Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Amino Acid Sequence
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 22.214.171.124.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Cytochrome c Group
Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 126.96.36.199.
Rats, Inbred Strains
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 188.8.131.52.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Photosystem II Protein Complex
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Photosystem I Protein Complex
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cytochrome b Group
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
1985). "AIMilano apoprotein identification of the complete kindred and evidence of a dominant genetic transmission". Am. J. Hum ... Franceschini G, Sirtori CR, Capurso A, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW (1980). "A-IMilano apoprotein. Decreased high density ...
Free radical damage to DNA
The chromophore is unreactive when bound to the apoprotein. Upon its release, it reacts to form 1,4-didehydrobenzene and ... Chromoprotein enediynes are characterized by an unstable chromophore enediyne bound to an apoprotein. ...
Cytochrome c family
Transport of the apoprotein from the cytoplasm to the periplasm happens via the Sec translocation system. CcmH is used by the ... Apoprotein transport occurs via the Sec translocon as well. Fungal, vertebrate and invertebrate mitochondria produce cytochrome ...
Surfactant protein A2
"Isolation and characterization of the human pulmonary surfactant apoprotein gene". Nature. 317 (6035): 361-3. Bibcode:1985Natur ...
Rüdiger, Wolfhart; O'Carra, Pádraig (1969). "Studies on the Structures and Apoprotein Linkages of the Phycobilins". European ...
Surfactant protein A1
"Isolation and characterization of the human pulmonary surfactant apoprotein gene". Nature. 317 (6035): 361-3. doi:10.1038/ ...
ApoB is an integral apoprotein whereas the others are peripheral apoproteins. Apolipoprotein synthesis such as apoA4 in ...
David J. Galton
Rees, A; Shoulders, CC; Stocks, J; Galton, DJ; Baralle, FE (1983). "DNA polymorphism adjacent to human apoprotein A1 gene: ...
Significant interindividual variability in CYP2A6 apoprotein and mRNA levels has been observed. CYP2A6 is known to be inducible ...
"DNA polymorphism adjacent to human apoprotein A-1 gene: relation to hypertriglyceridaemia". Lancet. 321 (8322): 444-446. doi: ...
Rees A, Shoulders CC, Stocks J, Galton DJ, Baralle FE (February 1983). "DNA polymorphism adjacent to human apoprotein A-1 gene ...
... are the chromophores that bind through a covalent thioether bond to their apoproteins at cysteins residues. The apoprotein with ...
After translation, SDHA subunit is translocated as apoprotein into the mitochondrial matrix. Subsequently, one of the first ...
When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein). Transferrins are glycoproteins that are ...
Serum amyloid A1
"Amino acid sequence of amyloid-related apoprotein (apoSAA1) from human high-density lipoprotein". Biochemistry. 21 (14): 3298- ...
Enzymes that require a cofactor but do not have one bound are called apoenzymes or apoproteins. An enzyme together with the ... A Holoprotein or conjugated protein is an apoprotein combined with its prosthetic group. Some enzymes do not need additional ...
Apoprotein-B inhibitor mipomersen (approved by the FDA in 2013 homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.). Bempedoic acid, an ...
Brian Andrew Hills
Hills, BA (1994). "Release of surfactant and a myelin proteolipid apoprotein in spinal tissue by decompression". Undersea & ...
Lipoprotein lipase deficiency
Primary hyperlipoproteinemia Familial apoprotein CII deficiency List of cutaneous conditions Santamarina-Fojo, S (1998). " ...
Chylomicron retention disease
February 1987). "Malabsorption, hypocholesterolemia, and fat-filled enterocytes with increased intestinal apoprotein B. ...
Autumn leaf color
... at which point breakdown of the apoprotein occurs. An important enzyme in the breakdown of the apoprotein is FtsH6, which ... It is located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and it is composed of an apoprotein along with several ligands, the ...
It forms an apoprotein with a 113-amino acid polypeptide which can cleave histone protein H1. Neocarzinostatin is an example of ...
