A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Relating to the size of solids.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.

Reversal of hyperlipidaemia in apolipoprotein C1 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor, but not by the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor. (1/546)

We have shown previously that human apolipoprotein (apo)C1 transgenic mice exhibit hyperlipidaemia, due primarily to an impaired clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the circulation. In the absence of at least the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), it was shown that APOC1 overexpression in transgenic mice inhibited the hepatic uptake of VLDL via the LDLR-related protein. In the present study, we have now examined the effect of apoC1 on the binding of lipoproteins to both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and the LDLR. The binding specificity of the VLDLR and LDLR for apoC1-enriched lipoprotein particles was examined in vivo through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDLR and the LDLR [giving rise to adenovirus-containing (Ad)-VLDLR and Ad-LDLR respectively] in APOC1 transgenic mice, LDLR-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and wild-type mice. Remarkably, Ad-VLDLR treatment did not reduce hyperlipidaemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human APOC1, irrespective of both the level of transgenic expression and the presence of the LDLR, whereas Ad-VLDLR treatment did reverse hyperlipidaemia in LDLR-/- and wild-type mice. On the other hand, Ad-LDLR treatment strongly decreased plasma lipid levels in these APOC1 transgenic mice. These results suggest that apoC1 inhibits the clearance of lipoprotein particles via the VLDLR, but not via the LDLR. This hypothesis is corroborated by in vitro binding studies. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the VLDLR (CHO-VLDLR) or LDLR (CHO-LDLR) bound less APOC1 transgenic VLDL than wild-type VLDL. Intriguingly, however, enrichment with apoE enhanced dose-dependently the binding of wild-type VLDL to CHO-VLDLR cells (up to 5-fold), whereas apoE did not enhance the binding of APOC1 transgenic VLDL to these cells. In contrast, for binding to CHO-LDLR cells, both wild-type and APOC1 transgenic VLDL were stimulated upon enrichment with apoE. From these studies, we conclude that apoC1 specifically inhibits the apoE-mediated binding of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDLR, whereas apoC1-enriched lipoproteins can still bind to the LDLR. The variability in specificity of these lipoprotein receptors for apoC1-containing lipoprotein particles provides further evidence for a regulatory role of apoC1 in the delivery of lipoprotein constituents to different tissues on which these receptors are located.  (+info)

Allele-specific differences in apolipoprotein C-III mRNA expression in human liver. (2/546)

BACKGROUND: Sequence variations at the apolipoprotein (apo)C-III gene locus have been associated with increased plasma triglycerides. In particular, the S2 allele of an SstI polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region has been associated with hypertriglyceridemia in many populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether the variant S2 allele is related to increased mRNA expression in vivo. METHODS: We measured allele-specific apoC-III expression in liver biopsies of five obese subjects, using restriction isotyping and a primer extension method, both based on the SstI polymorphism. RESULTS: The expression of mRNA by the S1 and S2 alleles was similar in two patients, whereas the mRNA encoded by the S2 allele was 14%, 26%, and 29% more abundant than the wild-type mRNA in the remaining three patients. Because other polymorphisms at the apoC-III gene locus have been implicated in the S2-associated hypertriglyceridemia, we determined apoC-III haplotypes comprising promoter polymorphisms at -935, -641, -630, -625, -482, -455, as well as the SstI sites and a BbvI site, both located in the 3' untranslated region. None of these polymorphisms nor any haplotype exhibited a perfect association with allele-specific expression, but variation at the T-482C site correlated in four of five subjects with the relative allele abundance. CONCLUSION: These data provide preliminary evidence for allele-specific differences in apoC-III mRNA expression in vivo and suggest that such differences may contribute to associations of apoC-III gene polymorphisms with hypertriglyceridemia.  (+info)

Vitamin A is linked to the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in familial combined hyperlipidemia. (3/546)

There is growing evidence of the capacity of vitamin A to regulate the expression of the genetic region that encodes apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, C-III, and A-IV. This region in turn has been proposed to modulate the expression of hyperlipidemia in the commonest genetic form of dyslipidemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). The hypothesis tested here was whether vitamin A (retinol), by controlling the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, plays a role in modulating the hyperlipidemic phenotype in FCHL. We approached the subject by studying three genetic variants of this region: a C1100-T transition in exon 3 of the apoC-III gene, a G3206-T transversion in exon 4 of the apoC-III gene, and a G-75-A substitution in the promoter region of the apoA-I gene. The association between plasma vitamin A concentrations and differences in the plasma concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III based on the different genotypes was assessed in 48 FCHL patients and 74 of their normolipidemic relatives. The results indicated that the subjects carrying genetic variants associated with increased concentrations of apoA-I and C-III (C1100-T and G-75-A) also presented increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A. This was only observed among the FCHL patients, which suggested that certain characteristics of these patients contributed to this association. The G3206-T was not associated with changes in either apolipoprotein concentrations or in vitamin A. In summary, we report a relationship between genetically determined elevations of proteins of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and vitamin A in FCHL patients. More studies will be needed to confirm that vitamin A plays a role in FCHL which might also be important for its potential application to therapeutical approaches.  (+info)

Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (4/546)

New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction.  (+info)

Kinetics and mechanism of exchange of apolipoprotein C-III molecules from very low density lipoprotein particles. (5/546)

Transfer of apolipoprotein (apo) molecules between lipoprotein particles is an important factor in modulating the metabolism of the particles. Although the phenomenon is well established, the kinetics and molecular mechanism of passive apo exchange/transfer have not been defined in detail. In this study, the kinetic parameters governing the movement of radiolabeled apoC molecules from human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL3) particles were measured using a manganese phosphate precipitation assay to rapidly separate the two types of lipoprotein particles. In the case of VLDL labeled with human [14C]apoCIII1, a large fraction of the apoCIII1 transfers to HDL3 within 1 minute of mixing the two lipoproteins at either 4 degrees or 37 degrees C. As the diameter of the VLDL donor particles is decreased from 42-59 to 23-25 nm, the size of this rapidly transferring apoCIII1 pool increases from about 50% to 85%. There is also a pool of apoCIII1 existing on the donor VLDL particles that transfers more slowly. This slow transfer follows a monoexponential rate equation; for 35-40 nm donor VLDL particles the pool size is approximately 20% and the t1/2 is approximately 3 h. The flux of apoCIII molecules between VLDL and HDL3 is bidirectional and all of the apoCIII seems to be available for exchange so that equilibrium is attained. It is likely that the two kinetic pools of apoCIII are related to conformational variations of individual apo molecules on the surface of VLDL particles. The rate of slow transfer of apoCIII1 from donor VLDL (35-40 nm) to acceptor HDL3 is unaffected by an increase in the acceptor to donor ratio, indicating that the transfer is not dependent on collisions between donor and acceptor particles. Consistent with this, apoCIII1 molecules can transfer from donor VLDL to acceptor HDL3 particles across a 50 kDa molecular mass cutoff semipermeable membrane separating the lipoprotein particles. These results indicate that apoC molecules transfer between VLDL and HDL3 particles by an aqueous diffusion mechanism.  (+info)

CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene expression. (6/546)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that is crucial in the regulation of a large number of genes involved in glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid metabolism and in determining the hepatic phenotype. We have previously shown that HNF-4 contains transcription activation functions at the N terminus (AF-1) and the C terminus (AF-2) which work synergistically to confer full HNF-4 activity. Here, we show that HNF-4 recruits the CREB-binding protein (CBP) coactivator on promoters of genes that contain functional HNF-4 sites. HNF-4 interacts with the N-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1-771) and the C-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1812-2441). The two activating functions of HNF-4, AF-1 and AF-2, interact with the N terminus and the N and C terminus of CBP, respectively. In addition, we show that in contrast to the other nuclear hormone receptors the interaction between HNF-4 and CBP is ligand-independent. Recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 results in an enhancement of the transcriptional activity of the latter. CBP does not activate gene expression in the absence of HNF-4, and dominant negative forms of HNF-4 prevent transcriptional activation by CBP, suggesting that the mere recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 is not sufficient for enhancement of gene expression. These findings demonstrate that CBP acts as a transcriptional coactivator for HNF-4 and provide new insights into the regulatory function of HNF-4.  (+info)

Characterization of remnant-like particles isolated by immunoaffinity gel from the plasma of type III and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic patients. (7/546)

Previous studies have investigated the potential atherogenicity and thrombogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants by isolating them from plasma within a remnant-like particle (RLP) fraction, using an immunoaffinity gel containing specific anti-apoB-100 and anti-apoA-I antibodies. In order to characterize lipoproteins in this RLP fraction and to determine to what extent their composition varies from one individual to another, we have used automated gel filtration chromatography to determine the size heterogeneity of RLP isolated from normolipidemic control subjects (n = 8), and from type III (n = 6) and type IV (n = 9) hyperlipoproteinemic patients, who by selection had similarly elevated levels of plasma triglyceride (406 +/- 43 and 397 +/- 35 mg/dl, respectively). Plasma RLP triglyceride, cholesterol, apoB, apoC-III, and apoE concentrations were elevated 2- to 6-fold (P < 0. 05) in hyperlipoproteinemic patients compared to controls. RLP fractions of type III patients were enriched in cholesterol and apoE compared to those of type IV patients, and RLP of type IV patients were enriched in triglyceride and apoC-III relative to those of normolipidemic subjects. In normolipidemic subjects, the majority of RLP had a size similar to LDL or HDL. The RLP of hyperlipoproteinemic patients were, however, larger and were similar in size to TRL, or were intermediate in size (i.e., ISL) between that of TRL and LDL. Compared to controls, ISL in the RLP fraction of type III patients were enriched in apoE relative to apoC-III, whereas in type IV patients they were enriched in apoC-III relative to apoE. These results demonstrate that: 1) RLP are heterogeneous in size and composition in both normolipidemic and hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and 2) the apoE and apoC-III composition of RLP is different in type III compared to type IV hyperlipoproteinemic patients.  (+info)

Acute effects of intravenous infusion of ApoA1/phosphatidylcholine discs on plasma lipoproteins in humans. (8/546)

