One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.

Inducible NO synthase: role in cellular signalling. (1/71063)

The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to act as a novel, unconventional type of neurotransmitter. In 1992, Science picked NO as the 'Molecule of the Year', and over the past years NO has become established as a universal intercellular messenger that acutely affects important signalling pathways and, on a more long-term scale, modulates gene expression in target cells. These actions will form the focus of the present review.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (2/71063)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (3/71063)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (4/71063)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (5/71063)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (6/71063)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (7/71063)

Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis [1]. Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators [2] [3]. The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism [4] [5] [6] [7]. Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1 [8] [9]) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria.  (+info)

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL serve an anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells through inhibition of NF-kappaB. (8/71063)

To maintain the integrity of the vascular barrier, endothelial cells (EC) are resistant to cell death. The molecular basis of this resistance may be explained by the function of antiapoptotic genes such as bcl family members. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL protects EC from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and thus upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB in EC occurs upstream of IkappaBalpha degradation without affecting p65-mediated transactivation. Overexpression of bcl genes in EC does not affect other transcription factors. Using deletion mutants of Bcl-2, the NF-kappaB inhibitory function of Bcl-2 was mapped to bcl homology domains BH2 and BH4, whereas all BH domains were required for the antiapoptotic function. These data suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL belong to a cytoprotective response that counteracts proapoptotic and proinflammatory insults and restores the physiological anti-inflammatory phenotype to the EC. By inhibiting NF-kappaB without sensitizing the cells (as with IkappaBalpha) to TNF-mediated apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are prime candidates for genetic engineering of EC in pathological conditions where EC loss and unfettered activation are undesirable.  (+info)

METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of deoxyelephantopin on A549 cells and normal lymphocytes was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined. The self-renewal and proliferating potential of A549 cells after treatment with deoxyelephantopin were examined by colony formation assay. Cellular morphology of deoxyelephantopin-treated cells was observed using phase-contrast microscopy. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining by flow cytometry. Activation of caspases was detected using fluorogenic substrate specific to caspases 2, 3, 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analysis. The total cellular DNA content and expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was ...
Read independent reviews on CardioTACS™ In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kits from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
Anti-apoptotic action of polyphenols derived from red wine and green tea against beta-amyloid in hippocampal cells Author: Stéphane Bastianetto and Slavica Krantic and Rémi Quirion Background: It has been suggested that accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) peptides into senile plaques plays a pivotal role in neuronal cell
BioAssay record AID 541028 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in bovine BL3 cells assessed as early apoptotic cells after 24 hrs by annexin V/propidium iodide staining-based FACS analysis.
During apoptosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane to the cell surface. Annexin V has a strong, Ca2+-dependent affinity for PS and therefore is used as a probe for detecting apoptosis., Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Reagent, GTX14082, Applications: FACS; Flow cytometry/FACS; CrossReactivity:
The Annexin V-Biotin Apoptosis Detection Kit is based on the observation that soon after initiating apoptosis, most cell types translocate the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner face of the plasma membrane to the cell surface. Once on the cell surface, PS can easily bind to Biotin-conjugated Annexin V, a protein that has a strong natural affinity for PS. Annexin V-Biotin can be detected in conjunction with conventional dye-staining using any streptavidine- or avidin-dye reagents, such as (strept)avidine-fluorescein, -peroxidase, -alkaline phosphatase (AP), and -β-gal, etc. |p>‧ Detection method- Flow cytometry (Ex = 488 nm; Em = 530 nm) using and fluorescence microscopy |br>‧ Sample type- Living cells (suspension and adherant)|br>‧ Species reactivity- Mammalian |br>‧ Applications- Detect early/middle stages of apoptosis; differentiate apoptosis from necrosis.|p>|b>Features and Benefits|/b>|br>‧ Simple one step staining procedure in 30 minutes|br>‧ Fast and
TransDetect® Annexin V-EGFP/PI Cell Apoptosis Detection Kit,Cell Detection,Cell Culture and Detection,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionThe Annexin V
Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit PerCP-eFluor™ 710 200 tests Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Annexin V...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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Flavonoids are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds and are among the most promising anticancer agents. A series of flavonols and their 3-methyl ether derivatives were synthesized and assessed for cytotoxicity. It was found that 3′-hydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (flavonoid 7a) displayed strong cytotoxicity against human SK-MEL-1 melanoma cells and blocked tubulin polymerization, but had no significant cytotoxic effects against quiescent or proliferating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our analyses showed that flavonoid 7a induces G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells which is associated with cytochrome c release and activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways of cell death ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formosanin C-induced apoptosis requires activation of caspase-2 and change of mitochondrial membrane potential. AU - Lee, Jenq Chang. AU - Su, Chun Li. AU - Chen, Lin Lin. AU - Won, Shen Jeu. PY - 2009/4/30. Y1 - 2009/4/30. N2 - Formosanin C is a pure compound isolated from Paris formosana Hayata (Liliaceae). The antitumor efficacy of formosanin C has been observed in cultured cells and animal systems. However, the molecular mechanisms of formosanin C remain unknown. The results of the present study indicate that formosanin C induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells characterized by exposure of phosphatidylserine, accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 phase, fragmentation of DNA, and change of nuclear morphology in a time- and dose-related manner. The apoptotic signaling cascades may proceed via proteolytic activation of caspase-2, change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δεm), release of cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct IAP binding protein with ...
This kit is designed for histochemical detection of fragmented DNA using the TUNEL method. It allows quick and easy detection of single cells at the primary stage of apoptosis. Tissue sections and fixed cells may be used for samples.
Tumor Necrosis Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with some specificity for transformed cells. However, some cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL allowing escape from immune surveillance. Re-sensitization of these cells to TRAIL depends on identifying the mechanism of resistance and applying a targeted corrective. We studied several possible mechanisms of TRAIL resistance beginning with FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (FLIP). The short isoform of FLIP (FLIPshort) is an effective inhibitor of caspase 8 activation and therefore overexpression of FLIPshort may be a mechanism of TRAIL resistance. We found that downregulation of FLIP short was sufficient to re-sensitize some prostate carcinoma cells to TRAIL. Another mechanism we investigated is mediated by Elongation Factor 2 (EF2) which acilitates ribosomal translocation along mRNA strands. EF2 can be inactivated by phosphorylation or by ADP-ribosylation, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. During inhibition of protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reversibility of apoptosis in cancer cells. AU - Tang, H. L.. AU - Yuen, K. L.. AU - Tang, H. M.. AU - Fung, M. C.. PY - 2009/1/13. Y1 - 2009/1/13. N2 - Apoptosis is a cell suicide programme characterised by unique cellular events such as mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, nuclear condensation, cytoplasmic shrinkage and activation of apoptotic protease caspases, and these serve as the noticeable apoptotic markers for the commitment of cell demise. Here, we show that, however, the characterised apoptotic dying cancer cells can regain their normal morphology and proliferate after removal of apoptotic inducers. In addition, we demonstrate that reversibility of apoptosis occurs in various cancer cell lines, and in different apoptotic stimuli. Our findings show that cancer cells can survive after initiation of apoptosis, thereby revealing an unexpected potential escape mechanism of cancer cells from chemotherapy.. AB - Apoptosis is a cell suicide programme characterised by ...
Protein expression of apoptosis-associated genes by Western blot. K562 cells were treated with different reagents for 24 h. Notes: data were normalized to β-a
세포 죽음의 평가에 대한 정확한 방법을 설명합니다. 프로토콜은 세포 라인과 동물 모델의 광범위한 범위에서 기본 세포 40 % 허위 - 긍정적인 이벤트까지 표시 기존 Annexin V / propidium 요오드화물 (PI) 프로토콜에 따라이...
The fourth meeting on dependence receptors featured descriptions of previously unknown dependence receptors. New mechanistic data were presented on the switch between the trophic, antiapoptotic response with the proapoptotic response that occurs with loss of trophic support. The possibility that the loss of trophic support may also involve the binding of an active antitrophin was also discussed. New in vivo data were presented on the roles of dependence receptors in development, angiogenesis, oncogenesis, and neurodegeneration, as well as new therapeutic approaches based on dependence receptor function. The next meeting on dependence receptors is scheduled for 2012.. ...
As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell
Few things can be considered to be more important to a cell than its threshold for apoptotic cell death, which can be modulated up or down, but rarely in both directions, by a single enzyme. Therefore, it came as quite a surprise to find that one enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), has the pe …
Apoptosis is a genetically regulated form of cell death that occurs when the cell is exposed to physiological, pathogenic, or cytotoxic stimuli. Unregulated apoptosis (too much or too little apoptosis) at any time from embryogenesis to adulthood, can result in a variety of disease states, such as neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, liver and kidney problems, and cancer. A reasonable estimation is that either too little or too much cell death contributes to half of the main medical illnesses for which adequate therapy or prevention is lacking. The apoptotic pathways can be initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory molecules, both of which are believed to be up-regulated in a state of obesity. In addition, multiple studies have shown that the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain types of cancers increase with increasing degree of obesity in both men and women. Despite the ...
AAD positive means late apoptosis? - posted in Flow Cytometry: We have a discussion in the lab about apoptosis detection by annexin V/AAD labeling. Many people say that Annexin V+/AAD+ cells must not be considered apoptotic but necrotic. I agree, provided that the apoptotic stimulus was rather short (for example 2 hours-staurosporine). However, when the stimulus lasts for 24 hours (serum starvation for instance) I think that cells which started the apoptotic process shortly after the start...
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be an advancing antitumor technology. PDT using hydrophilic/lipophilic tetra‑α-(4-carboxyphenoxy) phthalocyanine zinc (TαPcZn-PDT) has exhibited antitumor activity in Bel-7402 hepatocellular cancer cells. However, the manner in which p38 MAPK and caspase-9 are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the TαPcZn-PDT-treated LoVo human colon carcinoma cells remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, a siRNA targeting p38 MAPK (siRNA-p38 MAPK) and the caspase‑9 specific inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk were used to examine the crosstalk between p38 MAPK and caspase-9 during mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the TαPcZn-PDT‑treated LoVo cells. The findings revealed that the TαPcZn-PDT treatment of LoVo cells resulted in the induction of apoptosis, the formation of p38 MAPK/caspase-9 complexes, the activation of p38 MAPK, caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bid, the downregulation of Bcl-2, the reduction of mitochondrial membrane ...
This kit is designed for histochemical detection of fragmented DNA using the TUNEL method. It allows quick and easy detection of single cells at the primary stage of apoptosis. Tissue sections and fixed cells may be used for samples.
Data Availability StatementThe datasets used and/or analyzed through the present study are available from your corresponding author on reasonable request. Mouse monoclonal to Chromogranin A RNA. MTT and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays shown that CLDN1 silencing significantly inhibits proliferation and enhances apoptosis induced by 5-FU treatment in Hep/5FU cells, compared with non-silenced Hep/5FU cells. Additionally, CLDN1 silencing attenuated the migration and invasion capabilities of Hep/5FU cells. In addition, it was recognized that CLDN1 silencing decreased drug resistance by inhibiting autophagy, which was associated with a decrease in the percentage of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I and upregulation of P62. A cell proliferation assay exposed Indotecan the addition of autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine decreased drug resistance of Hep/5FU cells. By contrast, incubation with the autophagy agonist Rapamycin elevated drug ...
Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing characterize apoptosis in general. Mitochondria remain morphologically unchanged. In 1972 Kerr et al introduced the concept of apoptosis as a distinct form of cell-death, and the mechanisms of various apoptotic pathways are still being revealed today. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal ...
Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing characterize apoptosis in general. Mitochondria remain morphologically unchanged. In 1972 Kerr et al introduced the concept of apoptosis as a distinct form of cell-death, and the mechanisms of various apoptotic pathways are still being revealed today ...
SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI) is a proapoptotic mitochondrial protein that is released in response to various apoptotic stimuli. Molecular mimetics of SMAC are being investigated for use in cancer treatment, but their activities in vivo have not been fully characterized.. In a recent study, Emeagi and colleagues from Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium, showed that SMAC mimetics induce cancer cell death via a proinflammatory effect that is accompanied by an adaptive antitumor immune response. Transduction with lentiviral vectors encoding a cytosolic form of a SMAC mimetic (LV-tSMAC) resulted in apoptosis of cancer cells of different histologic origins, and treatment of tumor-bearing mice with the SMAC mimetic resulted in induction of apoptosis, activation of antitumor immunity, and prolonged survival.. Immune Response. The antitumor immune response included increased levels of tumor-infiltrating ...
Hochwertige Annexin V FITC Kits für Apoptose Detektion mit Flow Cytometry. ✅ Namhafte Top-Hersteller im Vergleich. ✅ Top-Support bei Fragen.
Albany, New York, Dec 1, 2017: Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) - Apoptosis regulator BAX or bcl-2-like protein 4 is a protein is encoded by the BAX gene. It accelerates programmed cell death by antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2. It promotes activation of CASP3, and thereby apoptosis. It undergoes a conformation change that causes translocation to the mitochondrion membrane, leading to the release of cytochrome c that then triggers apoptosis under stress conditions.. Request For Free Sample - Apoptosis Regulator BAX (Bcl 2 Like Protein 4 or BCL2L4 or BAX) pipeline Target constitutes close to 7 molecules. Out of which approximately 3 molecules are developed by companies and remaining by the universities/institutes. The molecules developed by companies in Phase III, Phase II and Preclinical stages are 1, 1 and 1 respectively. Similarly, the universities portfolio in Preclinical and Discovery ...
Heart ischemia can rapidly induce apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction via mitochondrial permeability transition-induced cytochrome c release. We tested whether nitric oxide (NO) can block this damage in isolated rat heart, and, if so, by what mechanisms. Hearts were perfused with 50 μM DETA/NO (NO donor), then subjected to 30 min stop-flow ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion. Isolated heart mitochondria were used to measure the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential using oxygen and tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrodes. Mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c levels were measured spectrophotometrically and by ELISA. The calcium retention capacity of isolated mitochondria was measured using the fluorescent dye Calcium Green-5N. Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by measuring the activity of caspase-3 in cytosolic extracts and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in perfusate, respectively. 30 min ischemia caused release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytoplasm
FACS using DAPI for apoptosis analysis - posted in Flow Cytometry: Hello, I am treating cancer cells with a drug and want to analyse cancer cell death. The only problem is that the drug auto-fluoresce a lot, so much that I cannot use conventional viable stains like PI or 7AAD (because sometimes spillover cannot be corrected). I think using DAPI could solve my problem. However, I am not familiar with DAPI. It is often used to determine cell cycle progress, I think, by histology. However,...