"The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase E apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation". Structure. 16 (8): 1238- ...
The phytochrome apoprotein, a protein that together with a prosthetic group forms a particular biochemical molecule such as a ... Upon binding the chromophore, the holoprotein, an apoprotein combined with its prosthetic group, becomes sensitive to light. If ...
Phycocyanobilin is synthesised from heme and inserted into the C-PC apo-protein by three enzymatic steps. Cyclic heme is ... Insertion of 3Z-phycocyanobilin into the C-PC apo-protein via thioether bond formation is catalysed by phycocyanobilin lyase. ...
"Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates uptake of cholesteryl esters derived from apoprotein E-enriched ...
doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0691-5. Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Govind, N. S.; Trench, R. K. (1991). "Apoprotein Composition and ...
2007). "Disparity in holoprotein/apoprotein ratios of different standards used for immunoquantification of hepatic cytochrome ...
There is a general decrease in the expression of apoproteins after C. oncophora infection. However, the resistant host still ... maintains higher level of apoproteins compared to low responder. There is a disruption of lipid metabolism. It is known that ...
Apoprotein - Wikipedia
RCSB PDB - 3CTB: Tethered PXR-LBD/SRC-1p apoprotein
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TNO Repository search for: subject:'apoprotein'
Nutrition · Apoprotein · Cytochrome P450 · Cytochrome p450 2a6 · Cytochrome P450 2B6 · Cytochrome P450 2C19 · Cytochrome p450 ... The relative apoprotein levels of 11 CYP enzymes were determined using a panel of antipeptide antibodes. In addition, 7- ... PB and RIF increased the levels of CYP3A apoprotein and mRNA, whereas BNF down-regulated CYP3A and related activities. PB and ... Biology · Biotechnology · 4 hydroxy cinnamic acid · apoprotein · cinnamic acid derivative · coumaric acid · cysteine · glycine ...
Spontaneous activity of opsin apoprotein is a cause of Leber congenital amaurosis. - PubMed - NCBI
Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: A pathway for late-stage quality control | PNAS
1993) N-3 fatty acids stimulate intracellular degradation of apoprotein B in rat hepatocytes. J Clin Invest 91:1380-1389.. ... Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: A pathway for late-stage quality control. ... Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: A pathway for late-stage quality control ... Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: A pathway for late-stage quality control ...
Lipids, apoprotein B, and associated coronary risk factors in urban and rural older Mexican populations. - PubMed - NCBI
psaA - Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll a apoprotein A1 - Synechococcus elongatus - psaA gene & protein
Turnover of catalase heme and apoprotein moieties in cotyledons of sunflower seedlings.
... seedlings by density labeling of apoprotein and radioactive labeling of heme moieties. The heavy isotope (50% (2)H(2)O) and the ... The turnover of catalase apoprotein and catalase heme was studied in cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) ... Only small amounts of heme groups were recycled into newly synthesized apoprotein during growth in the light, and no evidence ... A degradation constant for catalase apoprotein of 0.263 per day was determined from the data on heme recycling and the ...
Phospholipase A2 activity of low density lipoprotein: evidence for an intrinsic phospholipase A2 activity of apoprotein B-100 |...
By use of lipoxygenase-oxidized 2-[1-14C]linoleoyl PtdCho as the substrate and delipidated apoprotein B (apo-B), evidence is ... Phospholipase A2 activity of low density lipoprotein: evidence for an intrinsic phospholipase A2 activity of apoprotein B-100. ... Phospholipase A2 activity of low density lipoprotein: evidence for an intrinsic phospholipase A2 activity of apoprotein B-100 ... Phospholipase A2 activity of low density lipoprotein: evidence for an intrinsic phospholipase A2 activity of apoprotein B-100 ...
Coordination of Phytochrome Levels in phyB Mutants of Arabidopsis as Revealed by Apoprotein-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies |...
