A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
An inhibitor of the last step of noradrenaline biosynthesis.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.

Modifications of local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and motor behavior in rats with unilateral lesion of the subthalamic nucleus. (1/551)

Inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has attracted interest as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson's disease. The functional consequences of the inactivation, however, are uncertain. In this study definition of the pattern of changes of cerebral functional activity associated with lesion of the STN and dopaminergic stimulation, by using the [14C]deoxyglucose method, was sought. Six or 7 days following unilateral lesion of the STN, the animals were divided into two groups: One group (n = 10) was administered apomorphine (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously; the second group (n = 10) received saline. The [14C]deoxyglucose procedure was initiated 10 minutes following the drug or saline injection. The results show that systemic administration of apomorphine to rats with unilateral lesion of the STN causes ipsiversive rotational behavior and asymmetries of glucose utilization of defined brain areas, including the substantia nigra reticulata, globus pallidus, and entopeduncular nucleus. These nuclei are the main targets of the subthalamic excitatory projections. Lesion of the nucleus per se (without challenge with apomorphine) has no significant consequences on glucose utilization. The findings indicate that the STN is involved in the activation of the basal ganglia output nuclei induced by systemic dopaminergic stimulation.  (+info)

Effects of tetrahydroprotoberberines on dopamine D2 receptors in ventral tegmental area of rat. (2/551)

AIM: To compare the actions of tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB) on dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rat. METHODS: Extracellular single unit recording technique was used in i.v. gallamine-paralyzed rats. RESULTS: Eleven THPB analogs tested completely attenuated the apomorphine (Apo, 20 micrograms.kg-1)-induced inhibition on VTA DA cell firing activity. The OH group on C2 at THPB was linked with the reversal of Apo-induced inhibition. Their reversal potencies (ED50, microgram.kg-1) for D2 receptors were: THPB-143 (5.6) > SPD (8.5) > Iso (17.0) > THP (33) > THB (48) > THPB-18 (66) > THPB-1 (179) > THPB-19 (408) > THPB-126 (510) > THPB-104 (1019) > THPB-10 (4815). CONCLUSION: Among these 11 THPB, the 2-hydroxyl-THPB (THPB-143) showed the strongest antagonistic action on D2 receptors.  (+info)

Comparison of effects of haloperidol administration on amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. (3/551)

Research has shown that there are important neurochemical differences between the mesocortical and mesostriatal dopamine systems. The work reported in this paper has sought to compare the regulation of dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior caudate-putamen. In vivo microdialysis was used to recover dialysate fluid for subsequent assay for dopamine concentrations. The responses to D2 antagonist (haloperidol) administration, which has been shown to increase impulse-dependent dopamine release, were compared. Results demonstrated a diminished effect of systemic haloperidol administration on dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex. The responses to systemic administration of a nonimpulse-dependent, transporter-mediated, dopamine releaser (d-amphetamine) were also contrasted. Results again demonstrated a diminished pharmacological effect in the cortex. The potential interaction of stimulation of these two types of dopamine release was examined by coadministration of these compounds. Haloperidol pretreatment dramatically potentiated the dopamine-releasing effect of amphetamine administration. This effect was observed in both the cortex and the striatum. Subsequent work demonstrated that this effect of haloperidol was mediated by D2-like receptors in the prefrontal cortex. These results are discussed in relation to other neurochemical and neuroanatomical studies demonstrating sparse densities of dopamine transporter sites and dopamine D2 receptors in the cortex compared with the striatum. They demonstrate a functional correlate to the recently reported, largely extrasynaptic localization of dopamine transporter sites in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, they demonstrate the existence of cortical D2-like autoreceptors that may normally be "silent" under basal conditions.  (+info)

Multisecond oscillations in firing rate in the basal ganglia: robust modulation by dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia. (4/551)

Multisecond oscillations in firing rate in the basal ganglia: robust modulation by dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia. Studies of CNS electrophysiology have suggested an important role for oscillatory neuronal activity in sensory perception, sensorimotor integration, and movement timing. In extracellular single-unit recording studies in awake, immobilized rats, we have found that many tonically active neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (n = 15), globus pallidus (n = 31), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (n = 31) have slow oscillations in firing rate in the seconds-to-minutes range. Basal oscillation amplitude ranged up to +/-50% of the mean firing rate. Spectral analysis was performed on spike trains to determine whether these multisecond oscillations were significantly periodic. Significant activity in power spectra (in the 2- to 60-s range of periods) from basal spike trains was found for 56% of neurons in these three nuclei. Spectral peaks corresponded to oscillations with mean periods of approximately 30 s in each nucleus. Multisecond baseline oscillations were also found in 21% of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. The dopamine agonist apomorphine (0.32 mg/kg iv, n = 10-15) profoundly affected multisecond oscillations, increasing oscillatory frequency (means of spectral peak periods were reduced to approximately 15 s) and increasing the regularity of the oscillations. Apomorphine effects on oscillations in firing rate were more consistent from unit to unit than were its effects on mean firing rates in the entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra. Apomorphine modulation of multisecond periodic oscillations was reversed by either D1 or D2 antagonists and was mimicked by the combination of selective D1 (SKF 81297) and D2 (quinpirole) agonists. Seventeen percent of neurons had additional baseline periodic activity in a faster range (0.4-2.0 s) related to ventilation. Multisecond periodicities were rarely found in neurons in anesthetized rats (n = 29), suggesting that this phenomenon is sensitive to overall reductions in central activity. The data demonstrate significant structure in basal ganglia neuron spiking activity at unexpectedly long time scales, as well as a novel effect of dopamine on firing pattern in this slow temporal domain. The modulation of multisecond periodicities in firing rate by dopaminergic agonists suggests the involvement of these patterns in behaviors and cognitive processes that are affected by dopamine. Periodic firing rate oscillations in basal ganglia output nuclei should strongly affect the firing patterns of target neurons and are likely involved in coordinating neural activity responsible for motor sequences. Modulation of slow, periodic oscillations in firing rate may be an important mechanism by which dopamine influences motor and cognitive processes in normal and dysfunctional states.  (+info)

Disruption of latent inhibition in rats with postnatal hippocampal lesions. (5/551)

