A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
A species of HANTAVIRUS causing a less severe form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME in Asia (primarily Korea and Japan). It is transmitted by rats, especially Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.

Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (1/109)

We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors.  (+info)

Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection. (2/109)

Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P +info)

Human IL-3 stimulates endothelial cell motility and promotes in vivo new vessel formation. (3/109)

Angiogenesis is a critical process for growth of new capillary blood vessels from preexisting capillaries and postcapillary venules, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Endothelial cell proliferation is a major component of angiogenesis and it is regulated by several growth factors. It has been previously shown that the human hemopoietic growth factor IL-3 (hIL-3), predominantly produced by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates both endothelial cell proliferation and functional activation. In the present study, we report that hIL-3 is able to induce directional migration and tube formation of HUVEC. The in vivo neoangiogenetic effect of hIL-3 was also demonstrated in a murine model in which Matrigel was used for the delivery of the cytokine, suggesting a role of hIL-3 in sustaining neoangiogenesis. Challenge of HUVEC with hIL-3 lead to the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which was found to act as secondary mediator for hIL-3-mediated endothelial cell motility but not for endothelial cell proliferation. Consistent with the role of STAT5 proteins in regulating IL-3-mediated mitogenic signals, we herein report that, in hIL-3-stimulated HUVEC, the recruitment of STAT5A and STAT5B, by the beta common (betac) subunit of the IL-3R, was not affected by PAF receptor blockade.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical differentiation between primary adenocarcinomas of the ovary and ovarian metastases of colonic and breast origin. Comparison between a statistical and an intuitive approach. (4/109)

AIM: To discriminate between adenocarcinomas that are primary to the ovary and metastatic to the ovary, especially of colonic and breast origin, by immunohistochemistry, using stepwise discriminant analysis or a decision tree. METHODS: 312 routinely processed, formalin fixed tissue specimens were used. The tumours were divided into a learning set (n = 159), composed of primary tumours of ovary, breast, and colon, and a test set, comprising 134 metastases from these sites and an additional 19 primary ovarian carcinomas. The immunohistochemical panel was composed of antibodies against cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20), CA125, vimentin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), and the oestrogen receptor (ER). The staining results of the tumours were expressed as the product of the staining intensity and the percentage of positive tumour cells. Analyses were first performed on the learning set and then evaluated on the test set. RESULTS: Although the immunostaining patterns showed a considerable overlap between the three types of adenocarcinoma, the breast carcinomas were typically positive for GCDFP-15 and often for ER, and negative for vimentin. Ovarian carcinomas were always positive for CK7 and to a lesser extent for CA125. Colonic carcinomas showed prominent positivity for CEA and CK20, while no staining was seen for ER and vimentin. In discriminant analysis, six antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CK20, alpha CA125, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) appeared to be necessary for optimal classification: 89% of the learning set and 82% of the test set were classified correctly. In the decision tree, only four antibodies (alpha CK7, alpha CEA, alpha ER, and alpha GCDFP-15) were used to obtain a correct classification score of 89% for the learning set and 84% for the test set. CONCLUSIONS: Using a semiquantitative assessment of the immunostaining results by a restricted panel of six antibodies with stepwise discriminant analysis, 80-90% of the adenocarcinomas of colon, breast, and ovary can be correctly classified. Discriminant analysis is computer aided and therefore an easy method and for each case a probability value of the classification result is obtained. The intuitive decision tree method provides a slightly better result, requires only four antibodies, and offers a more practical method for the surgical pathologist.  (+info)

Biosynthesis and immunobiochemical characterization of gp17/GCDFP-15. A glycoprotein from seminal vesicles and from breast tumors, in HeLa cells and in Pichia pastoris yeast. (5/109)

The gp17 factor is a secretory product of human seminal vesicle cells which binds to CD4 and acts as a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by CD4 crosslinking and subsequent T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. The protein is identical to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a breast tumor secretory marker PIP (prolactin inducible protein), a prolactin-controlled and androgen-controlled protein; secretory actin binding protein (SABP), a seminal plasma actin binding protein and extra-parotid glycoprotein (EP-GP), a secretory protein from the salivary gland. The structure of this protein has not yet been elucidated and no biological function has been clearly attributed to date. Expression of recombinant gp17/GCDFP-15 cDNA in bacteria and insect cells leads to the production of a misfolded insoluble protein. In this study, we describe the production of gp17/GCDFP-15 in two different eukaryotic systems, namely HeLa cells and the Pichia pastoris yeast. Using constructs in which gp17/GCDFP-15 was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in various combinations, we observed expression only when the fusion protein was directed to the secretory compartment by the correct signal peptide. The resulting fluorescent protein was inefficiently secreted, thus suggesting that gp17/GCDFP-15 is not appropriately post-translationally processed and/or transported in HeLa cells. The use of the P. pastoris secretory pathway allowed instead the accumulation in the culture medium of a GCDFP-15/gp17 species which retained the ability to bind to CD4 and also most of the biochemical and immunological properties of the native protein. The production of an active recombinant molecule opens the way to correlate the structural properties of this peculiar factor to its ability to bind several proteins, including CD4, and to block CD4-mediated T cell programmed death.  (+info)

The potential role for prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) as a marker of human breast cancer micrometastasis. (6/109)

The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCPD15) is believed to originate from a limited set of tissues, including breast and salivary glands, and has been applied as a clinical marker for the diagnosis of metastatic tumours of unknown origin. We have investigated the potential role of PIP mRNA as a marker of human breast cancer metastasis. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Southern or dot blot analysis, PIP mRNA was detected in 4/6 breast cell lines, independent of oestrogen receptor (ER) status. In breast primary tumours (n = 97), analysed from histologically characterized sections, PIP mRNA was detected in most cases. Higher PIP mRNA levels correlated with ER+ (P = 0.0004), progesterone receptor positive (PR+) (P = 0.0167), low-grade (P = 0.0195) tumours, and also PIP protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 19, P = 0.0319). PIP mRNA expression was also detectable in 11/16 (69%) of axillary node metastases. PIP mRNA expression, however, was also detected in normal breast duct epithelium, skin, salivary gland and peripheral blood leucocyte samples from normal individuals. We conclude that PIP mRNA is frequently expressed in both primary human breast tumours and nodal metastases. However, the presence of PIP expression in skin creates a potential source of contamination in venepuncture samples that should be considered in its application as a marker for breast tumour micrometastases.  (+info)