To investigate the metabolism of nascent HDLs, apoA1/phosphatidylcholine (apoA1/PC) discs were infused IV over 4 hours into 7 healthy men. Plasma total apoA1 and phospholipid (PL) concentrations increased during the infusions. The rise in plasma apoA1 was greatest in small prebeta-migrating particles not present in the infusate. Total HDL unesterified cholesterol (UC) also increased simultaneously. After stopping the infusion, the concentrations of apoA1, PL, HDL UC, and small prebeta HDLs decreased, whereas those of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE) and large alpha-migrating apoA1 containing HDLs increased. ApoB-containing lipoproteins became enriched in CEs. Addition of apoA1/PC discs to whole blood at 37 degrees C in vitro also generated small prebeta HDLs, but did not augment the transfer of UC from erythrocytes to plasma. We conclude that the disc infusions increased the intravascular production of small prebeta HDLs in vivo, and that this was associated with an increase in the efflux and esterification of UC derived from fixed tissues. The extent to which the increase in tissue cholesterol efflux was dependent on that in prebeta HDL production could not be determined. Infusion of discs also reduced the plasma apoB and apoA2 concentrations, and increased plasma triglycerides and apoC3. Thus, nascent HDL secretion may have a significant impact on prebeta HDL production, reverse cholesterol transport and lipoprotein metabolism in humans.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-IV is a member of the apo A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster. In order to investigate its hypothetical coordinated regulation, an acute phase was induced in pigs by turpentine oil injection. The hepatic expression of the gene cluster as well as the plasma levels of apolipoproteins were monitored at different time periods. Furthermore, the involvement of the inflammatory mediators interleukins 1 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor in the regulation of this gene cluster was tested in cultured pig hepatocytes, incubated with those mediators and apo A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster expression at the mRNA level was measured. In response to turpentine oil-induced inflammation, a decreased hepatic apo A-IV mRNA expression was observed (independent of apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA) not correlating with the plasma protein levels. The distribution of plasma apo A-IV experienced a shift from HDL to larger particles. In contrast, the changes in apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA were reflected in their corresponding plasma
Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
Background: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Elevated levels of apoC-III have been found to be an independent predictor for CHD risk and genetically reduced apoC-III is associated with protection from CHD, making apoC-III a therapeutic target. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to increase LDL-C in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Clinical data suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone, which lowers triglycerides to a similar extent as EPA + DHA, does not raise LDL-C, but also fails to lower apoC-III. Materials: The EVOLVE trial evaluated 2, 3, and 4 g/d of a novel omega-3 free-fatty acid (FFA) formulation containing both EPA + DHA compared with 4 g/d of olive oil. In 399 patients with severe HTG we evaluated the effects on plasma apoC-III levels and the correlations between change in apoC-III and change in plasma lipids (TG, LDL-C) ...
Buy our Natural Human Apolipoprotein CI. Ab77901 is a full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
Host Species: Rabbit Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein CI Specificity Specifically binds to human apo CI. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to 80,000. Use: The antibody can be used for detection of apo CI in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays, immunoblots, enzyme conjugation, or biotinylation. Storage: -20°
Apolipoprotein C-III, Human Plasma, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Native Apolipoprotein C-III from human plasma found in VLDL and chylomicrons. Involved in triglyceride uptake by cells. Inhibits lipoprotein lipase and uptake of lipoprotein remnants by the liver. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an independent risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we investigated the associations among plasma apoCIII, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels and their roles in the clinical features of CHD in the Li and Han ethnic groups in China. A cohort of 474 participants was recruited (238 atherosclerotic patients and 236 healthy controls) from the Li and Han ethnic groups. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP and lipid profiles. Chi-squared, t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests and multiple unconditional logistic regression were employed to analyze lipid profiles and variations in plasma apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP in subgroups of CHD and their contributions to CHD using SPSS version 20.0 software. Compared to healthy participants, unfavorable lipid profiles were identified in CHD patients with enhanced systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, TC, LDL-C, apoB, Lp
C H Bolton, A P Corfield, L G Downs; Sialidase Activity Acting on Apolipoprotein CIII 1 and 2 in Human Leukocytes and Platelets. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 15P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067015P. Download citation file:. ...
RAPOSO, HELENA F.... Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates. NUTRITION & METABOLISM 12 n. p. DEC 23 2015. Journal article.
We provide new information on the dose-ranging effect of rosuvastatin, a potent HMG-CoA (or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, on VLDL apoC-III metabolism in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. We demonstrated that rosuvastatin dose-dependently decreased VLDL apoC-III concentrations by increasing the FCR and decreasing the PR of VLDL apoC-III. These results add further to our work on the dose-dependent effect of rosuvastatin on apoB-containing lipoproteins and HDL particle kinetics in the same subjects (13,14).. Hypertriglyceridemia in insulin-resistant states, including the metabolic syndrome, results from overproduction and reduced catabolism of TRL and their remnants. These kinetic aberrations may be related to altered VLDL apoC-III metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that overproduction of VLDL apoC-III explained the higher VLDL apoC-III concentration in these subjects (17). The increased VLDL apoC-III concentration and production rate were associated with elevated ...
Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from saccular stage (A, B, H, GD 19.5; C, G, PN 0; I
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According to a recent study reported in the Neural Regeneration Research, APOE ε4 plays an important role in augmenting cognitive decline, and APOC1 H2 may act synergistically with APOE ε4 in increasing the risk of cognitive decline in Chinese patients with late-onset Alzheimers disease.
C2C12 myotubes exposed to VLDL showed increased levels of ER stress and inflammatory markers whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were reduced and the insulin signalling pathway was attenuated. The effects of VLDL were also observed in isolated skeletal muscle incubated with VLDL. The changes caused by VLDL were dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 since they were prevented by the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or by knockdown of this kinase by siRNA transfection. ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. Finally, incubation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diferencias según sexo y estado diabético en la relación entre apolipoproteína C-III y ácidos grasos libres con los triglicéridos séricos en sujetos a riesgo para intolerancia a la glucosa.. AU - Flórez, H.. AU - Méndez, A. J.. AU - Jones, L.. AU - Goldberg, R. B.. PY - 1999/3. Y1 - 1999/3. N2 - Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can induce overproduction of triglyceride (TG) rich VLDL in the liver by increasing the availability of free fatty acids (FFA). Conversely, apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is an inhibitor of the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins. To explore the relationship among FFA, apo C-III and TG in hyperinsulinemic subjects, we studied 103 individuals (63 women and 40 men) with a body mass index (BMI) 25 Kg/m2: 59 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and 44 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for age, BMI, fasting insulin and TG, FFA were significantly higher in women than in men and in subjects with diabetes compared with ...
Gotto, A.M.; Jackson, A.S.; Catapano, A.L.; Smith, L.C.; Paoletti, R.; Fruchart, J.C.; Clavey, V.; Luc, G.; Dallongeville, J.; Staels, B.; Auwerx, J.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Action of Lipoprotein Lipase on Phospholipid Monolayers. Activation by Apolipoprotein C-II. AU - Vainio, Petri. AU - Virtanen, Jorma A.. AU - Kinnunen, Paavo K.J.. AU - Voyta, John C.. AU - Smith, Louis C.. AU - Gotto, Antonio. AU - Sparrow, James T.. AU - Pattus, Franc. AU - Verger, Robert. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. N2 - Action of lipoprotein lipase and its activation by apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) were studied with monomolecular films of 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol as a substrate. The enzyme velocity and the specific activity of the interface-bound enzyme show a bell-shaped curve as a function of lipid packing, both in the presence and absence of apoC-II. Above critical surface pressure of 20 dyn cm-1, lipoprotein lipase alone is no longer able to hydrolyze a monolayer of 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol. However, lipoprotein lipase readily penetrates into the phospholipid interface up to surface pressures exceeding 40 dyn cm-1, without any ...