... amino acid 980 of the phyA apoprotein sequence and amino acid 448 of the phyB apoprotein sequence. The phyD-1 allele (Aukerman ... if the cross-reactivity profiles of the purified phytochrome apoproteins in Figure 2 are applicable to the apoproteins present ... The pool of all three anti-phyC mAbs used by Somers et al. (1991) was also tested on blots of the purified apoproteins and the ... Cloning and expression of the PHYD and PHYE apoproteins in E. coli: All PHYD and PHYE bacteriophage λ-clones and nucleotide ...
psaA - Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll a apoprotein A1 - Thalassiosira pseudonana (Marine diatom) - psaA gene & protein
On identifying collective displacements in apo-proteins that reveal eventual binding pathways
... PLoS Comput Biol. 2019 Jan 15;15( ... Here, we show that possible primary and secondary binding pathways can be discovered from short simulations of the apo-protein ... The susceptibility to non-affine displacements among the various residues in the apo- protein is then shown to correlate with ...
Effects of nicotinic acid therapy on plasma lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein apoprotein C subspecies in...
... apoprotein C (ApoC) subspecies were studied in 33 patients with types IIa (n = 9), IIb (n = 11), and IV (n = 13) ... Effects of nicotinic acid therapy on plasma lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein apoprotein C subspecies in ... apoprotein C (ApoC) subspecies were studied in 33 patients with types IIa (n = 9), IIb (n = 11), and IV (n = 13) ...
Genetic Polymorphisms of Hdl Apoproteins in Primary Gout | Clinical Science | Portland Press
Structure Cluster - 3SK8: Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS M98G apo protein at...
US20080290328A1 - Photochromic Material Comprising a Proteorhodopsin Apoprotein and a Retinal Analog - Google Patents
The proteorhodopsin apoprotein and the retinal analog form a photochromic material having different spectral properties from ... those of a corresponding photochromic material formed by the same proteorhodopsin apoprotein and all-trans-retinal. In one ... The present invention relates to a photochromic material comprising a proteorhodopsin apoprotein and a retinal analog. In one ... Proteorhodopsin apoprotein binds all-trans-retinal at a conserved lysine residue (K231 in Bac31A8 and K234 in Hot75M1) by a ...
Plasma Lipoprotein Subclasses and Apoproteins as Predictors of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Man | Clinical Science | Portland...
Plasma Lipoprotein Subclasses and Apoproteins as Predictors of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Man F. Hammett; F. Hammett ... F. Hammett, S. Saltissi, S. Rao, N. Miller, J. Coltart, B. Lewis; Plasma Lipoprotein Subclasses and Apoproteins as Predictors ... Inter-relationships between small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma triacylglycerol and LDL apoprotein B in an ... Plasma High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism in Subjects with Primary Hypertriglyceridaemia: Altered Metabolism of Apoproteins AI ...
Human Apoprotein A(APO-A)ELISA Kit size: 96T - Gentaur.com
Human Apoprotein apo ELISA Kit is available 2 times from supplier bioassay at Gentaur.com shop ... Human Apoprotein apo ELISA Kit is available 2 times from Bioassay labs E3607Hu , Human Apoprotein A(APO-A)ELISA Kit size: 96T ... Short name Apoprotein A(APO-A)ELISA Kit Alternative name H. sapiens Apoprotein A(APO-A)Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... E1428Hu , Human Apoprotein A4,apo-A4 ELISA Kit size: 96T , 726.55 USD ...
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase E apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation - Infoscience
Differential effects of continuous versus intermittent administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized female rats on...
Short Term Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibition, Combined with Apoprotein A1 Over-expression, Promotes...
Thus, we crossbred Apoe-/- with human apoprotein A1-transgenic (APOA1tg/tg) mice, which have elevated cholesterol-effluxing ... Short Term Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibition, Combined with Apoprotein A1 Over-expression, Promotes ... Short Term Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibition, Combined with Apoprotein A1 Over-expression, Promotes ... delays atherosclerosis progression in apoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice by reducing plaque foam cell formation without ...
Get PDF - Differential effect of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II diet on HDL cholesterol, its...
