings RL (2007). "MicroRNA-34a functions as a potential tumor suppressor by inducing apoptosis in ... The Rad51-induced oocyte resistance to apoptosis is likely due to Rad51's central role in homologous recombinational repair of ...
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CIAPIN1: Anamorsin (originally, Cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1). *CKLF: Chemokine-like factor ... PMFBP1: encoding protein Polyamine-modulated factor 1-binding protein 1. *POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase ... ARL6IP1: encoding protein ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 6-interacting protein 1 ...
"Sterile 20 kinase phosphorylates histone H2B at serine 10 during hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in S. cerevisiae". Cell. ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ... a late acting bystander in apoptosis as yeast carrying mutations of this residue are resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced ...
Chan-Hui PY, Weaver R (1999). "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of ... 1997). "Stress-signalling kinase Sek1 protects thymocytes from apoptosis mediated by CD95 and CD3". Nature. 385 (6614): 350-3. ... activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED ... activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): ...
Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury.[1][2] ... Jan 2002). "Prevalence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study". Stroke. 33 (1 ... Nov 2001). "Hypoxia induces apoptosis via two independent pathways in Jurkat cells: differential regulation by glucose". ... Recent research suggests this may be due to an autoimmune response caused by carbon monoxide-induced changes in the myelin ...
Slack SE, Pezet S, McMahon SB, Thompson SW, Malcangio M (October 2004). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces NMDA ... neurotrophic signaling may trigger apoptosis rather than survival pathways in cells expressing the p75 receptor in the absence ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
Nelson AM, Gilliland KL, Cong Z, Thiboutot DM (October 2006). "13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ... Risk factors for skeletal effects include older age, greater dosage and longer course of treatment. Most bone changes cause no ... Isotretinoin's exact mechanism of action is unknown, but several studies have shown that isotretinoin induces apoptosis ( ... which has been shown to reduce sebum production by inducing apoptosis in sebaceous gland cells, while exhibiting an ...
... apoptosis has been shown to enhance apoptosis caused by chemotherapeutic drugs through autocrine-secreted tumor necrosis factor ... "Autocrine TNFα Signaling Renders Human Cancer Cells Susceptible to Smac-Mimetic-Induced Apoptosis". Cancer Cell. 12 (5): 445-56 ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ...
Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human ... Rodriguez R, Meuth M. Chk1 and p21 cooperate to prevent apoptosis during DNA replication fork stress. „Mol. Biol. Cell". 17 (1 ... Yu P, Huang B, Shen M, Lau C, Chan E, Michel J, Xiong Y, Payan DG, Luo Y. p15(PAF), a novel PCNA associated factor with ... overcome Bcl-2 protective function and selectively accumulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and induce apoptosis in ...
Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... "Bovine osteogenic protein is composed of dimers of OP-1 and BMP-2A, two members of the transforming growth factor-beta ...
2002). "EBV regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt's lymphoma". Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 258: 153-60. ... Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. PMID ... Coller HA, Forman JJ, Legesse-Miller A (2007). ""Myc'ed Messages": Myc Induces Transcription of E2F1 while Inhibiting Its ... a widespread euchromatic program in the human genome partially independent of its role as a classical transcription factor". ...
Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins derepresses transcription factors in the auxin-response factor (ARF) family and induces ARF- ... ApoptosisEdit. Both internal and external signals can lead to the induction of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The ... Proteasome inhibitors have effective anti-tumor activity in cell culture, inducing apoptosis by disrupting the regulated ... "26S proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis and limits growth of human pancreatic cancer". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 82 ...
... where they induce IFN production with the presence of a particular transcription factor and activate transcription factor 2. ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... inducing dimerization of transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7, which are translocated in the nucleus, ... Chemical factors produced during inflammation (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) sensitize ...
2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ... Pathogenesis of HIV-induced lesions of the brain, correlations with HIV-associated disorders and modifications according to ... 2004). "Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population". AIDS 18 (4 ... Bentwich Z, Kalinkovich, A, Weisman Z (1995). "Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS.". ...
TRAF-2 mediates CD30-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... It is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 ... tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral ... "Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation". The ...
The second strategy is to inhibit autophagy and thus induce apoptosis.[85] ... There is evidence that emphasizes the role of autophagy both as a tumor suppressor as well as a factor in tumor cell survival. ... significantly inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death rather than typical apoptosis in a HepG2 human ... Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ...
In order to induce an immune response, it needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as a protein (a complex of ... If activated cytotoxic CD8+ T cells recognize them, the T cells secrete various toxins that cause the lysis or apoptosis of the ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large ...
"12/15-Lipoxygenase Contributes to Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C)[16][17] which are ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor: A new member of the platelet-derived growth factor gene family". Biochemical and ...
transcription factor complex. • bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ... Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. (CDK4 in the (pink) nucleus) ... "Cyclin-dependent kinases are inactivated by a combination of p21 and Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation after UV-induced DNA damage ... Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the subsequent ...
... apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB which induces the expression of ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ... reported another cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages and named it tumor necrosis factor (TNF).[14] Both factors were ...
MBInfo - WASP and other Nucleation Promotion Factors. *GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on WAS-Related Disorders including Wiskott ... Activated WASP leads to nuclear localization of actin filaments and this can lead to premature apoptosis, aneuploidy and ... "WIP, a protein associated with wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein, induces actin polymerization and redistribution in lymphoid ... "Activation of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and its association with other proteins by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha is ...