A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.

Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (1/109)

We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors.  (+info)

Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection. (2/109)

Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P +info)

Human IL-3 stimulates endothelial cell motility and promotes in vivo new vessel formation. (3/109)

Angiogenesis is a critical process for growth of new capillary blood vessels from preexisting capillaries and postcapillary venules, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Endothelial cell proliferation is a major component of angiogenesis and it is regulated by several growth factors. It has been previously shown that the human hemopoietic growth factor IL-3 (hIL-3), predominantly produced by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates both endothelial cell proliferation and functional activation. In the present study, we report that hIL-3 is able to induce directional migration and tube formation of HUVEC. The in vivo neoangiogenetic effect of hIL-3 was also demonstrated in a murine model in which Matrigel was used for the delivery of the cytokine, suggesting a role of hIL-3 in sustaining neoangiogenesis. Challenge of HUVEC with hIL-3 lead to the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which was found to act as secondary mediator for hIL-3-mediated endothelial cell motility but not for endothelial cell proliferation. Consistent with the role of STAT5 proteins in regulating IL-3-mediated mitogenic signals, we herein report that, in hIL-3-stimulated HUVEC, the recruitment of STAT5A and STAT5B, by the beta common (betac) subunit of the IL-3R, was not affected by PAF receptor blockade.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical differentiation between primary adenocarcinomas of the ovary and ovarian metastases of colonic and breast origin. Comparison between a statistical and an intuitive approach. (4/109)

AIM: To discriminate between adenocarcinomas that are primary to the ovary and metastatic to the ovary, especially of colonic and breast origin, by immunohistochemistry, using stepwise discriminant analysis or a decision tree. METHODS: 312 routinely processed, formalin fixed tissue specimens were used. The tumours were divided into a learning set (n = 159), composed of primary tumours of ovary, breast, and colon, and a test set, comprising 134 metastases from these sites and an additional 19 primary ovarian carcinomas. The immunohistochemical panel was composed of antibodies against cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20), CA125, vimentin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), and the oestrogen receptor (ER). The staining results of the tumours were expressed as the product of the staining intensity and the percentage of positive tumour cells. Analyses were first performed on the learning set and then evaluated on the test set. RESULTS: Although the immunostaining patterns showed a considerable overlap between the three types of adenocarcinoma, the breast carcinomas were typically positive for GCDFP-15 and often for ER, and negative for vimentin. Ovarian carcinomas were always positive for CK7 and to a lesser extent for CA125. Colonic carcinomas showed prominent positivity for CEA and CK20, while no staining was seen for ER and vimentin. In discriminant analysis, six antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CK20, alpha CA125, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) appeared to be necessary for optimal classification: 89% of the learning set and 82% of the test set were classified correctly. In the decision tree, only four antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) were used to obtain a correct classification score of 89% for the learning set and 84% for the test set. CONCLUSIONS: Using a semiquantitative assessment of the immunostaining results by a restricted panel of six antibodies with stepwise discriminant analysis, 80-90% of the adenocarcinomas of colon, breast, and ovary can be correctly classified. Discriminant analysis is computer aided and therefore an easy method and for each case a probability value of the classification result is obtained. The intuitive decision tree method provides a slightly better result, requires only four antibodies, and offers a more practical method for the surgical pathologist.  (+info)

Biosynthesis and immunobiochemical characterization of gp17/GCDFP-15. A glycoprotein from seminal vesicles and from breast tumors, in HeLa cells and in Pichia pastoris yeast. (5/109)

The gp17 factor is a secretory product of human seminal vesicle cells which binds to CD4 and acts as a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by CD4 crosslinking and subsequent T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. The protein is identical to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a breast tumor secretory marker PIP (prolactin inducible protein), a prolactin-controlled and androgen-controlled protein; secretory actin binding protein (SABP), a seminal plasma actin binding protein and extra-parotid glycoprotein (EP-GP), a secretory protein from the salivary gland. The structure of this protein has not yet been elucidated and no biological function has been clearly attributed to date. Expression of recombinant gp17/GCDFP-15 cDNA in bacteria and insect cells leads to the production of a misfolded insoluble protein. In this study, we describe the production of gp17/GCDFP-15 in two different eukaryotic systems, namely HeLa cells and the Pichia pastoris yeast. Using constructs in which gp17/GCDFP-15 was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in various combinations, we observed expression only when the fusion protein was directed to the secretory compartment by the correct signal peptide. The resulting fluorescent protein was inefficiently secreted, thus suggesting that gp17/GCDFP-15 is not appropriately post-translationally processed and/or transported in HeLa cells. The use of the P. pastoris secretory pathway allowed instead the accumulation in the culture medium of a GCDFP-15/gp17 species which retained the ability to bind to CD4 and also most of the biochemical and immunological properties of the native protein. The production of an active recombinant molecule opens the way to correlate the structural properties of this peculiar factor to its ability to bind several proteins, including CD4, and to block CD4-mediated T cell programmed death.  (+info)

The potential role for prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) as a marker of human breast cancer micrometastasis. (6/109)

The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCPD15) is believed to originate from a limited set of tissues, including breast and salivary glands, and has been applied as a clinical marker for the diagnosis of metastatic tumours of unknown origin. We have investigated the potential role of PIP mRNA as a marker of human breast cancer metastasis. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Southern or dot blot analysis, PIP mRNA was detected in 4/6 breast cell lines, independent of oestrogen receptor (ER) status. In breast primary tumours (n = 97), analysed from histologically characterized sections, PIP mRNA was detected in most cases. Higher PIP mRNA levels correlated with ER+ (P = 0.0004), progesterone receptor positive (PR+) (P = 0.0167), low-grade (P = 0.0195) tumours, and also PIP protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 19, P = 0.0319). PIP mRNA expression was also detectable in 11/16 (69%) of axillary node metastases. PIP mRNA expression, however, was also detected in normal breast duct epithelium, skin, salivary gland and peripheral blood leucocyte samples from normal individuals. We conclude that PIP mRNA is frequently expressed in both primary human breast tumours and nodal metastases. However, the presence of PIP expression in skin creates a potential source of contamination in venepuncture samples that should be considered in its application as a marker for breast tumour micrometastases.  (+info)

Hormonally-regulated proteins in breast secretions are markers of target organ sensitivity. (7/109)