Hormonally-regulated proteins in breast secretions are markers of target organ sensitivity. (7/109)

Anti-oestrogen therapy is being used in an attempt to prevent breast cancer but no intermediate end points of the effect of tamoxifen on the normal breast are available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a physiological measure of oestrogen action on the breast. We measured oestrogen-stimulated and -inhibited proteins in breast secretions from women on and off anti-oestrogen therapy. Two oestrogen-stimulated proteins (pS2 and cathepsin D) and oestrogen-inhibited proteins (CP15, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15; Apo,: apolipoprotein D) were measured. Premenopausal women had significantly higher pS2 and cathepsin D in association with lower Apo D and CP15 secretion levels compared to post-menopausal women. Sequential nipple aspirates from women treated with the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist goserelin (n = 9), tamoxifen (n = 9) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 26) were measured. Following treatment with goserelin, median nipple secretion levels of pS2 fell (P < 0.02) and Apo D and CP15 rose significantly (P < 0.03 and P < 0.05 respectively). Similar changes were seen on tamoxifen therapy but not in untreated control women. Treatment with HRT resulted in a rise of pS2 (P < 0.001) and a fall in Apo D (P < 0.05). Measurement of pS2 and Apo D in nipple aspirates may prove useful intermediate end point of breast responsiveness to anti-oestrogens.  (+info)

A novel aspartyl proteinase from apocrine epithelia and breast tumors. (8/109)

GCDFP-15 (gross cystic disease fluid protein, 15 kDa) is a secretory marker of apocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma. In human breast cancer cell lines, gene expression is regulated by hormones, including androgens and prolactin. The protein is also known under different names in different body fluids such as gp17 in seminal plasma. GCDFP-15/gp17 is a ligand of CD4 and is a potent inhibitor of T-cell apoptosis induced by sequential CD4/T-cell receptor triggering. We now report that GCDFP-15/gp17 is a protease exhibiting structural properties relating it to the aspartyl proteinase superfamily. Unexpectedly, GCDFP-15/gp17 appears to be related to the retroviral members rather than to the known cellular members of this class. Site-specific mutagenesis of Asp(22) (predicted to be catalytically important for the active site) and pepstatin A inhibition confirmed that the protein is an aspartic-type protease. We also show that, among the substrates tested, GCDFP-15/gp17 is specific for fibronectin. The study of GCDFP-15/gp17-mediated proteolysis may provide a handle to understand phenomena as diverse as mammary tumor progression and fertilization.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a protein that is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the blood. It is one of several apolipoproteins that are involved in the transport and metabolism of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, in the body.

ApoD is produced by the APOD gene and is found in various tissues, including the brain, where it is believed to play a role in protecting nerve cells from oxidative stress. It has also been studied for its potential role in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders.

In addition to its role in lipid metabolism and neuroprotection, apoD has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be involved in the regulation of immune responses. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functions and mechanisms of action of this protein.

Apolipoproteins are a group of proteins that are associated with lipids (fats) in the body and play a crucial role in the metabolism, transportation, and regulation of lipids. They are structural components of lipoprotein particles, which are complexes of lipids and proteins that transport lipids in the bloodstream.

There are several types of apolipoproteins, including ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, ApoD, ApoE, and others. Each type has a specific function in lipid metabolism. For example, ApoA is a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol," and helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion. ApoB, on the other hand, is a major component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad cholesterol," and plays a role in the delivery of cholesterol to cells and tissues.

Abnormal levels of apolipoproteins or dysfunctional forms of these proteins have been linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Therefore, measuring apolipoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Apolipoprotein A (apoA) is a type of apolipoprotein that is primarily associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol." There are several subtypes of apoA, including apoA-I, apoA-II, and apoA-IV.

ApoA-I is the major protein component of HDL particles and plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport, which is the process by which excess cholesterol is removed from tissues and delivered to the liver for excretion. Low levels of apoA-I have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

ApoA-II is another protein component of HDL particles, although its function is less well understood than that of apoA-I. Some studies suggest that apoA-II may play a role in regulating the metabolism of HDL particles.

ApoA-IV is found in both HDL and chylomicrons, which are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary lipids from the intestine to the liver. The function of apoA-IV is not well understood, but it may play a role in regulating appetite and energy metabolism.

Overall, apolipoproteins A are important components of HDL particles and play a critical role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apolipoprotein C (apoC) is a group of proteins that are associated with lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body. There are three main types of apoC proteins: apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III.

ApoC-I is involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is an enzyme that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

ApoC-II is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL, leading to the formation of smaller, denser lipoproteins. A deficiency in apoC-II can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood.

ApoC-III is also involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of lipoprotein lipase and CETP. Elevated levels of apoC-III have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly due to its effects on lipoprotein metabolism.

In summary, apolipoprotein C is a group of proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and have important roles in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body.

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol. ApoB is a component of LDL particles and serves as a ligand for the LDL receptor, which is responsible for the clearance of LDL from the bloodstream.

There are two main forms of ApoB: ApoB-100 and ApoB-48. ApoB-100 is found in LDL particles, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and chylomicrons, while ApoB-48 is only found in chylomicrons, which are produced in the intestines and responsible for transporting dietary lipids.

Elevated levels of ApoB are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as they indicate a higher concentration of LDL particles in the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring ApoB levels can provide additional information about CVD risk beyond traditional lipid profile tests that only measure total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and transport of lipids, particularly cholesterol, within the body. ApoA-I facilitates the formation of HDL particles, which are involved in the reverse transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport and helps maintain appropriate cholesterol levels in the body. Low levels of ApoA-I or dysfunctional ApoA-I have been associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) is a protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol." It is one of the major apolipoproteins in HDL and plays a role in the structure, metabolism, and function of HDL particles. ApoA-II is produced primarily in the liver and intestine and helps facilitate the transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. Additionally, ApoA-II has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in the regulation of the immune response.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) is a type of apolipoprotein, which are proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoprotein complexes. ApoC-II is a component of several lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, which are responsible for the transport of fat molecules, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, in the bloodstream.

ApoC-II plays a crucial role in the activation of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons into fatty acids, which can then be taken up by cells for energy production or storage. Therefore, ApoC-II deficiency can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood.