Evidence suggests that the signalling events which occur after apoptotic stimulation, define two basic mechanisms for the induction of apoptosis. The first is dependent on signalling via the mitochondria and the second is dependent upon signalling directly from the death receptors. After induction of apoptosis, there is a convergence in signalling at the level of caspase activation and subsequent biochemical and morphological changes. Therefore the efficacy of various inhibitors of apoptosis is dependent upon the initiating signal. In order to understand the apoptotic pathway, the mechanisms by which these inhibitors regulate chemical- and receptor-mediated apoptosis must be understood. The anti-apoptotic oncoprotein, Bcl-2, was shown to inhibit both staurosporine and Fas-mediated apoptosis in a manner which was partially dependent upon the level of Bcl-2 protein expressed. During both staurosporine and Fas-induced apoptosis Bcl-2 acted downstream of caspase-8 activation. High levels of Bcl-2 ...
The influence of diabetes enhanced inflammation on cell apoptosis and periodontitis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Drug resistance has been mostly explained by molecular changes, such as overexpression of p-glycoprotein or O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase, which interfere with drug actions on the targets (1 , 2) . Because most anticancer agents, regardless of their diverse targets, exert effects by inducing apoptosis via activation of apoptotic pathways common to many cellular stresses, any antiapoptotic changes disrupting the common intrinsic pathways to execute physiological cell death can also make malignant cells resistant to chemotherapy (3) . Such alterations opposing apoptosis are routinely observed in malignant tumors, including both the functional loss of tumor suppressors p53, Bax, or PTEN and deregulated hyperfunction of oncogenic proteins, such as Ras, Bcl-2, and PI3K 2 ,(3) .. In tumor cells with an aberrantly activated PI3K/Akt survival pathway, the increased antiapoptotic signals overcome apoptotic signals of anticancer drugs, confer drug resistance on the tumor cells, and result in a ...
New York - September 19, 2019 - BOC Sciences, a New York-based supplier of various bio-chemicals such as inhibitors, APIs, metabolites and impurities, announced earlier this month to launch cell apoptosis assay service for scientists engaged in drug discovery research. With expertise and well-published cell based assays from BOC Sciences, researchers now dont need to worry about apoptosis detection anymore.. Apoptosis, or alternatively referred to as programmed cell death, plays an important role in many human diseases. Controlled by multiple signaling and effector pathways, apoptosis is found to be closely linked with caspase related apoptotic enzyme cascades, mitochondrial depolarization, DNA fragmentation and ultimately cell blebbing and destruction. This offers new insights for scientists who are seeking new treatment for various diseases: through approaches of genetically modulating these apoptosis-associated pathways, new therapies might be discovered. Many human conditions like ...
Apoptosis is characterized by a series of well defined morphological and biochemical features that allow cells to initiate self-destruction in response to a variety of stimuli. CD4⁺CD8⁺ is a sub-population of immature thymocytes that are especially prone to the action of apoptosis-inducing agents and are sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, an event that plays a critical role in eliciting the antigen-specific thymocyte repertoire. Glucocorticoids induce apoptosis through activation of the GR, a ligand-induced transcription factor that transduces the hormonal signals into the regulated expression of target genes. While much is known about the structure and function of GR, key steroid-regulated genes believed to be required for thymocyte apoptosis have not been found. Based on the transcriptional-regulation of apoptosis by ecdysone-mediated induction of reaper gene expression in Drosophila, and p53-mediated transcriptional-activation of Bax gene expression in mammalian cells, our ...
Zeng L., Li T., Xu D.C., Liu J., Mao G., Cui M.Z., Fu X., Xu X.. Cells undergo apoptosis through two major pathways, the extrinsic pathway (death receptor pathway) and the intrinsic pathway (the mitochondrial pathway). These two pathways can be linked by caspase-8-activated truncated Bid formation. Very recently, death receptor 6 (DR6) was shown to be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease. DR6, also known as TNFRSF21, is a relatively new member of the death receptor family, and it was found that DR6 induces apoptosis when it is overexpressed. However, how the death signal mediated by DR6 is transduced intracellularly is not known. To this end, we have examined the roles of caspases, apoptogenic mitochondrial factor cytochrome c, and the Bcl-2 family proteins in DR6-induced apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that Bax translocation is absolutely required for DR6-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, inhibition of caspase-8 and knockdown of Bid have no effect on DR6-induced ...
Apoptosis is a normal physiological process which eliminates cells that do not receive adequate extracellular signals. One of the pathways signalling apoptosis is controlled by the small GTPases of the Rho family, also involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. Another major apoptosis signalling pathway involves the p53 tumour suppressor which is activated by a variety of stress and mediates growth arrest or apoptosis in normal cells. We show here that upon detachment from the extracellular matrix, fibroblasts undergo rapid apoptosis that can be rescued by constitutive activation of Rac1 and Cdc42Hs GTPases. Conversely, inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42Hs efficiently triggers apoptosis in adherent cells. Interestingly, apoptosis is not observed in p53-/- cells either cultured in suspension or inhibited for Rac1 and Cdc42Hs activity. Moreover, Rac1 and Cdc42Hs extinction in normal cells activates endogenous p53. Using specific inhibitors of MAPK pathways, we demonstrate that, in our ...
As one of the cellular death mechanisms, apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, can be defined as the process of a proper death of any cell under certain or necessary conditions. Apoptosis is controlled by the interactions between several molecules and responsible for the elimination of unwanted cells from the body.. Many biochemical events and a series of morphological changes occur at the early stage and increasingly continue till the end of apoptosis process. Morphological event cascade including cytoplasmic filament aggregation, nuclear condensation, cellular fragmentation, and plasma membrane blebbing finally results in the formation of apoptotic bodies. Several biochemical changes such as protein modifications/degradations, DNA and chromatin deteriorations, and synthesis of cell surface markers form morphological process during apoptosis.. Apoptosis can be stimulated by two different pathways: (1) intrinsic pathway (or mitochondria pathway) that mainly occurs via release of ...
Explore EarlyTox Caspase-3/7 NucView 488 Assay Kits that enables detection of apoptosis within intact cell populations through the use of NucView 488 Caspase-3 substrate.
The detection of DNA fragmentation by the use of the TUNEL technique has become a standard technique for the detection of apoptosis in tissue sections. DNA cleavage, detected by the TUNEL technique, is the last irreversible stage of the apoptosis cascade. When the nuclear DNA is cleaved in oligonucl …
Annexin V-Biotin Apoptosis Reagent (ab14165). Quick and reliable detection of phosphatidylserine exposure by flow cytometry or microscopy.
The molecular nature of calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent mechanisms and the ion channels having a major role in the apoptosis of cancer cells remain a subject of debate. Here, we show that the recently identified Orai1 protein represents the major molecular component of endogenous store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and constitutes the principal source of Ca(2+) influx used by the cell to trigger apoptosis. The downregulation of Orai1, and consequently SOCE, protects the cells from diverse apoptosis-inducing pathways, such as those induced by thapsigargin (Tg), tumor necrosis factor α, and cisplatin/oxaliplatin. The transfection of functional Orai1 mutants, such as R91W, a selectivity mutant, and L273S, a coiled-coil mutant, into the cells significantly decreased both SOCE and the rate of Tg-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the functional coupling of STIM1 to Orai1, as well as Orai1 Ca(2+)-selectivity as a channel, is required for its pro-apoptotic effects. We have
For a TUNEL assay, dissolve DNase I in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mg/ml BSA. The final concentration will depend on the sample being processed. In general, start by using a low concentration (1 U/ml for 10 min at +15 to +25 °C). This procedure is described in the pack inserts of the In Situ Cell Death Detection Kits. Follow the steps described in the troubleshooting section of the pack inserts of the In Situ Cell Death Detection Kits when having problems with positive controls ...
Bullacta exarata was hydrolyzed with trypsin to prepare peptides; Hydrolysates were isolated by ultrafiltration and purified using G-25 gel filtration. The purity of the Bullacta exarata was demonstrated by HPLC and its peptide sequence analysis was detected. The effects of BEPT II and BEPT II-1 on the proliferation of PC-3 cells were examined using a MTT assay. BEPT II and BEPT II-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V/PI double staining studies showed exposing PC-3 cells to 5, or 15 mg/mL BEPT II-1 for 24 h increased the percentage of the early stage of apoptotic cells from 11.22% to 22.09%. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. These data support that BEPT II-1 has anticancer properties and merits further investigation to understand the mechanisms of BEPT II-1-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells.
The BCL-2 family of proteins forms a complex interaction network that regulates cellular life and death decisions and contributes to cancer development, maintenance, and chemoresistance. BH3 only member proteins (e.g. BIM) serve as cellular stress sentinels and, when triggered, signal irreversible activation of apoptosis through their α-helical BH3 death domains. These pro-apoptotic signals are normally held in check by the multidomain anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. BCL-XL, MCL-1) but when they are unable to do so the multidomain pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAK induce cell death through pore formation in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Therapeutic manipulation of the BCL-2 family with BH3 mimetics (including small molecules and synthetic peptides) is an emerging paradigm in cancer treatment and immune modulation. The design of next-generation therapeutics based on the BIM BH3 helix offers the unique advantage of recapitulating BIMs natural capacity to directly target the full complement of ...
Mice and primary neuronal cultures. Hq, Apaf1-/-, and Bax-/- mice were maintained and genotyped as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2002). Cortical neurons and cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were cultured from cortices of E15.5 mice and cerebellums of postnatal day 7 mice, respectively, as described previously (Fortin et al., 2001). Recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying human AIF or LacZ expression cassettes were prepared and used at 50 multiplicity of infection as described previously (Cregan et al., 2002).. Camptothecin treatment and cell viability assays. Neurons were treated with 10 μm camptothecin with or without 10 μm Boc-aspartyl (Ome)-fluoromethylketone (BAF) (Enzyme System Products, Livermore, CA) after 2 d in vitro (DIV). Cell survival was measured by the following: live/dead staining (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), Hoechst staining, MTT assay (Cell Titer kit; Promega, Madison, WI), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of a human cDNA encoding a novel protein, DAD1, whose defect causes apoptotic cell death in hamster BHK21 cells. AU - Nakashima, Torahiko. AU - Sekiguchi, Takeshi. AU - Kuraoka, Akio. AU - Fukushima, Kohtarou. AU - Shibata, Yosaburo. AU - Komiyama, Sohtaro. AU - Nishimoto, Takeharu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1993/10. Y1 - 1993/10. N2 - The tsBN7 cell line, one of the mutant lines temperature sensitive for growth which have been isolated from the BHK21 cell line, was found to die by apoptosis following a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. The induced apoptosis was inhibited by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, but not by the bcl-2-encoded protein. By DNA-mediated gene transfer, we cloned a cDNA that complements the tsBN7 mutation. It encodes a novel hydrophobic protein, designated DAD1, which is well conserved (100% identical amino acids between humans and hamsters). By comparing the base sequences ...
Introduction Internucleosomal cleavage of DNA is a hallmark of apoptosis. DNA cleavage in apoptotic cells can be detected in situ in fixed cells or tissue sections using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. TUNEL is highly selective for the detection of apoptotic cells but not necrotic cells or cells with DNA strand breaks resulting from irradiation or drug treatment. In the TUNEL assay, TdT enzyme catalyzes the addition of labeled dUTP to the 3 ends of cleaved DNA fragments. Hapten-tagged dUTP (e.g. digoxigenin-dUTP or biotin-dUTP) can be detected using secondary reagents (e.g. anti-digoxigenin antibodies or streptavi-din) for fluorescence or colorimetric detection. Alternatively, fluorescent dye-conjugated dUTP can be used for direct detection of fragmented DNA by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. The TUNEL Andy Fluor™ 594 Apoptosis Detection Kit contains dUTP conjugated to biotin and Streptavidin conjugated to bright and ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to undergo apoptotic changes that can reproduce the damage of intestinal epithelia exposed to inflammatory cytokines. In this model, we measured the effect of curcumin (curcuminoid from Curcuma Longa) added as a pre-treatment at different time intervals before stimulation with IFNγ. Curcumin administration to HT29 culture before the inflammatory stimulus IFNγ reduced the cell apoptosis rate. This effect gradually declined with the reduction of the curcumin pre-incubation time. This anti-apoptotic action by curcumin pre-treatment was paralleled by a reduction of secreted IL7 in the HT29 culture media, while there was no relevant change in the other cytokine levels. Even though curcumin pre-administration did not impact the activation of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mifepristone regulates expression of apoptosis related genes Fas and FasL in mouse endometrium. AU - Gao, F.. AU - Xu, F. H.. AU - Zhou, X. C.. AU - Han, X. B.. AU - Liu, Y. X.. PY - 2001/7/3. Y1 - 2001/7/3. N2 - AIM: To investigate the anti-implantation mechanism of mifepriston. METHODS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were applied to determine mRNA and protein. RESULTS: After mifepriston injection, the number of implantation sites were obviously reduced, mifepriston could inhibit the embryo implantation in mouse. The expression of apoptosis related genes, Fas and FasL, in mouse endometrium was also decreased after mifepriston treatment. CONCLUSION: The expression of apoptosis related genes Fas and FasL is regulated by mifepriston and the inhibitory effect of mifepriston on the embryo implantation may be mediated by action on the Fas/FasL system.. AB - AIM: To investigate the anti-implantation mechanism of mifepriston. METHODS: In situ hybridization and ...
title: Galpha12 Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Serum Withdrawal-Induced Apoptosis through Regulation of miR-155, doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.1.247, category: Article
Vascular Endothelial Growth Inhibitor (VEGI) is an endothelial cell autocrine factor and a member of the tumor necrosis family of ligands. VEGI is able to specifically inhibit endothelial cell growth and is an efficient inhibitor of angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of VEGI activity on endothelial cells remain undefined. Here we focused on two important steps in the signal transduction of VEGI. We first determined a role of NF-κB in VEGI-induced apoptosis. We found that inhibition of the NF-κB pathway resulted in an increased apoptotic potential of VEGI. We conclude that the NF-κB pathway plays a role in suppressing the apoptotic potential of VEGI. We next investigated the receptor responsible for VEGI-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. DR3 is a receptor for VEGI and thus we first focused on confirming if DR3 is the receptor responsible for VEGI-mediated endothelial cell death. We determined VEGI had diminished apoptotic activity in endothelial cells that are depleted of DR3 by siRNA. ...