Anti-oestrogen therapy is being used in an attempt to prevent breast cancer but no intermediate end points of the effect of tamoxifen on the normal breast are available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a physiological measure of oestrogen action on the breast. We measured oestrogen-stimulated and -inhibited proteins in breast secretions from women on and off anti-oestrogen therapy. Two oestrogen-stimulated proteins (pS2 and cathepsin D) and oestrogen-inhibited proteins (CP15, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15; Apo,: apolipoprotein D) were measured. Premenopausal women had significantly higher pS2 and cathepsin D in association with lower Apo D and CP15 secretion levels compared to post-menopausal women. Sequential nipple aspirates from women treated with the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist goserelin (n = 9), tamoxifen (n = 9) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 26) were measured. Following treatment with goserelin, median nipple secretion levels of pS2 fell (P < 0.02) and Apo D and CP15 rose significantly (P < 0.03 and P < 0.05 respectively). Similar changes were seen on tamoxifen therapy but not in untreated control women. Treatment with HRT resulted in a rise of pS2 (P < 0.001) and a fall in Apo D (P < 0.05). Measurement of pS2 and Apo D in nipple aspirates may prove useful intermediate end point of breast responsiveness to anti-oestrogens.  (+info)

A novel aspartyl proteinase from apocrine epithelia and breast tumors. (8/109)