The self-assembly of specific proteins to form insoluble amyloid fibrils is a characteristic feature of a number of age-related and debilitating diseases. Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that accumulate in amyloid deposits located within atherosclerotic plaques. X-ray diffraction analysis of aligned apoC-II fibrils indicated a simple cross-beta-structure composed of two parallel beta-sheets. Examination of apoC-II fibrils using transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the fibrils are flat ribbons composed of one apoC-II molecule per 4.7-A rise of the cross-beta-structure. Cross-linking results using single-cysteine substitution mutants are consistent with a parallel in-register structural model for apoC-II fibrils. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of apoC-II fibrils labeled with specific fluorophores provided ...
Amyloid fibrils have historically been characterized by diagnostic dye-binding assays, their fibrillar morphology, and a cross-beta x-ray diffraction pattern. Whereas the latter demonstrates that amyloid fibrils have a common beta-sheet core structure, they display a substantial degree of morphological variation. One striking example is the remarkable ability of human apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils to circularize and form closed rings. Here we explore in detail the structure of apoC-II amyloid fibrils using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction studies. Our results suggest a model for apoC-II fibrils as ribbons approximately 2.1-nm thick and 13-nm wide with a helical repeat distance of 53 nm +/- 12 nm. We propose that the ribbons are highly flexible with a persistence length of 36 nm. We use these observed biophysical properties to model the apoC-II amyloid fibrils either as wormlike chains or using a random-walk approach, and confirm that the probability of ring
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in capillaries,[5] which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia type IB, characterized by xanthomas, pancreatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly, but no increased risk for atherosclerosis. Lab tests will show elevated blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and chylomicrons[6] ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation Maybe youve been eating fast food more often than you should, or youre not getting your recommended two-and-a-half hours of exercise each week. Or, it could be that you smoke, or your blood pressure is too high. Well, for whatever reason, you may be concerned about your risk of getting heart disease. Well, a few tests can help you learn that risk, so you can start making healthy lifestyle changes to reduce it. A coronary risk profile is a group of blood tests that measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Why is it important to know these levels? Because if you have too much of these substances in your blood from eating foods like burgers and French fries, they can clog your arteries. Eventually your arteries can become so clogged that youll have a heart attack or stroke. Men should have their cholesterol tested by the time theyre 35. Women should have it checked by age 45. If you have a condition like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or ...
Apolipoproteins have multiple roles. One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). Apolipoproteins can also function as enzyme co-factors (receptor ligands), facilitating the transfer of their lipid cargo to specific cells. Thus, the apoliproteins are the smart or working-end of the lipoprotein particle. The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. So although the particles are composed of phospholipids and have lipid cargo, the few proteins on their surface are what give them their collective name of lipoproteins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of biologically active apolipoproteins by chromatofocussing. AU - McLeod, Roger. AU - Lacko, Andras G.. AU - Pritchard, P. Haydn. AU - Frohlich, Jiri. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Chromatofocussing has been used to isolate homogeneous apolipoproteins (apo) from human very-low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins with protein recovery of 70%. The inclusion of sulfhydryl-reducing agent (dithiothreitol) was required during solubilization of the lipoproteins (following delipidation) to achieve reproducible elution profiles. Removal of polyvalent buffers from apoproteins was rapidly accomplished on small columns of hydroxylapatite. The biological activity of purified apo AI and apo CII was confirmed by assessment of their ability to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase or lipoprotein lipase, respectively. Functional properties of isolated apo E were assessed by in vitro interaction with the low-density lipoprotein receptor expressed by ...
Recent development in gene targeting tools makes production of knockout (KO) rabbits possible. In the present work, we generated five...
Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Apolipoprotein C-II antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Apolipoprotein C-II antibodies.
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein CIII antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, sELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen…
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partial refills of Schedule IV controlled substance prescriptions are permissible under federal regulations provided that each partial filling is dispensed and recorded in the same manner as a refilling (i.e., date refilled, amount dispensed, initials of dispensing pharmacist, etc.), the total quantity dispensed in all partial fillings does not exceed the total quantity prescribed and no dispensing occurs after six months past the date of issue ...
2C-I([email protected]) from Kaseey Industry co.,ltd on Manufacturer.com. This supplier is located in Shijiazhuang, China in the province of Hebei.
25I-NBOH (NBOH-2CI, Cimbi-27) je fenetilaminski halucinogen. On deluje kao potentan agonist 5HT2A receptora,[1][2] sa Ki od 0,061 nM na ljudskom 5HT2A receptoru, te je dvanaest puta potentniji od liganda 2C-I. In vitro testovi su pokazali da ovo jedinjenje deluje kao agonist, ali rezultati životinjskih studija nisu objavljeni. Dok su N-benzilni derivati 2C-I liganda znatno povećavali potentnost, N-benzil derivati 2,5-dimetoksi-4-jodoamfetamina su neaktivni.[3] ...
Serum: Use a serum separator tube (SST) and allow samples to clot for two hours at room temperature or overnight at 4°C before centrifugation for 15 minutes at 1000 ×g. Remove serum and assay immediately or aliquot and store samples at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles ...
Looking for online definition of ApoC-II in the Medical Dictionary? ApoC-II explanation free. What is ApoC-II? Meaning of ApoC-II medical term. What does ApoC-II mean?
Jianglin Fan is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Production of Apolipoprotein C-III Knockout Rabbits using Zinc Finger Nucleases
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human APOC3 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human APOC3 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00000345-K) - Products - Abnova
Explore the structures and analogues of N-{1-[2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]piperidin-4-yl}-N-phenylpropanamide, N-(2C-I) fentanyl in book II of TiHKAL: The Continuation. Alexander & Ann Shulgin
WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
Experiments were conducted to study the effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins C, E, and A on lipoprotein lipase activity in rhesus monkeys. The lipoprotein lipase activity was inhibited up to 32 +/- 6 per cent by monkey HDL. This inhibition was considerably decreased (2 +/- 0.02%) by using apolipoprotein-poor HDL. Apolipoproteins C and E inhibited the hydrolysis of activated intralipid by monkey lipoprotein lipase to a maximum of 83 +/- 7 and 57 +/- 5 per cent respectively. Apolipoprotein A produced little inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity. The results of these studies demonstrate that HDL and apolipoproteins compete with the substrate for the binding to lipoprotein lipase in rhesus monkeys.
ApoC-II was the only apolipoprotein from human very low density lipoprotein that activated rat adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase. Activation was blocked by antiserum against apoC-II. Addition of increasing amounts of activator did not alter the apparent Km of lipoprotein lipase (0.32 mM triolein), but it did produce a progressive increase in the apparent Vmax from 0.8 to 2.2 µmoles free fatty acid/mg hour-1. Substrate concentrations above 1.27 mM triolein diminished activation by 0.25-5.0 µg/ml of apoC-II as much as 20%. Reversal of this apparent substrate inhibition was achieved by increasing the activator concentration to 50.0 µg/ml. Each of five nonactivating apolipoproteins-apoC-I, C-III-1, C-III-2, A-I, and A-II-inhibited lipoprotein lipase up to 85-100%. ApoC-II also produced less inhibition under appropriate conditions. Inhibition was dependent on apoprotein concentration, inversely related to substrate triglyceride concentration, and unobserved with nonlipoprotein proteins. The ...
Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E and compare these results with recently developed computer methods for analysis of the location and properties of amphipathic helixes. This comparison suggests that there are at least three distinct classes of amphipathic helixes (classes A, Y, and G*) in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison further suggests that lipid affinity resides largely in class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., et al. 1990. Proteins. 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid affinities from high to low. The positions of the four a ...
This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated when monocytes differentiate into macrophages. The encoded protein plays a central role in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. This protein has also been shown to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma. A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream in the same orientation, on the same chromosome. This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016 ...
Transcriptionally controlled transcription factor. Binds to DNA sites required for the transcription of alpha 1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein CIII, transthyretin genes and HNF1-alpha. May be essential for development of the liver, kidney and intestine.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as good cholesterol and can help ward off coronary heart disease (CHD). However, researchers have found that a subclass of HDL cholesterol can actually cause harm. A new study by the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found that apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small protein that has been linked to HDL cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease, but a lack of the protein can protect the heart.
Recombinant mammalian apolipoproteins have been expressed in a variety of cultured mammalian cell lines (Reardon et al. 1986; Mallory et al. 1987; Blackhart et al. 1990; Yao et al. 1991), transgenic...
ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant
Ionis Pharmaceuticals, through its wholly owned subsidiary Akcea Therapeutics, is developing IONIS APOCIII LRx, a GalNAc3 conjugated antisense oligonucleotide
Compare APOC1 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
hazard ratio per 1 SD [HR/SD]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 1.67), apoC-III (HR/SD: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.63), and apoE (HR/SD: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.52). Associations were independent of high-density lipoprotein ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ...
"Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. XVIII. apolipoprotein polymorphisms in Australian Aborigines", Human Biology, 63 (2 ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Gain of toxic Apolipoprotein E4 effects in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons Is Ameliorated by a Small-Molecule Structure Corrector. ... Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ... In 2018 published an article in Nature Medicine about apolipoprotein E(apoE) gene expression-pluripotent stem cell cultures ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
2003). "[Apolipoprotein E and bleomycin hydrolase. Polymorphisms: association with neurodegenerative diseases]". Ann. Biol. ...
The main apolipoprotein component is apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48). While circulating in blood, chylomicrons exchange ... Apolipoproteins are significant in the synthesis and metabolism of chylomicrons. The villi, lined with the microvilli of the ... The triglycerides are then combined with phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and apolipoprotein B-48 to form a nascent ... components with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The HDL donates apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) to the ...
Karathanasis SK (1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV genes ... "Genetic polymorphism of human plasma apolipoprotein A-IV is due to nucleotide substitutions in the apolipoprotein A-IV gene". J ... Apolipoprotein A-IV (also known as apoA-IV, apoAIV, or apoA4) is plasma protein that is the product of the human gene APOA4. ... "Entrez Gene: APOA4 apolipoprotein A-IV". Luo CC, Li WH, Moore MN, Chan L (February 1986). "Structure and evolution of the ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II.[citation needed] A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Hauser, Paul S.; Ryan, Robert O. (October 2013). "Impact of Apolipoprotein E on Alzheimer's Disease". Current Alzheimer ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". Marino D, Perković M, Hain A, Jaguva Vasudevan AA, Hofmann H, Hanschmann KM ... C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the APOLD1 gene. It is located on Chromosome 12 ... "Entrez Gene: Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1". Retrieved 2012-11-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) APOLD1 ... apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] on NCBI Human APOLD1 genome location and APOLD1 gene details page ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing: An Update". Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Baylor ...
The presence of the Apolipoprotein c4 allele. ARD is treated with abstinence from further alcohol consumption. Multiple ...
The basics of MR were invented by Martijn B. Katan in 1986, when he suggested the use of apolipoprotein E alleles, that had ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
This inability to bind LDL is due to VLDLR's incapability to bind apolipoprotein B (apoB), which is present in LDL. Receptor- ... VLDLR binds compounds containing apolipoprotein E (apoE). These ligands attach to the cysteine binding repeats in the N- ... This receptor has an important role in cholesterol uptake, metabolism of apolipoprotein E-containing triacylglycerol-rich ... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1529 (1-3): 287-98. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00155-4. PMID 11111096 ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(79)92068-3. Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". OhAinle M, Kerns JA, Malik HS, Emerman M (April 2006). "Adaptive evolution ... DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3H, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3H or APOBEC ... This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) family of proteins. The ...
... mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins (apoA1 and apoE) (reverse cholesterol ... Oram JF, Vaughan AM (June 2000). "ABCA1-mediated transport of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to HDL apolipoproteins". ... "The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway". The Journal of ... occurring mutations in the largest extracellular loops of ABCA1 can disrupt its direct interaction with apolipoprotein A-I". ...
... and apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, C-I and C-III. Based on this work, Dayhoff and her coworkers developed a set of substitution ...
Nascent VLDL released from the liver contains apolipoprotein B100, apolipoprotein C1 (apoC1), apolipoprotein E (apoE), ... As it circulates in blood, it picks up apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) and additional apoE donated from high-density lipoprotein ... VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ... with apoB-100 as the primary apolipoprotein. The LDL is taken into a cell via the LDL receptor via endocytosis, where the ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is an apolipoprotein found in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. It has an approximate ... High HDL Cholesterol (Hyperalphalipoproteinemia) at eMedicine Apolipoprotein+A-II at the US National Library of Medicine ...
In the field of molecular biology, apolipoprotein C is a family of four low molecular weight apolipoproteins, designated as C-I ... In the fasting state, the C apolipoproteins are mainly associated with HDL. During absorption of dietary fat, the C ... Mahley RW, Innerarity TL, Rall SC, Weisgraber KH (December 1984). "Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function ... apolipoproteins preferentially redistribute to the surface of the triglyceride-rich chylomicrons and VLDL. ...
... and ProteinsProteinsApoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and ProteinsProteinsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and Drugs CategoryLipidsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... Apolipoproteins C. A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ...
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. *Robert D. Bell1,2. , ... Bell, R., Winkler, E., Singh, I. et al. Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512- ...
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
APOLIPOPROTEIN E. A. 165. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: APOE. ... Crystal Structure of the 22K Domain of Human Apolipoprotein E4. Verderame, J.R., Kantardjieff, K., Segelke, B., Weisgraber, K. ...
Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major... ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. ... Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2007-2008 Apolipoprotein B data to the 2005-2006 Apolipoprotein B data. The Dade ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_E) Data File: ApoB_E.xpt First Published: July 2010. Last Revised: NA Note: See Analytic Note on ...
While tissue specific effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) outside the brain have been reported, little is known about brain specific SARMs. Here we show that SARMs upregulate androgen receptor levels in brain following castration and antagonize impairments in hippocampus-dependent novel location recognition and spatial memory retention in apoE4 female mice. Together with the reduced androgen levels in aged men and women and the beneficial effects of androgens on brain function and pathology in Alzheimers disease-related models, these data support the therapeutic potential of SARMs for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimers disease ...
HDL3species containing both apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II, and HDL3(AI w/o AII), HDL3species containing ... initially with three apolipoprotein A-I, to larger particles with four apolipoprotein A-I per particle. © 1989. ... Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein populations during incubation of human plasma. *Nichols A ... Nichols, A. V., Blanche, P. J., Shore, V. G., & Gong, E. L. (1989). Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density ...
Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant ... ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, ... About Apolipoprotein:. The binding of lipids (soluble oil molecules) and cholesterol to Apoliproteins result in the formation ... 6 main classes of apolipoproteins are APOA, APOB, APOC, APOD, APOE and APOH. APOA1 takes an important role in the return of ...
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the ... Keywords: ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1); ApoE; Apolipoprotein; Atherosclerosis; Cell-based Gene Therapy; ...
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ... SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing. Thursday, April 22, 2010 General News ... HOUSTON, April 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... of this unique and specialized field but also updates on the current state of research and development of apolipoprotein ... Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors: Anantharamaiah, G M, Goldberg, Dennis (Eds.) ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors. * G M Anantharamaiah ...
The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E ... Rubinsztein, "Apolipoprotein E-a review of its roles in lipoprotein metabolism, neuronal growth and repair and as a risk factor ... Poirier, "Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimers disease," Trends in Neurosciences 17:525-530, 1994 ... Apolipoprotein E was expressed as % change from mean control value. Cholesterol was measured with a commercially available ...
We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the ...
AcromegalyProgestins and the BrainLipoproteins and Apolipoproteins In The BrainNeuropathic Complications of DiabetesGlucose ... Apply their overview of the roles of specific apolipoproteins in the brain to physiological and pathophysiological processes. ... Describe the origins of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins in the brain. *Discuss physiological relevance of lipoprotein transfer ...
  • Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different lipoproteins contain different classes of apolipoproteins, which influence their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) is the major structural protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), although it is present in other lipoproteins in smaller amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA4) is present in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B plays a particularly important role in lipoprotein transport being the primary organizing protein of many lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) plays an important role in lipid metabolism specific in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J et al (2008) Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are composed from various lipoproteins such as exchangeable Apolipoprtoeins and non-exchangeable. (prospecbio.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (abcam.com)
  • Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • While LDL, HDL, and (sometimes) VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) are the only classes mentioned in regards to diagnostic tests, there are four other classes of lipoproteins that differ in size, lipid composition, and apolipoproteins. (taconic.com)
  • The Apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a component of plasma lipoproteins, has been suggested to bind and traffic Ags for NKT cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) 3 is a multifunctional component of plasma lipoproteins that is found on very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein, and chylomicron remnant lipoprotein complexes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, increased apolipoprotein B levels, both in whole plasma and in specific lipoprotein fractions, e.g. low density lipoproteins (LDL) [3], seem to be associated to a raised risk, the opposite being the case for apo AI [4]. (springer.com)
  • Swaney JB, Braithwaite F, Eder HA (1977) Characterization of the apolipoproteins of rat plasma lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Brewer HB, Fairwell T, La Rue A, Rorian R, Hauser A, Bronzert TJ (1978) The amino acid sequence of human apo AI, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (jove.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E or apo E is the most important protein found in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, or VLDL cholesterol. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the transport and uptake of cholesterol by way of its high affinity interaction with lipoprotein receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings with apoA1 and apoE suggest that the tertiary structures of these two members of the human exchangeable apolipoprotein gene family are related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that probably evolved from a common ancestral gene. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • APOE is primarily located in HDL and VLDL Apolipoproteins act as lipid transfer carrier enzymes, cofactors and receptor ligands which control lipoprotein metabolism. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids between peripheral tissues and the liver. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. (genomebc.ca)
  • Apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body. (wikidoc.org)
  • The gene, APOE , is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC-I) and the apolipoprotein C2 . (wikidoc.org)
  • The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. (pnas.org)
  • Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. (osti.gov)
  • Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • They examined the correlation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE and the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with T2D risk. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 483 IS - 1 N2 - The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (e4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE e4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. (diva-portal.org)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null mice that had knockout of a single allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) gene were compared with littermate Apoe null mice with intact insulin receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-IV , also known as apolipoprotein C4 , is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986). "The structure of the human apolipoprotein C-II gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. (medscape.com)
  • This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (nih.gov)
  • This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. (nih.gov)
  • Two novel APOA1 gene mutations in a Japanese renal transplant recipient with recurrent apolipoprotein A-I related amyloidosis. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate whether apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (nih.gov)
  • We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E genotype and the association between C-reactive protein and postoperative delirium: Importance of gene-protein interactions. (harvard.edu)
  • There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. (harvard.edu)
  • Apolipoprotein All (ApoAII) amyloidosis, first reported in 2001 in a family with renal amyloidosis, is associated with mutations in the stop codon of the apolipoprotein AII gene resulting in a carboxyl terminal peptide extension of 21 amino acid residues in the protein. (highbeam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (pnas.org)