... and apoprotein A-I levels in hypercholesterolemic women and men after 1 year: the beFIT Study ... The effect of a high cholesterol and saturated fat diet on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apoprotein A-I, and ... and apoprotein A-I levels in hypercholesterolemic women and men after 1 year: the beFIT Study. Walden, C.E.; Retzlaff, B.M.; ... and apoprotein A-I levels in hypercholesterolemic women and men after 1 year: the beFIT Study. ...
APO protein elisa and antibody
APO protein 1. APO protein 1 ELISA Kit. APO protein 1 Recombinant. APO protein 1 Antibody ... APO protein 2. APO protein 2 ELISA Kit. APO protein 2 Recombinant. APO protein 2 Antibody ... APO protein 3. APO protein 3 ELISA Kit. APO protein 3 Recombinant. APO protein 3 Antibody ... APO protein 4. APO protein 4 ELISA Kit. APO protein 4 Recombinant. APO protein 4 Antibody ...
The effect of high carbohydrate, low fat diets on lipoprotein lipids, apoproteins, nutritional status and diabetic control in...
... and apoproteins AII and E were unchanged during the HCLFD. Lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations were independent of ... The effect of high carbohydrate, low fat diets on lipoprotein lipids, apoproteins, nutritional status and diabetic control in ... lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations and nutritional status in IDDM. Six women with IDDM were studied in the Clinical ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Regulatory roles of pulmonary surfactant apoproteins in the phospholipid metabolism of alveolar...
There have been found four apoprotein components specific for pulmonary surfactant, i. e., surfactant protein A(SP-A), -B(SP-B ... Publications] Ogasawara,Y.,Kuroki,Y.,Shiratori,M.,Shimizu,H.,Miyamura,K.and Akino,T.: Ontogeny of surfactant apoprotein D,SP-D ... Publications] Ogasawara,Y.,Kuroki,Y.,Shiratori,M.,Shimizu,H.,Miyamura,K.,Akino,T.: Ontogeny of surfactant apoprotein D,SPーD,in ... Publications] Yamanaka,N.,Kobayashi,K.,Kataura,A.,Kuroki,Y.,and Akino,T.: Implication of surfactant apoprotein in otitis media ...
APO2 recombinant protein | APO protein 2, chloroplastic (APO2) Recombinant Protein-NP 200601.3
The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse...
The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse ... Fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that large, intestinally derived, apoprotein (Apo) E-rich beta-VLDL was targeted ... The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse ...
Inhibitory effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Against Benzo[a] Pyrene-Induced Rise in CYP1A1 mRNA and Apoprotein Levels as its...
... pyrene-induced rise in rat liverCYP1A1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner as well as the apoprotein levels of CYP1A. Conclusions: ... pyreneinducedrise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels. Materials and Methods: Precision cut rat liverslices were ... followedby determination of CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction andimmunoblotting. ... "Inhibitory effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Against Benzo[a] Pyrene-Induced Rise in CYP1A1 mRNA and Apoprotein Levels as its ...
Search | Lab Tests Online
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase E apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation. - Oxford Neuroscience
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase E apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation. ... Amino Acid Sequence, Apoproteins, Crystallography, X-Ray, Endoribonucleases, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Proteins, ... The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase E apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation. ...
