Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.TriglyceridesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Lipoproteins, HDL2: Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.

Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (1/109)

We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors.  (+info)

Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection. (2/109)

Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P +info)

Human IL-3 stimulates endothelial cell motility and promotes in vivo new vessel formation. (3/109)

Angiogenesis is a critical process for growth of new capillary blood vessels from preexisting capillaries and postcapillary venules, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Endothelial cell proliferation is a major component of angiogenesis and it is regulated by several growth factors. It has been previously shown that the human hemopoietic growth factor IL-3 (hIL-3), predominantly produced by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates both endothelial cell proliferation and functional activation. In the present study, we report that hIL-3 is able to induce directional migration and tube formation of HUVEC. The in vivo neoangiogenetic effect of hIL-3 was also demonstrated in a murine model in which Matrigel was used for the delivery of the cytokine, suggesting a role of hIL-3 in sustaining neoangiogenesis. Challenge of HUVEC with hIL-3 lead to the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which was found to act as secondary mediator for hIL-3-mediated endothelial cell motility but not for endothelial cell proliferation. Consistent with the role of STAT5 proteins in regulating IL-3-mediated mitogenic signals, we herein report that, in hIL-3-stimulated HUVEC, the recruitment of STAT5A and STAT5B, by the beta common (betac) subunit of the IL-3R, was not affected by PAF receptor blockade.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical differentiation between primary adenocarcinomas of the ovary and ovarian metastases of colonic and breast origin. Comparison between a statistical and an intuitive approach. (4/109)

AIM: To discriminate between adenocarcinomas that are primary to the ovary and metastatic to the ovary, especially of colonic and breast origin, by immunohistochemistry, using stepwise discriminant analysis or a decision tree. METHODS: 312 routinely processed, formalin fixed tissue specimens were used. The tumours were divided into a learning set (n = 159), composed of primary tumours of ovary, breast, and colon, and a test set, comprising 134 metastases from these sites and an additional 19 primary ovarian carcinomas. The immunohistochemical panel was composed of antibodies against cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20), CA125, vimentin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), and the oestrogen receptor (ER). The staining results of the tumours were expressed as the product of the staining intensity and the percentage of positive tumour cells. Analyses were first performed on the learning set and then evaluated on the test set. RESULTS: Although the immunostaining patterns showed a considerable overlap between the three types of adenocarcinoma, the breast carcinomas were typically positive for GCDFP-15 and often for ER, and negative for vimentin. Ovarian carcinomas were always positive for CK7 and to a lesser extent for CA125. Colonic carcinomas showed prominent positivity for CEA and CK20, while no staining was seen for ER and vimentin. In discriminant analysis, six antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CK20, alpha CA125, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) appeared to be necessary for optimal classification: 89% of the learning set and 82% of the test set were classified correctly. In the decision tree, only four antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) were used to obtain a correct classification score of 89% for the learning set and 84% for the test set. CONCLUSIONS: Using a semiquantitative assessment of the immunostaining results by a restricted panel of six antibodies with stepwise discriminant analysis, 80-90% of the adenocarcinomas of colon, breast, and ovary can be correctly classified. Discriminant analysis is computer aided and therefore an easy method and for each case a probability value of the classification result is obtained. The intuitive decision tree method provides a slightly better result, requires only four antibodies, and offers a more practical method for the surgical pathologist.  (+info)

Biosynthesis and immunobiochemical characterization of gp17/GCDFP-15. A glycoprotein from seminal vesicles and from breast tumors, in HeLa cells and in Pichia pastoris yeast. (5/109)

The gp17 factor is a secretory product of human seminal vesicle cells which binds to CD4 and acts as a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by CD4 crosslinking and subsequent T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. The protein is identical to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a breast tumor secretory marker PIP (prolactin inducible protein), a prolactin-controlled and androgen-controlled protein; secretory actin binding protein (SABP), a seminal plasma actin binding protein and extra-parotid glycoprotein (EP-GP), a secretory protein from the salivary gland. The structure of this protein has not yet been elucidated and no biological function has been clearly attributed to date. Expression of recombinant gp17/GCDFP-15 cDNA in bacteria and insect cells leads to the production of a misfolded insoluble protein. In this study, we describe the production of gp17/GCDFP-15 in two different eukaryotic systems, namely HeLa cells and the Pichia pastoris yeast. Using constructs in which gp17/GCDFP-15 was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in various combinations, we observed expression only when the fusion protein was directed to the secretory compartment by the correct signal peptide. The resulting fluorescent protein was inefficiently secreted, thus suggesting that gp17/GCDFP-15 is not appropriately post-translationally processed and/or transported in HeLa cells. The use of the P. pastoris secretory pathway allowed instead the accumulation in the culture medium of a GCDFP-15/gp17 species which retained the ability to bind to CD4 and also most of the biochemical and immunological properties of the native protein. The production of an active recombinant molecule opens the way to correlate the structural properties of this peculiar factor to its ability to bind several proteins, including CD4, and to block CD4-mediated T cell programmed death.  (+info)

