Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Lipoprotein Lipase Activators: Compounds that increase the enzymatic activity of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Lipoprotein lipase activators have a potential role in the treatment of OBESITY by increasing LIPID METABOLISM. Note that substances that increase the synthesis of lipoprotein lipase are not included here.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.TriglyceridesApolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Lipoproteins, HDL2: Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta: A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V: A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Apoprotein(a): A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I: An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Scavenger Receptors, Class E: A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Callitrichinae: A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.SepharoseFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.TritiumPlant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.LDL-Receptor Related Proteins: A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.AnguillaImmunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
... chylomicrons exchange components with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The HDL donates apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) and ... very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, that enable ... Chylomicrons are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins: chylomicrons (a.k.a. ULDL ultra low-density lipoprotein relative ... The main apolipoprotein component is apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48). While circulating in blood, ...
2006). "Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein M-containing lipoproteins". J. Lipid Res. 47 (8): 1833-43. doi: ... Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... It is found associated with high density lipoproteins and to a lesser extent with low density lipoproteins and triglyceride- ... "Characterization of apolipoprotein M isoforms in low-density lipoprotein". J. Proteome Res. 5 (10): 2685-90. doi:10.1021/ ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69: ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ... Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and atherosclerosis". Current Opinion in ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... It docks to the intracellular part of the Reelin very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apoE receptor type 2 (ApoER2 ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
"Overactive endocannabinoid signaling impairs apolipoprotein E-mediated clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins". ...
The product of this gene is one of the minor apolipoproteins found in plasma. This protein forms complexes with lipoproteins ... apolipoprotein F) from high density lipoproteins of human plasma". Biochemistry. 17 (6): 1032-6. doi:10.1021/bi00599a014. PMID ... "Isolation and characterization of simple and complex lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein F from human plasma". Biochemistry ... "Entrez Gene: APOF apolipoprotein F". Human APOF genome location and APOF gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Morton ...
"Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein-Associated Apolipoproteins Predict Cardiovascular Events and Are Lowered by Inhibition of APOC-III ... that targets the messenger RNA for apolipoprotein C3 (apo-CIII). It is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of ... "Antisense-Mediated Lowering of Plasma Apolipoprotein C-III by Volanesorsen Improves Dyslipidemia and Insulin Sensitivity in ... "Antisense Oligonucleotide Inhibition of Apolipoprotein C-III Reduces Plasma Triglycerides in Rodents, Nonhuman Primates, and ...
Mahley RW, Ji ZS (1999). "Remnant lipoprotein metabolism: key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ... apolipoprotein E". J. Lipid Res. 40 (1): 1-16. PMID 9869645. Labarrere CA, Pitts D, Halbrook H, Faulk WP (1992). "Natural ...
Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor (A2MR), apolipoprotein ... "Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific effects on lipoprotein receptor processing". Neuromolecular medicine. 16 (4): 686-696. doi: ... "Amyloid precursor protein regulates brain apolipoprotein E and cholesterol metabolism through lipoprotein receptor LRP1". ... "A carboxyl-terminal fragment of lipoprotein lipase binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and inhibits ...
The encoded protein transfers phospholipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition ... PLTP has been shown to interact with Apolipoprotein A1 and APOA2. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to ... Albers JJ, Cheung MC (2004). "Emerging roles for phospholipid transfer protein in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism". Curr. Opin ... Jiang XC (2002). "The effect of phospholipid transfer protein on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis". Front. Biosci. 7 ...
... helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins in the human body. It plays a fundamental role ... Specifically too, the apolipoprotein *e4 allele is linked to Alzheimer's disease as well. Also, there is increased coronary ... By definition, HDL are plasma high density lipoproteins that show a genetic relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD). The ... research has been put on concerning apolipoprotein E genotypes; this polymorphism has three alleles (*e2, *e3, and *e4)and was ...
... (SAA) proteins are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. ...
"Polymorphonuclear cells isolated from human peripheral blood cleave lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) at multiple ... "Functional and metabolic differences between elastase-generated fragments of human lipoprotein[a] and apolipoprotein[a]". ...
... may refer to: Apolipoprotein C, a family of 4 proteins that resides on lipoproteins. Anglo-Persian Oil Company, later BP ...