HOTAIR was known to enhance radioresistance in several cancers. However, the function of HOTAIR on radioresistance involving the regulation of HIF-1α in cervical cancer has not been reported. BALB/c nude mice were injected subcutaneously with HeLa cells and irradiated by X-ray. The tumor volume was measured and the expression of HOTAIR in tumors was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was performed to detect the protein level of HIF-1α. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 22,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to examine the cell viability and cell apoptosis of HeLa cells and C33A cells exposed to radiation. Radiotherapy inhibited the tumor growth in mice bearing HeLa cells. Radiotherapy reduced the expression of HOTAIR and HIF-1α in tumor tissues and HeLa cells or C33A cells. HOTAIR overexpression abrogated the effect of radiation on the cell viability and cell apoptosis of HeLa and C33A cells
Methods and Findings: Studies were performed using wild type (WT) and A2 knockout (A2-/-) mice exposed to Oxygen Induced Retinopathy (OIR). Neuronal injury and apoptosis were assessed using immunohistochemistry, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end) labeling and Western blotting. Electroretinography (ERG) was used to assess retinal function. Neuro-glial injury in WT ROP mice was evident by TUNEL labeling, retinal thinning, decreases in number of rod bipolar cells and glial cell activation as compared with room air controls. Significant reduction in numbers of TUNEL positive cells, inhibition of retinal thinning, preservation of the rod bipolar cells and prevention of glial activation were observed in the A2-/- retinas. Retinal function was markedly impaired in the WT OIR mice as shown by decreases in amplitude of the b-wave of the ERG. This defect was significantly reduced in A2-/- mice. Levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53, cleaved caspase 9, cytochrome C and the ...
Pure ginsenoside standards (saponins Rh2, PD, and PT), along with an Rh2-enhanced North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) leaf extract (LFRh2), were tested for cytotoxic activity in cultured THP-1 leukemia cells. Thermal treatment of ginseng leaf resulted in production of both Rh2 and Rg3 content that was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Flow cytometry of cells stained with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide showed that the LFRh2 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased apoptosis (18% ± 0.4%) after 23 h at a concentration that inhibited cell viability by 50% (LC50 (72 h) = 52 μmg/mL. In comparison, a similar significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in apoptotic cell numbers occurred at 41 h of exposure for pure ginsenoside standards, PD (LC50 (72 h) = 13 μg/mL), PT (LC50 (72 h) = 19 μg/mL), and Rh2 (LC 50 (72 h) = 15 μg/mL). Although no further increase in apoptosis was observed in THP-1 cells after exposure to increasing concentrations of LFRh2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FADD/MORT1 is a common mediator of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-induced apoptosis. AU - Chinnaiyan, Arul M.. AU - Tepper, Clifford G. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - ORourke, Karen. AU - Kischkel, Frank C.. AU - Hellbardt, Stefan. AU - Krammer, Peter H.. AU - Peter, Marcus E.. AU - Dixit, Vishva M.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) are related molecules that signal apoptosis. Recently, a number of novel binding proteins have been proposed to mediate the signaling of these death receptors. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation of one of these candidate signal transducers, FADD/MORT1, abrogates CD95-induced apoptosis, ceramide generation, and activation of the cell death protease Yama/CPP32. In addition, this dominant-negative derivative of FADD (FADD-DN) blocked TNF- induced apoptosis while not affecting NF-κB activation. FADD-DN bound both receptors, and in the case of CD95, it disrupted ...
In this paper, the use of (123)I-Annexin V for the detection of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-induced apoptosis in tumour-bearing athymic mice is described. In vitro binding assays on LoVo cells show time- and dosage-dependent (125)I-Annexin V binding upon treatment with Tipifarnib (Zarnestra,
Paclitaxel is used to treat breast cancers, but the mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis are poorly understood. Consequently, we have studied the role of the FoxO transcription factors in determining cellular response to paclitaxel. Western blotting revealed that in a panel of nine breast cancer cell lines expression of ... read more FoxO1a and FoxO3a correlated with the expression of the pro-apoptotic FoxO target Bim, which was associated with paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In MCF-7 cells, which were paclitaxel-sensitive, the already high basal levels of FoxO3a and Bim protein increased dramatically after drug treatment, as did Bim mRNA, which correlated with apoptosis induction. This was not observed in MDA-231 cells, which expressed low levels of FoxOs and Bim. Gene reporter experiments demonstrated that in MCF-7 cells maximal induction of Bim promoter was dependent on a FoxO binding site, suggesting that FoxO3a is responsible for the transcriptional up-regulation of Bim. Gene silencing ...
Objectives : We investigated the effect of Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) on short-term memory and apoptosis in dentate gyrus of the gerbils with transient global ischemia. Methods : For the induction of cerebral ischemia model in mice, common carotid arteries of gerbils were occluded with aneurysm clips for 5 min. One day after operation, Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) was administrated orally injected once a day for 15 consecutive days. Gerbils were randomly divided into four group(n=10 in each group): sham-operation group, ischemia-induction group, ischemia-induction and 50 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group, ischemia-induction and 100 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group, and ischemia-induction and 200 mg/kg Haein-tang(Hairen-tang)-treated group. The effect of Haein-tang(Hairen-tang) on memory function was investigated by using step-down avoidance task. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) staining and immunohistochemistry ...
We used cytoplasmic extracts from chicken DU249 cells at various stages along the apoptotic pathway to analyse the events of apoptotic exe-cution. So-called S/M extracts from morphologically normal committed-stage cells induce apoptotic morphology and DNA cleavage in substrate nuclei. These apoptotic changes appear to require the function of multiple caspases (cysteine aspar-tases, a specialized class of proteases) acting in parallel. Extracts from execution-stage apoptotic cells induce apoptotic events in added nuclei in a caspase-independent manner. Biochemical frac-tionation of these extracts reveals that a column fraction enriched in endogenous active caspases is un-able to induce DNA fragmentation or chromatin condensation in substrate nuclei, whereas a caspase-depleted fraction induces both changes. Execution-stage extracts contain an ICAD/DFF45-inhibitable nuclease resembling CAD, plus another activity that is required for the apoptotic chromatin condensation. Committed-stage S/M ...
As a process, apoptosis integrates a multitude of pro- and anti-cell death signals to a single decision for life or death. This type of all-or-none response to quantitative inputs is common in biological phenomena such as cell proliferation and differentiation and is often associated with a network topology containing positive feedback loops (28). While the ability of caspases to self-cleave provides one level of such feedback activity (17), we find that this feedback extends to cross activation between both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, with specific activation of either extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis leading to near simultaneous activation of both caspase-8 and -9 in all apoptotic cells tested in this experiment. This supports a model wherein, although initiation of caspases is segregated by distinct pathways, an apoptotic signal, once having reached a threshold level, leads to a simultaneous activation across both arms of the apoptotic network. Several signaling mechanisms ...
In previous study we showed that caspase-2 plays the role of an apical caspase in cell death induction by taxanes in breast cancer cells. This study deals with the role of other caspases. We tested breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 (functional caspase-3) and MCF-7 (nonfunctional caspase-3). Using western blot analysis we demonstrated the activation of initiator caspase-8 and -9 as well as executioner caspase-6 and -7 in both tested cell lines after application of taxanes (paclitaxel, SB-T-1216) at death-inducing concentrations. Caspase-3 activation was also found in SK-BR-3 cells. Employing specific siRNAs after taxane application, suppression of caspase-3 expression significantly increased the number of surviving SK-BR-3 cells. Inhibition of caspase-7 expression also increased the number of surviving SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells. On the other hand, suppression of caspase-8 and caspase-9 expression had no significant effect on cell survival. However, caspase-9 seemed to be involved in the activation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcineurin Aβ Gene Targeting Predisposes the Myocardium to Acute Ischemia-Induced Apoptosis and Dysfunction. AU - Bueno, Orlando F.. AU - Lips, Daniel J.. AU - Kaiser, Robert A.. AU - Wilkins, Benjamin J.. AU - Dai, Yan Shan. AU - Glascock, Betty J.. AU - Klevitsky, Raisa. AU - Hewett, Timothy E.. AU - Kimball, Thomas R.. AU - Aronow, Bruce J.. AU - Doevendans, Pieter A.. AU - Molkentin, Jeffery D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/1/9. Y1 - 2004/1/9. N2 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity within the industrialized nations of the world, with coronary heart disease (CHD) accounting for as much as 66% of these deaths. Acute myocardial infarction is a typical sequelae associated with long-standing coronary heart disease resulting in large scale loss of ventricular myocardium through both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. In this study, we investigated the role that the calcium calmodulin-activated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrite generation and antioxidant effects during neutrophil apoptosis. AU - Misso, Neil L.A.. AU - Peacock, Craig D.. AU - Neil Watkins, D.. AU - Thompson, Philip J.. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - Neutrophil apoptosis is important for the resolution of airway inflammation in a number of lung diseases. Inflammatory mediators, endogenous reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and intracellular and extracellular antioxidants may all influence neutrophil apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of these factors during apoptosis of neutrophils cultured in vitro. Neutrophils undergoing spontaneous apoptosis in culture as assessed by annexin V binding generated significant amounts of nitrite. Incubation with agonistic anti-Fas monoclonal antibody or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) enhanced neutrophil apoptosis at 6 h, although it decreased nitrite accumulation. Although granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor significantly reduced neutrophil apoptosis, this ...
Caspase 3 is an essential death factor for the Fas-mediated cell death, and its inactivation in cells is initiated by an interaction with p21 on mitochondria or with IAP family member ILP. Survivin is also a member of IAP family and is specifically expressed during embryogenesis and in tumor cells and suppresses cell death signaling. In our current study, we demonstrated that Survivin translocation into the nucleus is dependent on Fas stimulation and cell proliferation. Survivin also interacts with the cell cycle regulator Cdk4, leading to Cdk2/Cyclin E activation and Rb phosphorylation. As a result of Survivin/Cdk4 complex formation, p21 is released from its complex with Cdk4 and interacts with mitochondrial procaspase 3 to suppress Fas-mediated cell death. Here, we propose that Survivin supports procaspase 3/p21 complex formation as a result of interaction with Cdk4 resulting in suppression of cell death signaling.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pretreatment with low nitric oxide protects osteoblasts from high nitric oxide-induced apoptotic insults through regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun-mediated Bcl-2 gene expression and protein translocation. AU - Tai, Yu-Ting. AU - Cherng, Yih-Giun. AU - Chang, Chia Chen. AU - Hwang, Yi Ping. AU - Chen, Jui Tai. AU - Chen, Ruei-Ming. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate osteoblast activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with a low concentration of NO on osteoblast injuries induced by a high level of NO and its possible molecular mechanisms. Exposure of osteoblasts to 0.3 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, slightly increased cellular NO levels without affecting cell viability. SNP at 2 mM greatly increased the levels of cellular NO and reactive oxygen species, and induced osteoblast death. Thus, osteoblasts were treated with 0.3 and 2 mM SNP as the sources of low and high NO, respectively. Exposure of osteoblasts ...
Because defects in apoptosis programs, for example, high expression of antiapoptotic molecules, can cause resistance to treatment regimens including radiotherapy (8), current attempts to improve the outcome of glioblastoma patients depend on strategies to increase apoptosis sensitivity. In this study, we identify a new proapoptotic role of NF-κB in γ-irradiation-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma cells by showing, for the first time, that NF-κB is critically required for Smac mimetic-triggered radiosensitization. This conclusion is supported by several independent pieces of evidence. First, BV6 and γ-irradiation cooperate to trigger apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. This interaction is highly synergistic in A172 glioblastoma cells (CI , 0.3). Second, BV6 stimulates NF-κB activation, which is required for the potentiation of γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis because genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of the dominant-negative superrepressor IκBα-SR significantly reduces BV6- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide-GAPDH-Siah. T2 - a novel cell death cascade.. AU - Hara, Makoto R.. AU - Snyder, Solomon H. PY - 2006/7. Y1 - 2006/7. N2 - 1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an extremely abundant glycolytic enzyme, and exemplifies the class of proteins with multiple, seemingly unrelated functions. Recent studies indicate that it is a major intracellular messenger mediating apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the GAPDH cell death cascade and discusses its clinical relevance. 2. A wide range of apoptotic stimuli activate NO formation, which S-nitrosylates GAPDH. The S-nitrosylation abolishes catalytic activity and confers upon GAPDH the ability to bind to Siah, an E3-ubiquitin-ligase, which translocates GAPDH to the nucleus. In the nucleus, GAPDH stabilizes the rapidly turning over Siah, enabling it to degrade selected target proteins and affect apoptosis. 3. The cytotoxicity of mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) requires nuclear translocation which appears to be ...
3H]Thymidine Incorporation Studies. Thymidine incorporation studies were performed with cells grown in 35-mm culture dishes. The cells were labeled by the addition of methyl-[3H]thymidine (1 μCi/ml) to the medium, and the reactions were stopped after 1 h. The medium was drawn off, and the cells were rinsed twice with ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The cultures were then fixed with ice-cold 5% trichloracetic acid overnight at 4°C, after which the cells were extracted as previously described (Guo and Reiners, 2000). A second replicate set of nonfixed dishes was treated with 0.25% trypsin-EDTA to estimate cell numbers. [3H]Thymidine was detected by scintillation counting and expressed as disintegration per minute per 103 cells.. Assessment of Apoptosis. The effects of HET0016 to induced apoptosis in 9L cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after the cells were labeled with an annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, ...