In addition to its role in lipid metabolism, ApoC-II has been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the arteries and can lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as heart attack and stroke.

Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) is a protein that is produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream. It is a component of certain lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, which are responsible for transporting fat molecules, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, throughout the body.

APOC3 plays a role in regulating the metabolism of these lipoproteins. Specifically, it inhibits the activity of an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which breaks down triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. As a result, high levels of APOC3 can lead to an increase in triglyceride levels in the blood, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Genetic variations in the APOC3 gene have been associated with differences in triglyceride levels and risk of cardiovascular disease. Some studies have suggested that reducing APOC3 levels through genetic editing or other means may be a promising strategy for lowering triglycerides and reducing the risk of heart disease.

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transportation and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. They are often referred to as "good" cholesterol because they help remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport.

HDLs are composed of a lipid core containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, primarily apoA-I. The size and composition of HDL particles can vary, leading to the classification of different subclasses of HDL with varying functions and metabolic fates.

Elevated levels of HDL have been associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, while low HDL levels increase the risk. However, it is essential to consider that HDL function and quality may be more important than just the quantity in determining cardiovascular risk.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) is a small protein component of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport all fat molecules (lipids), including cholesterol, in the bloodstream. ApoC-I is primarily produced in the liver and intestines and plays a crucial role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, such as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons.

Apolipoprotein C-I has several functions:

1. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL): ApoC-I inhibits the activity of LPL, an enzyme responsible for breaking down triglycerides in lipoproteins. This inhibition helps regulate the rate at which fatty acids are released from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and taken up by cells for energy production or storage.
2. Activation of hepatic lipase (HL): ApoC-I activates HL, an enzyme involved in the catabolism of intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This activation aids in the clearance of these particles from the circulation.
3. Regulation of cholesterol efflux: ApoC-I may also play a role in regulating cholesterol efflux, the process by which excess cholesterol is removed from cells and transported to the liver for excretion.

Genetic variations in the APOC1 gene, which encodes apoC-I, have been associated with alterations in lipid metabolism and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoproteins) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules, known as triglycerides, in the body. They are produced by the liver and consist of a core of triglycerides surrounded by a shell of proteins called apolipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

VLDL particles are responsible for delivering fat molecules from the liver to peripheral tissues throughout the body, where they can be used as an energy source or stored for later use. During this process, VLDL particles lose triglycerides and acquire more cholesterol, transforming into intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and eventually low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which are also known as "bad" cholesterol.

Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease due to their association with increased levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are considered "good" cholesterol.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is a large protein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol." It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and transport of fats and cholesterol in the body. ApoB-100 is responsible for the binding of LDL to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the uptake of lipoprotein particles by cells. Elevated levels of apoB-100 in the blood are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

Apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) is a protein component of chylomicrons, which are lipoprotein particles responsible for carrying dietary fat and cholesterol from the intestines to other parts of the body. ApoB-48 is produced in the intestines and is a shorter version of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), which is a component of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or "bad cholesterol."

Chylomicrons are assembled and secreted by intestinal cells after a meal, and apoB-48 is essential for the formation and function of these particles. ApoB-48-containing chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to various tissues, including the liver, where they contribute to the maintenance of lipid homeostasis.

Elevated levels of apoB-48 in the blood have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly in individuals with familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by severely elevated triglyceride levels due to impaired clearance of chylomicrons.

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. It is a type of lipoprotein that helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

HDL3 (High-Density Lipoprotein 3) is a type of lipoprotein that plays a role in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. HDLs are commonly known as "good cholesterol" because they help remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body.

HDL3 is one of the subclasses of HDL based on its density and size. It is denser than HDL2 but less dense than HDL1. HDL3 is smaller in size and contains a higher proportion of protein to lipid compared to other HDL subclasses. It is also more efficient in reverse cholesterol transport, which is the process of removing cholesterol from tissues and delivering it to the liver for excretion.

It's worth noting that while high levels of HDL are generally associated with a lower risk of heart disease, recent research suggests that the relationship between HDL and cardiovascular health may be more complex than previously thought.

Tangier Disease is a rare inherited genetic disorder characterized by the deficiency of a protein called ApoA-I and a dysfunctional form of ApoA-II, which are important components of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), also known as "good cholesterol." This results in significantly reduced levels of HDL in the blood and an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in various tissues, including the tonsils, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and sometimes the peripheral nerves.

The condition is caused by mutations in the ABCA1 gene, which plays a crucial role in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. The disease manifests with symptoms such as enlarged orange-colored tonsils, swollen lymph nodes, cloudy corneas, and an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy due to nerve damage.

Tangier Disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that an individual must inherit two defective copies of the gene (one from each parent) to develop the disease.

Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase (PCOAT, also known as Sterol O-Acyltransferase 1 or SOAT1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is responsible for the transfer of acyl groups from phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol, forming cholesteryl esters. This enzymatic reaction results in the storage of excess cholesterol in lipid droplets, preventing its accumulation in the cell membrane and potentially contributing to the development of atherosclerosis if not properly regulated.

Defects or mutations in PCOAT can lead to disruptions in cholesterol homeostasis, which may contribute to various diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is essential for developing therapeutic strategies aimed at managing cholesterol-related disorders.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol," are a type of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol and other fats from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins (apolipoproteins) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) that are responsible for transporting fat molecules around the body in the bloodstream. LDL is one type of lipoprotein, along with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons.

LDL particles are smaller than HDL particles and can easily penetrate the artery walls, leading to the formation of plaques that can narrow or block the arteries. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of LDL in the blood is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Nephelometry and turbidimetry are methods used in clinical laboratories to measure the amount of particles, such as proteins or cells, present in a liquid sample. The main difference between these two techniques lies in how they detect and quantify the particles.

1. Nephelometry: This is a laboratory method that measures the amount of light scattered by suspended particles in a liquid medium at a 90-degree angle to the path of the incident light. When light passes through a sample containing particles, some of the light is absorbed, while some is scattered in various directions. In nephelometry, a light beam is shone into the sample, and a detector measures the intensity of the scattered light at a right angle to the light source. The more particles present in the sample, the higher the intensity of scattered light, which correlates with the concentration of particles in the sample. Nephelometry is often used to measure the levels of immunoglobulins, complement components, and other proteins in serum or plasma.