Disruption of latent inhibition has been proposed as a possible model of cognitive abnormalities that underlie positive symptoms of a schizophrenia. We tested neonatal hippocampal lesioned rats in a latent inhibition paradigm. Lesions of the ventral hippocampus were induced by bilateral injections of ibotenic acid in 7 days old rats. The behavior of lesioned rats was tested postpubertally. We found a hyperresponsiveness to dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine in locomotion tests. Latent inhibition was tested using the acquisition of a conditioned reaction in a two-way shuttle box. Sham operated control animals showed after preexposure of the to-be-conditioned stimulus (combined tone and light stimulus) a low acquisition. Ibotenic acid lesioned animals learned the conditioned reaction with and without preexposure in the same way, indicating disturbed latent inhibition. These results demonstrate disturbances in early postnatal hippocampal lesioned rats comparable with those seen in schizophrenic patients, thus further validating this procedure as a useful animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Rat strain differences in the ability to disrupt sensorimotor gating are limited to the dopaminergic system, specific to prepulse inhibition, and unrelated to changes in startle amplitude or nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor sensitivity. (6/551)

Previous studies indicate that a variety of pharmacological agents interfere with the prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (PPI) response including phencyclidine (PCP), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), amphetamine, and apomorphine. Strain differences have been observed in the ability of apomorphine to disrupt PPI, although the degree to which these strain differences occur after administration of nondopaminergic drugs or the degree to which differences can be observed in other models of dopamine (DA) receptor activation has not been elucidated. The present study tested the effects of apomorphine, amphetamine, 8-OH-DPAT, and PCP on PPI in the Sprague Dawley and Wistar rat strains. Because apomorphine disrupts PPI via activation of DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens, apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion, also a behavioral model of nucleus accumbens DA receptor activation, was measured in both rat strains. Administration of PCP or 8-OH-DPAT attenuated PPI in both strains, whereas apomorphine and amphetamine only attenuated PPI in Wistar rats. The ability of apomorphine to increase motor activity in the absence of a startle-eliciting stimulus was similar in the two strains, as was apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion. A time course analysis of the effects of apomorphine on startle response in Sprague Dawley rats found that changes in the magnitude of PPI followed changes in basic startle amplitude. Similarly, no apomorphine-induced attenuation of PPI was observed in Sprague Dawley rats after 6-OHDA-induced DA receptor supersensitivity in the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest a dissociation between the effects of DA receptor agonists in PPI and other behavioral models of DA receptor activation.  (+info)

Effects of sustained phencyclidine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. (7/551)

Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist with actions at multiple other central nervous system receptors, can cause both acute and lasting psychoses in humans, and has also been used in cross-species models of psychosis. Acute exposure to PCP in rats produces behavioral changes, including a loss of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, which parallels the loss of PPI observed in schizophrenia patients. Sustained exposure to PCP in rats produces neuropathological changes in several limbic regions and prolonged behavioral abnormalities that may parallel neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether sustained PCP exposure will also produce a loss of prepulse inhibition which parallels the decrease observed in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, we examined changes in PPI during and after sustained PCP administration, using 5-day PCP exposure via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps, or 14-day PCP exposure via repeated intraperitoneal injections. In both forms of drug delivery, PPI was disrupted during, but not after, sustained drug exposure. PPI does not appear to be sensitive to neuropathological effects of sustained PCP exposure.  (+info)

Altered activity of midbrain dopamine neurons following 7-day withdrawal from chronic cocaine abuse is normalized by D2 receptor stimulation during the early withdrawal phase. (8/551)

Using in vivo single-unit recording in rats, we compared the effects of continuous cocaine infusion via minipump or single daily injections (both 40 mg/kg/d x 14 days, S.C.) on the activity of putative dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). On days 1-5 after cocaine withdrawal, animals were further treated with single daily injections of DA agonists. On withdrawal day 7 continuous cocaine caused a reduction in spontaneously active neurons in the SNC and reduced bursting in the VTA. In contrast, intermittent cocaine resulted in an increase in the number of active neurons in the VTA. These changes were all reversed by apomorphine or quinpirole given during the first 5 withdrawal days. The D1 antagonist SCH 39166 did not antagonize the effects of apomorphine in either region. The role of D2 receptors in modulating baseline DA activity during intermediate cocaine withdrawal is discussed.  (+info)

Apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, which means that it activates dopamine receptors in the brain. It has a high affinity for D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, particularly in cases of severe or intractable motor fluctuations.

Apomorphine can be administered subcutaneously (under the skin) as a solution or as a sublingual (under the tongue) film. It works by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement.

In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, apomorphine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefits in other neurological disorders, including alcohol use disorder and drug addiction. However, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in these conditions.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Dopamine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5), which are classified into two families based on their structure and function: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).

Dopamine receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine regulation. They are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, with high concentrations found in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex.

Dysfunction of dopamine receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction, and depression. Therefore, drugs targeting dopamine receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Piribedil is an agonist of dopamine receptors, specifically D2, D3, and D4 receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to help manage symptoms such as rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). Piribedil can also stimulate dopamine receptors in the brain, which can improve cognitive function and mood. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential benefits in treating other neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke.

It is important to note that the use of piribedil should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interactions with other medications. It is not commonly used in many countries due to the availability of other more established treatments for Parkinson's disease.

Emetics are substances that induce vomiting. They are used in medical situations where it is necessary to evacuate the stomach, such as in cases of poisoning. Common emetics include syrup of ipecac and apomorphine. It's important to note that the use of emetics is not a common treatment for poisoning anymore, and you should always consult with a healthcare professional or poison control center for advice in case of suspected poisoning.

Penile erection is a physiological response that involves the engagement of the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum (erectile tissue) of the penis with blood, leading to its stiffness and rigidity. This process is primarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system and is influenced by factors such as sexual arousal, emotional state, and certain medications or medical conditions. A penile erection may also occur in non-sexual situations, such as during sleep (nocturnal penile tumescence) or due to other physical stimuli.

Pimozide is an antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat chronic tics and Tourette's disorder. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in regulating movement and mood. By blocking dopamine receptors, pimozide helps to reduce the severity and frequency of tics and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Pimozide may also be used off-label for the treatment of other conditions, such as severe behavioral problems in children with developmental disabilities. It is important to note that pimozide can have serious side effects, including cardiac arrhythmias and neurological symptoms, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional who is experienced in managing its use.

As with all medications, it's essential to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to report any unusual or concerning symptoms to your healthcare provider promptly.

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Dopamine antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with various functions including movement, motivation, and emotion. These drugs work by binding to dopamine receptors and preventing dopamine from attaching to them, which can help to reduce the symptoms of certain medical conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are several types of dopamine antagonists, including:

1. Typical antipsychotics: These drugs are primarily used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia and delusional disorders. Examples include haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and fluphenazine.
2. Atypical antipsychotics: These drugs are also used to treat psychosis but have fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. They may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and depression. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
3. Antiemetics: These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting. Examples include metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.
4. Dopamine agonists: While not technically dopamine antagonists, these drugs work by stimulating dopamine receptors and can be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, they can also have the opposite effect and block dopamine receptors in high doses, making them functionally similar to dopamine antagonists.

Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include sedation, weight gain, and movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. It's important to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

A startle reaction is a natural, defensive response to an unexpected stimulus that is characterized by a sudden contraction of muscles, typically in the face, neck, and arms. It's a reflexive action that occurs involuntarily and is mediated by the brainstem. The startle reaction can be observed in many different species, including humans, and is thought to have evolved as a protective mechanism to help organisms respond quickly to potential threats. In addition to the muscle contraction, the startle response may also include other physiological changes such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

Catalepsy is a medical condition characterized by a trance-like state, with reduced sensitivity to pain and external stimuli, muscular rigidity, and fixed postures. In this state, the person's body may maintain any position in which it is placed for a long time, and there is often a decreased responsiveness to social cues or communication attempts.

Catalepsy can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, or brain injuries. It can also occur in the context of mental health disorders, such as severe depression, catatonic schizophrenia, or dissociative identity disorder.

In some cases, catalepsy may be induced intentionally through hypnosis or other forms of altered consciousness practices. However, when it occurs spontaneously or as a symptom of an underlying medical condition, it can be a serious concern and requires medical evaluation and treatment.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

Carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It works by preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, allowing more levodopa to reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations and is available under various brand names, such as Sinemet.

Here are some key points about carbidopa:

* It is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain.
* Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
* By preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, more levodopa can reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
* Common side effects of carbidopa include nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension.
* Carbidopa should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and dosed appropriately to minimize side effects and maximize therapeutic benefit.

Sensory gating is a term used in neuroscience and psychology to describe the brain's ability to filter out redundant or unnecessary sensory information. It is a fundamental process that allows the nervous system to focus attention on relevant stimuli while suppressing irrelevant ones, thereby preventing overwhelming of the brain with too much information.

In medical terms, sensory gating is often assessed through the use of electrophysiological measures such as event-related potentials (ERPs) or auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). One commonly used measure of sensory gating is the P50 suppression ratio, which compares the amplitude of the P50 waveform in response to the first and second stimuli in a paired-stimulus paradigm. A reduced P50 suppression ratio indicates impaired sensory gating, which has been associated with various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Overall, sensory gating is a crucial mechanism for maintaining appropriate sensory processing and cognitive functioning in everyday life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxydopamines" is not a recognized term in medical physiology or pharmacology. However, I believe you might be referring to "Catecholamines," which are a group of neurotransmitters and hormones that include dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and adrenaline (epinephrine). These substances are derived from the amino acid tyrosine and have a catechol nucleus (two hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring) and an amine group.

If you meant something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will be happy to help.

Yawning is a reflex characterized by the involuntary opening of the mouth and deep inhalation of air, often followed by a long exhalation. While the exact purpose and mechanism of yawning are not fully understood, it's believed to be associated with regulating brain temperature, promoting arousal, or stretching the muscles of the jaw and face. Yawning is contagious in humans and can also be observed in various animal species. It usually occurs when an individual is tired, bored, or during transitions between sleep stages, but its underlying causes remain a subject of ongoing scientific research.

Quinpirole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic compound used in research and medicine. It's a selective agonist for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, which means it binds to and activates these receptors, mimicking the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes such as movement, motivation, reward, and cognition.

Quinpirole is used primarily in preclinical research to study the role of dopamine receptors in different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and others. It helps researchers understand how dopamine systems work and contributes to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

It is important to note that quinpirole is not used as a medication in humans or animals but rather as a research tool in laboratory settings.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

Dopamine agents are medications that act on dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and other areas of the body. It plays important roles in many functions, including movement, motivation, emotion, and cognition.

Dopamine agents can be classified into several categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Dopamine agonists: These medications bind to dopamine receptors and mimic the effects of dopamine. They are used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
2. Dopamine precursors: These medications provide the building blocks for the body to produce dopamine. Levodopa is a commonly used dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine in the brain. It is often used in combination with carbidopa, which helps to prevent levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain.
3. Dopamine antagonists: These medications block the action of dopamine at its receptors. They are used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and certain types of nausea and vomiting. Examples include haloperidol, risperidone, and metoclopramide.
4. Dopamine reuptake inhibitors: These medications increase the amount of dopamine available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) by preventing its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. They are used to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Examples include bupropion and nomifensine.
5. Dopamine release inhibitors: These medications prevent the release of dopamine from presynaptic neurons. They are used to treat conditions such as Tourette's syndrome and certain types of chronic pain. Examples include tetrabenazine and deutetrabenazine.

It is important to note that dopamine agents can have significant side effects, including addiction, movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, they should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Secondary Parkinson's disease, also known as acquired or symptomatic Parkinsonism, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the signs and symptoms of classic Parkinson's disease (tremor at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability) but caused by a known secondary cause. These causes can include various conditions such as brain injuries, infections, drugs or toxins, metabolic disorders, and vascular damage. The underlying pathology of secondary Parkinson's disease is different from that of classic Parkinson's disease, which is primarily due to the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a specific area of the brain called the substantia nigra pars compacta.

Domperidone is a medication that belongs to the class of dopamine antagonists. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can cause nausea and vomiting. Domperidone is primarily used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric motility disorders, including bloating, fullness, and regurgitation. It works by increasing the contractions of the stomach muscles, which helps to move food and digestive juices through the stomach more quickly.

Domperidone is available in various forms, such as tablets, suspension, and injection. The medication is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as dry mouth, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. In rare cases, domperidone may cause more serious side effects, including irregular heart rhythms, tremors, or muscle stiffness.

It is important to note that domperidone has a risk of causing cardiac arrhythmias, particularly at higher doses and in patients with pre-existing heart conditions. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

The compound 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine is a type of benzazepine derivative. Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. Specifically, 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine is a derivative with a phenyl group attached to the benzazepine ring and two hydroxyl groups at positions 7 and 8 of the diazepine ring.

This compound does not have a specific medical definition, as it is not a drug or a medication that is used in clinical practice. However, like many other chemical compounds, it may have potential uses in pharmaceutical research and development, including as a lead compound for the design and synthesis of new drugs with therapeutic activity.

It's worth noting that the specific biological activity and medical relevance of this compound would depend on its chemical properties and any interactions it may have with biological systems, which would need to be studied in detail through scientific research.

Dopamine D1 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as D1-like receptors, along with D5 receptors, and are activated by dopamine through a stimulatory G protein (Gs).

D1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system, including the striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. They play important roles in various physiological functions, such as movement control, motivation, reward processing, working memory, and cognition.

Activation of D1 receptors leads to increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn modulate the activity of various downstream signaling pathways. Dysregulation of dopamine D1 receptor function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and drug addiction.