Previous studies suggested that dithio-carbamates are potent apoptosis and anti-apoptosis inducing agents in various cancer cells. Here, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of a new derivative (2-NDC) from the dithio-carbamate family was examined in human leukemia K562 cells. We use thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to measure viability and cell growth inhibition. The 2-NDC showed effects on viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, inhibiting proliferation at concentrations of 10-30 M after 24-48 hours of treatment and increasing values after 72 hours at 40-120 M. The cytotoxic effect of the compound was calculated with an IC50 of 30 M after 24-hour. Apoptosis induction was confirmed by acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) staining, DNA fragmentation assay, flow cytometric assessment and also caspase-3 activation assay. Furthermore, enzymes level such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) involved in oxidative stress were evaluated. The results of this
Our results uncovered an unexpected role for MPO to influence the fate of neutrophils and consequently the duration of inflammation. By suppressing the constitutive cell death program, MPO prolonged the life span of neutrophils, thereby delaying the resolution of inflammation. These actions were specific for MPO, because other azurophilic granule constituents lactoferrin and elastase failed to affect neutrophil apoptosis.. Consistent with the commitment of neutrophils to apoptosis, MPO at clinically relevant concentrations delayed, rather than blocked apoptosis, resulting in prolonged survival of human neutrophils in vitro. We confirmed that increasing plasma concentrations of MPO in rats to levels comparable to those detected in patients with inflammatory vascular diseases20,21 was sufficient to retard the apoptotic machinery in neutrophils as assayed ex vivo. Furthermore, MPO also suppressed apoptosis in neutrophils that had emigrated into the airways and delayed resolution of inflammation in ...
The effects of the acute phase proteins AGP and AAT on early (2-hour) and late (24-hour) apoptosis and inflammation after renal I/R were investigated. Both AGP and AAT administered at reperfusion decrease early as well as late apoptosis, as reflected by renal internucleosomal DNA cleavage, TUNEL histology, and caspase-like activities. In line, we previously demonstrated that abrogating acute early apoptosis with selective antiapoptotic agents prevents subsequent inflammation as well as secondary apoptosis caused by inflammation, whereas antiapoptotic treatment that is initiated after the onset of apoptosis does not reduce I/R-induced inflammation.1 In contrast, in the present study, treatment after 2 hours of reperfusion inhibited inflammation, which is supported by reports of anti-inflammatory effects mediated by AGP and AAT.12 13 Early primary19 20 as well as late secondary2 21 apoptosis after I/R has been reported to be caused by various means. The present results, showing that AGP and (to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Response of Apoptosis Related Proteins to Running in Fluoride-Exposed Mice. AU - Canning, M.. AU - Zohoori, Fatemeh. AU - Valentine, Ruth. AU - Khan, Z.. AU - Ahmed, A.. AU - Amaral, A.. AU - Azevedo, Liane. AU - Buzalaf, Maria. AU - Fabricio, M.. AU - Fernandes, M.. AU - Maguire, Anne. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 96A. JO - Journal of Dental Research. JF - Journal of Dental Research. SN - 0022-0345. ER - ...
An in vitro ischemia model was established and the effect of the metabolic inhibitors cycloheximide (CHX) and actinomycin D (ActD) on apoptosis in astrocytes under ischemia studied. CHX decreased by 75% the number of cells dying after 6 hr of ischemia compared with control cultures. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining of comparable cultures was reduced by 40%. ActD decreased cell death by 60% compared with controls. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced by 38%. The nuclear shrinkage in TUNEL-positive astrocytes in control cultures did not occur in ActD-treated astrocytes, indicating that nuclear shrinkage and DNA fragmentation during apoptosis are two unrelated processes. Expression of bcl-2 (alpha and beta), bax, and Ice in astrocytes under similar ischemic conditions, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, indicated that ischemia down-regulated bcl-2 (alpha and beta) and bax. Ice was initially down-regulated from 0 to 4 hr, ...
AIMS--To compare in situ end-labelling (ISEL) of apoptosis in lung carcinoma with quantitative and semiquantitative light microscopic assessment and ultrastructural observations. METHODS--ISEL of apoptosis was evaluated in 42 lung carcinomas (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 12 adenocarcinomas and six small cell carcinomas). Results were correlated semiquantitatively with the extent of apoptosis in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections, with apoptotic indices and with ultrastructural observations (nine cases). RESULTS--In each tumour type the extent of apoptosis identified by ISEL correlated with that observed on light and electron microscopy. Tumour cells undergoing apoptosis showed either uniform nuclear staining with a surrounding halo or peripheral nuclear membrane staining. The latter pattern was more prominent in small cell carcinoma and correlated ultrastructurally with early apoptosis. A variable proportion of apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies were unlabelled. Necrotic tumour cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and changes in proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes bax and bcl-2 during left ventricular adaptations to chronic pressure overload in the rat. AU - Condorelli, Gianluigi. AU - Morisco, Carmine. AU - Stassi, Giorgio. AU - Notte, Antonella. AU - Farina, Felicia. AU - Sgaramella, Giuseppe. AU - De Rienzo, Assunta. AU - Roncarati, Roberta. AU - Trimarco, Bruno. AU - Lembo, Giuseppe. PY - 1999/6/15. Y1 - 1999/6/15. N2 - Background - Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) represents both an adaptive response to increased cardiac work load and a precursor state of heart failure. Recent evidence linked cardiac myocyte death by apoptosis with LVH and heart failure. It remained unclear, however, whether apoptosis participated in the transition from LVH to left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Methods and Results - Cardiac myocyte apoptotic events and changes in apoptosis-specific genes were studied in a rat model of chronic pressure overload induced by ...
Animals and plants diverged over one billion years ago and evolved unique mechanisms for many cellular processes, including cell death. One of the most well-studied cell death programmes in animals, apoptosis, involves gradual cell dismantling and engulfment of cellular fragments, apoptotic bodies, through phagocytosis. However, rigid cell walls prevent plant cell fragmentation and thus apoptosis is not applicable for executing cell death in plants. Furthermore, plants are devoid of the key components of apoptotic machinery, including phagocytosis as well as caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins. Nevertheless, the concept of plant
When hypertonicity is imposed with sufficient intensity and acuteness, cells die. Here we investigated the cellular pathways involved in death using a cell line derived from renal epithelium. We found that hypertonicity rapidly induced activation of an intrinsic cell death pathway- release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9-and an extrinsic pathway-activation of caspase-8. Likewise, a lysosomal pathway of cell death characterized by partial lysosomal rupture and release of cathepsin B from lysosomes to the cytosol was also activated. Relationships among the pathways were examined using specific inhibitors. Caspase inhibitors did not affect cathepsin B release into the cytosol by hypertonicity. In addition, cathepsin B inhibitors and caspase inhibitors did not affect hyper-tonicity-induced cytochrome c release, suggesting that the three pathways were independently activated. Combined inhibition of caspases and cathepsin B conferred significantly more protection from ...
Differentiation refers to the ability of cancer cells to revert to their normal counterparts, and its induction represents an important noncytotoxic therapy for leukemia, and also breast, prostate, and other solid malignancies. Flavonoids are a group of differentiation-inducing chemicals with a potentially lower toxicology profile than retinoids. Flavonoid-rich polyphenol fractions from the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit exert anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-eicosanoid, and pro-apoptotic actions in breast and prostate cancer cells and anti-angiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo.. The results highlight an important, previously unknown, mechanism of the cancer preventive and suppressive potential of pomegranate fermented juice and pericarp extracts.. Journal of Medicinal Food, Volume: 7 Issue 1: July 7, 2004 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced wall compliance suppresses Akt-dependent apoptosis protection stimulated by pulse perfusion. AU - Li, Manxiang. AU - Chiou, Kuan Rau. AU - Bugayenko, Artem. AU - Irani, Kaikobad. AU - Kass, David A.. PY - 2005/9/16. Y1 - 2005/9/16. N2 - Reduced arterial compliance and increased pulse pressure are common and major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Here, we reveal a novel mechanism whereby loss of wall distensibility blunts endothelial cell protection to oxidant stress-induced apoptosis. Bovine aortic endothelial cells cultured in compliant or stiff silastic tubes were pulse perfused by arterial pressure/flow waveforms generated by a servo-pump. Pulse perfusion induced time-dependent Akt activation peaking ,6-fold after 2 hours in compliant tubes and a similar time course but half the magnitude in stiff tubes. This was accompanied by quantitatively similar disparities in phosphoinositide-3 kinase activation and in Akt-stimulated suppressors of apoptosis: glycogen ...
Worldwide Market Reports added Latest Research Report titled Global Apoptosis Assays Market Is Expected To Reach Around USD 6.96 Billion By 2025″ to its Large Report database. The report, the global Apoptosis Assays Market, demonstrates an all-encompassing investigation of the global Apoptosis Assays Market that appraises the market magnitude and evaluates the market assessment above the predicted time. The ruling players of the Apoptosis Assays Market are visible inside the report in company with thorough details referring to their revenue break-up, synopsis of the business, latest developments, product segmentation, and so on. The operative market players in the global Apoptosis Assays Market are further discussed in the report.. This Research will help you grow your Business: [Download free Sample PDF of This Research Report]. Some of the Major Apoptosis Assays Market Players Are:. Merck KGaA, Thermo Fischer Scientific, Bio-Rad Laboratories, GE Healthcare, Geno Technology, BioTek ...
The basal machinery controlling PCD appears to have been substantially conserved throughout metazoan evolution. The mammalian bcl‐2 gene family encodes cell death regulator proteins that exhibit structural and functional homology with the product of the death‐suppressing ced‐9 gene of C.elegans. Likewise, the ced‐3 killer gene of C.elegans encodes a member of the conserved caspase family of cysteine proteases, members of which play critical proapoptotic roles in mammalian apoptosis.. However, despite this conservation of the basal machinery between the nematode and mammals, neither ced‐9/bcl‐2 nor caspase homologues has yet been identified in the fruit fly, D.melanogaster. Indeed, the proapoptotic machinery so far defined in Drosophila via genetic screening comprises three genes, rpr, hid and grim that share little if any homology with known components of the mammalian death machinery and none at all with the nematode. The only clear link thus far between the apoptotic machinery in ...
In this paper we used a multiparametric approach to analyze extensively the events occurring during apoptotic cell death of thymocytes, and furthermore, we asked whether alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are occurring in early stages of apoptosis. A multiparametric quantitative analysis was performed on normal or apoptotic thymocytes emerging from a few-hour culture performed in culture medium or in the presence of dexamethasone. Simultaneous detection of light scattering properties, integrity of plasma membrane (trypan blue exclusion), chromatin condensation (AO/EB staining of entire cells or PI staining of nuclei), and DNA fragmentation (in situ nick-translation in apoptotic cells) allowed a precise analysis of the preapoptotic and apoptotic stages. Moreover a thorough study of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta psi m) assessed following in a time course study the uptake by apoptotic cells of the cationic lipophilic dye DiOC6(3) or the J-aggregate-forming cation ...
Successful wound closure is mainly the result of two cellular processes: migration and proliferation. Apoptosis has also been suggested to play a role in the mechanisms of wound healing. The fast calcium wave (FCW), triggered immediately after a wound is produced, has been proposed to be involved in determining healing responses in epithelia. We have explored the effects of the reversible inhibition of FCW on the apoptotic and proliferative responses of healing bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture. The most important findings of this study are that caspase-dependent apoptosis occurs during the healing process, that the amount of apoptosis has a linear dependence on the migrated distance, and that FCW inhibition greatly increases the apoptotic index. We have further been able to establish that FCW plays a role in the control of cell proliferation during BCE wound healing. These results indicate that one of the main roles of the wave is to inhibit an excessive apoptotic response of the
CCAR1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1; CARP 1; CARP1; FLJ10590; death inducer with SAP domain; cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein 1; MGC44628; RP11-437A18.1; novel protein similar to vertebrate cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1 ...
Cell apoptosis assay PaTu8988 cell apoptosis was Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries detected by the Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit in accordance on the producers protocol. Briefly, 1 million cells with indicated therapies were stained with FITC Annexin V and PI. Each early and late apoptotic cells had been sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Cell morphologic examination A total of 4 104 PaTu8988 cells were seeded on glass cover slips during the six very well plate and taken care of using the indicated concentration of SAHA for 48 h. Cells were fixed and stained with Wright Giemsa stain. The slides had been photographed using oil microscopy. In vitro tube formation assay or vasculogenic mimicry assay The tumor cell formation of capillary structure in vitro was examined as we previously described.. Cellular immuno fluorescence staining PaTu8988 cells were seeded on glass cover slips in merely six nicely plates and taken care of with described dosage of SAHA for 48 h. Cells about the ...
The development and growth of aneurysms involve the complex events of arterial wall cells remodeling (38). Previous studies have demonstrated that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of aneurysms (6,7). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulation of apoptosis in the mouse IA model remains unknown.. To investigate the apoptotic events of IA mice model, the present study investigated the mRNA expression of caspases associated with the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, including caspase-3, −8 and −9. The activation of caspases serves an essential role during the process of apoptosis (39), which may be caused by an extrinsic or intrinsic pathway, which lead to a terminal common pathway (40). Caspase-8 activation is involved in the extrinsic pathway and caspase-9 is involved in the intrinsic pathway. In the mitochondrial pathway, the release of Cyt-c constitutes an apoptotic complex, which subsequently results in the activation of caspase-9. The activation of caspase-8 and ...
The nuoG gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the ability to inhibit host cell apoptosis. This ability is a virulence factor and does not exist in facultative pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial species. NuoG is part of the NDH-1 complex, and this study addressed the potential link between the role of NuoG in apoptosis inhibition and the biochemical activity of the NDH-1 complex. Different mycobacterial species were tested for their NDH-1 activities. Among the bacteria tested were bacteria transformed with the Mtb nuoG plasmid, or with the almost entire NDH-1 coding region. Surprisingly, the levels of NDH-1 activity did not correlate with apoptosis levels, suggesting a potential independent, novel mechanism by which NuoG inhibits host cell apoptosis. ...