2. Turbidimetry: This is another laboratory method that measures the amount of light blocked or absorbed by suspended particles in a liquid medium. In turbidimetry, a light beam is shone through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted light is measured. The more particles present in the sample, the more light is absorbed or scattered, resulting in lower transmitted light intensity. Turbidimetric measurements are typically reported as percent transmittance, which is the ratio of the intensity of transmitted light to that of the incident light expressed as a percentage. Turbidimetry can be used to measure various substances, such as proteins, cells, and crystals, in body fluids like urine, serum, or plasma.

In summary, nephelometry measures the amount of scattered light at a 90-degree angle, while turbidimetry quantifies the reduction in transmitted light intensity due to particle presence. Both methods are useful for determining the concentration of particles in liquid samples and are commonly used in clinical laboratories for diagnostic purposes.

ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 (ABC Transporter 1 or ABCB1) is a protein that belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These proteins utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across membranes.

The ABCB1 gene encodes for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a 170 kDa protein, which is an efflux transporter primarily located in the plasma membrane of various cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells. P-gp plays a crucial role in limiting the absorption and facilitating the excretion of many drugs by actively pumping them out of cells, thereby contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells.

P-gp has a broad substrate specificity and can transport various structurally diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and natural toxins. Its expression is often upregulated in cancer cells, leading to reduced intracellular drug accumulation and decreased therapeutic efficacy. In addition to its role in drug resistance, P-gp also functions in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs in normal tissues, particularly in the intestine, liver, and kidney.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Lipoprotein receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells that play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins. These receptors bind to specific lipoproteins in the bloodstream, facilitating their uptake into the cell for further processing.

There are several types of lipoprotein receptors, including:

1. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is responsible for recognizing and internalizing LDL particles, which are rich in cholesterol. Once inside the cell, LDL particles release their cholesterol, which can then be used for various cellular functions or stored for later use. Defects in the LDL receptor can lead to elevated levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
2. HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is involved in the clearance of HDL particles from the bloodstream. HDL particles are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver, where it can be processed and eliminated from the body.
3. VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor recognizes and internalizes VLDL particles, which are produced by the liver and carry triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues. VLDL particles are subsequently converted into LDL particles in the bloodstream.
4. LRP (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein) Family: This family of receptors includes several members, such as LRP1 and LRP2, that play roles in various cellular processes, including lipid metabolism, protein trafficking, and cell signaling. They can bind to a variety of ligands, including lipoproteins, proteases, and extracellular matrix components.

In summary, lipoprotein receptors are essential for maintaining proper lipid metabolism and homeostasis by facilitating the uptake, processing, and elimination of lipoproteins in the body.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Chylomicrons are a type of lipoprotein that are responsible for carrying dietary lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, from the intestines to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream. They are the largest lipoproteins and are composed of an outer layer of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, which surrounds a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Chylomicrons are produced in the intestinal mucosa after a meal containing fat, and their production is stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons interact with other lipoproteins and enzymes to deliver their lipid cargo to various tissues, including muscle and adipose tissue, where they are used for energy or stored for later use.

LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the lipoproteins that helps carry cholesterol throughout your body. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) that is found in the cells of your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to function properly, but having too much can lead to health problems. LDL cholesterol is one of the two main types of cholesterol; the other is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol.

It's important to keep your LDL cholesterol levels in a healthy range to reduce your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. A healthcare professional can help you determine what your target LDL cholesterol level should be based on your individual health status and risk factors.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Ultracentrifugation is a medical and laboratory technique used for the separation of particles of different sizes, densities, or shapes from a mixture based on their sedimentation rates. This process involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment called an ultracentrifuge, which can generate very high centrifugal forces, much greater than those produced by a regular centrifuge.

In ultracentrifugation, a sample is placed in a special tube and spun at extremely high speeds, causing the particles within the sample to separate based on their size, shape, and density. The larger or denser particles will sediment faster and accumulate at the bottom of the tube, while smaller or less dense particles will remain suspended in the solution or sediment more slowly.

Ultracentrifugation is a valuable tool in various fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It can be used to purify and concentrate viruses, subcellular organelles, membrane fractions, ribosomes, DNA, and other macromolecules from complex mixtures. The technique can also provide information about the size, shape, and density of these particles, making it a crucial method for characterizing and studying their properties.

Hypolipoproteinemias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by low levels of lipoproteins in the blood. Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins and lipids that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, in the body.

There are several types of hypolipoproteinemias, each associated with deficiencies in specific lipoproteins:

1. Hypobetalipoproteinemia: This disorder is characterized by low levels of beta-lipoproteins, also known as low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol. It can lead to decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and an increased risk of fatty liver disease.
2. Abetalipoproteinemia: This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the absence of beta-lipoproteins and apolipoprotein B, which results in very low levels of LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. It can lead to fat malabsorption, neurological symptoms, and retinal degeneration.
3. Tangier disease: This disorder is caused by a deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I and results in low levels of HDL cholesterol. It can cause enlarged orange-colored tonsils, neuropathy, and an increased risk of coronary artery disease.
4. Familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia: This disorder is characterized by low levels of HDL cholesterol due to a deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I or A-II. It can increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease.

It's important to note that while some hypolipoproteinemias are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, others may actually protect against it due to reduced levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. Treatment for these disorders typically involves dietary modifications and supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids. In some cases, medication may be necessary to manage symptoms or prevent complications.

HDL2 (High-Density Lipoprotein 2) is a type of lipoprotein that plays a role in the transportation and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. HDL particles are responsible for picking up excess cholesterol from tissues and cells throughout the body and transporting it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport.

HDL2 is one of the subclasses of HDL particles, which are classified based on their size, density, and composition. HDL2 particles are larger and denser than other HDL subclasses, such as HDL3. They have a higher proportion of cholesteryl esters to phospholipids and apolipoproteins compared to other HDL subclasses.

Elevated levels of HDL2 have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, while low levels of HDL2 have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. However, the exact role of HDL2 in cardiovascular health and disease is still being studied and understood.