GCDFP-15 (gross cystic disease fluid protein, 15 kDa) is a secretory marker of apocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma. In human breast cancer cell lines, gene expression is regulated by hormones, including androgens and prolactin. The protein is also known under different names in different body fluids such as gp17 in seminal plasma. GCDFP-15/gp17 is a ligand of CD4 and is a potent inhibitor of T-cell apoptosis induced by sequential CD4/T-cell receptor triggering. We now report that GCDFP-15/gp17 is a protease exhibiting structural properties relating it to the aspartyl proteinase superfamily. Unexpectedly, GCDFP-15/gp17 appears to be related to the retroviral members rather than to the known cellular members of this class. Site-specific mutagenesis of Asp(22) (predicted to be catalytically important for the active site) and pepstatin A inhibition confirmed that the protein is an aspartic-type protease. We also show that, among the substrates tested, GCDFP-15/gp17 is specific for fibronectin. The study of GCDFP-15/gp17-mediated proteolysis may provide a handle to understand phenomena as diverse as mammary tumor progression and fertilization.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene. Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes. Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism. ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells. APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal fibroblast cells in comparison to CAIS ...
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human pregnancy was never examined. We investigated the changes in the levels of ApoD in the plasma of pregnant women at the two first trimesters of gestation and at delivery as well as in the placenta and in venous cord blood. These changes were studied in 151 women classified into 9 groups in relation to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Plasma ApoD levels decrease significantly during normal uncomplicated pregnancy. ApoD is further decreased in women with excessive GWG and their newborns. In these women, the ApoD concentration was tightly associated with the lipid parameters. However, the similar ApoD levels in low cholesterol (LC) and high cholesterol (HC) women suggest that the plasma ApoD variation is not cholesterol dependant. A tight regulation of both placental ApoD transcription and protein content is most probably at the basis of
DES regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ovarian carcinogenesis.
Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism.[3] ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells.[5] ...
Punch biopsies from both patients revealed an infiltrating neoplasm with prominent microcystic features that mimick tubuloglandular structures, lined by hyperchromatic basaloid cells, which were strongly positive for chromogranin and BerEP4, variably positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for CK20, synaptophysin, S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA ...
MEC (Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia); FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional) [SAF2007-64076/]; Principado de Asturias [SV-PA-13-ECOEMP-80]. ...
Purified Recombinant Mouse Apod Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Mouse Apod Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged can be used for research.
Pill with imprint APO D30 is Blue & White, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Duloxetine Hydrochloride Delayed-Release 30 mg. It is supplied by Apotex Corp..
Lipocalin 2, 0.2 mg. Lipocalin 2 is a member of the lipocalin family which encompass more than 25 members (including proteins like retinol binding protein, a1 microglobulin, b lactoglobulin, apolipoprotein D and odorant binding protein).
A A beta 42 abl acid phosphatase ACSM1 actin-general actin-alpha cardiac actin-alpha smooth muscle actin-muscle specific AE1/AE3 (cytokeratin) AF4 AGR2 AKT1 albumin alcian blue ALK alkaline phosphatase ALL1 alpha-1-antichymotrypsin alpha-1-antitrypsin alpha-fetoprotein alpha-lactalbumin AMACR AML1 androgen receptor APC API2-MALT1 Apolipoprotein D arginase1 ATM ...
Nga Lorena Stroka. Vetëm pak kohë më parë në University College of London, u realizua një eksperiment mjaft interesant mbi mjekrat e meshkujve anembanë botës. Në mënyrë të veçantë, udhëheqësi i eksperimentit, Dr. Adam Roberts u shpreh se ndryshe nga çbesohej deri më sot, mjekra strehon mbi 100 bakterie me veti antibiotike.. Profesori dëshmoi përmes provave, se shumica e baktereve të gjendura në mjekër jo vetëm nuk janë të dëmshme, por, në mënyrën më efikase, ato mund të eleminojnë çdo mikrob të rrezikshëm si dhe të luftojnë një sërë sëmundjesh./albstroka.com/. © AlbStroka.com. ...
One hundred years ago today the Great Meteor Procession of 1913 occurred, a sky event described by some as magnificent and entrancing and which left people feeling spellbound and privileged. Because one had to be in a right location, outside, and under clear skies, only about 1,000 people noted seeing the procession. Lucky sky gazers -- particularly those near Toronto, Canada -- had their eyes drawn to an amazing train of bright meteors streaming across the sky, in groups, over the course of a few minutes. A current leading progenitor hypothesis is that a single large meteor once grazed the Earths atmosphere and broke up. When the resulting pieces next encountered the Earth, they came in over south-central Canada, traveled thousands of kilometers as they crossed over the northeastern USA, and eventually fell into the central Atlantic ocean. Pictured above is a digital scan of a halftone hand-tinted image by the artist Gustav Hahn who was fortunate enough to witness the event first hand. ...
In the last week, Comet Ikeya-Zhang has become bright enough to be just visible to the unaided eye. Based on its present activity, observers are optimistic that Ikeya-Zhang will become substantially brighter. This composite color image from March 3rd, captured with a wide-field telescope, shows this active comets bright, condensed coma and a delightful array of subtle structures in its developing tail. The bluish tail stretches for 5 degrees or so against a background of stars in the constellation Pisces. In the coming days look for the comet hanging low in the western evening sky (below a bright yellowish Mars), eventually becoming difficult to see in the March twilight. But after April begins, Ikeya-Zhang will become a predawn object climbing higher into the morning sky as the month progresses. Cataloged as comet C/2002 C1, improved orbit determinations now make it seem very likely that Comet Ikeya-Zhang has been around here before. Refined calculations indicate this comets last trip through ...
Agjencia Meteorologjike e Japonisë ka ngritur nivelin e alarmit për rajonin e Kyushu në tre, nga pesë që është maksimalja, pasi një vullkan në malin Shinmoe në Kirishima shpërthye për herë të parë pas gjashtë vitesh mëngjesin e së mërkurës. Deri më tani nuk janë raportuar viktima apo dëmtime, sipas policisë lokale, pas shpërthimit në…
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Mvorisek Ubuntu TOR USA EN: Watch HULU.com, VEVO.com etc. outside USA!Listen to radios from IHEART.com !CS: Sledujte HULU.com, VEVO.com apod. z jakA©koliv zemA›!Poslouchejte nejvA›tL?A- americkA© hity pL™es IHEART.com !Nebojte se o svojA- identitu*!Pro odbornA-ky:JednA? se o speciA?lnA› upravenA? systA©m zaloLlenA? na Ubuntu spolu s TOR komponentou, kterA? umoLlL?uje pL™esmA›rovat ... ...
Garnier, prokrásnetělo.cz je serverem zejména pro uživatelky kosmetiky Garnier. Rady proti celulitidě, vadám pleti, jak zhubnout apod. Garnier - pečuj o sebe.
Garnier, prokrásnetělo.cz je serverem zejména pro uživatelky kosmetiky Garnier. Rady proti celulitidě, vadám pleti, jak zhubnout apod. Garnier - pečuj o sebe.
V konn lano s n zkou pr ta nost a vysokou statickou pevnost ur en zejm na pro v kov pr ce a zaji t n osob nad voln m prostorem. S rostouc m pr m rem se zvy uje pevnost lana. Obvykle je dostupn v d lk ch 50 m, 60 m, 100 m a 200 m. Na zak zku je mo n u t lano r zn ch d lek, nap klad 70 m, 80 m, 150 m apod. Doba u it zak zky je p ibli n do 4 t dn ...
Pokud m te mo nost si zaj t do lesa (p edev m jehli nat ho), nev hejte a dom se sna te p in st si z sobu nejen na l to, ale po zmra en i zava en na celou zimu. Bor vky jsou bohat na vitam n C, kter pom h posilovat n imunitn syst m o ochr n n m p ed nachlazen m a jin mi infekcemi. Jak u jsme uvedli v e, jsou zdrojem antioxidant (karotenoid , flavonoid taurinu apod.), co bor vky ad mezi inn zbran proti voln m radik l m, vir m, bakteri m. S hn te po nich, kdy v m hroz ch ipka, an na, r ma i jak koli jin infekn n onemocn n .. Co mo n nev te je fakt, e bor vky maj schopnost zlep ovat n zrak a udr ovat ho v dobr kondici. Biol tky v nich obsa en regeneruj o n barvivo a pom haj zlep ovat zrak zejm na ve zhor en ch podm nk ch (t eba patn sv tlo), co je v tan zejm na lidmi trp c mi eroslepost . asto jsou bpr vky p id v ny do l oiv ch p pravk pro pos len zraku.. V sou asn dob potvrzuj odborn studie blahod rn vliv bor vek na zdrav diabetik . L tky v nich obsa en sni uj hladinu tuku, cukru a cholesterolu v ...
Abstract: S moznostmi vystavovani informacich zdroju se v nove podobe objevil problem, jak integrovat heterogenni data. Vedle strukturovanych dat z relacich databazi jsou k dispozici uplne texty, obrazky, webove stranky, apod. Pomoci jazyka XML lze z techto nestrukturovanych dat ziskat data semistrukturovana, nesouci informaci o svem typu bud v sobe (pomoci znacek) a/nebo pomoci regularnich vyrazu ve zvlastnim popisu, ktery pripomina databazove schema. Stejnym zpusobem lze popsat i strukturovana data data z databazi. Pomoci stromu, ci obecnejsich grafu, ale i napr. mnozinou funkci, se vyjadri odpovidajici datovy model. Cilem prednasky je ukazat jednak modely XML dat, jednak dotazovaci jazyky, ktere umoznuji formulovat dotazy nad databazi XML dat. Prezentovany budou take vysledky vlastniho vyzkumu - funkcionalni model XML dat a moznosti vyuziti typovaneho lamda kalkulu pro dotazovani ...