Abstract: PURPOSE: The clinical use of the zoledronic acid has been increasing recently, and especially for the treatment of bone metastases. The synergistic effects of zoledronic acid with other chemotherapeutic agents have been shown. However it is not known whether a similar synergistic apoptotic effects exist for a combination therapy of zoledronic acid with radiation. METHODS: The MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were treated with 10 micrometer, 50 micrometer or 100 micrometer of zoledronic acid, irradiated with 5 Gy, and they were also treated with a combination of both treatments. The results of the synergistic effect on apoptosis were identified by performing XTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay, FACS analysis and western blot analysis at 24, 48, 72 hours after treatment. RESULTS: Zoledronic acid afftects anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The synergistic cytotoxic effect of zoledronic acid and radiation was noted. The ...
Apoptotic signaling is altered at many loci in cancer cells. Although many tumors develop resistance to cytochrome c-induced apoptosis, we have discovered that breast cancer cells exhibit a unique hypersensitivity to cytochrome c-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, this sensitivity is not due to changes in core apoptosomal proteins ( 44) but is due to a PHAPI-mediated posttranslational event that enhances the recruitment of caspase-9 to the Apaf-1 CARD. These findings have the potential to affect breast cancer chemotherapy through the development of apoptosome activators or cytochrome c mimetics as shown, in principle, by the fact that malignant mammary epithelial cells could be more easily killed by cytosolic cytochrome c than their normal counterparts.. PHAPI-mediated increase in caspase activation in breast cancer. Whereas many inhibitory signaling pathways converge on the apoptosome, there are very few physiologic/pathologic examples of enhanced apoptosome activation. Our data suggest that ...
Role in apoptosis[edit]. Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill ... Inhibition of apoptosis[edit]. One of the ways cell apoptosis is activated is by release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria ... Apoptosis & Caspase 3 - PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation. *UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-78 ... Cytochrome c is known to play a role in the electron transport chain and cell apoptosis. However, a recent study has shown that ...
However p21 may inhibit apoptosis and does not induce cell death on its own.[23] The ability of p21 to inhibit apoptosis in ... Apoptosis inhibition[edit]. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a ... "Chk1 and p21 cooperate to prevent apoptosis during DNA replication fork stress". Mol. Biol. Cell. 17 (1): 402-12. doi:10.1091/ ... dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. ...
Apoptosis[edit]. Apoptosis is the programmed cell death of superfluous or potentially harmful cells in the body. It is an ... In the average adult between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis can result in a ... In multicellular organisms, cell death in response to DNA damage may occur by a programmed process, apoptosis.[15] ... Hyperactive apoptosis can lead to neurodegenerative diseases, hematologic diseases, and tissue damage. ...
... inducing either apoptosis or osmotic cell lysis. The distinction between apoptosis and cell lysis is important in immunology: ... Cytolytic granule mediated cell apoptosis[edit]. NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain proteins ... Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to Fas ligand that directly indicate infection of a cell ... The MHC-dependent receptors (described above) use an alternate pathway to induce apoptosis in infected cells. Natural killer ...
In fact, amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis.[40][41][42 ... Thyroxine and iodine stimulate the spectacular apoptosis of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins in amphibian ... Tamura K, Takayama S, Ishii T, Mawaribuchi S, Takamatsu N, Ito M (2015). "Apoptosis and differentiation of Xenopus tail-derived ... "Optogenetic Control of Apoptosis in Targeted Tissues of Xenopus laevis Embryos". Journal of Cell Death. 7: 25-31. doi:10.4137/ ...
DNA binding and apoptosis[edit]. The c-Abl gene in wild-type cells is implicated in DNA binding, which affects such processes ... The BCR-ABL fusion, in contrast, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, but its effect on DNA binding in particular is unclear.[ ... The function of these pro-apoptotic proteins, however, is impaired, and apoptosis is not carried out in these cells. BCR-ABL ... Dan, S.; Naito, M.; Tsuruo, T. (1998). "Selective induction of apoptosis in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic ...
... MiniCOPE Dictionary-list of apoptosis terms and acronyms. *Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) - The Virtual Library of ... Hyperactive apoptosis[edit]. On the other hand, loss of control of cell death (resulting in excess apoptosis) can lead to ... Apoptosis Interest Group (1999). "About apoptosis". Archived from the original on 28 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-15.. ... The study of apoptosis brought on by Bunyaviridae was initiated in 1996, when it was observed that apoptosis was induced by the ...
Impaired developmental apoptosis[edit]. Paraganglionic tissue is derived from the neural crest cells present in an embryo. ... The induced glycolytic enzymes could potentially block cell apoptosis. RNA editing[edit]. The mRNA transcripts of the SDHB gene ... "Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: developmental culling and cancer". ...
In animals apoptosis is induced by caspases and in fungi and plants, apoptosis is induced by arginine and lysine-specific ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ... Apoptosis[edit]. Initiator caspases are activated by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptopic pathways. This leads to the activation ... Examples of caspase cascade during apoptosis: *Intrinsic apoptopic pathway: During times of cellular stress, mitochondrial ...
Apoptosis (type I)[edit]. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. It is one of the main types ... It is still unclear exactly what combination of apoptosis, non-apoptosis, and necrosis causes different kinds of aponecrosis.[3 ... the combination of apoptosis and necrosis, when in higher concentrations. ...
... or apoptosis.[2] It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus. Pyknosis (from Greek pyknono meaning "to ...
Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... R. Kang, H. J. Zeh, M. T. Lotze, and D. Tang, 'The Beclin 1 Network Regulates Autophagy and Apoptosis', Cell Death Differ, 18 ( ... Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or necrosis. Prolonged autophagy ... Tavassoly Iman, Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells: ...
Tavassoly I (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ... Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or necrosis. Prolonged autophagy ... Tavassoly Iman, Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells: ... The second strategy is to inhibit autophagy and thus induce apoptosis.[94] ...
Apoptosis. *see apoptosis signaling pathway. GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators ...
In apoptosis, the cleavage of DNA is done by Ca2+ and Mg2+ -dependent endonucleases. ... Zamzami N, Kroemer G (1999). "Apoptosis: Condensed matter in cell death". Nature. 401 (127): 127-8. doi:10.1038/43591. PMID ...
Lippens, S; Hoste, E; Vandenabeele, P; Agostinis, P; Declercq, W (April 2009). "Cell death in the skin". Apoptosis. 14 (4): 549 ...
hCG - Promotes cellular differentiation, and is potentially involved in apoptosis.[citation needed] ...
Also, calcium is linked to apoptosis by causing the release of cytochrome c. Therefore, mutations in the RETGC-1 can cause COD ...
... is also able to kill human leukemic cells and colon cancer cells by apoptosis.[2][3] ... "Sclareol induces apoptosis in human HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro and suppression of HCT116 tumor growth in ...
Apoptosis Antithrombotic ↓Thromboxane-A2. ↓PDGF ↓Platelet aggregation. ↓Platelet adherence to vessel wall ...
Serine/Threonine Kinase receptors play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis), cell ...
"The association of Aiolos transcription factor and Bcl-xL is involved in the control of apoptosis". Journal of Immunology. 167 ... "The association of Aiolos transcription factor and Bcl-xL is involved in the control of apoptosis". Journal of Immunology. 167 ...
... apoptosis), embryonic development, and cell differentiation. ...
m Apoptosis‎; 11:40 . . (+4)‎ . . ‎. Lrunge. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Treatments). *(diff , hist) . . m Apoptosis‎; 11:29 . . (+4) ... m Apoptosis‎; 10:43 . . (+7)‎ . . ‎. Lrunge. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Pathway knock-outs). 16 January 2018. *(diff , hist) . . m ...
Evading apoptosis won't die when the body normally would kill the defective cell ...
Apoptosis[edit]. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death where the cell undergoes morphological changes, to minimize its ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ... "Death fold domain interaction in apoptosis". doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401203.. *^ "Caspase function in programmed cell death". doi: ... Examples of caspase cascade during apoptosis:. *Intrinsic apoptopic pathway: During times of cellular stress, mitochondrial ...
"Entrez Gene: CASP8 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase".. *^ a b c Chun HJ, Zheng L, Ahmad M, Wang J, Speirs CK, ... cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis. Cellular component. • cell body. • cytosol. • ... execution phase of apoptosis. • toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway. • positive regulation of neuron death. ... Apoptosis & Caspase 8-The Proteolysis Map (animation). *Caspase 8 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... "evade apoptosis", leading to the accumulation of aberrant cells. Most mammalian cells can replicate a limited number of times ... apoptosis) in response to signals such as DNA damage, oncogene overexpression, and survival factor insufficiency, but a cancer ... "UVB-induced apoptosis drives clonal expansion during skin tumor development". Carcinogenesis. 26 (1): 249-57. doi:10.1093/ ... "Clonal expansion and attenuated apoptosis in Wilms' tumors are associated with p53 gene mutations". Cancer Res. 55 (2): 215-9 ...
... es and apoptosis. Annual Review of Microbiology. 1999;53:577-628. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.577. PMID 10547702. ... The causes of death include cell lysis, alterations to the cell's surface membrane and apoptosis.[122] Often cell death is ... escape from apoptosis, and antigenic shift.[194] Other viruses, called neurotropic viruses, are disseminated by neural spread ...
NACHT - NAIP (neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein), C2TA [class 2 transcription activator, of the MHC, HET-E (heterokaryon ... Bertin J, DiStefano PS (Dec 2000). "The PYRIN domain: a novel motif found in apoptosis and inflammation proteins". review. Cell ... Koonin EV, Aravind L (May 2000). "The NACHT family - a new group of predicted NTPases implicated in apoptosis and MHC ... This protein interacts with pyrin domain (PYD) of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). Proteins ...
See what apoptosis has to do with curing disease. ... Apoptosis is also known as programmed cell death, and is the ... This brings us to our discussion of the triggers of apoptosis. Rather than dying due to injury, cells that go through apoptosis ... while decreased apoptosis can signal lupus or cancer. Understanding how to regulate apoptosis could be the first step to ... Apoptosis, on the other hand, is relatively civil, even though it may not sound so at first -- its when a cell commits suicide ...
Apoptosis MiniCOPE Dictionary - list of apoptosis terms and acronyms. *Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) - The Virtual Library ... Hyperactive apoptosis[edit]. On the other hand, loss of control of cell death (resulting in excess apoptosis) can lead to ... The study of apoptosis brought on by Bunyaviridae was initiated in 1996, when it was observed that apoptosis was induced by the ... Apoptosis Interest Group (1999). "About apoptosis". Archived from the original on 28 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-15.. ...
... apoptosis and insufficient platelet production play important roles in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The ... Reduced megakaryocyte (MK) apoptosis and insufficient platelet production play important roles in the pathogenesis of immune ... In the presence of ITP plasma-derived exosomes (ITP-Exo), the apoptosis of MKs was reduced during the process of MK ... All these findings indicated that ITP-Exo, as a regulator of platelet production, impaired MK apoptosis and platelet production ...
... is a form of necrosis and is sometimes referred to as single cell necrosis. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies in ... Early development of apoptosis. Affected hepatocytes are hypereosinophilic and angular with fragmented and condensed nuclear ...
microRNA-378 promotes autophagy and inhibits apoptosis in skeletal muscle Yan Li, Jingjing Jiang, Wei Liu, Hui Wang, Lei Zhao, ... Akt-mediated platelet apoptosis and its therapeutic implications in immune thrombocytopenia Mengxing Chen, Rong Yan, Kangxi ...
apoptosis Cliff Stanners Professor Emeritus Department of Biochemistry Molecular and Cellular Biology of Human Carcinoembryonic ...
Apoptosis, in biology, a mechanism that allows cells to self-destruct when stimulated by the appropriate trigger. Apoptosis can ... This realization has generated a massive research effort focused on apoptosis.. Regulation of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurs on a ... Apoptosis in medicine. Manipulating apoptosis is one avenue through which scientists can address a number of vexing medical ... cancer: Apoptosis and cancer development. Many cells undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis, during fetal development. ...
Homo sapiens apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5), transcript variant 3, mRNA. PA. NM_001142930.1. Homo sapiens apoptosis inhibitor 5 ( ... Homo sapiens apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5), transcript variant 5, mRNA. PA. NR_024625.1. Homo sapiens apoptosis inhibitor 5 ( ... apoptosis inhibitor 5-B. X. laevis. 89.5. 522. NP_955834.2 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... apoptosis inhibitor 5. D. rerio. 88.2. 525. NP_509585.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ...
Apoptosis and disease.. Carson DA1, Ribeiro JM.. Author information. 1. Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, ... Such physiological cell death, in the absence of inflammation, is achieved by apoptosis, a structurally distinct programmed ... The pharmacological manipulation of apoptosis offers new possibilities for the prevention and treatment of these illnesses. ...
Apoptosis is the physiological way for nucleated cells to die. Apoptosis takes care of unwanted, injured, or virus-infected ... The elucidation of the apoptosis pathway in C. elegans has been helpful to better understand apoptosis signaling pathways in ... Key components of the apoptosis machinery seem to be conserved between humans and nematodes. However, neither an apoptosis- ... 1997) in Apoptosis: Biology, Mechanisms and Role in Disease, ed Kumar S(Springer, Heidelberg) , in press.. ...
ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will to determine the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T ... ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T- ... ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) - 03.23.17. Overview , Description , Applications , Operations , Results , ... In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5- ...
Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically- ... Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal, published monthly. The Journal is devoted to the rapid publication of ... Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically- ... It aims to stimulate both research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes ...
Receptor-induced apoptosis is a complex signal transduction pathway involving numerous protein-protein interactions and post- ... Spencer SL, Sorger PK (2011) Measuring and modeling apoptosis in single cells. Cell 144:926-939CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Schleich K, Lavrik IN (2013) Mathematical modeling of apoptosis. Cell Commun Signal 11:44CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle ... Lavrik IN (2010) Systems biology of apoptosis signaling networks. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:551-555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Antisense eNOS depressed DOX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Redox-metal chelators inhibited DOX-induced apoptosis, ... Carmody JR, Cotter TG: Signalling apoptosis: A radical approach. Redox Rep 6: 77-88, 2001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... DOX-induced generation of H2O2 has been shown to be responsible for this drugs toxicity and apoptosis. H2O2 in turn enhanced ... Kang PM, Izumo S: Apoptosis and heart failure: A critical review of the literature. Circ Res 86: 1107-1120, 2000PubMedGoogle ...