Lymph is a colorless, transparent fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune and circulatory systems. It consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes, proteins, lipids, glucose, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. Lymph plays an essential role in maintaining fluid balance, absorbing fats from the digestive tract, and defending the body against infection by transporting immune cells to various tissues and organs. It is collected from tissues through lymph capillaries and flows through increasingly larger lymphatic vessels, ultimately returning to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins in the chest region.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Apoproteins are the protein components of lipoprotein complexes, which are responsible for transporting fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the body. Apoproteins play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by acting as recognition signals that allow lipoproteins to interact with specific receptors on cell surfaces.

There are several different types of apoproteins, each with distinct functions. For example, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a large apoprotein found in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and lipoprotein(a). ApoB plays a critical role in the assembly and secretion of VLDL from the liver, and it also mediates the uptake of LDL by cells.

Abnormalities in apoprotein levels or function can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, measuring apoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Korea" is not a medical term. It refers to a region in East Asia that is divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea).

If you're looking for medical terms, I'd be happy to help. Could you please provide more context?

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Republic of Korea" is a geopolitical term referring to a country located in East Asia, also known as South Korea. It does not have a specific medical definition. The term refers to the political, social, and cultural aspects of the country, rather than medical conditions or health-related concepts. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a gene that provides instructions for making a protein involved in the metabolism of fats called lipids. One variant of this gene, APOE4, is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

The APOE4 allele (variant) is less efficient at clearing beta-amyloid protein, a component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. This can lead to an accumulation of beta-amyloid and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that having one or two copies of the APOE4 allele does not mean that a person will definitely develop Alzheimer's disease, but it does increase the risk. Other factors, such as age, family history, and the presence of other genetic variants, also contribute to the development of this complex disorder.

Apolipoprotein E3 (ApoE3) is one of the three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. ApoE is produced by the APOE gene, which has three common alleles: ε2, ε3, and ε4. These alleles result in three main isoforms of the protein: ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4.

ApoE3 is the most common isoform, found in approximately 77-78% of the population. It has a slightly different amino acid sequence compared to ApoE2 and ApoE4, which can affect its function. ApoE3 is thought to play a neutral or protective role in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases, although some studies suggest that it may have a mildly favorable effect on lipid metabolism compared to ApoE4.

Seoul virus is a type of hantavirus that can cause a severe and sometimes fatal disease in humans called hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It is primarily carried by the brown or Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and is transmitted to humans through contact with infected rat urine, droppings, or saliva.

The virus can also be spread through aerosolized particles of rat excreta, making it possible for the virus to infect people who come into contact with contaminated dust or airborne particles. In addition, Seoul virus can be transmitted through the bite of an infected rat or by consuming food or water contaminated with rat urine or feces.

The symptoms of Seoul virus infection typically appear within 1-2 weeks after exposure and can include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the virus can cause damage to the blood vessels, leading to bleeding disorders, low blood pressure, and acute kidney failure.

Seoul virus is found worldwide, but it is most commonly reported in Asia. People who work in rat-infested environments, such as sewers, warehouses, and farms, are at increased risk of exposure to the virus. There is no specific treatment for Seoul virus infection, but supportive care, such as fluid replacement and management of complications, can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rats and their excreta, using personal protective equipment when working in rat-infested areas, and practicing good hygiene.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by progressive and persistent loss of neuronal structure and function, often leading to cognitive decline, functional impairment, and ultimately death. These conditions are associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genetic mutations in the brain. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). The underlying causes and mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood, and there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.