In SS, the proteomic analysis of saliva appears to be a very useful way to assess how the autoimmune disease affects the exocrine function of salivary glands. It is an important tool for identifying biomarkers and posttranslational modifications, as well as for identifying and quantifying peptides, proteins, and neoantigens. A number of proteins have been indicated as pSS biomarkers, showing two- to threefold up- or downregulation at significantly different levels compared with healthy subjects or having an exclusive presence in SS saliva. Proteins of acinar origin (i.e., α-amylase, carbonic anhydrase VI, proline-rich proteins, prolactin-inducible protein precursor) were reduced in patients with pSS, while inflammatory phase proteins, protease inhibitors, and antimicrobial peptides (i.e., lactoferrin, β2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin κ-light chain, calgranulin B, lipocalin 1 precursor, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, and defensins) were increased, compared with those in healthy ...
A Glycoprotein component of High-Density Lipoproteins that transports small hydrophobic Ligands including Cholesterol and Sterols. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of Tissues such as liver, Placenta, Brain Tissue and others ...
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Explanation: Clouds of glowing hydrogen gas mingle with dark dust lanes in the Trifid Nebula, a star forming region in the constellation Sagittarius. In this and other similar emission nebulae, energetic ultraviolet light from an embedded hot young star strips electrons from the surrounding hydrogen atoms. As the electrons and atoms recombine they emit longer wavelength, lower energy light in a well known characteristic pattern of bright spectral lines. At visible wavelengths, the strongest emission line in this pattern is in the red part of the spectrum and is known as Hydrogen-alpha or just H-alpha. This image of the nebula was taken using a filter to select only light near the H-alpha wavelength. It shows those regions with substantial emission from atomic hydrogen. The relative strength of this emission can trace the densities of atoms within the gas cloud. ...
Explanation: TT Cygni is a cool red giant star with a wind. This false-color picture of TT Cyg was made using a coordinated array of millimeter wavelength radio telescopes and shows radio emission from carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the surrounding gas. The central emission is from material blown off the red giant over a few hundred years while the thin ring, with a radius of about 1/4 light-year, actually represents a shell of gas expanding outward for 6,000 years. Carbon stars like TT Cyg are so named for their apparent abundance of carbon containing molecules. The carbon is likely the dredged-up ashes of nuclear helium burning in the stellar interior. Carbon stars lose a significant fraction of their total mass in the form of a stellar wind which ultimately enriches the interstellar gas - the source of material for future generations of stars. TT Cyg is about 1,500 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus. ...
Autosomal dominant medullary cystic disease (ADMCKD) is an interstitial nephropathy that has morphologic and clinical features similar to autosomal recessive nephronophthisis. The typical renal dysfunction associated with ADMCKD results mainly from a defect in urinary concentration ability, although …
The Cell: An Image Library™ offers you a little fun this week. Please enjoy our quiz, Celestial or Cellular? Take a look at the images and see if you can tell whether they are of cellular or celestial origin. Take your best shot, and enter your answers at http://asterisk.apod.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=26228. Visit again each day this week[…] ...
2018 - Czech K rozšíření variability genofondu lze využít tzv. resyntézu, kdy nové genotypy vznikají křížením vybraných zástupců řepice a brukve, časnou izolací nezralých zárodků z vyvíjejících se šešulí a jejich dopěstováním v in vitro (Hilgert-Delgado et al. 2015). Bylo prokázáno, že resyntetizované genotypy jsou odlišné od materiálů řepky, vyšlechtěných a pěstovaných v současnosti (Sosnowska et al. 2010), takže mohou sloužit jako zdroj nové variability ve šlechtitelských programech se zaměřením na cytoplazmatickou a jadernou pylovou sterilitu, odolnost k patogenům a toleranci ke stresům (Warwick et al. 2009). Zástupci výchozích komponent řepky (řepice, vodnice, kadeřávek, zelí, kedluben, kapusta apod.) se vyznačují širokou variabilitou z hlediska morfologie i agronomických charakteristik a představují perspektivní zdroj heteróze a dalších znaků (Wu et al. 2014). Využití resyntetizovaných genotypů k přímé tvorbě ...
2018 - Czech K rozšíření variability genofondu lze využít tzv. resyntézu, kdy nové genotypy vznikají křížením vybraných zástupců řepice a brukve, časnou izolací nezralých zárodků z vyvíjejících se šešulí a jejich dopěstováním v in vitro (Hilgert-Delgado et al. 2015). Bylo prokázáno, že resyntetizované genotypy jsou odlišné od materiálů řepky, vyšlechtěných a pěstovaných v současnosti (Sosnowska et al. 2010), takže mohou sloužit jako zdroj nové variability ve šlechtitelských programech se zaměřením na cytoplazmatickou a jadernou pylovou sterilitu, odolnost k patogenům a toleranci ke stresům (Warwick et al. 2009). Zástupci výchozích komponent řepky (řepice, vodnice, kadeřávek, zelí, kedluben, kapusta apod.) se vyznačují širokou variabilitou z hlediska morfologie i agronomických charakteristik a představují perspektivní zdroj heteróze a dalších znaků (Wu et al. 2014). Využití resyntetizovaných genotypů k přímé tvorbě ...
Sice jsem se do etl ve slovn ku, e Alley Cat znamen v p ekladu prostitutka, ale nemus te m t obavy. S n nem tato stolet hra v bec nic spole n ho. V roli mal ko ky pro v te f ru dobrodru stv . Ta se za naj odehr vat na barelech u plotu p ed va m obl ben m domem. Jako ka d spr vn ko ka chyt te my i a ut k te p ed psy. Ani zde tomu nebude jinak, jen s t m rozd lem, e krom chyt n my si m ete u t mnohem v c, nap : zaplavat si v akv riu s rybi kama, i prob hnout se v knihovn v jednom z byt a poshazovat v echny kv tin e apod. Zkr tka vymo enost ko i ho ivota v s ek opravdu mnoho a e je Alley Cat hra z roku 1984 ur it nikomu vadit nebude:-) V dy pr v tyto star hry v sob obsahuj kouzlo, kter u t ch nov ch ur it nenajdete ...
To bylo radosti, co? No, tak bych se radoval, kdybych na el takov ho bucl ka, blahop eji. A zept m se - mohl bys uv st tro ku informac k m stu n lezu? Tedy s dlo (m sto, vesnici nebo osadu), v jeho bl zkosti se m sto nach z (pop . t n jak m sto pobl , jde-li o m n zn m s dlo), charakter porostu (nap . okraj star bu iny s b zou a dubem; dk , asi 20let n let b zy, osiky a ol e; hust porost mlad ch mod n a b z; star lipov alej; mlad t e ov sad; jednotliv duby rostouc okolo rybn ka apod.) a v p pad sm en ho porostu tak strom, pod kter m houba nejsp e vyrostla. Neu kodila by ani ter nn charakteristika, m -li smysl (nap . otev en JZ svah; hlubok dol ) a podobn daje (nap . e jde o st le vlhk m sto). A tak substr t, jsi-li s n m sezn men (nap . humus na hlinitop s it m podkladu). Tak toti neprozrad sv m ste ko (kdyby snad n co takov ho uveden m nejbli ho s dla hrozilo, pak uve t eba nejbli v t m sto), a p itom prozrad dost p em liv m houba m po cel republice (jde toti o to, aby si ten p sp vku t eba ...
v podstate tu uz asi vsetko padlo - znalosti, zazratost do niecoho, inteligentne hobby, uspech v praci, SLUSNOST - a to je pre mna mega dolezite - napriklad drahy ex sa vzdy zohol ku kazdemu kto bol na zemi bez ohladu ci to bolo dieta muz zena a aj opity clovek (to som sa az citila blbo), vsetkym mamickam s kocikom pomahal do MHDcky apod...proste nesmie to byt namysleny a nadradeny trulo. Ironicky humor rovnaky ako mam ja tiez, no a chemia nesmie chybat - proste musim citit ze je na rovnakej vlnovej dlzke ako ja, to mi imponuje asi najviac :D ...
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In the edit text, there is a comment about APOD mirrors, and not adding them all as a link. Why should there be any mirror on there? I think it would be a lot better only having the original APOD and the list of mirrors linked. --yanneman 09:43, 23 July 2007 (UTC). ...
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Cystic disease of the lung has long been considered a rather uncommon condition, probably because it rarely gives symptoms and is usually found in the course of routine physical and roentgen examinations. The roentgenograms made routinely at the army induction centers will undoubtedly uncover a great number of hitherto unsuspected cases because these are surely more common than is generally believed.. Recently we had the opportunity to study such a group, many of whom presented the various complications of this disease. Since the literature dealing specifically with the complications of this condition is rather meager, we feel that this report ...
Plasmas arent common on Earth (besides fire, lightning, and the aurora borealis), but plasma makes up most of the matter in the universe. Read about space plasmas at Amazing Plasmas. For just a few images of plasma in space, see this space plasma photo gallery and these APOD images of our Sun and the Cats Eye Nebula ...
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HDmag.cz © 2007-2021 Argonit s.r.o. , ISSN 1802-5161 , O projektu , Kontakty , Inzerce , Reference. V obsahu mohou být použity oficiální texty a grafické podklady výrobců a distributorů. Použité názvy produktů, firem apod. mohou být ochrannými známkami nebo registrovanými obchodními známkami příslušných vlastníků. U přebíraných zpráv nebo fotografií je vždy uveden zdroj.. CMS: Drupal , Typografie: Texy! , Fórum: phpBB , Partneři webu: Deep in IT, Svethardware.cz, TVFreak.cz. Technologie: blu-ray bluray blue-ray blueray blu-rey blurey blue-rey bluerey brd bd disc disk dvd high-def highdef high definition hd ready hdtv full hd filmy ps3. ...
This condition tends to affect patients on long-term dialysis who may already have shrunken, end-stage kidneys. Its frequency increases with the duration of dialysis. Multiple cysts form in the kidneys, which may, like adult PCKD, haemorrhage or become infected. The disease tends to be more severe the longer the patient has been on dialysis. The proliferative changes which cause acquired cystic disease also give rise to small adenomata and the ultrasound appearances may be a combination of cysts and solid, hypoechoic nodules. In particular, acquired cystic disease has the potential for malignancy and it is therefore prudent to screen native kidneys, even after renal transplantation has been performed (Fig. 7.7 ...