This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of ... Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or ... While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity ... the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways ...
Depending on cell types or ligands, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by PPAR. 𝛾. ligands can be either PPAR. 𝛾. - ... ligand-induced apoptosis, we can develop better strategies which may include combining other antitumor agents for PPAR. 𝛾. - ... and Apoptosis in Cancer. Heath A. Elrod and Shi-Yong Sun Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer ... ligands including endogenous prostaglandins and the synthetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can induce apoptosis of cancer cells ...
Burial lyrics performed by Apoptosis: Dark night, Frozen light This is the end of your decadent life ... Feel the power and fear apoptosis strength Now your world is over Your world is over ...
Apoptosis may be the best characterized form of programmed cell death-but it isnt in isolation, said Joan W. Miller, MD. ... Apoptosis not only culprit in cell death. November 16, 2013By Michele Barrere ...
Increased apoptosis with increased proliferation is associated with malignant tumours. Breast tumours with increased apoptosis ... All of these act in part by inducing apoptosis.4-6 Thus it is possible to delineate the biology of individual tumours at the ... The balance between proliferation and apoptosis is crucial in determining the overall growth or regression of the tumour 2 3 in ... Here we summarise and integrate the data on apoptosis and its role in the development, prognosis, and treatment of breast ...
... while also having an action of inducing apoptosis of nucleated blood cells; these properties can be utilized to prepare useful ... and the antigens that induce apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having human Integrin Associated Protein. Accordingly, they are ... 7-9 and 10-11, the culture supernatants of 7D2-E3 and 11C8 increase a proportion of apoptosis cells of Jurkat cells and the ... 18 shows the apoptosis-inducing effect of MABL-1(10 μg/ml) on L1210 cells transfected with the human IAP gene (incubation for ...
Apoptosis is a process common to all multicellular organisms. Apoptosis leads to the elimination of cells via a complex but ... Defects in the regulation of apoptosis result in ... Systems Biology of Apoptosis. Editors. * Inna N. Lavrik ... Systems Biology of Apoptosis summarizes all current achievements in this emerging field. ... Systems Biology of Apoptosis summarizes all current achievements in this emerging field. Apoptosis is a process common to all ...
Apoptosis. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive immunodeficiency and onset of ... This review focuses on the various molecular determinants from HIV-1 that play a role in induction of apoptosis in T- ... and signaling and effector pathways leading to apoptosis. The types of pro- and anti-apoptotic stimuli that have been ...
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins) and WEE1 inhibitor Debio 0123 Debiopharm, ... ...
RIPK1 is shown to have a crucial role-independent of its known kinase function-in suppressing epithelial cell apoptosis and ... RIPK1 suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis by preventing FADD/caspase-8-mediated apoptosis and RIPK3-dependent ... RIPK1 maintains epithelial homeostasis by inhibiting apoptosis and necroptosis. *Marius Dannappel1. n5*, Katerina Vlantis1. n5* ... IAP antagonists induce autoubiquitination of c-IAPs, NF-κB activation, and TNFα-dependent apoptosis. . Cell 131, 669-681 (2007) ...
Contains the instructions and reagents required for measuring apoptosis in cells. APO-DIRECT™ Apoptosis Detection Kit is a 2- ... eBioscience™ Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit APC Compatible with intracellular staining. Pre-titrated and tested on mouse ... eBioscience™ Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit FITC Compatible with intracellular staining. Pre-titrated and tested on mouse ... R&D Systems™ TACS TdT In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit, Fluorescein A TUNEL assay designed for fixed cells, embedded tissue, and ...
... Nat Plants. 2017 Oct;3(10):773-779. doi: 10.1038/s41477-017-0020-x. Epub 2017 Sep 25. ... Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant ... Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, ...
Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and ... Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue ... Chapter VIII.- Modulating Apoptosis Thresholds in Cancer Therapy; pp. 231-244 (Christoph Herold and Matthias Ocker, Univ. ... Chapter IV.- Neuropeptides as Modulators of Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer; pp. 111-149 (Jose Vilches and Mercedes Salido, Univ. ...
Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins hold the caspases in check that trigger cell death. They are a target for cancer therapy ... Antagonist binding to an apoptosis inhibitor releases inhibition by promoting dimerization required for autoubiquitination. ... Antagonist binding to an apoptosis inhibitor releases inhibition by promoting dimerization required for autoubiquitination. ...
Oxygen radicals are important components of metazoan apoptosis. We have found that apoptosis can be induced in the yeast ... Yeast can also be triggered into apoptosis by a mutation in CDC48 or by expression of mammalian bax. In both cases, we show ... radicals is a key event in the ancestral apoptotic pathway and offer an explanation for the mechanism of bax-induced apoptosis ... oxygen radicals to accumulate in the cell, whereas radical depletion or hypoxia prevents apoptosis. These results suggest that ...
... directly controls the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. ... Apoptosis Is the Subject Area "Apoptosis" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
  • There are two ways that a cell can die: necrosis and apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis also differs from necrosis in that it's essential to human development. (
  • In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's life cycle. (
  • Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them. (
  • [8] Kerr had initially used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (
  • As a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death , apoptosis is different from the other major process of cell death known as necrosis . (
  • I limit this paper to discussion of central airways (tracheal and bronchial) epithelial cells with appropriate mention of small airway and alveolar epithelial cells where warranted and to the process of apoptosis, leaving aside other mechanisms of cell death such as necrosis and autophagy. (
  • In the past five years, however, studies have shown that necrosis is also programmed, but in a completely different way than apoptosis. (
  • These impostors could then be used to dupe overactive immune cells into believing that apoptosis rather than necrosis was taking place. (
  • Unlike necrosis, the leftovers of apoptosis are mostly tolerated by the immune system. (
  • Induction of apoptosis/necrosis in various human cell lineages by Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin. (
  • The levels of apoptosis and necrosis induced in these cells were compared to those induced by HdCDT in human T cells and in the Jurkat T cell line. (
  • HdCDT induced various degrees of apoptosis and necrosis in dose- and time-dependent manners in cells of various lineages. (
  • Epithelial cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which are important for the healing of chancroid ulcers, are eliminated by apoptosis or necrosis after contact with HdCDT, albeit slower and to a lesser extent than T cells. (
  • These oxygen radicals damage dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra of the midbrain and cause them to die by a process of necrosis or apoptosis. (
  • Cell death can occur through 3 mechanisms: apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. (
  • Developmental processes often activate apoptosis, while bodily injuries or infection more commonly induce necrosis. (
  • Apoptosis and necrosis both signal through the death domain receptors FAS, TNFRSF1A (TNFR1), and TNFRSF10A (TRAIL-R), while autophagy and apoptosis share BCL2 family members as key players. (
  • The Human Cell Death PathwayFinder RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for the central mechanisms of cellular death: apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. (
  • In the extrinsic pathway, the ligation of death receptors by their ligands including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor, CD95 (APO-1/Fas), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, initiates the formation of a multimeric protein complex called the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) that drives activation of caspase-8 ( Ashkenazi, 2008b ). (
  • Processes of disposal of cellular debris whose results do not damage the organism differentiate apoptosis from necrosis . (
  • [4] Kerr had originally used the term "programmed cell necrosis" to describe the phenomenon but in the 1972 article this process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (
  • When a cell is compelled to commit suicide (we'll get to the triggers for apoptosis in just a minute), proteins called caspases go into action. (
  • Some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis. (
  • Second, elucidation of the signal transduction pathways of apoptosis has lead especially to the identification of specific death signaling molecules such as a new family of cysteine proteases, the caspases. (
  • We now know that, when released, it initiates a cascade of activation of special proteases called caspases, which do much of the actual work of apoptosis. (
  • Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins hold the caspases in check that trigger cell death. (
  • This balance is achieved, in part, through the precise regulation of apoptosis, which involves complex molecular events that ultimately activate, or prevent the activation of caspases (cysteine‐aspartic acid proteases). (
  • Apoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). (
  • Targets such as PARP and lamin A/C are cleaved by executioner caspases and serve as markers of apoptosis. (
  • Caspases can be inhibited by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins (c-IAP1/2, XIAP, livin, survivin) that either block caspase activity through direct binding or by acting as ubiquitin ligases that target caspases for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. (
  • Intrinsic control of apoptosis requires activation of cytosolic caspases by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and involves regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by Bcl-2 family proteins. (
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, results in controlled cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation via the action of caspases, as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine release. (
  • Several members of the IAP family block apoptosis by directly interacting with initiator and effector caspases and preventing their proteolytic processing and enzymatic activity. (
  • Caspases, which carry out a series of cleavage events that signal for apoptosis, can be categorized into initiator and executioner caspases. (
  • Caspase-8 can transmit the apoptosis signal directly by cleaving other caspases such as caspase-3 ( Ashkenazi, 2008b ). (
  • The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are major regulators of apoptosis that bind to and inhibit caspases 3, 7, and/or 9. (
  • BH-3-only proteins function as activators or sensitizers of apoptosis and monitor important cell processes for dysfunction. (
  • A second family of proteins, the caspase proteolytic enzymes , contributes to both regulation by the BCL-2 family and execution of apoptosis after the death decision is confirmed. (
  • Turning this on its head one might conjecture that, for example, mtDNA mutations might impede the mechanism of release of cytochrome c, thereby not allowing apoptosis to proceed when desired and causing the accumulation of toxic cells, but there is as yet no evidence (that I know of) implicating any of the mt-coded proteins in the apoptotic mechanism. (
  • In a normal, happy cell, it's inactive, but once a cell is either put under stress or developmentally programmed to commit suicide, the scissors are activated and start to cut up certain proteins inside the cell, beginning the apoptosis process. (
  • These proteins can both induce or prevent apoptosis , and the team suspected that the balance between these proteins was disrupted in the overactive myofibroblasts. (
  • For additional proteins, antibodies and reagents be sure to visit our Apoptosis pages in our Cell Signaling section. (
  • Interaction between IAP proteins and IAP inhibitors (Smac/Diablo) relieves IAP-mediated caspase inhibition to promote apoptosis. (
  • BH3 only" proteins are essential regulators of apoptosis and promote cell death by inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins and promoting insertion of Bax and Bak into the outer mitochondrial membrane. (
  • These proteins are separately involved in the regulation of amyloid beta production, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, regulation of tau phosphorylation, and regulation of neuronal apoptosis. (
  • In this project we will explore the use of isolated organelles instead, to follow the conformaitonal changes of teh Bcl-2 proteins during apoptosis. (
  • In a paper published in 1972, they used the term apoptosis (from the Greek word meaning "falling off," as leaves do in autumn) to describe the occurrence of apoptotic cells in human tissues. (
  • The first of three recent breakthroughs in apoptosis research comes from the genetic study of genes that control apoptotic cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (
  • While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. (
  • APO-DIRECT™ Apoptosis Detection Kit is a 2-color staining method for labeling DNA breaks and total cellular DNA to detect apoptotic cells by flow cytometric analysis in immunochemistry applications. (
  • These results suggest that the generation of oxygen radicals is a key event in the ancestral apoptotic pathway and offer an explanation for the mechanism of bax-induced apoptosis in the absence of any established apoptotic gene in yeast. (
  • It is the balance between the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals that eventually determines whether cells will undergo apoptosis, survive or proliferate. (
  • Finally, emerging evidence suggests that cross-talk exists between apoptotic and autophagic pathways, in that established regulators of apoptosis, such as the tumor suppressor p53 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, also regulate autophagy. (
  • A balance between compensatory hypertrophy and apoptotic pathways exists in the early stages of ventricular dysfunction, whereas upregulation of apoptotic pathways leading to myocyte damage and apoptosis as well as subsequent myocardial fibrosis is indicative of the progression to HF. (
  • 1 , 2 There is evidence that apoptosis rates are increased in patients with HF, 3 leading to the hypothesis that abrogation of apoptotic molecular pathways may be protective against the progression of disease. (
  • The goal is to unmask the external triggers of apoptosis, unravel the signal transduction pro- cesses involved therein and describe the role of oncogenes, "death genes" and effector molecules in the apoptotic cas- cade. (
  • Activated caspase-8 stimulates apoptosis via two parallel cascades: it can directly cleave and activate caspase-3, or alternatively, it can cleave Bid, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. (
  • Plasma membrane blebbing, the destruction of the nucleus and its contents (called karyorrhexis), and budding of the cell into small apoptotic bodies are all morphological characteristics of a cell undergoing apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis was measured by ELISA, and apoptotic index is the absorbance [A 405 nm − A 490 nm ]. (
  • In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5-LOX-mediated pathway. (
  • The monoclonal antibodies of this invention are antibodies that specifically recognize human Integrin Associated Protein, and the antigens that induce apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having human Integrin Associated Protein. (
  • 4 . An antileukemic agent comprising a substance that binds to IAP and stimulates the action of IAP to induce apoptosis of nucleated blood cells. (
  • Pre-titrated and tested on mouse thymocytes cultured overnight in medium (to induce apoptosis) or on Jurkat cells treated with 10 μM Camptothecin for 4 hours. (
  • These small-molecule IAP protein antagonists induce apoptosis in select cancer cell lines and have proven efficacious at inhibiting tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of breast cancer, NSCLC, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer. (
  • The hope now is to interfere with apoptosis regulation in these systems and to develop new therapeutic concepts. (
  • 4 - 6 Thus it is possible to delineate the biology of individual tumours at the molecular and biochemical level by examining apoptosis and its control and regulation and to exploit these to clinical advantage. (
  • Defects in the regulation of apoptosis result in serious diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, AIDS and neurodegeneration. (
  • both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the regulation of apoptosis in a cell. (
  • 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. (
  • Alternative Splicing plays an important role in the regulation of signaling pathways involved in apoptosis and cell death. (
  • We are confident that this compendium will contribute to the exploration of cellular suicide, not only from a basic scientist's viewpoint but also with regard to the possible clinical implications of apoptosis (dys)regulation. (
  • For example, tissue remodeling activates apoptosis, whereas energy metabolism and growth regulation responses rely on autophagy. (
  • Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and overcomes chemoresistance through down-regulation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic and cell survival gene products in human multiple myeloma cells. (
