Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
Scavenger Receptors, Class B
Serum Amyloid A Protein
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V
Amino Acid Sequence
Rats, Inbred Strains
High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta
Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/2985)BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA. (+info)
Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (2/2985)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins. (+info)
Liver-specific inactivation of the abetalipoproteinemia gene completely abrogates very low density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein production in a viable conditional knockout mouse. (3/2985)Conventional knockout of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit (lMTP) gene is embryonic lethal in the homozygous state in mice. We have produced a conditional lMTP knockout mouse by inserting loxP sequences flanking exons 5 and 6 by gene targeting. Homozygous floxed mice were born live with normal plasma lipids. Intravenous injection of an adenovirus harboring Cre recombinase (AdCre1) produced deletion of exons 5 and 6 and disappearance of lMTP mRNA and immunoreactive protein in a liver-specific manner. There was also disappearance of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and marked reduction in apoB-48 levels. Wild-type mice showed no response, and heterozygous mice, an intermediate response, to AdCre1. Wild-type mice doubled their plasma cholesterol level following a high cholesterol diet. This hypercholesterolemia was abolished in AdCre1-treated lMTP-/- mice, the result of a complete absence of very low/intermediate/low density lipoproteins and a slight reduction in high density lipoprotein. Heterozygous mice showed an intermediate lipoprotein phenotype. The rate of accumulation of plasma triglyceride following Triton WR1339 treatment in lMTP-/- mice was <10% that in wild-type animals, indicating a failure of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein production. Pulse-chase experiments using hepatocytes isolated from wild-type and lMTP-/- mice revealed a failure of apoB secretion in lMTP-/- animals. Therefore, the liver-specific inactivation of the lMTP gene completely abrogates apoB-100 and very low/intermediate/low density lipoprotein production. These conditional knockout mice are a useful in vivo model for studying the role of MTP in apoB biosynthesis and the biogenesis of apoB-containing lipoproteins. (+info)
Insights into apolipoprotein B biology from transgenic and gene-targeted mice. (4/2985)Over the past five years, several laboratories have used transgenic and gene-targeted mice to study apolipoprotein (apo) B biology. Genetically modified mice have proven useful for investigating the genetic and environmental factors affecting atherogenesis, for defining apoB structure/function relationships, for understanding the regulation of the apoB gene expression in the intestine, for defining the "physiologic rationale" for the existence of the two different forms of apoB (apoB48 and apoB100) in mammalian metabolism and for providing mechanistic insights into the human apoB deficiency syndrome, familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. This review will provide several examples of how genetically modified mice have contributed to our understanding of apoB biology, including our new discovery that human heart myocytes secrete nascent apoB-containing lipoproteins. (+info)
Apolipoprotein B in the rough endoplasmic reticulum: translation, translocation and the initiation of lipoprotein assembly. (5/2985)Apolipoprotein (apo) B and the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein are essential for the hepatic assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich VLDL. To understand how apoB initiates the process of lipoprotein formation, interest has focused on the biogenesis of its amino terminal globular domain (alpha1 domain). When only this domain is expressed in hepatoma cells, no lipoprotein particle will form. However, proper folding of the alpha1 domain is essential for the internal lipophilic regions of apoB to engage in cotranslational lipid recruitment. The essential function of this domain may be related to its capacity to promote a specific physical interaction with the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, necessary for apoB's proper folding and lipidation. Alternatively, this domain may promote an autonomous lipid recruitment step that nucleates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-dependent lipid sequestration by apoB. Forms of apoB that fail to initiate particle assembly or forms associated with aberrant underlipidated particles are targeted for intracellular turnover. Two sites of apoB degradation have been identified. In hepatocarcinoma-derived cells, misassembled apoB may undergo progressive reverse translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to the cytosol, a process that is mechanistically coupled to polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation on the cytosolic side of the membrane. Alternatively, studies in primary hepatocytes reveal that apoB may undergo sorting to a post-endoplasmic reticulum compartment for presecretory degradation. In either case, the balance between assembly and presecretory degradation of apoB may represent a control point for the production of hepatic VLDL. (+info)