The potential role for prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) as a marker of human breast cancer micrometastasis. (6/109)

The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCPD15) is believed to originate from a limited set of tissues, including breast and salivary glands, and has been applied as a clinical marker for the diagnosis of metastatic tumours of unknown origin. We have investigated the potential role of PIP mRNA as a marker of human breast cancer metastasis. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Southern or dot blot analysis, PIP mRNA was detected in 4/6 breast cell lines, independent of oestrogen receptor (ER) status. In breast primary tumours (n = 97), analysed from histologically characterized sections, PIP mRNA was detected in most cases. Higher PIP mRNA levels correlated with ER+ (P = 0.0004), progesterone receptor positive (PR+) (P = 0.0167), low-grade (P = 0.0195) tumours, and also PIP protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 19, P = 0.0319). PIP mRNA expression was also detectable in 11/16 (69%) of axillary node metastases. PIP mRNA expression, however, was also detected in normal breast duct epithelium, skin, salivary gland and peripheral blood leucocyte samples from normal individuals. We conclude that PIP mRNA is frequently expressed in both primary human breast tumours and nodal metastases. However, the presence of PIP expression in skin creates a potential source of contamination in venepuncture samples that should be considered in its application as a marker for breast tumour micrometastases.  (+info)

Hormonally-regulated proteins in breast secretions are markers of target organ sensitivity. (7/109)

Anti-oestrogen therapy is being used in an attempt to prevent breast cancer but no intermediate end points of the effect of tamoxifen on the normal breast are available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a physiological measure of oestrogen action on the breast. We measured oestrogen-stimulated and -inhibited proteins in breast secretions from women on and off anti-oestrogen therapy. Two oestrogen-stimulated proteins (pS2 and cathepsin D) and oestrogen-inhibited proteins (CP15, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15; Apo,: apolipoprotein D) were measured. Premenopausal women had significantly higher pS2 and cathepsin D in association with lower Apo D and CP15 secretion levels compared to post-menopausal women. Sequential nipple aspirates from women treated with the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist goserelin (n = 9), tamoxifen (n = 9) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 26) were measured. Following treatment with goserelin, median nipple secretion levels of pS2 fell (P < 0.02) and Apo D and CP15 rose significantly (P < 0.03 and P < 0.05 respectively). Similar changes were seen on tamoxifen therapy but not in untreated control women. Treatment with HRT resulted in a rise of pS2 (P < 0.001) and a fall in Apo D (P < 0.05). Measurement of pS2 and Apo D in nipple aspirates may prove useful intermediate end point of breast responsiveness to anti-oestrogens.  (+info)

A novel aspartyl proteinase from apocrine epithelia and breast tumors. (8/109)