Exchangeable apolipoproteins constitute a functionally important family of proteins that play critical roles in lipid transport ... and lipoprotein metabolism. Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is a prototypical exchangeable apolipoprotein found in many insect ... In molecular biology, the apolipophorin III family of proteins are a family of exchangeable apolipoproteins. ... a helix-bundle exchangeable apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (3): 1188-93. doi:10.1073/pnas.032565999. PMC ...
... the main enzyme involved in lipoprotein breakdown. Cofactors, such as apolipoprotein C2 may also be lost by increased ... resulting in the overproduction of lipoproteins. Lipid catabolism is decreased due to lower levels of lipoprotein lipase, ... Hyperlipidaemia is caused by an increase in the synthesis of low and very low-density lipoproteins in the liver that are ... such as alpha-2 macroglobulin and lipoproteins. An increase in the latter can cause the hyperlipidemia associated with this ...
Edelstein C, Shapiro SD, Klezovitch O, Scanu AM (1999). "Macrophage metalloelastase, MMP-12, cleaves human apolipoprotein(a) in ... the linker region between kringles IV-4 and IV-5. Potential relevance to lipoprotein(a) biology". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (15): ...
Many people with this condition have low levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins AII and CIII. Mutations in ...
... supports apolipoprotein-mediated release of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid to generate high density lipoprotein". ... Hayashi M, Abe-Dohmae S, Okazaki M, Ueda K, Yokoyama S (Aug 2005). "Heterogeneity of high density lipoprotein generated by ... binds apolipoprotein A-I and mediates cellular phospholipid but not cholesterol efflux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Olofsson SO, Boren J (2005). "Apolipoprotein B: a clinically important apolipoprotein which assembles atherogenic lipoproteins ... Apolipoprotein B can exist in two forms: B-100 and B-48. Apoliporotein B-100 is present on several lipoproteins, including very ... and low density lipoproteins (LDL), and can assemble VLDL particles in the liver. Apolipoprotein B-100 has been linked to the ... Vitellinogen precursors are multi-domain apolipoproteins that are cleaved into distinct yolk proteins. Different vitellinogen ...
Apolipoprotein B can exist in two forms: B-100 and B-48. Apolipoprotein B-100 is present on several lipoproteins, including ... Vitellogenin precursors are multi-domain apolipoproteins (proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoproteins), that are cleaved ... Olofsson SO, Borèn J (November 2005). "Apolipoprotein B: a clinically important apolipoprotein which assembles atherogenic ... and low density lipoproteins (LDL), and can assemble VLDL particles in the liver. Apolipoprotein B-100 has been linked to the ...
In liver dysfunction, apolipoprotein A-II deficient lipoprotein accumulates in plasma causing increased cholesterol in RBCs. ... This particular cause of acanthocytosis (also known as abetalipoproteinemia, apolipoprotein B deficiency, and Bassen-Kornzweig ...
Sequential degradation of apolipoprotein B by granule chymase and carboxypeptidase A". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 ... Kokkonen JO, Vartiainen M, Kovanen PT (December 1986). "Low density lipoprotein degradation by secretory granules of rat mast ... including the apolipoprotein B component of LDL particles and angiotensin Ⅰ. Upon mast cell activation and degranulation, CPA3 ...
Phillips MC (Sep 2014). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms and lipoprotein metabolism". IUBMB Life 66 (9): 616-23. PMID 25328986. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: APOE apolipoprotein E".. *↑ Liu CC, Liu CC, Kanekiyo T, Xu H, Bu G (Feb 2013). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer ... "Genetic heterogeneity of apolipoprotein E and its influence on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels". Human Mutation 4 (3): 178- ... "Alzheimer Research Forum: Meta-Analyses of apolipoprotein E AD Association Studies".. *↑ Weisgraber KH, Innerarity TL, Mahley ...