Form a unique fingerprint1
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Kinetics of phospholipid membrane fusion induced by surfactant apoproteins A and B'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
- The effects of long term treatment with nicotinic acid on lipids, lipoproteins, and the plasma distribution of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) apoprotein C (ApoC) subspecies were studied in 33 patients with types IIa (n = 9), IIb (n = 11), and IV (n = 13) hyperlipidemias. (nih.gov)
- Differential effects of continuous versus intermittent administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized female rats on serum lipoproteins and their apoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
- Application of the Technique of Isoelectric Focusing to the Study of Human Serum Lipoproteins and Their Apoproteins. (unt.edu)
- Apoprotein may refer to: Apoenzyme, the protein part of an enzyme without its characteristic prosthetic group Apolipoprotein, a lipid-binding protein that is a constituent of the plasma lipoprotein This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Apoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, we crossbred Apoe -/- with human apoprotein A1-transgenic ( APOA1 tg/tg ) mice, which have elevated cholesterol-effluxing high-density lipoprotein particles, and subjected Apoe -/- and APOA1 tg/tg /Apoe -/- mice to an atherogenic diet to develop advanced plaques. (aspetjournals.org)
- The present study was designed to investigate the effects of high carbohydrate, low fat diets (HCLFD) on blood glucose regulation, lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations and nutritional status in IDDM. (oregonstate.edu)
- Lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations were independent of glycemic control. (oregonstate.edu)
- Lipids, apoprotein B, and associated coronary risk factors in urban and rural older Mexican populations. (nih.gov)
- Surfactant apoproteins A (SP-A) and B (SP-B) interact with the lipids of surfactant and such protein-lipid interactions may be of importance in several of the steps in the surfactant cycle. (elsevier.com)
- The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (rupress.org)
- Fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that large, intestinally derived, apoprotein (Apo) E-rich beta-VLDL was targeted mostly to widely distributed vesicles, whereas small, hepatically derived beta-VLDL was targeted more centrally (like LDL). (rupress.org)
- There have been found four apoprotein components specific for pulmonary surfactant, i. e., surfactant protein A(SP-A), -B(SP-B), -C(SP-C) and -D(SP-D). (nii.ac.jp)
- Katyal, SL & Singh, G 1979, ' An immunologic study of the apoproteins of rat lung surfactant ', Laboratory Investigation , vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 562-567. (elsevier.com)
- Kinetics of phospholipid membrane fusion induced by surfactant apoproteins A and B . Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes , 1278 (2), 169-175. (elsevier.com)
- To reassess the immunohistochemical distribution of pulmonary surfactant apoprotein A (SP-A) in relation to the causes of death, 282 forensic autopsy cases were reviewed. (elsevier.com)
- Our previous studies showed that long-term partial ACAT inhibition, achieved by dietary supplementation with Fujirebio F1394, delays atherosclerosis progression in apoprotein E-deficient ( Apoe -/- ) mice by reducing plaque foam cell formation without inflammatory or toxic effects. (aspetjournals.org)
- Although controversial, data on the genetic polymorphism of apoprotein E (APOE), methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) and paraoxonase (PON1) genes implicate their role in the development of cerebrovascular disease. (cdc.gov)
- Coboglobins: cobalt substitution and the nature of the prosthetic group--apoprotein interaction in hemoglobin and myoglobin. (northwestern.edu)
- These three antibodies are members of a larger group of monoclonal antibodies previously shown to bind specifically to apoprotein B ( Curtiss , L.K., and Edgington , T. S. (1982) J. Biol. (scripps.edu)
- All of these data are discussed, and it is concluded that the most likely explanation for the difference in recognition of the two allelic forms of apoprotein B is an alteration in amino acid sequence resulting in a slightly different configuration of a single domain containing the epitopes recognized by the three monoclonal antibodies. (scripps.edu)
- It followed from these observations that degradation of catalase apoprotein was slightly faster than that of catalase heme. (biomedsearch.com)
- A degradation constant for catalase apoprotein of 0.263 per day was determined from the data on heme recycling and the degradation constant of catalase heme determined previously to be 0.205 per day (R Eising, B Gerhardt  Plant Physiol 84: 225-232). (biomedsearch.com)