GCDFP-15 (gross cystic disease fluid protein, 15 kDa) is a secretory marker of apocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma. In human breast cancer cell lines, gene expression is regulated by hormones, including androgens and prolactin. The protein is also known under different names in different body fluids such as gp17 in seminal plasma. GCDFP-15/gp17 is a ligand of CD4 and is a potent inhibitor of T-cell apoptosis induced by sequential CD4/T-cell receptor triggering. We now report that GCDFP-15/gp17 is a protease exhibiting structural properties relating it to the aspartyl proteinase superfamily. Unexpectedly, GCDFP-15/gp17 appears to be related to the retroviral members rather than to the known cellular members of this class. Site-specific mutagenesis of Asp(22) (predicted to be catalytically important for the active site) and pepstatin A inhibition confirmed that the protein is an aspartic-type protease. We also show that, among the substrates tested, GCDFP-15/gp17 is specific for fibronectin. The study of GCDFP-15/gp17-mediated proteolysis may provide a handle to understand phenomena as diverse as mammary tumor progression and fertilization.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene. Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes. Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism. ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells. APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal fibroblast cells in comparison to CAIS ...
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human pregnancy was never examined. We investigated the changes in the levels of ApoD in the plasma of pregnant women at the two first trimesters of gestation and at delivery as well as in the placenta and in venous cord blood. These changes were studied in 151 women classified into 9 groups in relation to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Plasma ApoD levels decrease significantly during normal uncomplicated pregnancy. ApoD is further decreased in women with excessive GWG and their newborns. In these women, the ApoD concentration was tightly associated with the lipid parameters. However, the similar ApoD levels in low cholesterol (LC) and high cholesterol (HC) women suggest that the plasma ApoD variation is not cholesterol dependant. A tight regulation of both placental ApoD transcription and protein content is most probably at the basis of
DES regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ovarian carcinogenesis.
Punch biopsies from both patients revealed an infiltrating neoplasm with prominent microcystic features that mimick tubuloglandular structures, lined by hyperchromatic basaloid cells, which were strongly positive for chromogranin and BerEP4, variably positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for CK20, synaptophysin, S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA ...
Lipocalin 2, 0.2 mg. Lipocalin 2 is a member of the lipocalin family which encompass more than 25 members (including proteins like retinol binding protein, a1 microglobulin, b lactoglobulin, apolipoprotein D and odorant binding protein).
A A beta 42 abl acid phosphatase ACSM1 actin-general actin-alpha cardiac actin-alpha smooth muscle actin-muscle specific AE1/AE3 (cytokeratin) AF4 AGR2 AKT1 albumin alcian blue ALK alkaline phosphatase ALL1 alpha-1-antichymotrypsin alpha-1-antitrypsin alpha-fetoprotein alpha-lactalbumin AMACR AML1 androgen receptor APC API2-MALT1 Apolipoprotein D arginase1 ATM ...
Nga Lorena Stroka. Vetëm pak kohë më parë në University College of London, u realizua një eksperiment mjaft interesant mbi mjekrat e meshkujve anembanë botës. Në mënyrë të veçantë, udhëheqësi i eksperimentit, Dr. Adam Roberts u shpreh se ndryshe nga çbesohej deri më sot, mjekra "strehon" mbi 100 bakterie me veti antibiotike.. Profesori dëshmoi përmes provave, se shumica e baktereve të gjendura në mjekër jo vetëm nuk janë të dëmshme, por, në mënyrën më efikase, ato mund të eleminojnë çdo mikrob të rrezikshëm si dhe të luftojnë një sërë sëmundjesh./albstroka.com/. © AlbStroka.com. ...
Agjencia Meteorologjike e Japonisë ka ngritur nivelin e alarmit për rajonin e Kyushu në tre, nga pesë që është maksimalja, pasi një vullkan në malin Shinmoe në Kirishima shpërthye për herë të parë pas gjashtë vitesh mëngjesin e së mërkurës. Deri më tani nuk janë raportuar viktima apo dëmtime, sipas policisë lokale, pas shpërthimit në…
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Mvorisek Ubuntu TOR USA EN: Watch HULU.com, VEVO.com etc. outside USA!Listen to radios from IHEART.com !CS: Sledujte HULU.com, VEVO.com apod. z jakA©koliv zemA›!Poslouchejte nejvA›tL?A- americkA© hity pL™es IHEART.com !Nebojte se o svojA- identitu*!Pro odbornA-ky:JednA? se o speciA?lnA› upravenA? systA©m zaloLlenA? na Ubuntu spolu s TOR komponentou, kterA? umoLlL?uje pL™esmA›rovat ... ...
Abstract: S moznostmi vystavovani informacich zdroju se v nove podobe objevil problem, jak integrovat heterogenni data. Vedle strukturovanych dat z relacich databazi jsou k dispozici uplne texty, obrazky, webove stranky, apod. Pomoci jazyka XML lze z techto nestrukturovanych dat ziskat data semistrukturovana, nesouci informaci o svem typu bud v sobe (pomoci znacek) a/nebo pomoci regularnich vyrazu ve zvlastnim popisu, ktery pripomina databazove schema. Stejnym zpusobem lze popsat i strukturovana data data z databazi. Pomoci stromu, ci obecnejsich grafu, ale i napr. mnozinou funkci, se vyjadri odpovidajici datovy model. Cilem prednasky je ukazat jednak modely XML dat, jednak dotazovaci jazyky, ktere umoznuji formulovat dotazy nad databazi XML dat. Prezentovany budou take vysledky vlastniho vyzkumu - funkcionalni model XML dat a moznosti vyuziti typovaneho lamda kalkulu pro dotazovani ...