Assembly of very low density lipoprotein: a two-step process of apolipoprotein B core lipidation. (6/2985)The liver plays a primary role in lipid metabolism. Important functions include the synthesis and incorporation of hydrophobic lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters into the core of water-miscible particles called lipoproteins and the secretion of these particles into the circulation for transport to distant tissues. In this article, we present a brief overview of one aspect of the assembly process of very low density lipoproteins, namely, possible mechanisms for combining core lipids with apolipoprotein B. This is a complex process in which apolipoprotein B interacts with core lipids to form very low density lipoproteins by a two-step process that can be dissociated biochemically. (+info)
The LDL receptor gene family, apolipoprotein B and cholesterol in embryonic development. (7/2985)In recent years, a number of genes that are involved in cholesterol synthesis, its systemic or intercellular transport or lipid metabolism in general have been found to play important roles during embryonic development. In this article, we present a brief overview of these genes, their molecular functions as we understand them to date and our current interpretation of possible mechanisms by which genetic deficiency states might affect the development of the embryo, in particular the formation of the central nervous system. (+info)
Dietary fish oils inhibit early events in the assembly of very low density lipoproteins and target apoB for degradation within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hamster hepatocytes. (8/2985)Dietary fish oils inhibited secretion and stimulated intracellular degradation of apolipoprotein (apo)B in hamster hepatocytes, while dietary sunflower oils stimulated secretion and had no effect on degradation of apoB. To investigate the intracellular site at which fish oils act, we have made use of our previous observations that inhibition of degradation by N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) results in accumulation of apoB in the trans -Golgi membrane and does not stimulate secretion, while inhibition of degradation by o-phenanthroline results in accumulation of apoB in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane and stimulates secretion. Thus, ALLN protects apoB which has been diverted from secretion and o -phenanthroline protects apoB which is targetted for secretion. Addition of o -phenantholine to the incubation medium of hepatocytes from fish oil-fed hamsters inhibited degradation of apoB and stimulated its secretion in particles of the density of VLDL, while addition of ALLN had no effect. These observations suggest that dietary fish oils reversibly inhibit early steps in the assembly of very low density lipoprotein precursors and target apoB for degradation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (+info)
People with Tangier disease often have extremely high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease at an early age. The disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for a protein called ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1), which plays a critical role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the body.
The symptoms of Tangier disease can vary depending on the severity of the disorder, but may include:
* High levels of LDL cholesterol
* Low levels of HDL cholesterol
* Abnormal liver function tests
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Muscle cramps
* Heart disease
Tangier disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the disorder typically involves a combination of dietary modifications, medications, and lipid-lowering therapy to reduce the levels of LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to treat the liver damage that can occur as a result of the disorder.
The most common form of hypolipoproteinemia is familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), which is caused by mutations in the gene encoding apoB, a protein component of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). People with FHBL have extremely low levels of LDL cholesterol and often develop symptoms such as fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease.
Another form of hypolipoproteinemia is familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHAL), which is caused by mutations in the gene encoding apoA-I, a protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). People with FHAL have low levels of HDL cholesterol and often develop symptoms such as cardiovascular disease and premature coronary artery disease.
Hypolipoproteinemia can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the disorder typically involves managing associated symptoms and reducing lipid levels through diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prevention of hypolipoproteinemia is challenging, as it is often inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that both parents must be carriers of the mutated gene to pass it on to their children. However, genetic counseling and testing can help identify carriers and allow for informed family planning.
Overall, hypolipoproteinemia is a rare and complex group of disorders that affect lipid metabolism and transport. While treatment and management options are available, prevention and early diagnosis are key to reducing the risk of complications associated with these disorders.
There are several types of hyperlipidemia, including:
1. High cholesterol: This is the most common type of hyperlipidemia and is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol.
2. High triglycerides: This type of hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that is used for energy.
3. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can contribute to hyperlipidemia.