  • When we examined CD138(+) plasma cells from patients with MM, resveratrol inhibited constitutive activation of both NF-kappaB and STAT3, leading to down-regulation of cell proliferation and potentiation of apoptosis induced by bortezomib and thalidomide. (
  • Antagonist binding to an apoptosis inhibitor releases inhibition by promoting dimerization required for autoubiquitination. (
  • Here we show that survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family that is overexpressed in cancer, exists in a novel mitochondrial pool in tumor cells. (
  • 1 . A monoclonal antibody that induces apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having Integrin Associated Protein (IAP). (
  • 2 . A fragment, a peptide or a low molecular compound of a monoclonal antibody that induces apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having Integrin Associated Protein (IAP). (
  • In this issue of Circulation , Mandl et al 4 present convincing evidence for a novel mechanism contributing to the progression of heart failure through a proapoptotic pathway mediated by p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma), a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family, which induces apoptosis mediated partly via the tumor suppressor gene p53 pathway. (
  • PBS-Bio, which is owned in part by the non-profit, Phoenix-based Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), co-discovered that UNBS1450 effectively shuts off the gene and induces apoptosis, the cancer cell's normal process of cellular death. (
  • Resveratrol induces mitochondrial apoptosis and inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. (
  • The cell cycle-regulatory transcription factor E2F1 induces apoptosis of postmitotic neurons in developmental and pathological situations. (
  • Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and overcomes chemoresistance in human multiple myeloma cells. (
  • These findings revealed that RIPK1 inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo and identified necroptosis as a more potent trigger of inflammation compared with apoptosis. (
  • tBid inhibits the function of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl‐2 family (Bcl‐2 and Bcl‐x L ), which normally prevent the oligomerization of Bax and Bak, inhibiting MOMP and apoptosis. (
  • In response to cell death stimulation, mitochondrial survivin is rapidly discharged in the cytosol, where it prevents caspase activation and inhibits apoptosis. (
  • This protein inhibits apoptosis. (
  • Weak external signals may also activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis is an intrinsic cell‐suicide programme, which ensures tissue homeostasis and safeguards the organism by eliminating unnecessary and unwanted cells, or cells that may constitute some form of danger to the organism, for example, tumour cells. (
  • The initiation phase can further be divided into the extrinsic pathway (type 1 apoptosis) and the intrinsic pathway (type 2 apoptosis). (
  • The intrinsic apoptosis pathway is orchestrated by the Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) protein family: i) pro-survival members (e.g. (
  • Similar to apoptosis, autophagy can play a role in cancer, if it doesn't occur when it should and cells are able to grow out of control. (
  • The Bratton laboratory, located near Austin at Science Park , is primarily interested in two basic areas of research: apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagy (self-cannibalism). (
  • the ones that don't form synaptic connections undergo apoptosis so that the remaining cells function well. (
  • Rather than dying due to injury, cells that go through apoptosis die in response to signals within the body. (
  • When cells are under stress, as may happen when free radicals are on the loose or when a person undergoes radiation, apoptosis can occur. (
  • Scientists are trying to learn how they can modulate apoptosis, so that they can control which cells live and which undergo programmed cell death. (
  • Anti-cancer drugs and radiation, for example, work by triggering apoptosis in diseased cells. (
  • Many diseases and disorders are linked with the life and death of cells -- increased apoptosis is a characteristic of AIDS , Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, while decreased apoptosis can signal lupus or cancer . (
  • For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits undergo apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis , also called programmed cell death , in biology , a mechanism that allows cells to self-destruct when stimulated by the appropriate trigger. (
  • Many cells undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis , during fetal development. (
  • In adult animals apoptosis is used to remove cells that have become a threat to survival. (
  • Apoptosis also removes cells that are normal but no longer needed, such as cells that produce antibodies after the need for the antibody has passed. (
  • Apoptosis can also be triggered in otherwise normal cells by external stimuli, including nutrient removal, toxins , hormones , heat, and radiation . (
  • It is estimated that a mass of cells equal to body weight is removed by apoptosis each year. (
  • The conservation in both sequence and function between nematode and mammalian cell death genes indicates that apoptosis is of ancient evolutionary origin, and it suggests that worms and humans use similar conserved mechanisms to get rid of cells. (
  • ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T-lymphocyte (white blood cells originating in the thymus) activity in microgravity. (
  • It has been suggested that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight might be linked to apoptosis, based on morphological anomalies and cDNA microarray analysis of space-flown human lymphoblastoid (Jurkat) cells. (
  • In this context, 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a central role in interleukin-2 expression and activation of human lymphocytes, and is involved in the initiation of programmed death (apoptosis) triggered by several stimuli in different human cells. (
  • Spencer SL, Sorger PK (2011) Measuring and modeling apoptosis in single cells. (
  • Flusberg D, Sorger PK (2015) Surviving apoptosis: life-death signaling in single cells. (
  • This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. (
  • Cells undergo apoptosis through the activation of carefully regulated pathways that lead to their orderly shutdown and removal. (
  • Only if apoptosis itself does, I would say, and the chances are that the opposite is true -- that apoptosis positively retards organismal aging, since it is a way for the body to eliminate damaged and potentially toxic cells. (
  • This invention relates to novel monoclonal antibodies having the property of inducing apoptosis of nucleated blood cells with Integrin Associated Protein (IAP) as well as fragments of such monclonal antibodies, peptides or low molecular weight compounds, and to hybridoma that produce the monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Apoptosis leads to the elimination of cells via a complex but highly defined cellular programme. (
  • Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific RIPK1 knockout caused IEC apoptosis, villus atrophy, loss of goblet and Paneth cells and premature death in mice. (
  • Floor Wolbers has done on-chip research of the process called apoptosis, both of healthy cells and breast cancer cells. (
  • Healthy endothelium cells, in the presence of TNF-alpha, show the characteristics of apoptosis and then start to release themselves, dying in the end. (
  • Breast cancer cells under the influence of the same substance start showing apoptosis but when they do move away, they don't necessarily die: there is no anoikis. (
  • Contains the instructions and reagents required for measuring apoptosis in cells. (
  • Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals. (
  • Apoptosis is a genetically determined process, by which unwanted or unnecessary cells are eliminated from organisms. (
  • In evaluation of cell viability and apoptosis, spatial heterogeneity is quantified for cancerous cells cultured in 3D in-vitro cell-based assays under the impact of anti-cancer agents. (
  • One purpose of apoptosis is to eliminate cells that contain potentially dangerous mutations. (
  • Regulated induction of apoptosis of these expanded T cells avoids several problems for the host, including increased metabolic cost, disruption of lymphoid homeostasis, and predisposition to autoimmunity and lymphoid neoplasia. (
  • This enables apoptosis to be visualized in living cells over the course of time. (
  • The result was that the cells became less likely to destroy themselves through a process called apoptosis (programmed cell death), which organisms often use as a kind of quality control system for eliminating defective tissue. (
  • John Timmer, Ars Technica , "Drugs that kill off old cells may limit a body's aging," 10 July 2018 Along with colleagues, the pair focused on a core challenge: how to coax myofibroblasts to self-destruct, a cellular process called apoptosis . (
  • Early and late apoptosis (annexin V-stained cells) were induced in more than 90% of T cells and monocytes after treatment with 100 ng/ml HdCDT for 24 and 48 h, respectively. (
  • HdCDT appears to eliminate effectively by inducing apoptosis those cells that are involved in immune responses. (
  • Apoptosis is a natural process of cell death and removal that enables the body to rid itself of selected and targeted cells safely and effectively. (
  • Our study validated that high frequency focused field RF treatment technology safely destroys fat cells through induced apoptosis," said one of the article's authors, Paula Lozanova, MD, International Medical Centre, Sofia, Bulgaria. (
  • Next, the authors demonstrated that in Puma −/− mice the number of cells undergoing apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 assays was significantly less than in wild-type mice, suggesting that Puma ablation suppresses apoptosis induced by pressure overload. (
  • In any movement of their life, immune cells, especially T and B lymphocytes, are confronted with an essential choice: to continue their existence or to commit a sort of metabolic suicide that is referred to as apoptosis or programmed cell death. (
  • Apoptosis occurs daily in human beings destroying naturally anywhere between 20 to 70 billion cells and those cells end up being replaced by newer cells. (
  • The picture below is mouse liver cells and the one stained is going through apoptosis. (
  • Since the pathway through apoptosis is very long if one biochemical reaction is not carried out it can eventually lead to cells that do not die and go on creating havoc in the organism. (
  • Apoptosis is needed to destroy cells that pose threats to the well-being of the organism as a whole. (
  • We found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4/ ARTS gene have elevated numbers of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that are protected against apoptosis. (
  • AAT protects β-cells against TNF-α-induced apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death used by cells for self elimination. (
  • Since many physiological functions rely on the proper elimination of cells, dysregulation of apoptosis can contribute to diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration. (
  • FasL/Fas interaction can trigger extrinsic apoptosis, and is the primary killing mechanism used by NKT cells, a subset of T cells that recognize CD1d. (
  • Several factors can affect how cells respond to an apoptosis-inducing agent and so it is important to understand the biological system under study. (
  • Likewise, cancer cell lines may respond differently from primary tumors, or freshly explanted cells, if only because these cells may have unique sets of genetic alterations that result in the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes impacting apoptosis. (
  • Acidosis reduces apoptosis of both normal and transformed cells, irrespective of p53 status. (
  • We used ApopTag (Oncor ® , Gaithersburg, MD) with the peroxidase/DAB procedure to correlate apoptosis with earlier reports of patterns of cell death in stage HH17-25 embryos, and our results suggest that the cell death inferred with supravital staining and appearance of cells in morphogenesis of the tail bud is programmed cell death called apoptosis. (
  • Cells of the remnant of the primitive streak (Hensen's Node) mark for apoptosis, suggesting that programmed cell death is a stop signal for axial organization at the caudal terminus. (
  • Lack of apoptosis markers in neural tube, notochord, and somites supports the suggestion of Schoenwolf (1981) that cells of those areas in the tail bud are assimilated into the growing rump of the chick embryo. (
  • Absence of apoptosis markers in roof of gut tube suggests that the lower frequency of thymidine labeling reported for those cells (Miller, 1986) is not a result of apoptosis. (
  • Clearly marked cells correlate with expected locations of migrating neural crest and primordial germ cells in these stages, but distribution of apoptosis markers was not abundant or general for either cell type. (
  • 804G matrix protects primary pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis. (
  • In the early 1840s, a biological use for the mechanism of planned apoptosis became apparent when scientists realized that the development from fertilized egg to adult is not a linear process. (
  • In a new study published in Developmental Cell , a research team led by experts from Osaka University investigated the mechanism underlying endothelial cell resistance to TNFα-induced apoptosis, an important mechanism of cell death in inflammatory conditions. (
  • Inhibition of CYLD increases resistance to apoptosis, suggesting a mechanism through which loss of CYLD contributes to oncogenesis. (
  • In this article we will try to shed the light on the role of apoptosis in the mechanism of progressive SPAM, based on the pathological finding in our case. (
  • In contrast, low alcohol was associated with increased contractility and decreased apoptosis suggesting an overall protective mechanism induced by low levels of alcohol exposure. (
  • This protein family, which provides the framework for controlling apoptosis, takes its name from a type of cancer called B-cell lymphoma . (
  • Receptor-induced apoptosis is a complex signal transduction pathway involving numerous protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. (
  • A small protein called cytochrome c, which is normally part of the respiratory chain, was 'to general stupefaction' (I quote a recent paper) discovered, only a few years ago, to be massively released from mitochondria into the cytosol shortly before apoptosis occurs. (
  • In mammalians, Smac/Diablo, HtrA2/Omi and ARTS (apoptosis‐related protein in the TGF‐signalling pathway) can function as antagonists of IAPs. (
  • The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. (
  • 2. To identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting the apoptosis protein tBidN for unconventional ubiquitination. (
  • Protein modification by the conjugation of ubiquitin moieties-ubiquitination-plays a major part in many biological processes, including cell cycle and apoptosis 1 . (
  • We aim to unravel the conformational changes of each player during initiation of cell death, as well as the protein-protein interactions leading to activation or inhibition of apoptosis. (
  • Bax is a Bcl-2 protein which plays a central role in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (
  • Alternatively, caspase-8 indirectly transfers the signal to apoptosis via mediators, for example Bid, a proapoptotic, BH3-only domain containing protein of the Bcl-2 family ( Adams and Cory, 2007 ). (
  • It's sometimes referred to as programmed cell death , and indeed, the process of apoptosis follows a controlled, predictable routine. (
  • Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις , apóptōsis , "falling off") is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms . (
  • For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a highly cited term. (
  • Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically-oriented investigations into programmed cell death. (
  • Such physiological cell death, in the absence of inflammation, is achieved by apoptosis, a structurally distinct programmed cell death pathway. (
  • Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, has attracted great attention in recent years. (
  • This investigation looked at how spaceflight influences immune cell function, including the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (
  • Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. (
  • Over the past two decades, it has become clear that proper protection and repair of the airway mucosa against sustained damage may also depend on the processes that control programmed cell death, that is, apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis may be the best characterized form of programmed cell death-but it isn't in isolation, said Joan W. Miller, MD. (
  • Paul Coleman: Can we agree that PCD [programmed cell death] can be used here to avoid the baggage of apoptosis? (
  • Cell biologist Michael Overholtzer explains apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that can lead to cancer when it doesn't function properly. (
  • Apoptosis * ('programmed cell death') is a biologically ubiquitous phenomenon that deserves to be much more widely known among non-biologists and laypeople. (
  • The Human Apoptosis RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in programmed cell death. (
  • Other authors have suggested that apoptosis (genetically programmed cell death) may be involved in aneurysm growth and rupture. (
  • This orderly pattern of events is called programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. (
  • It is a key enzyme in apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which is essential during development and homeostatic tissue turnover as well as during disease. (
  • Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈtō.səs/ [1] ) is a form of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. (
  • In multicellular organisms, cell number normally results from the rate of cell production minus the rate of apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis is a process common to all multicellular organisms. (