V konn lano s n zkou pr ta nost a vysokou statickou pevnost ur en zejm na pro v kov pr ce a zaji t n osob nad voln m prostorem. S rostouc m pr m rem se zvy uje pevnost lana. Obvykle je dostupn v d lk ch 50 m, 60 m, 100 m a 200 m. Na zak zku je mo n u t lano r zn ch d lek, nap klad 70 m, 80 m, 150 m apod. Doba u it zak zky je p ibli n do 4 t dn ...
In SS, the proteomic analysis of saliva appears to be a very useful way to assess how the autoimmune disease affects the exocrine function of salivary glands. It is an important tool for identifying biomarkers and posttranslational modifications, as well as for identifying and quantifying peptides, proteins, and neoantigens. A number of proteins have been indicated as pSS biomarkers, showing two- to threefold up- or downregulation at significantly different levels compared with healthy subjects or having an exclusive presence in SS saliva. Proteins of acinar origin (i.e., α-amylase, carbonic anhydrase VI, proline-rich proteins, prolactin-inducible protein precursor) were reduced in patients with pSS, while inflammatory phase proteins, protease inhibitors, and antimicrobial peptides (i.e., lactoferrin, β2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin κ-light chain, calgranulin B, lipocalin 1 precursor, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, and defensins) were increased, compared with those in healthy ...
A Glycoprotein component of High-Density Lipoproteins that transports small hydrophobic Ligands including Cholesterol and Sterols. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of Tissues such as liver, Placenta, Brain Tissue and others ...
Explanation: Clouds of glowing hydrogen gas mingle with dark dust lanes in the Trifid Nebula, a star forming region in the constellation Sagittarius. In this and other similar emission nebulae, energetic ultraviolet light from an embedded hot young star strips electrons from the surrounding hydrogen atoms. As the electrons and atoms recombine they emit longer wavelength, lower energy light in a well known characteristic pattern of bright spectral lines. At visible wavelengths, the strongest emission line in this pattern is in the red part of the spectrum and is known as "Hydrogen-alpha" or just H-alpha. This image of the nebula was taken using a filter to select only light near the H-alpha wavelength. It shows those regions with substantial emission from atomic hydrogen. The relative strength of this emission can trace the densities of atoms within the gas cloud. ...
The explanation of the test is this: If the heavy weight is removed due to a truly random number on the random number generator, it is likely to not have been removed in most AUs, meaning its gravity may still be detectable with a sensitive detector. The weight may need to be in place for at least a month or so, and be removed very quickly, with the detector measuring constantly to detect any variation of what would normally be expected. I propose that gravity is the strong force leaking through from countless AUs where the masses are shifting (diffusing) in physical location due to differing laws of physics. The Earth may even be disintegrating into separate atoms in these AUs. This gradient of mass/strong force would then pull atoms toward this higher concentration that exists in the multiverse ...
Explanation: TT Cygni is a cool red giant star with a wind. This false-color picture of TT Cyg was made using a coordinated array of millimeter wavelength radio telescopes and shows radio emission from carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the surrounding gas. The central emission is from material blown off the red giant over a few hundred years while the thin ring, with a radius of about 1/4 light-year, actually represents a shell of gas expanding outward for 6,000 years. Carbon stars like TT Cyg are so named for their apparent abundance of carbon containing molecules. The carbon is likely the dredged-up ashes of nuclear helium burning in the stellar interior. Carbon stars lose a significant fraction of their total mass in the form of a stellar wind which ultimately enriches the interstellar gas - the source of material for future generations of stars. TT Cyg is about 1,500 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus. ...
The Cell: An Image Library™ offers you a little fun this week. Please enjoy our quiz, Celestial or Cellular? Take a look at the images and see if you can tell whether they are of cellular or celestial origin. Take your best shot, and enter your answers at http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=26228. Visit again each day this week[…] ...
v podstate tu uz asi vsetko padlo - znalosti, zazratost do niecoho, inteligentne hobby, uspech v praci, SLUSNOST - a to je pre mna mega dolezite - napriklad drahy ex sa vzdy zohol ku kazdemu kto bol na zemi bez ohladu ci to bolo dieta muz zena a aj opity clovek (to som sa az citila blbo), vsetkym mamickam s kocikom pomahal do MHDcky apod...proste nesmie to byt namysleny a nadradeny trulo. Ironicky humor rovnaky ako mam ja tiez, no a chemia nesmie chybat - proste musim citit ze je na rovnakej vlnovej dlzke ako ja, to mi imponuje asi najviac :D ...
To bylo radosti, co? No, tak bych se radoval, kdybych na el takov ho bucl ka, blahop eji. A zept m se - mohl bys uv st tro ku informac k m stu n lezu? Tedy s dlo (m sto, vesnici nebo osadu), v jeho bl zkosti se m sto nach z (pop . t n jak m sto pobl , jde-li o m n zn m s dlo), charakter porostu (nap . okraj star bu iny s b zou a dubem; dk , asi 20let n let b zy, osiky a ol e; hust porost mlad ch mod n a b z; star lipov alej; mlad t e ov sad; jednotliv duby rostouc okolo rybn ka apod.) a v p pad sm en ho porostu tak strom, pod kter m houba nejsp e vyrostla. Neu kodila by ani ter nn charakteristika, m -li smysl (nap . otev en JZ svah; hlubok dol ) a podobn daje (nap . e jde o st le vlhk m sto). A tak substr t, jsi-li s n m sezn men (nap . humus na hlinitop s it m podkladu). Tak toti neprozrad sv "m ste ko" (kdyby snad n co takov ho uveden m nejbli ho s dla hrozilo, pak uve t eba nejbli v t m sto), a p itom prozrad dost p em liv m houba m po cel republice (jde toti o to, aby si ten p sp vku t eba ...