Symptoms of hyperlipidemia may include xanthomas (fatty deposits on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the iris of the eye), and tendon xanthomas (tender lumps under the skin). However, many people with hyperlipidemia have no symptoms at all.
Hyperlipidemia can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hyperlipidemia typically involves dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing physical activity. Medications such as statins, fibric acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants may also be prescribed to lower cholesterol levels.
In severe cases of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can occur, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat hyperlipidemia early on to prevent these complications.
The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, such as ACY1 and APOB100. These mutations lead to a deficiency in the breakdown and transport of lipids in the body, resulting in the accumulation of chylomicrons and other lipoproteins in the blood.
Symptoms of hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV can include abdominal pain, fatigue, and joint pain, as well as an increased risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary modifications, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and medications to lower lipid levels. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV is a rare disorder, and the prevalence is not well-defined. However, it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 100,000 individuals worldwide. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis.
In summary, hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins in the body, leading to elevated levels of chylomicrons and other lipoproteins in the blood, as well as low levels of HDL. The condition can cause a range of symptoms and is typically treated with dietary modifications and medications.
There are several types of hyperlipoproteinemias, each with distinct clinical features and laboratory findings. The most common forms include:
1. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH): This is the most common type of hyperlipoproteinemia, caused by mutations in the LDLR gene that codes for the low-density lipoprotein receptor. FH is characterized by extremely high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to premature cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes.
2. Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL): This rare disorder is caused by mutations in the APOB100 gene that codes for a protein involved in lipid metabolism. FHBL is characterized by very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as a deficiency of Apolipoprotein B-100, a protein that helps transport lipids in the blood.
3. Hypertriglyceridemia: This condition is caused by mutations in genes that regulate triglyceride metabolism, leading to extremely high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Hypertriglyceridemia can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
4. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency: This rare disorder is caused by mutations in the LPL gene that codes for the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which helps break down triglycerides in the blood. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency can lead to very high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood, increasing the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
5. Familial dyslipidemia: This is a group of rare inherited disorders that affect lipid metabolism and can cause extremely high or low levels of various types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Some forms of familial dyslipidemia are caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, while others may be caused by unknown factors.
6. Chylomicronemia: This rare disorder is characterized by extremely high levels of chylomicrons (type of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein) in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems. The exact cause of chylomicronemia is not fully understood, but it may be related to genetic mutations or other factors that affect lipid metabolism.
7. Hyperchylomicronemia: This rare disorder is similar to chylomicronemia, but it is characterized by extremely high levels of chylomicrons in the blood, as well as very low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. Hyperchylomicronemia can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
8. Hypoalphalipoproteinemia: This rare disorder is characterized by extremely low levels of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a protein that plays a key role in lipid metabolism and helps to regulate the levels of various types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Hypoalphalipoproteinemia can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
9. Hypobetalipoproteinemia: This rare disorder is characterized by extremely low levels of apolipoprotein B (ApoB), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of various types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Hypobetalipoproteinemia can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
10. Sitosterolemia: This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for sterol-CoA-desmethylase (SCD), an enzyme involved in the metabolism of plant sterols. Sitosterolemia can cause elevated levels of plant sterols and sitosterol in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
11. Familial hyperchylomicronemia type 1 (FHMC1): This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of various types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. FHMC1 can cause elevated levels of chylomicrons and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
12. Familial hyperchylomicronemia type 2 (FHMC2): This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of various types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. FHMC2 can cause elevated levels of chylomicrons and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
13. Lipoprotein (a) deficiency: This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein (a), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of lipoproteins in the blood. Lipoprotein (a) deficiency can cause low levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
14. Chylomicron retention disease: This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of chylomicrons in the blood. Chylomicron retention disease can cause elevated levels of chylomicrons and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
15. Hypertriglyceridemia-apolipoprotein C-II deficiency: This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), a protein that helps to regulate the levels of triglycerides in the blood. Hypertriglyceridemia-apolipoprotein C-II deficiency can cause elevated levels of triglycerides and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
16. Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD): This rare genetic disorder is characterized by the loss of fat tissue in certain areas of the body, such as the arms, legs, and buttocks. FPLD can cause elevated levels of lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
17. Lipodystrophy: This rare genetic disorder is characterized by the loss of fat tissue in certain areas of the body, such as the face, arms, and legs. Lipodystrophy can cause elevated levels of lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
18. Abetalipoproteinemia: This rare genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for apolipoprotein B, a protein that helps to regulate the levels of lipids in the blood. Abetalipoproteinemia can cause elevated levels of triglycerides and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
19. Chylomicronemia: This rare genetic disorder is characterized by the presence of excessively large amounts of chylomicrons (type of lipid particles) in the blood. Chylomicronemia can cause elevated levels of triglycerides and other lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other health problems.