... D Apolipoprotein E Apolipoprotein F Apolipoprotein H - a misnomer Apolipoprotein L Apolipoprotein M ... HuGENet Review Apolipoprotein AI Mutations and Information Apolipoproteins. Apo A1, B, C2. Apolipoproteins information This ... Apolipoprotein A (Apo-AI, Apo-A2, Apo-A4, and Apo-A5) Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B48 and Apo B-100) Apolipoprotein C (ApoC-I, apo ... Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which ... G2 is an in-frame deletion of the two amino acid residues, N388 and Y389.[citation needed] Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor ... particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). The APOL1 ...
Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a component of HDL that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high ... "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". Muffat J, Walker DW (January 2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging ... Apolipoproteins+D at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Applied Research on Apolipoproteins ...
Apolipoprotein+H at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoprotein H and Applied Research ... The first four domains found in Apolipoprotein H resemble each other, however the fifth one appears to be different. This ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Apolipoprotein H (B2G1) (Articles ... β2-glycoprotein 1, also known as beta-2 glycoprotein 1 and Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), is a 38 kDa multifunctional plasma protein ...
The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). The ... "Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. X. The effect of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on quantitative levels of ... Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a protein involved in the metabolism of fats in the body of mammals. A subtype is implicated in the ... Apolipoprotein E enhances proteolytic break-down of this peptide, both within and between cells. The isoform APOE-ε4 is not as ...
... is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, Lp(a), IDL, and LDL particles (LDL-commonly known as "bad ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene. It is commonly used to detect risk of ... Su Q, Tsai J, Xu E, Qiu W, Bereczki E, Santha M, Adeli K (2009). "Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Apolipoprotein B100 Cromwell WC, Otvos JD, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Sullivan L, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, ...
... (Apo-AI) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene. As the major component of HDL particles, ... The encoded apolipoprotein AI, is a 28.1 kDa protein composed of 243 amino acids; 21 peptides have been observed through mass ... Apolipoprotein AI has also been isolated as a prostacyclin (PGI2) stabilizing factor, and thus may have an anticlotting effect ... Apolipoprotein AI is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma. Chylomicrons secreted ...
... (Apo L) is found in high-density lipoprotein complexes that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The ... reproducible up-regulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high-susceptibility locus for ...
In the field of molecular biology, apolipoprotein C is a family of four low molecular weight apolipoproteins, designated as C-I ... In the fasting state, the C apolipoproteins are mainly associated with HDL. During absorption of dietary fat, the C ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Apolipoproteins, All stub articles, Protein stubs) ... Mahley RW, Innerarity TL, Rall SC, Weisgraber KH (December 1984). "Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function ...
... is the first chondroitine sulphate chain containing apolipoprotein. Apolipoproteins are proteins that binds to ... APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family. The human, apolipoprotein O is a 198 amino acids protein that contains a 23 ... Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. ... 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ...
... (Apo-CII, or Apoc-II), or apolipoprotein C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. The ... 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. ... Connelly PW, Maguire GF, Little JA (1988). "Apolipoprotein CIISt. Michael. Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated ... "Entrez Gene: APOC2 apolipoprotein C-II". Jackson RL, Baker HN, Gilliam EB, Gotto AM (1977). "Primary structure of very low ...
... , also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. APOC4 is a ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV". Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and characterization ... 2008). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
... is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from a missense mutation which reduces the affinity of ...
In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ...
... also known as apo-CIII, and apolipoprotein C3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. ... Karathanasis SK (Oct 1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV ... Apolipoprotein+C-III at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human APOC3 genome location and ... Zannis VI, Cole FS, Jackson CL, Kurnit DM, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1985). "Distribution of apolipoprotein A-I, C-II, C-III, and E ...
Myklebost O, Rogne S (August 1986). "The gene for human apolipoprotein CI is located 4.3 kilobases away from the apolipoprotein ... "Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I". Puppione DL, Ryan CM, Bassilian S, Souda P, Xiao X, Ryder OA, Whitelegge JP (March 2010 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. It is the second most abundant protein of the ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. ApoA-II regulates many steps in ...
The apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5′ UTR cis regulatory element is an RNA element located in the 5′ UTR of the human apoB mRNA. This ... Page for Apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5′ UTR cis-regulatory element at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Pontrelli L, Sidiropoulos KG, Adeli K (June 2004). "Translational control of apolipoprotein B mRNA: regulation via cis elements ...
1996). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's Disease. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer's Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer ... "Maestre CV" (PDF). Maestre, Gladys Elena (1996). Apolipoproteins and Alzheimer's disease (Thesis). OCLC 36257436. Staff, M. D. ... "The apolipoprotein ?4 allele in patients with Alzheimer's disease". Annals of Neurology. 34 (5): 752-754. doi:10.1002/ana. ... "Apolipoprotein E and alzheimer's disease: Ethnic variation in genotypic risks". Annals of Neurology. 37 (2): 254-259. doi: ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-I Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Apolipoprotein M is an apolipoprotein and member of the lipocalin protein family that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. It ... "The signal peptide anchors apolipoprotein M in plasma lipoproteins and prevents rapid clearance of apolipoprotein M from plasma ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Christoffersen C, Ahnström J, Axler O, Christensen EI, Dahlbäck B, Nielsen LB (July 2008 ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ...
Xu, Ning; Dahlbäck, Björn (1999). "A Novel Human Apolipoprotein (ApoM)". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (44): 31286-31290 ... "Endothelium-protective sphingosine-1-phosphate provided by HDL-associated apolipoprotein M". Proceedings of the National ...
"Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. XVIII. apolipoprotein polymorphisms in Australian Aborigines", Human Biology, 63 (2 ...
"Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Gaudet RG, Zhu S, Halder A, Kim BH, Bradfield CJ, Huang S, et al. (2021). "A human ... Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. Expressed in the gut, it has antibiotic properties ... This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene family. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, where it may affect ... Duchateau PN, Pullinger CR, Cho MH, Eng C, Kane JP (April 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, ...
Gain of toxic Apolipoprotein E4 effects in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons Is Ameliorated by a Small-Molecule Structure Corrector. ... Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Luo, Audrey; Jung, Jeesun; Longley, Martha; Rosoff, Daniel B.; Charlet, Katrin; ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
The HDL donates apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) to the nascent chylomicron and, thus, converts it to a ... The main apolipoprotein component is ApoB48. While circulating in blood, chylomicrons exchange components with high-density ... The triglycerides are then combined with phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) to form a nascent ... These triglycerides, along with phospholipids and cholesterol, are added to apolipoprotein B48 to form immature chylomicrons. ...
Apolipoprotein D Apolipoprotein E Apolipoprotein F Apolipoprotein H - a misnomer Apolipoprotein L Apolipoprotein M ... HuGENet Review Apolipoprotein AI Mutations and Information Apolipoproteins. Apo A1, B, C2. Apolipoproteins information This ... Apolipoprotein A (Apo-AI, Apo-A2, Apo-A4, and Apo-A5) Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B48 and Apo B-100) Apolipoprotein C (ApoC-I, apo ... Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
Beta apolipoproteins. Beta apolipoproteins are the largest of the apolipoproteins. They are critically important for the ... Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... CMs, VLDL, and LDL carry apolipoproteins on their surface; these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta ... The 2 beta apolipoproteins are B-100 and B-48. ApoB-100 is carried on VLDL and the lipoproteins derived from its metabolism, ...
SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic risk for heart disease ... Tags: Apolipoprotein, Blood, Cardiology, Cholesterol, Diet, Doctor, Fasting, Gene, Genes, Genetic, Genetics, Genotyping, G- ... Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