Sice jsem se do etl ve slovn ku, e Alley Cat znamen v p ekladu prostitutka, ale nemus te m t obavy. S n nem tato "stolet " hra v bec nic spole n ho. V roli mal ko ky pro v te f ru dobrodru stv . Ta se za naj odehr vat na barelech u plotu p ed va m obl ben m domem. Jako ka d spr vn ko ka chyt te my i a ut k te p ed psy. Ani zde tomu nebude jinak, jen s t m rozd lem, e krom chyt n my si m ete u t mnohem v c, nap : zaplavat si v akv riu s rybi kama, i prob hnout se v knihovn v jednom z byt a poshazovat v echny kv tin e apod. Zkr tka vymo enost ko i ho ivota v s ek opravdu mnoho a e je Alley Cat hra z roku 1984 ur it nikomu vadit nebude:-) V dy pr v tyto star hry v sob obsahuj kouzlo, kter u t ch nov ch ur it nenajdete ...
2018 - Czech K rozšíření variability genofondu lze využít tzv. resyntézu, kdy nové genotypy vznikají křížením vybraných zástupců řepice a brukve, časnou izolací nezralých zárodků z vyvíjejících se šešulí a jejich dopěstováním v in vitro (Hilgert-Delgado et al. 2015). Bylo prokázáno, že resyntetizované genotypy jsou odlišné od materiálů řepky, vyšlechtěných a pěstovaných v současnosti (Sosnowska et al. 2010), takže mohou sloužit jako zdroj nové variability ve šlechtitelských programech se zaměřením na cytoplazmatickou a jadernou pylovou sterilitu, odolnost k patogenům a toleranci ke stresům (Warwick et al. 2009). Zástupci výchozích komponent řepky (řepice, vodnice, kadeřávek, zelí, kedluben, kapusta apod.) se vyznačují širokou variabilitou z hlediska morfologie i agronomických charakteristik a představují perspektivní zdroj heteróze a dalších znaků (Wu et al. 2014). Využití resyntetizovaných genotypů k přímé tvorbě ...
2018 - Czech K rozšíření variability genofondu lze využít tzv. resyntézu, kdy nové genotypy vznikají křížením vybraných zástupců řepice a brukve, časnou izolací nezralých zárodků z vyvíjejících se šešulí a jejich dopěstováním v in vitro (Hilgert-Delgado et al. 2015). Bylo prokázáno, že resyntetizované genotypy jsou odlišné od materiálů řepky, vyšlechtěných a pěstovaných v současnosti (Sosnowska et al. 2010), takže mohou sloužit jako zdroj nové variability ve šlechtitelských programech se zaměřením na cytoplazmatickou a jadernou pylovou sterilitu, odolnost k patogenům a toleranci ke stresům (Warwick et al. 2009). Zástupci výchozích komponent řepky (řepice, vodnice, kadeřávek, zelí, kedluben, kapusta apod.) se vyznačují širokou variabilitou z hlediska morfologie i agronomických charakteristik a představují perspektivní zdroj heteróze a dalších znaků (Wu et al. 2014). Využití resyntetizovaných genotypů k přímé tvorbě ...
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In the edit text, there is a comment about APOD mirrors, and not adding "them all" as a link. Why should there be any mirror on there? I think it would be a lot better only having the original APOD and the list of mirrors linked. --yanneman 09:43, 23 July 2007 (UTC). ...
Dark globular cluster is a proposed type of globular star clusters that has an unusually high mass for the number of stars within it. Proposed in 2015 on the basis of observational data, dark globular clusters are believed to be populated by objects with significant dark matter components, such as central massive black holes. The observational data for dark globular clusters comes from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile which observed the vicinity of the galaxy Centaurus A. Many of the globular clusters inside that galaxy are brighter and more massive than those orbiting the Milky Way and a sample of 125 globular clusters around Centaurus A was studied using the VLTs FLAMES instrument. While globular clusters are normally considered to be almost devoid of dark matter, the study of the dynamical properties of sampled clusters suggested the presence of exotically concentrated dark matter. The study was published in The Astrophysical Journal. The existence of dark globular clusters would ...
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Cystic disease of the lung has long been considered a rather uncommon condition, probably because it rarely gives symptoms and is usually found in the course of routine physical and roentgen examinations. The roentgenograms made routinely at the army induction centers will undoubtedly uncover a great number of hitherto unsuspected cases because these are surely more common than is generally believed.. Recently we had the opportunity to study such a group, many of whom presented the various complications of this disease. Since the literature dealing specifically with the complications of this condition is rather meager, we feel that this report ...
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This condition tends to affect patients on long-term dialysis who may already have shrunken, end-stage kidneys. Its frequency increases with the duration of dialysis. Multiple cysts form in the kidneys, which may, like adult PCKD, haemorrhage or become infected. The disease tends to be more severe the longer the patient has been on dialysis. The proliferative changes which cause acquired cystic disease also give rise to small adenomata and the ultrasound appearances may be a combination of cysts and solid, hypoechoic nodules. In particular, acquired cystic disease has the potential for malignancy and it is therefore prudent to screen native kidneys, even after renal transplantation has been performed (Fig. 7.7 ...