20. Hyperlipidemia due to medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids and some anticonvulsants, can cause elevated levels of lipids in the blood.
It's important to note that many of these disorders are rare and may not be common causes of high triglycerides. Additionally, there may be other causes of high triglycerides that are not listed here. It's important to talk to a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and diagnosis if you have concerns about your triglyceride levels.
There are several causes of hypertriglyceridemia, including:
* Genetics: Some people may inherit a tendency to have high triglyceride levels due to genetic mutations that affect the genes involved in triglyceride metabolism.
* Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with higher triglyceride levels, as there is more fat available for energy.
* Diabetes: Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to high triglyceride levels due to insulin resistance and altered glucose metabolism.
* High-carbohydrate diet: Consuming high amounts of carbohydrates, particularly refined or simple carbohydrates, can cause a spike in blood triglycerides.
* Alcohol consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can increase triglyceride levels in the blood.
* Certain medications: Some drugs, such as anabolic steroids and some antidepressants, can raise triglyceride levels.
* Underlying medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can also contribute to high triglyceride levels.
Hypertriglyceridemia is typically diagnosed with a blood test that measures the level of triglycerides in the blood. Treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, dietary changes, and medications to lower triglyceride levels.
People with hyperlipoproteinemia type V often have a history of low birth weight and growth retardation, and may experience a range of health problems including fatigue, muscle weakness, and liver disease. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated gene - one from each parent - to develop the condition.
Treatment for hyperlipoproteinemia type V typically involves a combination of dietary changes and medication. Dietary recommendations may include avoiding foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing intake of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts and vegetable oils. Medications may include drugs that raise HDL levels or lower LDL levels, such as niacin or statins. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
In summary, hyperlipoproteinemia type V is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins in the body, leading to extremely low levels of LDL cholesterol and high levels of HDL cholesterol. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and medication, and may include liver transplantation in severe cases.
The main symptom of abetalipoproteinemia is a complete absence of chylomicrons, which are small particles that carry triglycerides and other lipids in the bloodstream. This results in low levels of triglycerides and other lipids in the blood, as well as an impaired ability to absorb vitamins and other nutrients from food.
Abetalipoproteinemia is usually diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, when symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and poor growth become apparent. The disorder can be identified through blood tests that measure lipid levels and genetic analysis.
Treatment for abetalipoproteinemia typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements to ensure adequate nutrition and prevent complications such as malnutrition and liver disease. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to lower triglyceride levels or improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
The prognosis for abetalipoproteinemia varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any complications. In general, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent long-term health problems. However, some individuals with abetalipoproteinemia may experience ongoing health issues throughout their lives.
Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.
There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.
Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.
Apolipoprotein B deficiency
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5′ UTR cis-regulatory element
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
NHANES 2011-2012: Apolipoprotein B Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms and therapy
Apolipoprotein B100: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Apolipoprotein E: Health and disease marker in Europe | | Project | Fact sheet | FP4 | CORDIS | European Commission
Circulating Lipoprotein Lipids, Apolipoproteins and Ischemic Stroke - PubMed
Cells expressing Apolipoprotein E and uses thereof (U.S. Patent Number PCT/US2015/049674) - NIDDK
apolipoprotein F [Rattus norvegicus] - Protein - NCBI
SCOPe 2.06: Superfamily h.6.1: Apolipoprotein A-II
NIH VideoCast - CC Grand Rounds: The Emerging Role of Apolipoproteins in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Asthma
Anti-Apolipoprotein B antibody [F2C13] (GTX15663) | GeneTex
Longitudinal SPECT study in Alzheimer's disease: relation to apolipoprotein E polymorphism | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery...