Macrophage-derived apolipoprotein (apo) E and multimers of a synthetic apo E-peptide display monokine-like functions by ...
Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimers disease (AD), is associated with enhanced brain ... Apolipoprotein E4 enhances brain inflammation by modulation of the NF-kappaB signaling cascade Neurobiol Dis. 2005 Dec;20(3): ... Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimers disease (AD), is associated with enhanced brain ...
This interventional study aims to evaluate and compare levels of apolipoproteins among vitamin D deficient subjects at baseline ... while apolipoprotein C1 significantly increased only in females (p , 0.01). In addition, apolipoprotein B significantly ... Sex-specific expression of apolipoprotein levels following replenishment of vitamin D J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Jun:180: ... Serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile and apolipoproteins (A1, A2, B, C1, C2, C3, E and H) were analyzed using commercially available ...
This disparity has been attributed to coding variants (G1 and G2) in apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1); however, there is little ... African polymorphisms in the gene for Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) confer a survival advantage against lethal trypanosomiasis but ...
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system. APOE- ... Role of apolipoprotein E in neurodegenerative diseases Vo Van Giau,1 Eva Bagyinszky,1 Seong Soo A An,1 SangYun Kim2 1Department ... Effect of apolipoprotein E variants on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in the Orang Asli (Aborigines) of Malaysia. Hum ... Apolipoprotein E2-Dunedin (228 Arg replaced by Cys): an apolipoprotein E2 variant with normal receptor-binding activity. J ...
Apolipoprotein E4 Reduction with Antisense Oligonucleotides Decreases Neurodegeneration in a Tauopathy Model. Ann Neurol. 2021 ...
Apolipoprotein E-e4 from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around ...
Bioss Anti-Apolipoprotein E Polyclonal, Catalog # BS-4892R. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunocytochemistry (ICC/IF), ... Protein Aliases: Apo-E; ApoE4; Apolipoprotein; Apolipoprotein E; apolipoprotein E3; apolipoprotein E4; Apoprotein; B2G1; BG; ... Cite Apolipoprotein E Polyclonal Antibody. The following product was used in this experiment: Apolipoprotein E Polyclonal ... Apo E (Apolipoprotein E) plays an important role in the metabolism of lipids in the plasma, and is also is a constituent of ...
... *Authors: *Tomohiro Aoki ... Aoki T, Moriwaki T, Takagi Y, Kataoka H, Yang J, Nozaki K and Hashimoto N: The efficacy of apolipoprotein E deficiency in ... Aoki, T., Moriwaki, T., Takagi, Y., Kataoka, H., Yang, J., Nozaki, K., & Hashimoto, N. (2008). The efficacy of apolipoprotein E ... Aoki, T., Moriwaki, T., Takagi, Y., Kataoka, H., Yang, J., Nozaki, K., Hashimoto, N.The efficacy of apolipoprotein E ...
View Mouse/Rat Apolipoprotein H/ApoH Antibody (AF6575) datasheet. ... Background: Apolipoprotein H/ApoH. Apolipoprotein H (ApoH), also known as beta 2‑Glycoprotein I/ beta 2-GPI, is a variably ... Detects mouse and rat Apolipoprotein H/ApoH in Western blots and detects recombinant mouse Apolipoprotein H/ApoH in direct ... Reviews for Mouse/Rat Apolipoprotein H/ApoH Antibody. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review ...
Apolipoprotein C-III: understanding an emerging cardiovascular risk factor Esther M. M. Ooi; Esther M. M. Ooi ... Esther M. M. Ooi, P. Hugh R. Barrett, Dick C. Chan, Gerald F. Watts; Apolipoprotein C-III: understanding an emerging ... ApoC-III (apolipoprotein C-III), an important regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is strongly associated with ...
46-802) can be used to detect Human Apolipoprotein B Antibody in ELISA and WB. ... ADDITIONAL NAMES: APOB, apolipoprotein B (including Ag(x) antigen), FLDB, apoB-100, apoB-48, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein ... 1: Benn M, Nordestgaard BG, Jensen JS, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic stroke. J Clin ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ...
The very low density of some particles has been attributed to an association of the virus with apolipoprotein B (apoB) positive ... The nature of the association of HCV particles with lipoproteins remains elusive and the role of apolipoproteins in the ...
Lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein E genotype, and risk of Alzheimers disease Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
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Apolipoprotein E-deficient (KOE) mice were challenged with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The effect of different doses of NAM on ... Vitamin B3 impairs reverse cholesterol transport in Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice La vitamina B3 altera el transporte reverso ... Overexpression of human apolipoprotein A-II in transgenic mice does not impair macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol ... Human apolipoprotein A-II determines plasma triglycerides by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity and high-density ...
... high purity Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) from human plasma for manufacturing of diagnostic controls, calibrators, standards and ... Buy Human Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) from Lee Biosolutions.. Custom preparations, technical support, bulk quantities and ...
There is some evidence that apolipoprotein E (apoE) binds to Aß peptide and modulates its aggregation into plaques. ApoE has ...
Erratum - Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Clinical Outcome after Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral ... Erratum - Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Clinical Outcome after Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral ... This is an erratum to: Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Clinical Outcome after Ischemic Stroke, ... In the article "Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Clinical Outcome after Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral ...
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Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), reduces the risk for ... Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. A statistical mechanical model. Eitan Gross(a) ...
This ELISA kit is a 1.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed for the quantitative determination of the targets. This ELISA kit for research use only, not for therapeutic or diagnostic applications!
Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria parasitemia.. Rougeron V, Woods ... Apolipoprotein E is a monomeric protein secreted by the liver and responsible for the transport of plasma cholesterol and ... Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria para... ...
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the transport and uptake of cholesterol by way of its high affinity interaction with lipoprotein receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings with apoA1 and apoE suggest that the tertiary structures of these two members of the human exchangeable apolipoprotein gene family are related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system. (dovepress.com)
  • The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is located on chromosome 19 and encodes a glycoprotein that is 299 amino acids long. (dovepress.com)
  • The relation of hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) to cerebral aneurysm formation, has been unclear until now. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Genetic analysis of families with Alzheimer disease has revealed a disease-associated variant of the APOE gene, which encodes apolipoprotein E, a transporter of lipids in the blood and central nervous system. (columbia.edu)
  • Methods: Aortic plaque deposition was assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E (Apoe) knockout (KO) and At 2 r (also known as Agtr2)/Apoe double-KO (DKO) mice. (monash.edu)
  • How is the Apolipoprotein-E (APOE) test performed? (redcliffelabs.com)
  • To investigate whether blood lipid response to dietary fat and fibre vary according to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene locus. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Objective - Apolipoprotein E (apoE) reduces mouse atherosclerosis progression independent of plasma cholesterol level effects. (mssm.edu)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein E (APOE) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (tissue-cell-culture.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein E (APOE) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (tissue-cell-culture.com)
  • Transcriptome analysis was performed using retinal pigment epithelium cells of apoE knockout and apolipoprotein E2 mice using microarray analysis. (geneticsmr.com)
  • The meta-analysis was performed according to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele status. (geneticsmr.com)
  • In the present study, the correlation of polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein E ( apoE ) gene with the susceptibility of essential hypertension (EH) was investigated. (geneticsmr.com)
  • We examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism, in elderly subjects who were born in Japan, migrated to South Brazil and have lived in that region for over 40 years, versus a group of elderly, locally born Brazilians living in the same region. (geneticsmr.com)
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
  • Buy Human Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) from Lee Biosolutions. (leebio.com)
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) due to a founder variant in Apolipoprotein B (ApoB R3500Q ) is reported in 12% of the Pennsylvania Amish community. (clinicforspecialchildren.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels are used to evaluate the risk for cardiovascular disease. (healthmatters.io)
  • Low apoB levels may indicate Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome (abetalipoproteinemia), a very rare genetic condition characterized by apolipoprotein B deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a structural protein that constitutes a major component of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). (medscape.com)