Mutations in Lafora disease genes (laforin and malin) and in Univerricht-Lundborg PME genes (cystatin B) are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The gene EPM2A makes an enzyme called dual specificity protein phosphatase or laforin, and the gene EPM2B makes another enzyme named ubiquitin E3 ligase or malin. Therefore, most cases of Lafora PMEs are enzymopathies, are classified as lysosomal diseases, and produce a system-wide glycogen storage disorder. A minority of cases of Lafora disease are caused by as yet unidentified genes. Cystatin B is a cysteine protease inhibitor and its deficiency causes abnormal activation of cathepsin S. G1qB-chain of complement, beta2-microglubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, apolipoprotein D, fibronectin 1, and metallothionein II, which are factors involved in proteolysis, apoptosis, and glial activation (Leiuallen et al., 2001). The lysosome-associated functions of cystatin B are also associated with the pathogenic mutations, suggesting that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acquired cystic disease associated renal cell carcinoma. AU - Bakkannavar, Shankar M.. AU - Velayudhan, Dewaraj. AU - Prabhu, Ravindra. AU - Ramnarayan, K.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney transplant.. AB - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney ...
2010, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited ...
Water deficit (WD) is a growing problem in agriculture. In citrus crops, genetically-determined characteristics of the rootstock are important factors in plant responses to WD. Aquaporins are involved in regulating the water supply to the plant by mediating water flow through the cell membranes. Recent studies support a direct role for aquaporins in plant water relations and demonstrate their involvement in tolerance to WD. This study investigates the relationship between photosynthetic and water-balance parameters with levels of expression of aquaporins in conditions of moderate WD in the rootstocks Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. (PT), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) (CM) and 030115 (a hybrid of the two former rootstocks). Under conditions of WD, the hybrid 030115 drastically reduced aquaporin expression, accompanied by a loss of plant vigour but without reducing the net CO2 assimilation (ACO2). PT maintained the same level of aquaporin expression under WD as under normal ...
Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is a 35 kDa protein encoded by a cDNA cloned from the murine lacrimal gland. In the present paper, the murine apoF has been expressed as a recombinant histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified from expressing cultures. We report here the unique distinctions of apoF including comparisons of apoF with other apolipoproteins (apoD, apoE, and apoN), as well as why this protein was produced. The data presented here provide evidence that isolated recombinant apoF purified in the experimental conditions described here can be used for functional studies ...
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Cysts are usually asymptomatic but may cause hematuria. It is thought that the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma is dialysis patients may be due to neoplastic transformation of tubular epithelial cells in these acquired cysts ...
Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery constitutes an infrequent cause of claudication in non-atherosclerotic young or middle-aged population. Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old female with adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery causing left lower leg claudication, detected by dupplex scanning. The angio-CT showed the dog-leg sign, typical of the aneurysm of the popliteal artery. Surgery was performed through the posterior approach. The cyst and the affected segment of the artery were successfully excised and replaced with an autogenous saphenous vein graft. In 1 year follow-up the graft is patent and the patient is completely asymptomatic.. ...
Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst...
Breast cysts are a common mammographic and sonographic finding, and can be of different types: simple breast cyst: typically is a well-defined, anechoic lesion with imperceptible wall and posterior acoustic enhancement 1 complicated breast cyst...
This is todays APOD). That story actually broke shortly after the rovers landed five years ago, and at the time, it was generally reported that the only explanation was either igneous/volcanic activity or biological activity. Either of these would be revolutionary. Mars is too small and too cold to be a likely place for current igneous activity- though I suppose its not completely beyond possibility. The discovery of life off of Earth, though, would IMHO be the most profound discovery in history- I cant imagine anything that would more dramatically change our view of our place in the cosmos.. So when it was announced a few months later that the process of serpentinization could create substantial amounts of methane, I was a little disappointed. Reassured by the self-correcting nature of science, but disappointed. Note that I am NOT saying serpentinization is creating the methane (nor methane hydrates created by this process), but all else being equal, it seems the simplest explanation- less ...
If you have just discovered a breast cyst, its natural to feel unsettled. Read on to learn all about breast cysts and what they mean to your health here!
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Food that you eat can affect your health, including increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The development of cancer particularly has been shown in your diet. Many foods contain a lot of beneficial compounds that could help you to decrease the growth of cancer […]. ...
Forhøjede spinal Fluid protein niveauer kan enten være resultatet af diffusion af plasmaprotein på tværs af en ændret blod-hjerne...
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare.[1] People ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis.[87] Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein,[88] while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway.[89][90] The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triglycerides that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver. The synthesis of ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ...
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Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ...
"Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. XVIII. apolipoprotein polymorphisms in Australian Aborigines", Human Biology, 63 (2 ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Gain of toxic Apolipoprotein E4 effects in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons Is Ameliorated by a Small-Molecule Structure Corrector. ... Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ... In 2018 published an article in Nature Medicine about apolipoprotein E(apoE) gene expression-pluripotent stem cell cultures ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
2003). "[Apolipoprotein E and bleomycin hydrolase. Polymorphisms: association with neurodegenerative diseases]". Ann. Biol. ...
The main apolipoprotein component is apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48). While circulating in blood, chylomicrons exchange ... Apolipoproteins are significant in the synthesis and metabolism of chylomicrons. The villi, lined with the microvilli of the ... The triglycerides are then combined with phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and apolipoprotein B-48 to form a nascent ... components with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The HDL donates apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) to the ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II.[citation needed] A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Hauser, Paul S.; Ryan, Robert O. (October 2013). "Impact of Apolipoprotein E on Alzheimer's Disease". Current Alzheimer ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". Marino D, Perković M, Hain A, Jaguva Vasudevan AA, Hofmann H, Hanschmann KM ... C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the APOLD1 gene. It is located on Chromosome 12 ... "Entrez Gene: Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1". Retrieved 2012-11-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) APOLD1 ... apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] on NCBI Human APOLD1 genome location and APOLD1 gene details page ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing: An Update". Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Baylor ...
The presence of the Apolipoprotein c4 allele. ARD is treated with abstinence from further alcohol consumption. Multiple ...
The basics of MR were invented by Martijn B. Katan in 1986, when he suggested the use of apolipoprotein E alleles, that had ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
This inability to bind LDL is due to VLDLR's incapability to bind apolipoprotein B (apoB), which is present in LDL. Receptor- ... VLDLR binds compounds containing apolipoprotein E (apoE). These ligands attach to the cysteine binding repeats in the N- ... This receptor has an important role in cholesterol uptake, metabolism of apolipoprotein E-containing triacylglycerol-rich ... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1529 (1-3): 287-98. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00155-4. PMID 11111096 ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(79)92068-3. Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". OhAinle M, Kerns JA, Malik HS, Emerman M (April 2006). "Adaptive evolution ... DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3H, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3H or APOBEC ... This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) family of proteins. The ...