PA-09-217: The Role of Apolipoprotein E, Lipoprotein Receptors and CNS Lipid Homeostasis in Brain Aging and Alzheimers Disease ...
Frontiers | Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: Impact of Apolipoprotein C-II and...
PRIME PubMed | Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Serum levels of apolipoproteins and incident type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study
Genetic Variation Associated with Differences in the Response of Plasma Apolipoprotein B Levels to Dietary Fibre | Clinical...
WHO EMRO | Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes...
Apolipoprotein E polymorphism, life stress and self-reported health among older adults | Journal of Epidemiology & Community...
Knowledge of the Biological Actions of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Gained From Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E | Revista Española de...
Apolipoprotein epsilon 3 alleles are associated with indicators of neuronal resilience | BMC Medicine | Full Text
Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis |...
Beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) excretion in chronic renal tubular disorders: comparison with other protein markers of...
KEGG entry for human apolipoprotein A-I APOA1
Cell autonomous mechanisms of Apolipoprotein E isoform-dependent neurodegeneration - JPND Neurodegenerative Disease Research
Apolipoproteins A | Profiles RNS
Physical Activity May Reduce Apolipoprotein E4-Associated Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease<...
The role of apolipoprotein N-acyl transferase, Lnt, in the lipidation of factor H binding protein of Neisseria meningitidis...
- We studied the association of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE as well as the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with the risk of T2D. (eur.nl)
- BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The human Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic. (nih.gov)
- Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, with the ε4 allele increasing risk in a dose-dependent fashion. (nih.gov)
- The binding of Aβ peptides to apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in modulation of amyloid deposition and clearance. (nih.gov)
- In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- Serum apolipoprotein A-IV levels are associated with flow-mediated dilation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
- Decreased serum apolipoprotein A4 as a potential peripheral biomarker for patients with schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
- Serum apolipoprotein E is associated with long-term risk of Alzheimer's disease: The Rotterdam Study. (ox.ac.uk)
- Apolipoprotein E is present in senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and cerebrovascular amyloid, the major neuropathological changes seen in Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
- Different binding properties of the apolipoprotein isoforms to β-amyloid and tau protein also suggests that it is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
- Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. (genetex.com)
- Month-to-month variability of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins and the impact of acute infection in adolescents. (uchicago.edu)
- This patent covers cellular models expressing variants of the human gene Apolipoprotein E. This invention not only allows for the evaluation of cellular phenotypes but also enables the creation of models for genetic and chemical screening. (nih.gov)
- 5-8 The apolipoprotein E gene, located on chromosome 19, has three major alleles: ε2, ε3, and ε4. (bmj.com)
- Genotypes were determined using DNA markers for the low-density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein CIII and hepatic lipase gene loci. (portlandpress.com)
- Apolipoprotein A5 gene variants and the risk of coronary heart disease: a case-control study and meta-analysis. (uchicago.edu)
- Hypertriglyceridemia and the apolipoprotein CIII gene locus: lack of association with the variant insulin response element in Italian school children. (uchicago.edu)
- In a mutant with markedly reduced binding, the transposon was located in the lnt gene which encodes apolipoprotein N-acyl transferase, Lnt, responsible for the addition of the third fatty acid to apolipoproteins prior to their sorting to the outer membrane. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- 3. Reductions in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B were significantly different depending on genotype determined with a low-density lipoprotein receptor DNA marker ( P = 0.03). (portlandpress.com)
- The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
- CONCLUSION Apolipoprotein E polymorphism is involved in the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease as the most severe cerebral hypoperfusion was found in the ε4 allele subgroups. (bmj.com)
- 1-4 The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and accelerates the onset of dementia. (bmj.com)