Mutations in Lafora disease genes (laforin and malin) and in Univerricht-Lundborg PME genes (cystatin B) are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The gene EPM2A makes an enzyme called dual specificity protein phosphatase or laforin, and the gene EPM2B makes another enzyme named ubiquitin E3 ligase or malin. Therefore, most cases of Lafora PMEs are enzymopathies, are classified as lysosomal diseases, and produce a system-wide glycogen storage disorder. A minority of cases of Lafora disease are caused by as yet unidentified genes. Cystatin B is a cysteine protease inhibitor and its deficiency causes abnormal activation of cathepsin S. G1qB-chain of complement, beta2-microglubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, apolipoprotein D, fibronectin 1, and metallothionein II, which are factors involved in proteolysis, apoptosis, and glial activation (Leiuallen et al., 2001). The lysosome-associated functions of cystatin B are also associated with the pathogenic mutations, suggesting that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acquired cystic disease associated renal cell carcinoma. AU - Bakkannavar, Shankar M.. AU - Velayudhan, Dewaraj. AU - Prabhu, Ravindra. AU - Ramnarayan, K.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney transplant.. AB - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney ...
2010, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited ...
Water deficit (WD) is a growing problem in agriculture. In citrus crops, genetically-determined characteristics of the rootstock are important factors in plant responses to WD. Aquaporins are involved in regulating the water supply to the plant by mediating water flow through the cell membranes. Recent studies support a direct role for aquaporins in plant water relations and demonstrate their involvement in tolerance to WD. This study investigates the relationship between photosynthetic and water-balance parameters with levels of expression of aquaporins in conditions of moderate WD in the rootstocks Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. (PT), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) (CM) and 030115 (a hybrid of the two former rootstocks). Under conditions of WD, the hybrid 030115 drastically reduced aquaporin expression, accompanied by a loss of plant vigour but without reducing the net CO2 assimilation (ACO2). PT maintained the same level of aquaporin expression under WD as under normal ...
Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is a 35 kDa protein encoded by a cDNA cloned from the murine lacrimal gland. In the present paper, the murine apoF has been expressed as a recombinant histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified from expressing cultures. We report here the unique distinctions of apoF including comparisons of apoF with other apolipoproteins (apoD, apoE, and apoN), as well as why this protein was produced. The data presented here provide evidence that isolated recombinant apoF purified in the experimental conditions described here can be used for functional studies ...
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Cysts are usually asymptomatic but may cause hematuria. It is thought that the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma is dialysis patients may be due to neoplastic transformation of tubular epithelial cells in these acquired cysts ...
Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst...
Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst...
This is todays APOD). That story actually broke shortly after the rovers landed five years ago, and at the time, it was generally reported that the only explanation was either igneous/volcanic activity or biological activity. Either of these would be revolutionary. Mars is too small and too cold to be a likely place for current igneous activity- though I suppose its not completely beyond possibility. The discovery of life off of Earth, though, would IMHO be the most profound discovery in history- I cant imagine anything that would more dramatically change our view of our place in the cosmos.. So when it was announced a few months later that the process of serpentinization could create substantial amounts of methane, I was a little disappointed. Reassured by the self-correcting nature of science, but disappointed. Note that I am NOT saying serpentinization is creating the methane (nor methane hydrates created by this process), but all else being equal, it seems the simplest explanation- less ...
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Food that you eat can affect your health, including increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The development of cancer particularly has been shown in your diet. Many foods contain a lot of beneficial compounds that could help you to decrease the growth of cancer […]. ...
Found a lump on your breast? Browse through this article to gain knowledge on breast cyst, its definition, causes, symptoms, treatment, remedies & pictures.
Breast cysts diagnosis (costs for program #273910) ✔ University Hospital Würzburg ✔ Department of Gynecology, Mammalogy and Obstetrics ✔ BookingHealth.com
Cancer Therapy Advisor provides nephrology and hypertension specialist with the latest information to correctly diagnose nephrology and hypertension conditions, recommend procedures and guides. Visit often for updates and new information.
Abelcet infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. It is used to treat infections caused by fungi and yeasts.