The size of that capsule, or lipoprotein, determines its density. The lipoprotein density and type of apolipoproteins it ... due to a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or altered apolipoprotein C2, resulting in elevated chylomicrons, the particles ... a condition caused by a lack of lipoprotein lipase activator. Chylomicronemia due to circulating inhibitor of lipoprotein ... On lipoprotein electrophoresis (a test now rarely performed) it shows as a hyperlipoproteinemia type IIB. It is the most common ...
high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. Biological process. • lipid ... Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ...
familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency More than 220 mutations in the LPL gene have been found to cause familial lipoprotein ... The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular ... Lipoprotein lipase breaks down triglycerides carried by two different types of lipoproteins, which bring fat to the bloodstream ... Another type of lipoprotein called very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) carries triglycerides from the liver to the bloodstream ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Describe the origins of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins in the brain. *Discuss physiological relevance of lipoprotein transfer ... AcromegalyProgestins and the BrainLipoproteins and Apolipoproteins In The BrainNeuropathic Complications of DiabetesGlucose ... Apply their overview of the roles of specific apolipoproteins in the brain to physiological and pathophysiological processes. ... List basic differences between systemic and brain lipoprotein systems. * ...
Serum lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.. Asanuma Y1, Kawai S, Aoshima H, ... To determine serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentrations and to analyze the apolipoprotein(a) (Apo[a]) phenotype in patients ... Lipoprotein(a) levels and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis: comment on the article by Asanuma et al. [Arthritis Rheum. ... Apolipoprotein(a) deposition in atherosclerotic coronary arteries of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: comment on ...
Lipoprotein(a) is a structurally and functionally unique lipoprotein consisting of the glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a) ... Recent evidence has conclusively shown a role for kringle 4 types 7 and 8 in lipoprotein(a) assembly. Moreover, apolipoprotein( ... Structure-function relationships in apolipoprotein(a): insights into lipoprotein(a) assembly and pathogenicity.. Koschinsky ML1 ... and apolipoprotein B precede specific disulfide bond formation. Elevated concentrations of plasma lipoprotein(a) are a risk ...
Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients. ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ...
Plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and triglyceride metabolism in familial hypertriglyceridemia.. A F Stalenhoef, P N ... Plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and triglyceride metabolism in familial hypertriglyceridemia.. A F Stalenhoef, P N ... Plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and triglyceride metabolism in familial hypertriglyceridemia.. A F Stalenhoef, P N ... Postheparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase were the same in both groups. Determination of apolipoprotein C composition, ...
... high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). ... Atherosclerosis and Lipoproteins. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins. Effects of ... lipoproteins changes with menopause and whether lipids and (apo)lipoproteins may be influenced by different genes before and ... Apolipoprotein(a) gene accounts for greater than 90% of the variation in plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations. J Clin Invest. ...
Does Incorporation of EPA and DHA in Lipoproteins Differ According to Apolipoprotein E Genotype?. The safety and scientific ... Does Incorporation of EPA and DHA in Lipoproteins Differ According to Apolipoprotein E Genotype?. ... ApoE is a component of lipoproteins and ApoE genotypes modulate the fasting lipoprotein response to fish-oil supplementation. ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE4) is the most important known genetic risk for AD and is prevalent in 20-25% of Canadians, but at ...
Cholesterol ester transfer protein, apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase genotypes in patients with coronary artery disease ... apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene ... In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ... Li Xie, You-Mei Li, Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis, ...
d almonds will elicit greater cardioprotective effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins than the same cholesterol- ... Abstract 004: Independent Effects of 1.5 Ounces/Day Almonds on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins in Mildly ... Abstract 004: Independent Effects of 1.5 Ounces/Day Almonds on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins in Mildly ... Abstract 004: Independent Effects of 1.5 Ounces/Day Almonds on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins in Mildly ...
"Apolipoprotein C-I modulates the interaction of apolipoprotein E with β-migrating very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDL) and ... "Apolipoprotein CI causes hypertriglyceridemia independent of the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein CIII ... The Apolipoprotein C-I Content of Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins Is Associated with Fasting Triglycerides, Postprandial Lipemia ... S. D. Proctor, D. F. Vine, and J. C. L. Mamo, "Arterial permeability and efflux of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins ...
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that contains apolipoprotein (apo) C-III makes up only 10% to 20% of plasma LDL but has a ... "Low-Density Lipoproteins Containing Apolipoprotein C-III and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease." Circulation 124 (19) (October ... Low-Density Lipoproteins Containing Apolipoprotein C-III and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. ... or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors. In all models, the relative risks for the top versus bottom ...