  • Some evidence has shown that the capacity of the apoB/apoA-I ratio in assessing cardiovascular risk is strong and may be better than the use of apolipoprotein B alone. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fats, cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins) to form lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Different lipoproteins contain different classes of apolipoproteins, which influence their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) is the major structural protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), although it is present in other lipoproteins in smaller amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA4) is present in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B plays a particularly important role in lipoprotein transport being the primary organizing protein of many lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) plays an important role in lipid metabolism specific in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other apolipoproteins (A, C, D, E, and their subtypes) are soluble and are exchanged between lipoproteins during metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI) is one of the apoproteins of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). (southtees.nhs.uk)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a building block of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). (healthmatters.io)
  • The A apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in high density lipoproteins (HDL), although APO A-I is also present in chylomicrons. (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein-E is a protein responsible for producing lipoproteins, which carry cholesterol and other fats through the bloodstream. (redcliffelabs.com)
  • Hundreds of genetic polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins have been described, and many of them alter their structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benn M, Nordestgaard BG, Jensen JS, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic stroke. (prosci-inc.com)
  • We tried to identify the interaction between dietary quality indices and apolipoprotein B Ins/Del and EcoR1 polymorphisms on cardio-metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (researchsquare.com)
  • However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating a lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through body fluids (i.e., blood, lymph). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apo E (Apolipoprotein E) plays an important role in the metabolism of lipids in the plasma, and is also is a constituent of various plasma lipoprotein-lipid particles. (thermofisher.com)
  • Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONTEXT: Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These structures consist of an outer monolayer of protein (an Apolipoprotein) and polar lipids (phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol) plus an inner core of neutral lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol esters). (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein M (apoM) participates in the lipid metabolism and exhibit anti‑atherosclerotic functions and it is presented in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta apolipoproteins, which remain part of the lipoprotein throughout its metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • ApoC-III (apolipoprotein C-III), an important regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is strongly associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and the progression of CVD. (portlandpress.com)
  • Members of the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) on human chromosome 11q23 play an important role in lipid metabolism. (doe.gov)
  • LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. (healthmatters.io)
  • The apolipoproteins interact with a series of enzymes and tissue receptors and are therefore responsible for further metabolism and catabolism of the micelle. (randox.com)
  • However, there have been no reports on gene expression patterns in animal models of non-neovascular AMD with abnormal lipid metabolism such as apolipoprotein E knockout and human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Mouse Apolipoprotein B48 (apo-B48) ELISA Kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (joplink.net)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Apolipoprotein H from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (bestpractice-life.pl)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein H (APOH) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (bestpractice-life.pl)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (gkts.net)
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, ligands for cell-surface receptors and lipid transport proteins, and cofactors for enzymes (e.g. apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These particles consist of a core of cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by a monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins (apolipoproteins). (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), reduces the risk for atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from the membrane of foam cells. (edpsciences.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E is a monomeric protein secreted by the liver and responsible for the transport of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. (edu.au)
  • Ala-Korpela, M 2019, ' The culprit is the carrier, not the loads: cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease ', International Journal of Epidemiology , vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1389-1392. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ('good') cholesterol. (healthmatters.io)
  • Studies have shown that the ratio of apolipoprotein A-1:apolipoprotein B may correlate better with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) than total cholesterol, and LDL:HDL ratio. (healthmatters.io)
  • The present study aimed to examine the association between discordant apolipoprotein B ( Apo B ) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the Chinese population and to determine whether adding information on Apo B to LDL-C and HDL-C improves CVD risk prediction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Background: We have previously demonstrated that estrogen could significantly enhance expression of apolipoprotein M (apoM), whereas the molecular basis of its mechanism is not fully elucidated yet. (lu.se)
  • Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with enhanced brain inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (lu.se)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Dog Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (gkts.net)
  • In the article "Association between Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Clinical Outcome after Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage" [Cerebrovasc Dis 2022;51:313-322. (karger.com)
  • Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfers of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to stabilizing lipoprotein structure and solubilizing the lipid component, apolipoproteins interact with lipoprotein receptors and lipid transport proteins, thereby participating in lipoprotein uptake and clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein H (ApoH), also known as beta 2‑Glycoprotein I/ beta 2-GPI, is a variably glycosylated member of the complement control superfamily of proteins with a molecular weight of aproximately 50 kDa (1, 2). (rndsystems.com)
  • Inhalation exposure of gas-metal arc stainless steel welding fume increased atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. (cdc.gov)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Apolipoprotein E Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # BS-4892R. (thermofisher.com)
  • PVDF membrane was probed with 0.25 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Mouse/Rat Apolipoprotein H/ApoH Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF6575) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF016 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Detects mouse and rat Apolipoprotein H/ApoH in Western blots and detects recombinant mouse Apolipoprotein H/ApoH in direct ELISAs. (rndsystems.com)
  • In direct ELISAs, approximately 40% cross-reactivity with recombinant human Apolipoprotein H/ApoH is observed. (rndsystems.com)
  • Detection of Rat and Mouse Apolipoprotein H/ApoH by Western Blot. (rndsystems.com)
  • A specific band was detected for Apolipoprotein H/ApoH at approximately 50-60 kDa (as indicated). (rndsystems.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Apolipoprotein H (APOH) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (bestpractice-life.pl)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Apolipoprotein H (APOH) in samples from Serum, plasma and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (bestpractice-life.pl)
  • Aoki T, Moriwaki T, Takagi Y, Kataoka H, Yang J, Nozaki K and Hashimoto N: The efficacy of apolipoprotein E deficiency in cerebral aneurysm formation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A4's (APOA4's) functions on HDL in humans are not well understood. (jci.org)
  • The intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the concentration of Apolipoprotein B in the sample. (cdc.gov)
  • A unique feature of APOA4 is that it is an intestinal apolipoprotein secreted on HDL and chylomicrons. (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein AI is used in the evaluation of risk for atherosclerotic disease and the detection of Tangier disease. (southtees.nhs.uk)
  • Para cumplir este objetivo, la Sociedad creó la publicación Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis. (elsevier.es)
  • Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. (cdc.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. (healthmatters.io)
  • Apolipoprotein Particle and Cardiovascular Risk Prediction (from a Prospective Cohort Study). (bvsalud.org)
  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system and apoD can also modulate the stability and oxidation status of these molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)
  • Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. (edpsciences.org)
  • In addition, apolipoprotein B significantly decreased only in females (p = 0.002). (nih.gov)
  • Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria para. (edu.au)