- The ultimate goal is to gain an in depth understanding of the mechanisms by which the Apolipoprotein E e4 allele confers increased AD risk for the purpose of advancing the overall search for efficacious AD treatments and Apolipoprotein E e4-directed therapeutics in particular. (nih.gov)
- This FOA encouarges multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research to elucidate how Apolipoprotein E, lipoprotein receptors and CNS lipid homeostasis influence brain aging and the transition to neurodegeneration in Alzheimers disease (AD). (nih.gov)
- Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for several conventional factors, were calculated for 1-SD higher values: 0.52 log(e) triglyceride, 15 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 mg/dL non-HDL-C, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein AI, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein B, and 33 mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- There was no significant variation in the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or apolipoprotein B concentrations for alleles of other genes tested. (portlandpress.com)
- There is now much evidence implicating apolipoprotein E (apo E) in the pathogenesis of CAD and AD. (europa.eu)
- Apolipoprotein A2 isoforms associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in early chronic pancreatitis. (bvsalud.org)
- Apolipoprotein A2 (apoA2) isoforms have been reported to undergo the aberrant processing in pancreatic cancer and pancreatic risk populations compared with that in healthy subjects . (bvsalud.org)
- The effect of apolipoprotein E polymorphism on cerebral perfusion was studied. (bmj.com)
- What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Publication: Apolipoprotein E4 association with metabolic syndrome depends on body fatness. (nih.gov)
- The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
- Holzfeind P, Merschak P, Dieplinger H, Redl B: The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily. (t3db.ca)
- Fasting blood lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured at the start and end of the 2 week metabolic period. (portlandpress.com)
- The distinct metabolism between large and small HDL indicates unique origins of human apolipoprotein A4. (nih.gov)
- Elements in the C terminus of apolipoprotein [a] responsible for the binding to the tenth type III module of human fibronectin. (uchicago.edu)
- Lysine-phosphatidylcholine adducts in kringle V impart unique immunological and potential pro-inflammatory properties to human apolipoprotein(a). (uchicago.edu)
- Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA. (t3db.ca)
- Yang CY, Gu ZW, Blanco-Vaca F, Gaskell SJ, Yang M, Massey JB, Gotto AM Jr, Pownall HJ: Structure of human apolipoprotein D: locations of the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide links. (t3db.ca)
- Balbin M, Freije JM, Fueyo A, Sanchez LM, Lopez-Otin C: Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease. (t3db.ca)
- Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale. (nih.gov)
- 1. We hypothesized that differences within genes whose protein products are involved in apolipoprotein B metabolism could influence the response of plasma apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein concentrations to increases in dietary fibre. (portlandpress.com)
- 4. Thus, genetic variability is associated with inter-individual differences in the fibre-related reduction in plasma apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein concentrations. (portlandpress.com)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Apolipoproteins A" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
- Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. (cdc.gov)
- OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the role of serumlevels of various apolipoproteins on the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). (eur.nl)
- As such, we hypothesized that apoC-II and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) levels were related to BP abnormalities and CVD in children suffering from mild-to-moderate CKD. (frontiersin.org)
- All apolipoproteins, ratios, and HDL-C levels were naturally logtransformed to reach normal distribution. (eur.nl)
- ICC/IF analysis of HepG2 cells using GTX15663 Apolipoprotein B antibody [F2C13]. (genetex.com)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Apolipoproteins A" by people in this website by year, and whether "Apolipoproteins A" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
- Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)
- Apolipoprotein E has been nominated as a potential target for AD. (nih.gov)
- Apolipoprotein A-IV of diabetic-foot patients upregulates tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in microfluidic arterial models. (nih.gov)
- Among them, apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) was found to have the highest abundance among the CKD patients with hypertension. (frontiersin.org)
- These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. (uchicago.edu)
- SCOPE: People who carry the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) SNP have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (uea.ac.uk)
- Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)