Oxidopamine is not a recognized medical term or a medication commonly used in clinical practice. However, it is a chemical compound that is often used in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience.

Oxidopamine is a synthetic catecholamine that can be selectively taken up by dopaminergic neurons and subsequently undergo oxidation, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. This property makes it a useful tool for studying the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders.

In summary, while not a medical definition per se, oxidopamine is a chemical compound used in research to study the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons.

Ergolines are a group of ergot alkaloids that have been widely used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs. These compounds are known for their ability to bind to and stimulate specific receptors in the brain, particularly dopamine receptors. As a result, they have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, migraine, and depression.

However, ergolines can also have significant side effects, including hallucinations, nausea, and changes in blood pressure. In addition, some ergot alkaloids have been associated with a rare but serious condition called ergotism, which is characterized by symptoms such as muscle spasms, vomiting, and gangrene. Therefore, the use of ergolines must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Some specific examples of drugs that contain ergolines include:

* Dihydroergotamine (DHE): used for the treatment of migraine headaches
* Pergolide: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
* Cabergoline: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and certain types of hormonal disorders

It is important to note that while ergolines have shown promise in some therapeutic areas, they are not without their risks. As with any medication, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any drug containing ergolines to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for an individual's specific needs.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Harmine is defined medically as an alpha-carboline derivative that is present in various plants including the seeds of Peganum harmala and the bark of Banisteriopsis caapi. It functions as an monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and has been used in traditional medicine for its psychoactive properties. It has also been studied for potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects.

The Substantia Nigra is a region in the midbrain that plays a crucial role in movement control and reward processing. It is composed of two parts: the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. The pars compacta contains dopamine-producing neurons, whose loss or degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease, leading to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

In summary, Substantia Nigra is a brain structure that contains dopamine-producing cells and is involved in movement control and reward processing. Its dysfunction or degeneration can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

Dopamine D3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as part of the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, which also includes the D2 and D4 receptors. The D3 receptor is primarily expressed in the limbic areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, where it plays a role in regulating motivation, reward, and cognition.

D3 receptors have been found to be involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in a decrease in dopamine levels and an increase in D3 receptor expression. This increase in D3 receptor expression has been linked to the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity.

In schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications that block D2-like receptors, including D3 receptors, are used to treat positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. However, selective D3 receptor antagonists have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy and anhedonia.

In drug addiction, D3 receptors have been found to play a role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Selective D3 receptor antagonists have shown promise in reducing drug-seeking behavior and preventing relapse in animal models of addiction.

Overall, dopamine D3 receptors play an important role in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and further research is needed to fully understand their functions and potential therapeutic uses.

An infusion pump is a medical device used to deliver fluids, such as medications, nutrients, or supplements, into a patient's body in a controlled and precise manner. These pumps can be programmed to deliver specific amounts of fluid over set periods, allowing for accurate and consistent administration. They are often used in hospitals, clinics, and home care settings to administer various types of therapies, including pain management, chemotherapy, antibiotic treatment, and parenteral nutrition.

Infusion pumps come in different sizes and configurations, with some being portable and battery-operated for use outside of a medical facility. They typically consist of a reservoir for the fluid, a pumping mechanism to move the fluid through tubing and into the patient's body, and a control system that allows healthcare professionals to program the desired flow rate and volume. Some advanced infusion pumps also include safety features such as alarms to alert healthcare providers if there are any issues with the pump's operation or if the patient's condition changes unexpectedly.

Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. In the context of pharmaceuticals, benzazepines refer to a group of drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Some examples of benzazepine-derived drugs include clozapine, olanzapine, and loxoprofen. These drugs have complex mechanisms of action, often involving multiple receptor systems in the brain.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

Sulpiride is an antipsychotic drug that belongs to the chemical class of benzamides. It primarily acts as a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist. Sulpiride is used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. In addition, it has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

The medical definition of Sulpiride is as follows:

Sulpiride (INN, BAN), also known as Sultopride (USAN) or SP, is a selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, anxiety, and depression. It has been found to be effective in managing gastrointestinal disorders like gastroparesis due to its prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Sulpiride is available under various brand names worldwide, including Dogmatil, Sulpitac, and Espirid."

Please note that this definition includes information about the drug's therapeutic uses, which are essential aspects of understanding a medication in its entirety.

Spiperone is an antipsychotic drug that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor affinity. Spiperone is used primarily in research settings for its ability to bind to and block dopamine receptors, which helps scientists study the role of dopamine in various physiological processes.

In clinical practice, spiperone has been used off-label to treat chronic schizophrenia, but its use is limited due to its significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), tardive dyskinesia (irregular, jerky movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal complication characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and autonomic instability).

It's important to note that spiperone is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. Its use is more common in research settings or in countries where it may be approved for specific indications.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It can have physical and psychological causes, such as underlying health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and mental health issues like stress, anxiety, and depression. ED can also be a side effect of certain medications. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medication, counseling, and in some cases, surgery.

Lisuride is a type of medication called a dopamine agonist, which works by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain. It is primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease and related disorders, as it can help to alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.

Lisuride may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as certain types of headaches or cluster headaches. It is available in the form of tablets and is typically taken several times a day, with dosages adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment.

As with any medication, lisuride can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, hallucinations, and orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing). It is important for patients taking this medication to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or concerns.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Flupenthixol is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blocking activity, which makes it effective in managing various psychiatric disorders.

Flupenthixol is primarily used for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It can help alleviate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and hostility. Additionally, flupenthixol may also be used off-label to manage depression, anxiety, and aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Flupenthixol decanoate) for short-term use and a long-acting depot injection (Flupenthixol dihydrochloride) that can be administered every 2-4 weeks, providing sustained therapeutic levels of the drug.