... and ProteinsProteinsApoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and ProteinsProteinsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and Drugs CategoryLipidsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... Apolipoproteins C. A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
... apolipoprotein D apolipoprotein E apolipoprotein F apolipoprotein H apolipoprotein L apolipoprotein M apolipoprotein(a) ... apolipoprotein A (apoA1, apoA2, apoA4, and apolipoprotein A-V (apoA5)) apolipoprotein B (apo B48 and apo B100) apolipoprotein C ... Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to ... Apolipoprotein synthesis in the intestine is regulated principally by the fat content of the diet. Apolipoprotein synthesis in ...
Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which ... Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol which is ... particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). The APOL1 ...
Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzhei… ... Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection * 1. Anti Alzheimers Herbs. Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www. ... The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE ... alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ...
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. *Robert D. Bell1,2. , ... Bell, R., Winkler, E., Singh, I. et al. Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512- ...
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
APOLIPOPROTEIN E3. A. 191. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: E2, APOE. ... Novel mechanism for defective receptor binding of apolipoprotein E2 in type III hyperlipoproteinemia.. Dong, L.M., Parkin, S., ... The defective binding of apolipoprotein (apo) E2 to lipoprotein receptors, an underlying cause of type III hyperlipoproteinemia ... The defective binding of apolipoprotein (apo) E2 to lipoprotein receptors, an underlying cause of type III hyperlipoproteinemia ...
APOLIPOPROTEIN E. A. 165. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: APOE. ... Crystal Structure of the 22K Domain of Human Apolipoprotein E4. Verderame, J.R., Kantardjieff, K., Segelke, B., Weisgraber, K. ...
The role of HDL and its main protein component the apolipoprotein A-I as being antiatherogenic is well established. ... Pharmacology of apolipoprotein A-I Curr Opin Lipidol. 1997 Aug;8(4):225-8. doi: 10.1097/00041433-199708000-00006. ... The role of HDL and its main protein component the apolipoprotein A-I as being antiatherogenic is well established. ... Knowledge of pharmacology of apolipoprotein A-I has strongly increased during past years and clinical studies have started with ...
Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major... ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. ... Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2007-2008 Apolipoprotein B data to the 2005-2006 Apolipoprotein B data. The Dade ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_E) Data File: ApoB_E.xpt First Published: July 2010. Last Revised: NA Note: See Analytic Note on ...
HDL3species containing both apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II, and HDL3(AI w/o AII), HDL3species containing ... initially with three apolipoprotein A-I, to larger particles with four apolipoprotein A-I per particle. © 1989. ... Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein populations during incubation of human plasma. *Nichols A ... Nichols, A. V., Blanche, P. J., Shore, V. G., & Gong, E. L. (1989). Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density ...
First, plasma apolipoprotein E maintains overall plasma cholesterol homeostasis by facilitating efficient hepatic uptake of ... Apolipoprotein E plays a key protective role in atherosclerosis. Its capacity to safeguard against this disease can be ... Second, lesion apolipoprotein E in concert with apolipoprotein A-I facilitates cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam ... Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000 Jun;11(3):243-51. doi: 10.1097/00041433-200006000-00004. ...
Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant ... ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, ... About Apolipoprotein:. The binding of lipids (soluble oil molecules) and cholesterol to Apoliproteins result in the formation ... 6 main classes of apolipoproteins are APOA, APOB, APOC, APOD, APOE and APOH. APOA1 takes an important role in the return of ...
i,Background,/i,: The association of the apolipoprotein (Apo E) -epsilon4 allele to neurodegenerative diseases such as ... Apolipoprotein E Genotypes in Mexican Patients with Parkinsons Disease. M.P. Gallegos-Arreola,1 L.E. Figuera. ,2 G.G. Ortiz. , ... Apolipoprotein E Genotypes in Mexican Patients with Parkinsons Disease,. Disease Markers,. vol. 27. ,. Article ID 617863. ,. ... Background: The association of the apolipoprotein (Apo E) -epsilon4 allele to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons ...
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the ... Keywords: ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1); ApoE; Apolipoprotein; Atherosclerosis; Cell-based Gene Therapy; ...
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ... SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing. Thursday, April 22, 2010 General News ... HOUSTON, April 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different lipoproteins contain different classes of apolipoproteins, which influence their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) is the major structural protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), although it is present in other lipoproteins in smaller amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA4) is present in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B plays a particularly important role in lipoprotein transport being the primary organizing protein of many lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) plays an important role in lipid metabolism specific in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J et al (2008) Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are composed from various lipoproteins such as exchangeable Apolipoprtoeins and non-exchangeable. (prospecbio.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (abcam.com)
  • Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • While LDL, HDL, and (sometimes) VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) are the only classes mentioned in regards to diagnostic tests, there are four other classes of lipoproteins that differ in size, lipid composition, and apolipoproteins. (taconic.com)
  • The Apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a component of plasma lipoproteins, has been suggested to bind and traffic Ags for NKT cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) 3 is a multifunctional component of plasma lipoproteins that is found on very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein, and chylomicron remnant lipoprotein complexes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, increased apolipoprotein B levels, both in whole plasma and in specific lipoprotein fractions, e.g. low density lipoproteins (LDL) [3], seem to be associated to a raised risk, the opposite being the case for apo AI [4]. (springer.com)
  • Swaney JB, Braithwaite F, Eder HA (1977) Characterization of the apolipoproteins of rat plasma lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Brewer HB, Fairwell T, La Rue A, Rorian R, Hauser A, Bronzert TJ (1978) The amino acid sequence of human apo AI, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (jove.com)
  • The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene on chromosome 19, which has been associated with many lateonset familial cases of Alzheimers disease as well as sporadic cases in the over-60 age group. (slideshare.net)
  • Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that probably evolved from a common ancestral gene. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent findings with apoA1 and apoE suggest that the tertiary structures of these two members of the human exchangeable apolipoprotein gene family are related [ PMID: 15234552 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the transport and uptake of cholesterol by way of its high affinity interaction with lipoprotein receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOE is primarily located in HDL and VLDL Apolipoproteins act as lipid transfer carrier enzymes, cofactors and receptor ligands which control lipoprotein metabolism. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids between peripheral tissues and the liver. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. (genomebc.ca)
  • Apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body. (wikidoc.org)
  • The gene, APOE , is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC-I) and the apolipoprotein C2 . (wikidoc.org)
  • The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. (pnas.org)
  • Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. (osti.gov)
  • They examined the correlation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE and the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with T2D risk. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 483 IS - 1 N2 - The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (e4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE e4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. (diva-portal.org)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null mice that had knockout of a single allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) gene were compared with littermate Apoe null mice with intact insulin receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition to stabilizing lipoprotein structure and solubilizing the lipid component, apolipoproteins interact with lipoprotein receptors and lipid transport proteins, thereby participating in lipoprotein uptake and clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, ligands for cell-surface receptors and lipid transport proteins, and cofactors for enzymes (e.g. apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). (wikipedia.org)
  • APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which are involved in autophagic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (springer.com)