- The characterization was performed at the level of enzymatic activities, apoprotein and mRNA analyses. (tudelft.nl)
- PB and RIF increased the levels of CYP3A apoprotein and mRNA, whereas BNF down-regulated CYP3A and related activities. (tudelft.nl)
- 2015). 'Inhibitory effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Against Benzo[a] Pyrene-Induced Rise in CYP1A1 mRNA and Apoprotein Levels as its Chemopreventive Properties', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 16(7), pp. 2679-2683. (waocp.org)
- To evaluate the inhibitory effects of PEITC against benzo[a]pyreneinducedrise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels. (waocp.org)
- Precision cut rat liverslices were treated with benzo[a]pyrene at 1 and 5 μM in the presence of PEITC (1-25 μM) for 24 hours, followedby determination of CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction andimmunoblotting. (waocp.org)
- Findings revealed that PEITC inhibited benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liverCYP1A1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner as well as the apoprotein levels of CYP1A. (waocp.org)
- Jue, T , Krishnamoorthi, R & La Mar, GN 1983, ' Proton NMR study of the mechanism of the heme-apoprotein reaction for myoglobin ', Journal of the American Chemical Society , vol. 105, no. 17, pp. 5701-5703. (elsevier.com)
- La Mar, Gerd N. / Proton NMR study of the mechanism of the heme-apoprotein reaction for myoglobin . (elsevier.com)
- E2 binding to the apoprotein of native LDL, through a specific and saturable receptor, inhibits misfolding phenomenon despite an unaffected production of LDL (-) by phospholipase A2, ultimately preventing LDL aggregation. (eurekaselect.com)
- A small gene family encoding the phytochrome apoproteins, the PHY gene family, is found in all angiosperms that have been examined and homologous apoprotein genes have been isolated from gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, and algae ( M athews and S harrock 1997 ). (genetics.org)
- The turnover of catalase apoprotein and catalase heme was studied in cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings by density labeling of apoprotein and radioactive labeling of heme moieties. (biomedsearch.com)
- The apoprotein misfolding in LDL(-) emerges as a possible significant trigger mechanism of atherogenesis. (eurekaselect.com)
- thus, the carbohydrate moiety of apoprotein B did not appear to influence the epitope recognized by these antibodies. (scripps.edu)
- Meal ingestion (absorptive state, 420-480 min) increased plasma insulin but did not affect the IFSR of the HDL 2 (CTRL: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs MEAL: 1.0 ± 0.3) and HDL 3 apoproteins (CTRL: 0.8 ± 0.2 vs MEAL: 1.1 ± 0.2). (utmb.edu)
- In addition to the debated oxidized LDL (oxLDL), a modified LDL with a misfolded apoprotein B-100, called electronegative LDL(-) for its negative charge due to an increased amount of free fatty acids, is commonly present in plasma. (eurekaselect.com)
- Only small amounts of heme groups were recycled into newly synthesized apoprotein during growth in the light, and no evidence was found for an exchange of heme groups in apoprotein moieties. (biomedsearch.com)
- The use of 17-β-estradiol (E2) confirmed that the suggested atherogenicity of LDL (-) is mostly dependent on the misfolded character of its apoprotein. (eurekaselect.com)
- Correlation of pH-dependent Resonance Raman and Optical Absorption Data Reflecting Haem-Apoprotein Interaction in Oxyhaemoglobin. (drexel.edu)
- In the present study, we show that inactivation of CYP3A4 by BG results in formation of a modified apoprotein-3A4 and a GSH conjugate, both exhibiting mass increases of 388 Da, which corresponds to the mass of 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG), a metabolite of BG, plus one oxygen atom. (aspetjournals.org)
- Heme-apoprotein interaction in the modified oxyhemoglobin-bis-(N-maleimidomethyl)ether and in oxyhemoglobin at high Cl-concentration detected by resonance Raman scattering. (drexel.edu)
- Data from these determinations indicated that turnover of catalase heme and apoprotein essentially was coordinate. (biomedsearch.com)
- Although each nanomole of apoB contains 9 nmol of free Cys residues (taking into account only native -SH of apoprotein and not those deriving from N-homocysteinylation), our data suggest that just few of these -SH sites are S-thiolated (~0.5 nmol/nmol apoB, as described in Table 1). (thefreedictionary.com)
- In addition, several lines of evidence strongly suggest that under copper limitation, A. nidulans secretes apoprotein which can be reconstituted by a short incubation with Cu(I) and to a lesser extent with Cu(II). (microbiologyresearch.org)