As with any medication, flupenthixol should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other drugs. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disorders.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

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Anti-aggregation agents such as apomorphine, or carbenoxolone. The latter has commonly been used as a treatment for peptic ...
They specialised in painkillers: Morphine, Apomorphine and Diamorphine. They also made surgical dressings. During the First ...
His condition improved when he began injections of apomorphine. He was reliant on the Professional Footballers' Association to ...
For example, apomorphine was seen to significantly improve memory function through the increased successful completion of the ... February 2011). "Apomorphine treatment in Alzheimer mice promoting amyloid-β degradation". Annals of Neurology. 69 (2): 248-56 ...
The patients were subjected to apomorphine injections and electric shocks. At the time, conversion therapy was supported by ...
Apomorphine is said to be main psychoactive compound present[inconsistent]. Other compounds include nuciferine. In Southern ... not to be confused with apomorphine, a metabolic product of aporphine). Nymphaea spectabilis, a purple form known from ...
Justin-Besancon L, Laville C (1964). "[Antiemetic Action of Metoclopramide with Respect to Apomorphine and Hydergine]". Comptes ...
He is remembered for his pharmacological studies of physostigmine and apomorphine. He was the son of theologian Theodosius ... and a short history of apomorphine". Eur Neurol. 69 (6): 321-4. doi:10.1159/000346762. PMID 23549143. Harnack, Gottfried Rudolf ...
This includes medications such as apomorphine and hyaluronic acid injected as a filler, which may cause the area to appear ... Müller T (October 2020). "An evaluation of subcutaneous apomorphine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease". Expert Opinion ...
Apomorphine has the ability to help PD patients with their cognition awareness. In addition to having antidepressant properties ... Oliveira V, Videira G, Mendes A (July 2020). "Loss of Awareness after Continuous Apomorphine Infusion Withdrawal in Parkinson's ... Apomorphine (non-selective dopamine agonist) Bromocriptine (non-selective dopamine agonist) Captodiame CJ-1639 compound R,R-16 ...
Apomorphine "(6aS)-6-Propyl-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol". ChemSpider. Retrieved 16 January 2016. ... N-n-Propylnorapomorphine (NPA) is an aporphine derivative dopamine agonist closely related to apomorphine. In rodents it has ... Menon MK, Clark WG, Neumeyer JL (November 1978). "Comparison of the dopaminergic effects of apomorphine and (−)-N-n- ... Riffee WH, Wilcox RE, Smith RV (March 1979). "Stereotypic and hypothermic effects of apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine ...
Lassen JB (April 1976). "Inhibition and potentiation of apomorphine-induced hypermotility in rats by neuroleptics". Eur. J. ...
However, it does reverse the prepulse inhibition deficits induced by apomorphine, and has also been shown to enhance cortical ... Mansbach RS, Brooks EW, Sanner MA, Zorn SH (January 1998). "Selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonists reverse apomorphine- ... sonepiprazole does not block the behavioral effects of amphetamine or apomorphine, does not alter spontaneous locomotor ...
Apomorphine is also available in a more acute dose as an autoinjector pen for emergency doses such as after a fall or first ... Apomorphine, which is a dopamine agonist not orally administered, may be used to reduce off periods and dyskinesia in late PD. ... Apomorphine can be administered by subcutaneous injection using a small pump which is carried by the patient. A low dose is ... After an initial "apomorphine challenge" in hospital to test its effectiveness and brief patient and primary caregiver (often a ...
Apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, may be used to reduce off periods and dyskinesia in late PD. It is administered only by ... Secondary effects such as confusion and hallucinations are common, individuals receiving apomorphine treatment should be ... Dopamine agonists include bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, piribedil, cabergoline, apomorphine, and lisuride ... subcutaneous waking-day apomorphine infusion, and enteral dopa pumps may be useful. Late-stage PD presents challenges requiring ...
Apomorphine may be used however its use is supported by little evidence. Benzodiazepines may be used to control agitation. ...
Apomorphine hydrochloride and activated charcoal had to be administered along with other fluids. 5 days after the incident, the ...
Apomorphine Bulbocapnine Glaucine Nuciferine Pukateine Tetrahydropalmatine Natesan S, Reckless GE, Barlow KB, et al. (August ...
Strychnine, alcohol, apomorphine, willow bark, ammonia, and atropine were claimed to have been identified in the injections. ... Strychnine, alcohol, apomorphine, willow bark, ammonia, and atropine were among the many suggested chemicals. The Keeley ...
1975). "Cholinergic effects of molecular segments of apomorphine and dopaminergic effects of N,N-dialkylated dopamines." J. Med ... phenethylamines and apomorphine." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163 188-197. M. Ilhan, J. P. Long and J. G. Cannon (1975). " ...
Apomorphine has a catechol structure similar to that of dopamine. Several techniques exist for the creation of apomorphine from ... This, along with the use of sublingual apomorphine tablets, led to a renewed interest in the use of apomorphine as a treatment ... Tompkins J (1899). "Apomorphine in Acute Alcoholic Delirium". Medical Record. "Apomorphine as a hypnotic". The Lancet. 155 ( ... One of the reasons apomorphine is a preferred drug is its reversibility: in cases of prolonged vomiting, the apomorphine can be ...
Apomorphine Sublingual: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Apomorphine comes as a sublingual film to take under the tongue. Apomorphine sublingual is usually used when needed, according ... Before using apomorphine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to apomorphine, any other medications, sulfites ... you should not drink alcohol while you are using apomorphine. Alcohol can make the side effects from apomorphine worse. ...
... Notes. *This display requires that Java be installed on your system and your browser to have Java ...
Future delivery systems for apomorphine in patients with Parkinsons disease Adv Neurol. 1999:80:535-44. ...
Apomorphine: dosage. Apomorphine: structure. Apomorphine: mechanisms. Parkinsons disease: resources. Apomorphine and sexual ... Apomorphine-induced erections in PD are probably more common than previously thought. The benefit of apomorphine on sexual ... Apomorphine (Uprima) : structure. The pharmacology of penile erection. Psychotropic medications and sexual dysfunction. Refs. ... Apomorphine-induced penile erections. in Parkinsons disease by. OSullivan JD, Hughes AJ. Neurology Department,. Austin & ...
Apomorphine Hydrochloride Sublingual Film) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Metabolism of sublingual apomorphine results in 3 major inactive metabolites: apomorphine sulfate, apomorphine glucuronide, and ... Apomorphine was negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice.. Impairment Of Fertility. Apomorphine was administered ... There are no data on the presence of apomorphine in human milk, the effects of apomorphine on the breastfed infant, or the ...
Apomorphine Hydrochloride (UNII: F39049Y068) (Apomorphine - UNII:N21FAR7B4S) Apomorphine Hydrochloride. 18 [hp_M] in 1 mL. ... conium maculatum flowering top, magnesium carbonate, apomorphine hydrochloride, lead, lycopodium clavatum spore, and sus scrofa ... Label: EMVITA 25- conium maculatum flowering top, magnesium carbonate, apomorphine hydrochloride, lead, lycopodium clavatum ... EMVITA 25- conium maculatum flowering top, magnesium carbonate, apomorphine hydrochloride, lead, lycopodium clavatum spore, and ...
... apomorphine hydrochloride) Sublingual Film for the Treatment of Parkinsons Disease OFF Episodes ... KYNMOBI (apomorphine hydrochloride) sublingual film, a novel formulation of apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, is the first and ... KYNMOBITM (apomorphine hydrochloride) sublingual film is a prescription medicine used to treat short-term (acute), intermittent ... Sunovion Announces U.S. FDA Approval of KYNMOBI™ (apomorphine hydrochloride) Sublingual Film for the Treatment of Parkinsons ...