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Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major...
This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). Mayo Clinic cannot provide an interpretation of tech only stains outside the context of a pathology consultation. If an interpretation is needed, refer to test code PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case. All material associated with the case is required. Additional specific stains may be requested as part of the pathology consultation, and will be performed as necessary at the discretion of the Mayo pathologist.. The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.. Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patients clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a ...
Six months when I had my mammo they found that I had what seemed to be 2 nodules in one of my breast so my ob doctor told me that I had to have an ultrasound and he referred me to a surgeon for evaluat...
Prevention of breast cancerHere, we will discuss on how to prevent breast cancer and the following advice will be based on medical explorations.
I had one right under the nipple when I was 50. Had private insurance because of OHs job so had all tests done in one day before I saw consultant....
Breast cysts do not increase the risk of breast cancer. Most are benign and are rarely cancerous. Learn about diagnosis and treatment of breast cysts.
Breast cysts do not increase the risk of breast cancer. Most are benign and are rarely cancerous. Learn about diagnosis and treatment of breast cysts.
A 41 year old lady presented with bilateral breast pain. On examination, the breasts feel lumpy. Ultrasound showed multiple breast cysts. The largest on the right is 2.8cm and located at 8 oclock close to the nipple ...
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Worried for their sons health, the new parents took Gabriel to a pediatrician, who diagnosed the newborn with unilateral coronal synostosis - also known as anterior plagiocephaly. For babies with this condition, a growth plate fuses prematurely on one side of the skull, causing the forehead to become more and more distorted and form asymmetrically ...
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis.[87] Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein,[88] while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway.[89][90] The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triglycerides that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver. The synthesis of ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare.[1] People ...
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Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), also known as apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), is a protein ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ... 2005). "Leptin inhibits apolipoprotein M transcription and secretion in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells". Biochim. ...
"Farnesoid X receptor agonists suppress hepatic apolipoprotein CIII expression". Gastroenterology. 125 (2): 544-55. doi:10.1016/ ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... McGhee KA, Morris DW, Schwaiger S (2005). "Investigation of the apolipoprotein-L (APOL) gene family and schizophrenia using a ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, classification, and sites of distribution". Genomics. 74 (1): 71-8. ...
2003). "[Apolipoprotein E and bleomycin hydrolase. Polymorphisms: association with neurodegenerative diseases]". Ann. Biol. ...
Karathanasis SK (1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV genes ... "Genetic polymorphism of human plasma apolipoprotein A-IV is due to nucleotide substitutions in the apolipoprotein A-IV gene". J ... Apolipoprotein A-IV (also known as apoA-IV, apoAIV, or apoA4) is plasma protein that is the product of the human gene APOA4. ... "Entrez Gene: APOA4 apolipoprotein A-IV". Luo CC, Li WH, Moore MN, Chan L (February 1986). "Structure and evolution of the ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II. A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been documented to be ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". Marino D, Perković M, Hain A, Jaguva Vasudevan AA, Hofmann H, Hanschmann KM ... C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1". Retrieved 2012-11-02. APOLD1 apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 [ Homo sapiens (human ... Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the APOLD1 gene. It is located on Chromosome 12 ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing: An Update". Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Baylor ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (March 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes ...
The presence of the Apolipoprotein c4 allele. If the symptoms of alcohol dementia are caught early enough, the effects may be ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. PMID 2869248. Gray ...
Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. It maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state for ... Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and ... Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. It prevents stress ... C-III and E apoLipoproteins. Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not ...
Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimers ... Current evidence shows that apolipoprotein E (APOE), apolipoprotein CI (APOC1) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related ...