  • Apoptosis is critical for normal development in multicellular organisms from flies to humans, and it works in concert with cell division to maintain the normal size and function of adult tissues. (
  • Put quite simply, without apoptosis, all multicellular life would be impossible. (
  • Apoptosis is the tightly controlled pattern of cell death necessary for typical growth and development in multicellular organisms. (
  • Progression of the cell cycle and control of apoptosis are crucial and intimately linked processes that occur in all multicellular organisms during development, normal cellular differentiation and tissue homeostasis. (
  • The onset of apoptosis is controlled by numerous interrelating processes. (
  • In addition to providing a clear understanding of endothelial cell survival during inflammation, this study has revealed a potential pathway for other cell types to avoid the onset of apoptosis, and may be important in future regenerative medicine therapies. (
  • Orthogonal labeling strategies will be adopted to follow simultaneously different players at the onset of apoptosis. (
  • The inhibition of apoptosis by ZEA was correlated with altered expression levels of the apoptosis-related modulators bax and bcl-2. (
  • Diseases associated with increased rates of apoptosis include neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease), AIDS, myelodysplastic syndromes, and ischemic injury (stroke and myocardial infarction), whereas those associated with inhibition of apoptosis include autoimmune diseases and cancer. (
  • All these findings indicated that ITP-Exo, as a regulator of platelet production, impaired MK apoptosis and platelet production through Bcl-xL/caspase signaling, unveiling new mechanisms for reduced platelet count in ITP. (
  • It aims to stimulate research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, AIDS, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, osteoporosis and ageing. (
  • Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. (
  • This book, with contributions from experts in the field, provides a timely compilation of reviews of mechanisms of apoptosis. (
  • There are 3 different mechanisms for cell apoptosis. (
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the underlying mechanisms giving rise to the induction of apoptosis by resveratrol in the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. (
  • Apoptosis is a dynamic process and determining the optimal time to measure the incidence of apoptosis or the activity of the molecules involved is critical for understanding the underlying mechanisms. (
  • With the discovery of genuine death receptors the importance of apoptosis induction became most obvious. (
  • This review focuses on the various molecular determinants from HIV-1 that play a role in induction of apoptosis in T-lymphocytes. (
  • These molecular effects lead to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cellular proliferation. (
  • The editors intend to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (
  • The Editor-In-Chief recognises the need to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (
  • In this paper, I examine the occurrence and function of apoptosis both in the normal airway epithelium and in the epithelium in several airways diseases. (
  • In the context of these diseases, epithelial cell apoptosis may be either a compensatory response, a pathogenetic consequence, or both. (
  • Apoptosis is important in many biological contexts and deregulation of apoptosis may cause diseases, either in the case of insufficient apoptosis, which may contribute to excessive cell proliferation and cancer, or excessive apoptosis, which may cause degenerative and other disorders. (
  • The second section focuses on organ-specific apoptosis-related diseases. (
  • Detection of apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Research in the field of cardiac health at the molecular level suggests that apoptosis is a major contributor in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • If apoptosis becomes dysregulated it can lead to cancer, autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • If a cell's apoptosis function is not working properly, the cell can grow and divide uncontrollably and ultimately create a tumor. (
  • Selective targeting of survivin to mitochondria enhances colony formation in soft agar, accelerates tumor growth in immunocompromised animals, and abolishes tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. (
  • Therefore, mitochondrial survivin orchestrates a novel pathway of apoptosis inhibition, which contributes to tumor progression. (
  • Tipping this balance can contribute to either tumor formation or inappropriate tissue loss via too little or too much apoptosis ( Fulda, 2009b ). (
  • Apoptosis involves condensation of the nucleus and cytoplasm , followed by cellular partitioning into well-defined fragments for disposal. (
  • Taylor RC, Cullen SP, Martin SJ (2008) Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level. (
  • Lipid peroxidation is one of the cellular pathways involved in oxidative damage and underlies ZEA-induced apoptosis [14]. (
  • Activation of p53 promotes the transcriptional activation of many target genes involved in several cellular responses: apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and senescence. (
  • Cellular membrane asymmetry loss is seen as an early sign of apoptosis, where phosphatidylserine (PS) residues embedded in the inner plasma membrane become externalized and signal phagocytosis. (
  • Retrieved on September 18, 2019 from (
  • Apoptosis is a regulated process of cell deletion that is characterized by events that result in nuclear and cellular fragmentation, as well as cell shrinkage [ 6 ]. (
  • Kerr, Wyllie and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen , with suggesting the term apoptosis. (
  • Its rediscovery in the second half of this century, and the coining of the term apoptosis in 1972 by Kerr, Wyllie, and Currie, ignited an unparalleled interest in this field of science. (
  • The second breakthrough is related to the discovery of a family of receptors that can specifically trigger apoptosis. (
  • Ashkenazi A, Dixit VM (1999) Apoptosis control by death and decoy receptors. (
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand binding transcription factors which function in many physiological roles including lipid metabolism, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. (
  • The extrinsic pathway for apoptosis can be induced through the activation of death receptors including Fas, TNFαR, DR3, DR4, and DR5 by their respective ligands. (
  • These receptors include TNFR, Fas, and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors. (
  • Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy , whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer . (
  • In the presence of ITP plasma-derived exosomes (ITP-Exo), the apoptosis of MKs was reduced during the process of MK differentiation in vitro, which contributed to the reduced platelet production by Bcl-xL/caspase signaling. (
  • An enzyme called caspase starts the chain reaction of changes that lead to a cell's death by apoptosis. (
  • The hearts were dissected, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet or immunohistochemically for caspase-3, a putative marker for apoptosis. (
  • For instance, the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7, lacks Caspase 3 , while primary neurons do not express Bak, depending almost exclusively on Bax for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis levels were assessed from the left ventricle using the terminal transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunocytochemical detection of Caspase-3. (
  • Resveratrol induced apoptosis as indicated by accumulation of sub-G(1) population, increase in Bax release, and activation of caspase-3. (
  • Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. (
  • Apoptosis is distinguished from necrotic cell death by morphological and biochemical criteria. (
  • In particular, apoptosis has received much attention owing to the tightly regulated biochemical nature of this form of cell death and the realization of potential therapeutic opportunities. (
  • While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at the University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. (
  • First, studies with the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of apoptosis regulating genes-the first evidence that cell death is an active process under genetic control. (
  • Apoptosis is a tightly regulated process of nonnecrotic cell death that is critical for normal tissue and organ homeostasis. (
  • Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. (
  • With Apoptosis and Cell Death SpliceArrays you can perform a classical expression profiling and at the same time detect the different alternatively spliced forms of the gene that are expressed in the samples under study. (
  • The Apoptosis and Cell Death SpliceArray monitors 5806 known and potential splice events derived from 609 genes. (
  • The Apoptosis and Cell Death SpliceArray service is provided exclusively by ExonHit, a leader in the field of alternative splicing. (
  • Apoptosis was studied in roundworms and in the final stages of its cell death, there discovery of the death-inducing protease CED-3 activation became the cause of the apoptosis. (
  • The present study examined the role of Bax during the normal development of the testis to determine whether the increased cell death in mature mice could be explained by decreased apoptosis earlier in development. (
  • Tail bud mesenchyme marks for apoptosis most frequently in the ventrum of older stages, where cell death has been reported. (
  • A limited investigation of pharyngeal membranes and midgut, where cell death has not been reported as important in morphogenesis, did not show apoptosis markers in those tissues (Miller and Briglin, 1994). (
  • therefore, we investigated the possibility that non-necrotic cell death (ie, apoptosis) (3, 4) occurs in such lesions. (
  • Hassan M, Watari H, AbuAlmaaty A, Ohba Y, Sakuragi N (2014) Apoptosis and molecular targeting therapy in cancer. (
  • Here we summarise and integrate the data on apoptosis and its role in the development, prognosis, and treatment of breast cancer. (
  • The new 'apoptosis chip' opens up new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. (
  • Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer s disease and cancer. (
  • When it functions normally, it suppresses the formation of cancer through apoptosis. (
  • Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer, but the molecular circuitries of this process are not understood. (
  • Quanta Magazine , "A Zombie Gene Protects Elephants From Cancer," 7 Nov. 2017 If the damage is sufficiently critical, the cell will respond by committing an orderly sort of suicide called apoptosis , which keeps it from causing any further problems. (
  • In fact, defective apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of resistance during cancer therapy. (
  • Ursolic acid promotes colorectal cancer cell apoptosis and inhibi. (
  • German scientist Carl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. (
  • After its discovery by Carl Vogt in 1842, apoptosis research was dormant for more than a century. (
  • Apoptosis was discovered by German scientist Carl Vogt who first detailed the events of apoptosis. (
  • Are Perry and Smith saying that the neuronal loss in AD is not due to apoptosis or PCD, or that only some of it is? (
  • Zhu H, Luo LY, Hu SH, Dong KL, Li GC, Zhang T. Treating Alzheimer's disease with Yizhijiannao granules by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. (
  • These results suggest that endogenous necdin attenuates neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the E2F1-Cdc2 system. (
  • Here we show that kinase-independent scaffolding RIPK1 functions regulate homeostasis and prevent inflammation in barrier tissues by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis. (
  • A simple, non-lytic assay that allows real-time monitoring of apoptosis progression, without the need for multiple plates or complicated processing. (
  • Apoptosis also may occur when a cell becomes damaged or deregulated, as is the case during tumour development and other pathological processes. (
  • Apoptosis, the programmed death of a cell, is one of the most amazingly organized intracellular processes. (
  • Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal biological processes requiring cell. (
  • A promising approach for watching cell signaling processes in their physiological context: Scientists visualize apoptosis in live zebrafish using fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical projection tomography to map FRET biosensor activity in space and time. (
  • Given this range of critical situations in which apoptosis occurs or is required, the possibility for therapeutic intervention is extraordinary. (
  • Apoptosis occurs on a cell-by-cell basis. (
  • Smith: How this occurs is unlikely through apoptosis, or at least apoptosis as defined. (
  • For example, the formation of fingers and toes of a fetus is made possible by apoptosis of the tissue between them. (
  • When several tissue culture cell lines and different exogenous oxidants were used, the relationship between the oxidation of phosphatidylserine and apoptosis has been revealed. (
  • Understanding how to regulate apoptosis could be the first step to treating these conditions. (
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (
  • Many of these genes have mammalian homologs that, like their worm counterparts, seem to regulate mammalian apoptosis. (
  • In order to regulate these proteases, CSP-3 was discovered to block CED-3 autoactivation and ultimately, to decrease signs of apoptosis during the developmental stages of roundworms. (
  • Carl Cotman: We agree that in large part what neurons may be doing is preventing terminal apoptosis. (
  • Recently it has become increasingly clear that apoptosis of both neurons and oligodendrocytes may contribute to the overall diseased state associated with clinical 7, 22 and experimental TBI. (
  • Here, we show that paternally expressed necdin represses E2F1-dependent cdc2 gene transcription and attenuates apoptosis of postmitotic neurons. (
  • Current research is focused on a greater understanding of the response and resistance to treatment, including the role of apoptosis. (
  • Gathering of investigators from around the world providing a venue for presenting and discussing research that employ yeasts as model organisms for the study of apoptosis and its role in aging, development, and stress responses. (
  • A thin slice was taken from the face of each of the three blocks for standard (10%) formalin fixation for study of apoptosis. (
  • Mesenchyme in proximal and ventral tail bud adjacent to cloacal plate shows frequent markers of apoptosis. (
  • John E. Sulston won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2002, for his pioneering research on apoptosis. (
  • Research on apoptosis has increased substantially since the early 1990s. (
  • In the worm three genes- ced-3 , ced-4 , and ced-9 -are directly involved in controlling the execution of apoptosis during development ( 1 ). (
  • Lack of markers in neural tube of tail bud formed by secondary neurulation suggests that apoptosis is not involved in cavitation of medullary cord, but further investigation is necessary. (
  • Collection of full-circumference airways is useful to examine epithelial morphology, damage, proliferation, and apoptosis in a setting that preserves the architecture of the full-thickness airway. (
  • Normal breast development is controlled by a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and there is strong evidence that tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. (
  • The balance between proliferation and apoptosis is crucial in determining the overall growth or regression of the tumour 2 3 in response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and, more recently, hormonal treatments. (
  • TUNEL staining at Postnatal Day (P) 7 and morphological quantitation between P5 and P15 demonstrates decreased germ cell apoptosis in Bax- deficient mice. (
  • The authors tested whether ablation of Puma could rescue the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype in mdm4 knockout mice, and indeed were able to demonstrate that ablation of Puma in mdm4 gene deletion mice restores fractional shortening to nearly normal levels, decreases the rate of wall thinning associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, and decreases myocardial apoptosis as measured by TUNEL assays. (
  • p. 286 , published online 20 June) found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4 /ARTS gene have elevated numbers of apoptosis-resistant hair follicle SCs and display dramatic improvement in wound healing and regeneration. (
  • Predominantly because apoptosis does have baggage. (
  • Granzyme B-mediated Apoptosis Proceeds Predominantly through a Bcl-2-inhibitable Mitochondrial Pathway. (
  • The scientists observed significant apoptosis at 3.5 hours post irradiation, predominantly in the head region. (
  • 001). Our findings suggest that apoptosis, predominantly of oligodendrocytes, is involved in the pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis. (
  • A schematic of some of the components and signalling pathways involved in apoptosis. (
  • Anti-apoptosis and cell survival: A review. (
  • however, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax related to anti-apoptosis was decreased. (
  • Thus, mTOR pathway was significantly upregulated after GRb1 pretreatment when compared with I/R. Remarkably, the anti-apoptosis protection of GRb1 pretreatment was attenuated by rapamycin. (
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner , H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (
  • There are currently strategies under way to develop drugs that would help reactivate the sensor and therefore activate apoptosis. (
  • Controlled' is not the word I would use (not in most cases of mammalian apoptosis, anyway), since the originating signal that triggers apoptosis of a given cell usually comes from outside the cell, but yes, mitochondria play a central and quite early role in apoptosis. (
  • The current chapter describes a few of the more widely used protocols for detecting and quantifying apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. (