CH$NAME: Apomorphine. CH$COMPOUND_CLASS: N/A. CH$FORMULA: C17H17NO2. CH$EXACT_MASS: 267.12593. CH$SMILES: CN1CCC2=C3[C@H]1CC4=C ... RECORD_TITLE: Apomorphine; LC-ESI-QTOF; MS2; CE:40 eV; [M+H]+. DATE: 2016.01.19 (Created 2008.07.15, modified 2012.11.20). ... Apomorphine; LC-ESI-QTOF; MS2; CE:40 eV; [M+H]+. Mass Spectrum ... Apomorphine with the InChIKey VMWNQDUVQKEIOC-CYBMUJFWSA-N. ...
Apomorphine-induced rotation. Rats were treated with 1 mg/kg apomorphine (i.p.; Sigma-Aldrich) and videotaped in a 60 × 60 cm ... Apomorphine-induced rotation. The test was revised from the previous description. Mice were treated with 3 mg/kg apomorphine (i ... A Timeline of AAV injection, 6-OHDA striatal lesion, and apomorphine rotation test. B Quantification of apomorphine-induced net ... E Quantification of apomorphine-induced net contralateral rotation of all groups of rats. N = 6, 8, 7, 8, 8 rats in five groups ...
S)-6-methyl-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol-13CD3 ...
Sublingual apomorphine (APL-130277) for the acute conversion of OFF to ON in Parkinsons disease Academic Article ... Lateralizing effects of apomorphine on taxis, postural support and rotation in rats Academic Article ... Neuroendocrine responses to apomorphine in depressed patients and healthy control subjects Academic Article ... Differences in the behavioral profile of circling under amphetamine and apomorphine in rats with unilateral lesions of the ...
Apomorphine Timeline Discover how apomorphine cured alcoholics, evolved as a treatment for Parkinsons Disease, and why its ...
Explore the 58 possible supplements interactions for Apomorphine and the research papers that mention these interactions. ...
Reference standards of Apomorphine Hydrochloride Hemihydrate API, and its pharmacopeial, non pharmacopeial impurities, and ... Apomorphine Hydrochloride Hemihydrate is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning.. ... apomorphine hydrochloride hemihydrate and its Impurities Apomorphine Hydrochloride Hemihydrate is a powerful emetic and has ... been used for that effect in acute poisoning.. Reference standards of Apomorphine Hydrochloride Hemihydrate API, and its ...
Apomorphine Monotherapy for Parkinsons Disease: A Neglected Option?. Article information. J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):328-330 ... Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is a safe and effective way of reducing off time in patients with ... Long-term apomorphine infusion users versus short-term users: an international dual-center analysis of the reasons for ... Apomorphine monotherapy in the treatment of refractory motor complications of Parkinsons disease: long-term follow-up study of ...
... or the interaction of apomorphine and tadalafil to ... Can Anyone take apomorphine (Uprima) and Tadalafil (cialis) ... Apomorphine and tadalafil taken together with flurazepam. Resolved Question:. Can Anyone take apomorphine (Uprima) and ... Apomorphine is not a popular drug in any of the classes but it is indicated in certain diseases such as parkinsons disease, ... Apomorphine is used very occasionally for certain indications and it is not generally considered as the first line drug. May be ...
Get information about Apomorphine dopamine, including its uses, side effects, and safety. Contact us at our San Ramon office by ... What is apomorphine?. Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor activator in the brain. Due to its effects on the Dopamine-2 receptor ... This means that in a urine drug test, apomorphine will not show up as an opiate. Also, unlike opiates, apomorphine is not a ... How do I take apomorphine?. Sublingual tablets of apomorphine are available for absorption underneath the tongue. The ...
Este metodo no permite hacer pagos mayores a 500 por dia. Debe escanear el código QR, haga click en continuar para adjuntar la captura de pantalla (es el único comprobante de pago) y podrá completar la compra.. ...
Sublingual apomorphine in PD: phase II results. September 2, 2015 Recommend to a Colleague print ... Report from the 1st Congress of the European Academy of Neurology, Berlin, Germany, June 20-23, 2015 - Subcutaneous apomorphine ... 60 and 90 minutes after administration of sublingual apomorphine. Overall, 15 of 19 patients achieved an On response after drug ...
Comment: Apomorphine hydrochloride is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. Ligand Activity Visualisation Charts. These are box ...
Apomorphine. Based on reports of profound hypotension and loss of consciousness when apomorphine was administered with ... Concomitant use of apomorphine and ZOFRAN may cause a significant drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness. ... The concomitant use of apomorphine with ondansetron is contraindicated based on reports of profound hypotension and loss of ... The patient should report the use of all medications, especially apomorphine, to their healthcare provider. ...
Evidence exists to show a link between exposure to pesticides and herbicides and PD; a two-fold increase in risk was seen with paraquat or maneb/mancozeb exposure.[12] Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure has been shown to produce a parkinsonism-like illness characterized by movement abnormalities.[13] This condition is not responsive to typical therapies used in the treatment of PD, suggesting an alternative pathway than the typical dopaminergic loss within the substantia nigra.[13] Manganese may accumulate in the basal ganglia, leading to the abnormal movements that characterize parkinsonism.[14] A mutation of the SLC30A10 gene, a manganese efflux transporter necessary for decreasing intracellular Mn, has been linked with the development of this parkinsonism-like disease.[15] The Lewy bodies typical to PD are not seen in Mn-induced parkinsonism.[14] Agent Orange may be a cause of parkinsonism, although evidence is inconclusive and further research is needed.[16] Other toxins that have been ...
insulin, and apomorphine. Drugs such as these differ from psychoactive drugs that alter thought processes or biochemical ...
This medicine comes with a patient information insert. Read and follow these instructions carefully. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. The solution comes in small containers that are only used one time. Throw the empty container away after putting the medicine into your ear(s). This medicine should be used only inside the ear. Do not put it in the eyes or nose, and do not take it by mouth. If this medicine is swallowed by accident or gets into your eyes, call your doctor right away. It is important that the infected ear remain clean and dry. When bathing, avoid getting the infected ear wet. Avoid swimming unless your doctor has instructed you otherwise. To use the ear drops:. ...
Detailed drug Information for Ranolazine. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Apomorphine treatment and access to apomorphine in the event of relapse would certainly give a higher percentage of permanent ... Apomorphine.--Apomorphine is certainly the best method of treating withdrawal that I have experienced. It does not completely ... In fact apomorphine treatment involves less discomfort than a reduction cure. Recovery is more rapid and more complete. I feel ... More potent variations of the apomorphine formula might prove qualitatively more effective in treating all forms of addiction. ...
Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in ... Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in ... Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in ... Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in ...
A sublingual formulation of apomorphine has demonstrated some benefit in ED. Apomorphine is not approved by the FDA for this ...
Conclusions: Apomorphine significantly enhances the activation of cortical and subcortical brain function during video sexual ... Conclusions: Apomorphine significantly enhances the activation of cortical and subcortical brain function during video sexual ... These activated neural systems were modulated by apomorphine administration which produced a picture that was similar to the ... These activated neural systems were modulated by apomorphine administration which produced a picture that was similar to the ...