  • The data show that a single dose of the gene therapy carrying a short hairpin RNA to silence Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) resulted in a reduction of serum cholesterol of approximately 80% without any signs of toxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apo B) exists in two forms, each the product of a single gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 all. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative fact. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative factor for neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A research team from Department of Neurology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China pointed out a non-invasive and fast method to genotype large samples to help to elucidate the role of apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele in neural regeneration in the cases with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk of developing late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • In addition to stabilizing lipoprotein structure and solubilizing the lipid component, apolipoproteins interact with lipoprotein receptors and lipid transport proteins, thereby participating in lipoprotein uptake and clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, ligands for cell-surface receptors and lipid transport proteins, and cofactors for enzymes (e.g. apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). (wikipedia.org)
  • APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which are involved in autophagic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (springer.com)
  • 1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein D Kits (32) and Apolipoprotein D Proteins (24) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
  • These proteins, known as apolipoproteins, are the major identifying characteristics of a lipoprotein. (labce.com)
  • One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). (labce.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It forms a complex, known as a trypanosome lytic factor (TLF), with high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. (nih.gov)
  • An example of non-exchangeable apolipoprotein is APOAB which is attached to the lipoprotein particle while examples of Lipoprotein exchangeable are APOM, APOD, APOJ, APOH and APOA1 which are transported between different lipoprotein molecules. (prospecbio.com)
  • HDL begins to develop when two copies of the protein apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mediate the removal of excess lipids from peripheral cells and form a nanodisc. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). (pnas.org)
  • AIM: To determine the association between apolipoprotein A1 ( APOA1 ) (−75 guanine [G] to adenine [A] and +83/84 M2 +/− , MspI ) and apolipoprotein C3 ( APOC3 ) ( SstI ) polymorphisms with gallstone disease. (hindawi.com)
  • HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Dec. 28 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Noma A Yokosuka T, Kitamura K (1983) Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins as discriminators for presence and severity of angiographically defined coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
  • Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Reliable assessment of the separate and joint associations of major blood lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease is important for the development of screening and therapeutic strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chen CH, Albers JJ (1985) Activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase by apolipoproteins E-2, E-3, and AIV isolated from human plasma. (springer.com)
  • LDL-cholesterol (LDL- C), apolipoproteins (apo) B, CIII, and E, and by decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. (tudelft.nl)
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. (jci.org)
  • Birmingham, AL), developer of the VAP Cholesterol Test, announced it has received a patent on its method to derive and report apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) using the Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently, we have reported that serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and apoB levels were strongly associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy ( 1 ), and these associations were more prominent than those of traditional lipids (e.g., total cholesterol). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, Cox proportional hazards models with quartiles of each variable adjusted for confounders and hs-CRP or IL-6 identified apolipoprotein (apo)B-to-apoA-I ratio (apoB/apoA-I) and oxidized HDL, but not apoA-I or apoA-II, as independent risk factors for composite CVD events. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein M (apoM) participates in the lipid metabolism and exhibit anti‑atherosclerotic functions and it is presented in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major regulatory roles in both pre- and pro-atherosclerotic mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Lipoprotein (a) and Low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B metabolism following apheresis in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) and coronary artery disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fidge NH (1980) The redistribution and metabolism of iodinated apolipoprotein AIV in rats. (springer.com)
  • The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. (labce.com)
  • Ajeganova S, Ehrnfelt C, Alizadeh R, Rohani M, Jogestrand T, Hafström I et al (2011) Longitudinal levels of apolipoproteins and antibodies against phosphorylcholine are independently associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis 5 years after rheumatoid arthritis onset-a prospective cohort study. (springer.com)
  • Eo HS, Lee KB, Kim AK, Kim MH, Kim DH, Kim DI (2011) Association with inflammatory cells and apolipoproteins to the progression of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Garber DW, Handattu SP, Datta G, Mishra VK, Gupta H, White CR et al (2006) Atherosclerosis and vascular disease: effects of peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of premature development of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Seishima M (2016) Physiological function of apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Zivanovic Z, Divjak I, Jovicevic M, Rabi-Zikic T, Radovanovic B, Ruzicka-Kaloci S et al (2018) Association between apolipoproteins AI and B and ultrasound indicators of carotid atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Avogaro P, Bittolo-Bon G, Cazzolato G, Quinci GB (1979) Are apolipoproteins better discriminators than lipids for atherosclerosis? (springer.com)
  • Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serum apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1), apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100) and lipoprotein-(a) (LPA) were measured in the Pathology Laboratories of Postgraduate Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar using turbiditrimetric kits of Roche Diagnostics, on chemistry auto analyzer, modular P-800 by Roche, Cobas (Japan). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This could explain reduced capacity of the liver to synthesize apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B) molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, LDL). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the end of 12 weeks, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) were significantly lower in the soy nut group compared with the control group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Is vitellogenin an ancestor of apolipoprotein B100 of human low-density lipoprotein and human lipoprotein lipase? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) plays a key role in peripheral fat deposition, it is not considered a suitable therapeutic target in obesity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or 'good cholesterol' which is synthesized in the liver and also in many other tissues, including pancreas, kidney, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the presence of monensin (an inhibitor of protein secretion), the cells secrete cholesterol, but little apolipoprotein E. After secretion, apolipoprotein E and cholesterol associate with high-density lipoprotein to form a particle that can deliver cholesterol to the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for several conventional factors, were calculated for 1-SD higher values: 0.52 loge triglyceride, 15 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 mg/dL non-HDL-C, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein AI, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein B, and 33 mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 , 2 Expert opinion is divided about whether assessment of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) should replace assessment of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol levels in assessment of vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Apolipoproteins are associated with survival among patients on hemodialysis (HD), but these associations might be influenced by dysfunctional (oxidized) high-density lipoprotein (HDL). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Apolipoprotein levels and ratios are more significant than LDL cholesterol levels in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The proband, a 65-year-old woman, had greatly diminished concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol (0.19 mmol/L) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (21.9 mg/dL). (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • These complex molecules have a "shell" composed of cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins, and a core with the transport material: cholesterol esters and triglycerides (see Figure 1). (taconic.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are protein-lipid complexes that bind oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol. (taconic.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Although apolipoprotein A levels can be measured, it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Cholesterol-loaded macrophages secrete cholesterol and apolipoprotein E. The current studies show that this secretion occurs by two independent pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the absence of serum, the cells secrete apolipoprotein E, but not cholesterol. (sciencemag.org)