  • 1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein D Kits (32) and Apolipoprotein D Proteins (24) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
  • These proteins, known as apolipoproteins, are the major identifying characteristics of a lipoprotein. (labce.com)
  • One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). (labce.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-IV , also known as apolipoprotein C4 , is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986). "The structure of the human apolipoprotein C-II gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. (medscape.com)
  • This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (nih.gov)
  • This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. (nih.gov)
  • Two novel APOA1 gene mutations in a Japanese renal transplant recipient with recurrent apolipoprotein A-I related amyloidosis. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate whether apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (nih.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E genotype and the association between C-reactive protein and postoperative delirium: Importance of gene-protein interactions. (harvard.edu)
  • There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. (harvard.edu)
  • Apolipoprotein All (ApoAII) amyloidosis, first reported in 2001 in a family with renal amyloidosis, is associated with mutations in the stop codon of the apolipoprotein AII gene resulting in a carboxyl terminal peptide extension of 21 amino acid residues in the protein. (highbeam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (pnas.org)
  • The data show that a single dose of the gene therapy carrying a short hairpin RNA to silence Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) resulted in a reduction of serum cholesterol of approximately 80% without any signs of toxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apo B) exists in two forms, each the product of a single gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 all. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative fact. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative factor for neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A research team from Department of Neurology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China pointed out a non-invasive and fast method to genotype large samples to help to elucidate the role of apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele in neural regeneration in the cases with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Noma A Yokosuka T, Kitamura K (1983) Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins as discriminators for presence and severity of angiographically defined coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
  • Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Reliable assessment of the separate and joint associations of major blood lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease is important for the development of screening and therapeutic strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chen CH, Albers JJ (1985) Activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase by apolipoproteins E-2, E-3, and AIV isolated from human plasma. (springer.com)
  • LDL-cholesterol (LDL- C), apolipoproteins (apo) B, CIII, and E, and by decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. (tudelft.nl)
  • Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. (nih.gov)
  • It forms a complex, known as a trypanosome lytic factor (TLF), with high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of non-exchangeable apolipoprotein is APOAB which is attached to the lipoprotein particle while examples of Lipoprotein exchangeable are APOM, APOD, APOJ, APOH and APOA1 which are transported between different lipoprotein molecules. (prospecbio.com)
  • HDL begins to develop when two copies of the protein apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mediate the removal of excess lipids from peripheral cells and form a nanodisc. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). (pnas.org)
  • HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Dec. 28 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (nature.com)
  • Elevated IgM against Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine-modified Apolipoprotein A1 peptide 141-147 in Taiwanese with Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
  • Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
  • RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
  • The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)
  • All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (bmj.com)
  • Several recently published studies showed the existence of an association between the allele ε4 of the apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in developed countries. (scielo.br)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The method developed for apolipoprotein E genotyping is accurate and reliable, and also suitable for genotyping large samples, which may help determine the role of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Apolipoprotein M (apoM) participates in the lipid metabolism and exhibit anti‑atherosclerotic functions and it is presented in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major regulatory roles in both pre- and pro-atherosclerotic mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Lipoprotein (a) and Low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B metabolism following apheresis in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) and coronary artery disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fidge NH (1980) The redistribution and metabolism of iodinated apolipoprotein AIV in rats. (springer.com)
  • The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. (labce.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or 'good cholesterol' which is synthesized in the liver and also in many other tissues, including pancreas, kidney, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, plasma apolipoprotein E maintains overall plasma cholesterol homeostasis by facilitating efficient hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants. (nih.gov)
  • Second, lesion apolipoprotein E in concert with apolipoprotein A-I facilitates cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells within the intima of the lesion. (nih.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein levels and ratios are more significant than LDL cholesterol levels in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (medscape.com)
  • The proband, a 65-year-old woman, had greatly diminished concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol (0.19 mmol/L) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (21.9 mg/dL). (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • These complex molecules have a "shell" composed of cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins, and a core with the transport material: cholesterol esters and triglycerides (see Figure 1). (taconic.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are protein-lipid complexes that bind oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol. (taconic.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Although apolipoprotein A levels can be measured, it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk. (ahealthyme.com)
  • At the end of 12 weeks, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) were significantly lower in the soy nut group compared with the control group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Birmingham, AL), developer of the VAP Cholesterol Test, announced it has received a patent on its method to derive and report apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) using the Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently, we have reported that serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and apoB levels were strongly associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy ( 1 ), and these associations were more prominent than those of traditional lipids (e.g., total cholesterol). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cholesterol-loaded macrophages secrete cholesterol and apolipoprotein E. The current studies show that this secretion occurs by two independent pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the absence of serum, the cells secrete apolipoprotein E, but not cholesterol. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the presence of monensin (an inhibitor of protein secretion), the cells secrete cholesterol, but little apolipoprotein E. After secretion, apolipoprotein E and cholesterol associate with high-density lipoprotein to form a particle that can deliver cholesterol to the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • We conclude that apolipoprotein E does not function to remove cholesterol from macrophages but rather to participate in "reverse cholesterol transport. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for several conventional factors, were calculated for 1-SD higher values: 0.52 loge triglyceride, 15 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 mg/dL non-HDL-C, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein AI, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein B, and 33 mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lipid assessment in vascular disease can be simplified by measurement of either total and HDL cholesterol levels or apolipoproteins without the need to fast and without regard to triglyceride. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 , 2 Expert opinion is divided about whether assessment of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) should replace assessment of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol levels in assessment of vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Despite the hyperinsulinemia, atherosclerotic lesion size was not different between the 2 groups at time points up to 52 weeks of age when measured as en face lesion area in the aorta, cross-sectional plaque area in the aortic sinus, and cholesterol abundance in the brachiocephalic artery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ajeganova S, Ehrnfelt C, Alizadeh R, Rohani M, Jogestrand T, Hafström I et al (2011) Longitudinal levels of apolipoproteins and antibodies against phosphorylcholine are independently associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis 5 years after rheumatoid arthritis onset-a prospective cohort study. (springer.com)