  • KYNMOBI (apomorphine hydrochloride) sublingual film, a novel formulation of apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, is the first and only sublingual therapy for the fast-acting, on-demand treatment of OFF episodes associated with Parkinson's disease. (pipelinereview.com)
  • KYNMOBI TM (apomorphine hydrochloride) sublingual film is a prescription medicine used to treat short-term (acute), intermittent "off" episodes in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). (pipelinereview.com)
  • Apomorphine Hydrochloride Hemihydrate is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. (pharmaffiliates.com)
  • Apomorphine hydrochloride is a potent dopamine-receptor agonist. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • The increases in the growth hormone (GH) level following intravenous infusion of the 5-hydroxytryptamine precursor tryptophan, the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine hydrochloride, and subcutaneous injection of the dopamine agonist apomorphine hydrochloride were determined in volunteers before and in the third week of a weight-reducing diet (1200 kcal/d). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The patients were treated for a period of 14 days and received either capsules containing lactose (placebo) or 20 mg apomorphine hydrochloride in lactose. (inter-zone.org)
  • Apomorphine comes as a sublingual film to take under the tongue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hold apomorphine sublingual film between your fingers by the outside edges and remove the entire film from the pouch. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use apomorphine sublingual film whole. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MARLBOROUGH, MA, USA I May 21, 2020 I Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Sunovion) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved KYNMOBI™ (apomorphine HCI) sublingual film (APL-130277) for the acute, intermittent treatment of OFF episodes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). (pipelinereview.com)
  • Do not use a second dose of apomorphine sublingual for treatment of the same "off" episode. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You will receive your first dose of apomorphine in a medical office where your doctor can closely monitor your condition to determine your dose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After 3 months, she was no longer taking oral medication, and the daily dose of apomorphine was 168 mg. (e-jmd.org)
  • Apomorphine is used in advanced Parkinson's disease intermittent hypomobility ("off" episodes), where a decreased response to an anti-Parkinson drug such as L-DOPA causes muscle stiffness and loss of muscle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is a safe and effective way of reducing off time in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) whose motor complications are suboptimally controlled by oral medication [ 1 ] and treating severe insomnia in patients with fluctuating PD [ 2 ]. (e-jmd.org)
  • A: Titration of continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion dose over 12 years. (e-jmd.org)
  • Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is increasingly used in Parkinson's disease (PD), notably in patients contraindicated for subthalamic deep brain stimulation. (konexionsnc.com)
  • Currently, apomorphine is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • P enile erections were regularly induced by intermittent subcutaneous injections of apomorphine in five patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by motor fluctuations. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Discover how apomorphine cured alcoholics, evolved as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease, and why it's being re-investigated as an addiction remedy. (apomorphine.info)
  • Apomorphine Monotherapy for Parkinson's Disease: A Neglected Option? (e-jmd.org)
  • The effects of CSAI on motor complications (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]) and quality of life (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 [PDQ-39]) were evaluated at 1 year, 5 years and 12 years ( Figure 1B and C ). After a few weeks, she could manage the pump device without the help of a caregiver, and she has never complained of major side effects related to apomorphine. (e-jmd.org)
  • While apomorphine is more commonly used in treatment of Parkinson's disease, it was found that low doses were enough to stimulate erection with minimal unintentional effects. (brandeismd.com)
  • Apomorphine is the most potent dopamine agonist that provides anti-Parkinson's effect comparable to levodopa, and potentially improves dyskinesia. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Can Anyone take apomorphine (Uprima) and Tadalafil (cialis) together, or the interaction of apomorphine and tadalafil together. (doctorspring.com)
  • Historically, apomorphine has been tried for a variety of uses, including as a way to relieve anxiety and craving in alcoholics, an emetic (to induce vomiting), for treating stereotypies (repeated behaviour) in farmyard animals, and more recently in treating erectile dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four of the patients reported erectile dysfunction before beginning apomorphine and two of these report a significant improvement in their sexual function resulting from apomorphine use. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Apomorphine is not a popular drug in any of the classes but it is indicated in certain diseases such as parkinsons disease, alcoholism, alzheimers disease and one indication which is common with Tadalafil is erectile dysfunction. (doctorspring.com)
  • Methods: Ten patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction and six potent controls underwent functional magnetic resonance of the brain during video sexual stimulation after the administration of either apomorphine sublingual 4 mg or placebo following a randomized, double blind design. (uninsubria.it)
  • In patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction apomorphine sublingual caused an increase in the extension of the activated networks, plus additional activation foci in subcortical and deep structures, namely in the nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and mesencephalon: this activation was greater than that seen with placebo. (uninsubria.it)
  • Erectile function in rats was assessed by apomorphine. (bvsalud.org)
  • To characterize the local safety and PK of a novel apomorphine formulation, ND0701, in comparison to a commercially available apomorphine-HCl solution. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Steady state plasma concentrations of apomorphine were attained after ∼2.5 hours and were similar (5.4 ±1.8 ng/ml) among all 4 tested formulations, demonstrating that 1% and 2.5% ND0701 formulations are bioequivalent to the commercially available Apomorphine-HCl formulation. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Conclusion: This was the first study of a new sublingual apomorphine formulation in PD patients. (barrowneuro.org)
  • For the evaluation of local site reactions, four drug formulations, 1% ND0701, 2.5% ND0701, 0.5% apomorphine-HCl or 1% apomorphine-HCl, were administered by subcutaneous continuous infusion of 50 mg apomorphine during 24h, at a volume of 5, 2, 10 and 5 ml, respectively. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • For the determination of steady state plasma concentration of apomorphine, the drug formulations were administered by subcutaneous continuous infusion of 14 mg apomorphine during 7h, at a rate of 0.2, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.2 ml/h, respectively. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Objectives: To evaluate the in vivo effect of apomorphine sublingual versus placebo on cortical and subcortical brain activation during video sexual stimulation. (uninsubria.it)
  • Conclusions: Apomorphine significantly enhances the activation of cortical and subcortical brain function during video sexual stimulation. (uninsubria.it)
  • Some people use portable mini-pumps that continuously infuse them with apomorphine, allowing them to stay in the "on" state and using apomorphine as an effective monotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have investigated apomorphine for treatment of low arousal and sexual dysfunction in women, with results of increased sexual satisfaction scores. (brandeismd.com)
  • Apomorphine, sold under the brand name Apokyn among others, is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. (haifa.ac.il)