Coronary heart disease prediction from lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins A-I and B ... Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in the Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease in Men. Tobias ... Apolipoprotein(a) size and Lipoprotein(a) concentration and future risk of angina pectoris with evidence of severe coronary ... Plasma very low density lipoproteins contain a single molecule of apolipoprotein B. J Lipid Res. 1988; 29: 1461-1473. ...
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... low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, as well as in the ratios of ... low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B were evaluated as potential indicators of the risk ... Serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in young normocholesterolaemic, non-diabetic Indian men with myocardial infarction. ... Serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in young normocholesterolaemic, non-diabetic Indian men with myocardial infarction. ...
... non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels with ezetimibe/ ... Achievement of specified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol apolipoprotein B, and ... "Achievement of Specified Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Apolipoprotein B, and ... Achievement of specified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol apolipoprotein B, and ...
Prior studies have found inverse associations between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or apolipoprotein A-I levels ... To determine the association between HDL-C or apolipoprotein A-I level and CVD across a range of LDL-C and apolipoprotein B100 ... No associations were noted for HDL-C or apolipoprotein A-I among women with low apolipoprotein B100 values (,0.90 g/L). ... Does Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Influence the Relationship Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and ...
Effects of fenofibrate on lipids lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in 33 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia ... N-3 fatty acid effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins at very low doses: results of a randomized controlled trial ... n-3 fatty acid effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins at very low doses: results of a randomized controlled trial ... Effects of bezafibrate on lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins B and A1 in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. La ...
Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes ...
Hepatitis C virus production requires apolipoprotein A-I and affects its association with nascent low-density lipoproteins ... Hepatitis C virus production requires apolipoprotein A-I and affects its association with nascent low-density lipoproteins ... Results A decreased level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was found in the LDL fractions of HCV-infected patients. This result ... In particular, HCV exploits the metabolic machinery of the lipoproteins in several steps of its life cycle such as circulation ...
ApoC-II was the only apolipoprotein from human very low density lipoprotein that activated rat adipose tissue lipoprotein ... Further Observations on the Activation and Inhibition of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoproteins. RONALD M. KRAUSS, PETER N. ... Each of five nonactivating apolipoproteins-apoC-I, C-III-1, C-III-2, A-I, and A-II-inhibited lipoprotein lipase up to 85-100%. ... Further Observations on the Activation and Inhibition of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoproteins ...
Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor ( ... Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A ... Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A ... Lipoprotein and Acute Phase Protein Analysis in Plasma.. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low density ...
Anti-(apolipoprotein A-1) IgGs are associated with high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in acute coronary syndrome ... apolipoprotein A-1, atherosclerosis, autoantibody, coronary disease, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, stroke ... ApoA-1 (apolipoprotein A-1) is the main component of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and stabilizes PON-1 (paraoxonase-1), which ... ApoA-1 (apolipoprotein A-1) is the most abundant protein (70%) of HDL (high-density lipoprotein), whose concentration is known ...
  • Dyslipoproteinemia - deviations in the lipoprotein spectrum of the blood, manifested in a change in the content (increase, decrease, absence or disruption of the ratio) of one or more classes of lipoproteins. (iliveok.com)
  • This study was aimed at exploring, on animal model, how the diet changes, which results in exceeding 5 times the amount of deficit of group B vitamins after diet change, which up to a certain extent imitates supplementation method in people, influences the concentration of apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B - the components of lipoprotein HDL-C and LDL-C. (actapol.net)
  • To further establish the importance of total plasma apolipoprotein A-I and lipoprotein(a) in the prediction of primary acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men. (ovid.com)
  • Functional studies in vitro have identified the domains in apolipoprotein(a) that mediate its inhibitory effects on fibrin clot lysis, binding to fibrin and other biological substrates, and pro-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro studies, using cultured jejunal explants incubated with either [ 14 C]oleic acid or [ 35 S]methionine, revealed their higher efficiency in de novo TG synthesis, apo B-48 biogenesis, and TG-rich lipoprotein assembly. (diabetesjournals.org)