Human Apolipoprotein AII Purification: Affinity purified Form: Freeze dried powder Buffer: 75 mM Sodium Phosphate, 75 mM NaCl, ... "Apolipoprotein A-II Is Inversely Associated With Risk of Future Coronary Artery Disease." Circulation 116 (2007): 2029-035. ... "Amino Acid Sequence of Human ApoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an Apolipoprotein Isolated from the High-Density Lipoprotein Complex." ... Thompson, Patricia A.; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Kitchens, Richard L. (2008): Apolipoprotein A-II augments ...
... Tao, Ran Uppsala ... and the multifunctional apolipoprotein J (ApoJ). Axotomy was performed on one-day-old rats. Animals were perfused from eight ...
Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), the second major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein, has been linked to familial ... HDLs are classified according to their content of major apolipoproteins: apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-II. ApoA-I plays ... Figure 4. Representative apolipoprotein, lipid, and enzymatic HDL fractions isolated by FPLC. A, Apolipoprotein content in ... Expression of human apolipoprotein A-II in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice induces features of familial combined hyperlipidemia ...
DES regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ... Correlations between Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and DES. Diethylstilbestrol regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during ... Apolipoprotein D featured image credit opm.phar.umich.edu.. DES DIETHYLSTILBESTROL RESOURCES. *Source DES and epigenetics ... Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a glycoprotein which is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. It is structurally and functionally ...
Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that ... A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations ... A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations. ...
Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from saccular stage ... Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in ... Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in ... Figure 5: Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from ...
VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine before and after 6 months of the ... VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine before and after 6 months of the ... VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine before and after 6 months of the ... VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine before and after 6 months of the ...
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human ... From: Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain ...
Genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I distribution among HDL subclasses. David L. Rainwater, John Blangero, Perry H. Moore, ... Genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I distribution among HDL subclasses. / Rainwater, David L.; Blangero, John; Moore, Perry H ... Rainwater, D. L., Blangero, J., Moore, P. H., Shelledy, W. R., & Dyer, T. D. (1995). Genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I ... Rainwater, DL, Blangero, J, Moore, PH, Shelledy, WR & Dyer, TD 1995, Genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I distribution among ...
... in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison ... Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, ... 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid ... It is of particular interest, therefore, that all of the exchangeable apolipoproteins except apoA-II and C-I, contain ...
... apolipoprotein or lipid) soluble Aβ is primarily bound. Purified HDLs were incubated wit... ... apolipoprotein or lipid) soluble Aβ is primarily bound. Purified HDLs were incubated with biotinylated Aβ1-40 followed by LP ... and N-terminal sequence analysis of the biotin-Aβ positive protein bands revealed that Aβ is bound to many apolipoproteins of ...
Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore ... Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Description. Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency ... Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) TEST DETAILS. Deatils about the test Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2). *What is ... Make the payment Online for Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2). * Fill the Form with your details for Apolipoprotein C-II ...
These abnormalities are compounded by down regulation of apolipoproteins apoA-I, apoA-II and apoC-II in CRF. Together, these ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
The key is a naturally occurring protein called apolipoprotein A-I binding protein (AIBP). AIBP binds to toll-like receptor 4 ( ...
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
  • Kitchens, Richard L. (2008): Apolipoprotein A-II augments monocyte responses to LPS by suppressing the inhibitory activity of LPS-binding protein. (academybiomed.com)
  • Recently, we showed expression of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), the essential cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), in the fetal mouse lung and found the protein on the day of the surge of surfactant synthesis (gestation day 17.5) in secretory granule-like structures in the distal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
  • These abnormalities are compounded by down regulation of apolipoproteins apoA-I, apoA-II and apoC-II in CRF. (ifcc.org)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Diethylstilbestrol regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ovarian carcinogenesis , Domestic animal endocrinology, NCBI PubMed PMID: 25929245 , 2015 Jul. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
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