  • We conclude that apolipoprotein E does not function to remove cholesterol from macrophages but rather to participate in "reverse cholesterol transport. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lipid assessment in vascular disease can be simplified by measurement of either total and HDL cholesterol levels or apolipoproteins without the need to fast and without regard to triglyceride. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Despite the hyperinsulinemia, atherosclerotic lesion size was not different between the 2 groups at time points up to 52 weeks of age when measured as en face lesion area in the aorta, cross-sectional plaque area in the aortic sinus, and cholesterol abundance in the brachiocephalic artery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system and apoD can also modulate the stability and oxidation status of these molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 116 Apolipoprotein D (APOD) Antibodies from 22 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoproteins function in lipid transport as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. (springer.com)
  • The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (abcam.com)
  • It does not interchange between lipoprotein particles, as do the other apolipoproteins, and it is found in IDL and LDL after the removal of the Apo-A, E, and C. Apo-B48 is present in chylomicrons and their remnants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies directed against murine Apolipoprotein AI and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles specifically immunoprecipitated metabolically labelled radioactive apolipoproteins from the culture supernatant of 10.5 days post coitum (days p.c.) yolk sac visceral endoderm cultured in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (nature.com)
  • Elevated IgM against Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine-modified Apolipoprotein A1 peptide 141-147 in Taiwanese with Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
  • Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
  • RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
  • The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)
  • All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (bmj.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The method developed for apolipoprotein E genotyping is accurate and reliable, and also suitable for genotyping large samples, which may help determine the role of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Increased level of MSU crystal-bound protein apolipoprotein A-I in acute gouty arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E is a fat-binding protein ( apolipoprotein ) that is part of the chylomicron and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) . (wikidoc.org)
  • Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency is a very rare (rarer than LPL deficiency) autosomal recessive disorder in which apolipoprotein CII (apoC-II), a cofactor for LPL, is absent, the clearance of chylomicrons from the blood is greatly impaired and triglycerides (TG) accumulate in the plasma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical staining at sectioned 10.5 days p.c. embryos with anti-Apolipoprotein AI antibodies revealed specific localization of immunoreactive material in the yolk sac visceral endoderm. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Primary structure of the bovine analogues to human apolipoproteins CII and CIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E genotyping is crucial to apolipoprotein E polymorphism analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Peripheral venous blood is the conventional tissue source for apolipoprotein E genotyping polymorphism analysis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfers of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E levels and the use of such compounds in therapy, including cardiovascular and neurological disease states. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Global Structure and Dynamics of Human Apolipoprotein CII in Complex with Micelles: Evidence for Increased Mobility of the Helix Involved in the Activation of Lipoprotein Lipase. (randox.com)
  • Title: The relationship between apolipoprotein genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes may be associated with alteration in lipid profile and susceptibility to gallstone disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Herein, we describe a highly robust and quantitative method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to quantify apolipoproteins in plasma. (springer.com)
  • This methodology may add clinical value for profiling cardiovascular risk in vulnerable individuals and enable monitoring of apolipoprotein levels in plasma following intervention strategies. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The determination of the circulating levels of apolipoproteins has become common practice in clinical laboratories, in view of the apparent correlation between levels of specific apolipoproteins and increased or decreased cardiovascular risk [1, 2]. (springer.com)
  • Hundreds of genetic polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins have been described, and many of them alter their structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most apolipoproteins cannot be detected using standard clinical immunoassays, and multiplexing is not available for some species of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Our Apolipoprotein L2 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Apolipoprotein C1 ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Deficiency of apoC-II can also be verified by gel electrophoresis of the apolipoproteins contained in VLDL and chylomicrons on 2D gels. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (randox.com)
  • Kukita M, Hiwada K, Kokubu T (1984) Serum apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and B levels and their discriminative values in relatives of patients with coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
  • Serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and -B have been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apply their overview of the roles of specific apolipoproteins in the brain to physiological and pathophysiological processes. (cyberounds.com)
  • Vlad C, Burlacu A, Florea L, Artene B, Badarau S, Covic A et al (2019) A comprehensive review on apolipoproteins as nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in end-stage renal disease: current evidence and perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Increases Insulin Secretion and Production From Pancreatic ß-Cells via a G-Protein-cAMP-PKA-FoxO1-Dependent Mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • Nonhereditary apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) amyloid is characterized by deposits of nonvariant protein in atherosclerotic arteries. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating a lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation (i.e., blood, lymph). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, due to of their amphipathic/detergent like characteristics, Apolipoproteins fence in the lipids, forming a lipoprotein particle which is soluble in water, hence travel in blood. (prospecbio.com)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. (springer.com)
  • 1990). "Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease" . (wikidoc.org)
  • We have discovered that natural variant versions of Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) that protect humans against infection by the parasite Trypanosoma rhodesiense (responsible for sleeping sickness) also cause kidney disease. (europa.eu)
  • The protein encoded by APOM is an apolipoprotein and member of the lipocalin protein family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Duan, Dahlbäck, Villoutreix: Proposed lipocalin fold for apolipoprotein M based on bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Pechlaner R, Tsimikas S, Yin X, Willeit P, Baig F, Santer P et al (2017) Very-low-density lipoprotein-associated apolipoproteins predict cardiovascular events and are lowered by inhibition of APOC-III. (springer.com)
  • Association Between ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) Immune Complexes and Adverse Cardiovascular Events. (medscape.com)
  • encoded search term (How are specimens collected and prepared for apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) testing? (medscape.com)
  • Your search returned 60 Apolipoprotein A-IV ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Minor apolipoprotein mainly associated with HDL and to a lesser extent with VLDL. (abcam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E2 (apoE2)-associated hyperlipidemia is characterized by a disturbed clearance of apoE2-enriched VLDL remnants. (tudelft.nl)
  • The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals). (ovid.com)
  • Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and apolipoprotein a-I in urine as biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: a proteomics study. (medscape.com)
  • Selenium has a positive effect on apolipoprotein B expression in hypercholesterolemia. (greenmedinfo.com)