  • Eo HS, Lee KB, Kim AK, Kim MH, Kim DH, Kim DI (2011) Association with inflammatory cells and apolipoproteins to the progression of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Garber DW, Handattu SP, Datta G, Mishra VK, Gupta H, White CR et al (2006) Atherosclerosis and vascular disease: effects of peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of premature development of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Seishima M (2016) Physiological function of apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Zivanovic Z, Divjak I, Jovicevic M, Rabi-Zikic T, Radovanovic B, Ruzicka-Kaloci S et al (2018) Association between apolipoproteins AI and B and ultrasound indicators of carotid atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E plays a key protective role in atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Avogaro P, Bittolo-Bon G, Cazzolato G, Quinci GB (1979) Are apolipoproteins better discriminators than lipids for atherosclerosis? (springer.com)
  • Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. (jci.org)
  • However, Cox proportional hazards models with quartiles of each variable adjusted for confounders and hs-CRP or IL-6 identified apolipoprotein (apo)B-to-apoA-I ratio (apoB/apoA-I) and oxidized HDL, but not apoA-I or apoA-II, as independent risk factors for composite CVD events. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. (wikidoc.org)
  • Apolipoproteins are associated with survival among patients on hemodialysis (HD), but these associations might be influenced by dysfunctional (oxidized) high-density lipoprotein (HDL). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system and apoD can also modulate the stability and oxidation status of these molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 116 Apolipoprotein D (APOD) Antibodies from 22 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The association of the apolipoprotein (Apo E) -epsilon4 allele to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) has been analyzed in several studies. (hindawi.com)
  • Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoproteins function in lipid transport as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. (springer.com)
  • The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (abcam.com)
  • It does not interchange between lipoprotein particles, as do the other apolipoproteins, and it is found in IDL and LDL after the removal of the Apo-A, E, and C. Apo-B48 is present in chylomicrons and their remnants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B) molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, LDL). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serum apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1), apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100) and lipoprotein-(a) (LPA) were measured in the Pathology Laboratories of Postgraduate Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar using turbiditrimetric kits of Roche Diagnostics, on chemistry auto analyzer, modular P-800 by Roche, Cobas (Japan). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This could explain reduced capacity of the liver to synthesize apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Is vitellogenin an ancestor of apolipoprotein B100 of human low-density lipoprotein and human lipoprotein lipase? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary structure of the bovine analogues to human apolipoproteins CII and CIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E genotyping is crucial to apolipoprotein E polymorphism analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Peripheral venous blood is the conventional tissue source for apolipoprotein E genotyping polymorphism analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfers of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency is a very rare (rarer than LPL deficiency) autosomal recessive disorder in which apolipoprotein CII (apoC-II), a cofactor for LPL, is absent, the clearance of chylomicrons from the blood is greatly impaired and triglycerides (TG) accumulate in the plasma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E levels and the use of such compounds in therapy, including cardiovascular and neurological disease states. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid protein in the pathology of Alzheimers disease has been further fueled by the results of molecular genetics studies that have identified genes associated with familial (inherited) Alzheimers disease on chromosomes 21, 14, 1, and 19. (slideshare.net)
  • Title: The relationship between apolipoprotein genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In this study a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at birth and the differences with adults. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and there are no differences between males and females. (springer.com)
  • The determination of the circulating levels of apolipoproteins has become common practice in clinical laboratories, in view of the apparent correlation between levels of specific apolipoproteins and increased or decreased cardiovascular risk [1, 2]. (springer.com)
  • Hundreds of genetic polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins have been described, and many of them alter their structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most apolipoproteins cannot be detected using standard clinical immunoassays, and multiplexing is not available for some species of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Our Apolipoprotein L2 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Apolipoprotein C1 ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Deficiency of apoC-II can also be verified by gel electrophoresis of the apolipoproteins contained in VLDL and chylomicrons on 2D gels. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (randox.com)
  • Kukita M, Hiwada K, Kokubu T (1984) Serum apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and B levels and their discriminative values in relatives of patients with coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
  • Serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and -B have been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apply their overview of the roles of specific apolipoproteins in the brain to physiological and pathophysiological processes. (cyberounds.com)
  • Vlad C, Burlacu A, Florea L, Artene B, Badarau S, Covic A et al (2019) A comprehensive review on apolipoproteins as nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in end-stage renal disease: current evidence and perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Increases Insulin Secretion and Production From Pancreatic ß-Cells via a G-Protein-cAMP-PKA-FoxO1-Dependent Mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • Nonhereditary apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) amyloid is characterized by deposits of nonvariant protein in atherosclerotic arteries. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating a lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation (i.e., blood, lymph). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, due to of their amphipathic/detergent like characteristics, Apolipoproteins fence in the lipids, forming a lipoprotein particle which is soluble in water, hence travel in blood. (prospecbio.com)
  • The role of HDL and its main protein component the apolipoprotein A-I as being antiatherogenic is well established. (nih.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. (cdc.gov)
  • 1990). "Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • We have discovered that natural variant versions of Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) that protect humans against infection by the parasite Trypanosoma rhodesiense (responsible for sleeping sickness) also cause kidney disease. (europa.eu)
  • The protein encoded by APOM is an apolipoprotein and member of the lipocalin protein family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Duan, Dahlbäck, Villoutreix: Proposed lipocalin fold for apolipoprotein M based on bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • encoded search term (How are specimens collected and prepared for apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) testing? (medscape.com)
  • Your search returned 60 Apolipoprotein A-IV ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Pechlaner R, Tsimikas S, Yin X, Willeit P, Baig F, Santer P et al (2017) Very-low-density lipoprotein-associated apolipoproteins predict cardiovascular events and are lowered by inhibition of APOC-III. (springer.com)
  • Association Between ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) Immune Complexes and Adverse Cardiovascular Events. (medscape.com)
  • The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals). (ovid.com)
  • Minor apolipoprotein mainly associated with HDL and to a lesser extent with VLDL. (abcam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E2 (apoE2)-associated hyperlipidemia is characterized by a disturbed clearance of apoE2-enriched VLDL remnants. (tudelft.nl)
  • Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and apolipoprotein a-I in urine as biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: a proteomics study. (medscape.com)
  • In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • The defective binding of apolipoprotein (apo) E2 to lipoprotein receptors, an underlying cause of type III hyperlipoproteinemia, results from replacement of Arg 158 with Cys, disrupting the naturally occurring salt bridge between Asp 154 and Arg 158. (rcsb.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E is a fat-binding protein ( apolipoprotein ) that is part of the chylomicron and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) . (wikidoc.org)
  • Selenium has a positive effect on apolipoprotein B expression in hypercholesterolemia. (greenmedinfo.com)