  • 1] found in a double-blind study that a group of alcoholics were statistically significantly more sober the day after apomorphine administration than a similar group receiving chlordiazepoxide or placebo. (inter-zone.org)
  • during the second and about equal for apomorphine and placebo groups. (inter-zone.org)
  • There is, however, no clinical evidence that apomorphine is an effective and safe treatment regimen for opiate addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • While apomorphine is derived from dehydration of the morphine molecule, there are no opiate activities. (brandeismd.com)
  • This means that in a urine drug test, apomorphine will not show up as an opiate. (brandeismd.com)
  • When an episode sets in, the apomorphine is injected subcutaneously or applied sublingually, and signs subside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, sedative responses to the dopamine agonist apomorphine (5 micrograms/kg subcutaneously) were decreased when subjects were taking the contraceptive pill. (ox.ac.uk)
  • antiemetics such as trimethobenzamide or domperidone, dopamine antagonists, are often used while first starting apomorphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will give you another medication called trimethobenzamide to take when you begin to use apomorphine sublingual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you to begin taking trimethobenzamide 3 days before you begin to use apomorphine, and to continue taking it for up to 2 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should know that taking trimethobenzamide along with apomorphine may increase your risk of drowsiness, dizziness, and falls. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The benefit of apomorphine on sexual function in some patients suggests a possible role in the treatment of impotence in PD. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Numerous studies have used apomorphine (APO) in the evaluation of dopaminergic (DA) function in schizophrenic patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Lal and Schlatter [4] reported that apomorphine decreased the craving for alcohol when administered to hospitalized patients and recently Buus et al. (inter-zone.org)
  • MRI analysis showed that local site reactions following continuous subcutaneous administration of ND0701, at concentrations as high as ×2.5-5 than those of Apomorphine-HCl, were significantly smaller and exhibited better recovery. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Histopathological evaluation supported these findings showing only a minimal, chronic inflammatory reaction following continuous subcutaneous administration of 1% and 2.5% ND0701, while mild, chronic, granulomatous inflammation and necrosis of the subcutis were observed following Apomorphine-HCl administration. (mdsabstracts.org)
  • Background: APL-130277 is a sublingually administered apomorphine oral strip. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Effects of the contraceptive pill on sedative responses to clonidine and apomorphine in normal women. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The effects of dieting and weight loss on neuroendocrine responses to tryptophan, clonidine, and apomorphine in volunteers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These activated neural systems were modulated by apomorphine administration which produced a picture that was similar to the one seen in potent controls. (uninsubria.it)
  • After that, your doctor will tell you to use apomorphine sublingual at home and to monitor for adverse effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apomorphine is in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The possible involvement of the dopaminergic system in the actions of T. catigua extract was substantiated by data showing the potentiation of apomorphine-induced hypothermia and by the prevention of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. (hindawi.com)
  • The priapism is caused by apomorphine increasing arterial blood supply to the penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apomorphine-induced erections in PD are probably more common than previously thought. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In a double-blind study in chronic alcoholics apomorphine was shown to have a significant effect on alcoholic crax g and on tension. (inter-zone.org)
  • In broad clinical experience we have found that capsules of 20 mg apomorphine in lactose seem to be a good sedative for chronic alcoholics. (inter-zone.org)
  • This medication will help decrease your chance of developing nausea and vomiting while you are using apomorphine, especially during the beginning of treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thanks for your reply sir, kindly tell me the Indication in which we can take Apomorphine and tadalafil, and can anyone take Apomorphine and Tadalafil with Flurezepam (Fluraz)or other sleep disorder drugs? (doctorspring.com)
  • The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or foreign substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth hormone responses to graded doses of apomorphine HCl in schizophrenia. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Apomorphine is used very occasionally for certain indications and it is not generally considered as the first line drug. (doctorspring.com)
  • Apomorphine is a difficult drug to study. (inter-zone.org)
  • IV administration of apomorphine is highly discouraged, as it can crystallize in the veins and create a blood clot (thrombus) and block a pulmonary artery (pulmonary embolism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects were evaluated in the pre-dose morning Off state and at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of sublingual apomorphine. (neuro-sens.com)
  • An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. (haifa.ac.il)
  • In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Apomorphine , a dopamine agonist, has been used for 75 years in small non-emetic doses to treat the acute alcohol intoxication phase of chronic alcoholism. (inter-zone.org)
  • Apomorphine was also used as a private treatment of heroin addiction, a purpose for which it was championed by the author William S. Burroughs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Find out about the doctors who used apomorphine to treat addiction. (apomorphine.info)
  • Apomorphine, Tadalafil and Flurazepam are all different drugs of different category and do not point out to a single diagnosis. (doctorspring.com)
  • Differences in the behavioral profile of circling under amphetamine and apomorphine in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Report from the 1st Congress of the European Academy of Neurology, Berlin, Germany, June 20-23, 2015 - Subcutaneous apomorphine is clinically available in many countries for the acute treatment of Off periods in PD. (neuro-sens.com)
  • Sublingual Apomorphine (APL-130277) for the Acute Conversion of off to" by Robert A. Hauser, C. Warren Olanow et al. (barrowneuro.org)
  • The Foundation supported early clinical development of sublingual apomorphine, and this approval brings an important new treatment option for people with PD who experience OFF. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Read first-hand accounts by addicts who received the apomorphine treatment. (apomorphine.info)
  • The effects typically last for hours, with plasma levels of apomorphine returning to normal after 8 hours. (brandeismd.com)
  • Viagra affects the blood vessels directly, apomorphine exerts its effects through the nervous system. (brandeismd.com)
  • The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor activator in the brain. (brandeismd.com)
  • Apomorphine acts directly at the brain to stimulate nerves that innervate oxytocin-activated nerves in the spinal cord. (brandeismd.com)
  • Sublingual tablets of apomorphine are available for absorption underneath the tongue. (brandeismd.com)
  • Also, unlike opiates, apomorphine is not a scheduled medication. (brandeismd.com)
  • Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. (haifa.ac.il)
  • A recent study indicates that apomorphine might be a suitable marker for assessing central dopamine system alterations associated with chronic heroin consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the study a representative sample of apomorphine capsules were analyzed. (inter-zone.org)