Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 22.214.171.124.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 126.96.36.199.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Scavenger Receptors, Class B
Serum Amyloid A Protein
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V
A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Amino Acid Sequence
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Rats, Inbred Strains
High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Protein Structure, Secondary
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
beta 2-Glycoprotein I
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Phospholipid Transfer Proteins
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Radioisotope Dilution Technique
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/2216)1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history. (+info)
Transgenic rabbits as models for atherosclerosis research. (2/2216)Several characteristics of the rabbit make it an excellent model for the study of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits have low plasma total cholesterol concentrations, high cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, low hepatic lipase (HL) activity, and lack an analogue of human apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, providing a unique system in which to assess the effects of human transgenes on plasma lipoproteins and atherosclerosis susceptibility. Additionally, rabbit models of human lipoprotein disorders, such as the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and St. Thomas' Hospital strains, models of familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia, respectively, allow for the assessment of candidate genes for potential use in the treatment of dyslipoproteinemic patients. To date, transgenes for human apo(a), apoA-I, apoB, apoE2, apoE3, HL, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), as well as for rabbit apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic poly-peptide 1 (APOBEC-1), have been expressed in NZW rabbits, whereas only those for human apoA-I and LCAT have been introduced into the WHHL background. All of these transgenes have been shown to have significant effects on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. In both NZW and WHHL rabbits, human apoA-I expression was associated with a significant reduction in the extent of aortic atherosclerosis, which was similarly the case for LCAT in rabbits having at least one functional LDL receptor allele. Conversely, expression of apoE2 in NZW rabbits caused increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the development of atherosclerosis, emphasizing the strength of the rabbit model in cardiovascular disease research. (+info)
The heparin/heparan sulfate-binding site on apo-serum amyloid A. Implications for the therapeutic intervention of amyloidosis. (3/2216)Serum amyloid A isoforms, apoSAA1 and apoSAA2, are apolipoproteins of unknown function that become major components of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during the acute phase of an inflammatory response. ApoSAA is also the precursor of inflammation-associated amyloid, and there is strong evidence that the formation of inflammation-associated and other types of amyloid is promoted by heparan sulfate (HS). Data presented herein demonstrate that both mouse and human apoSAA contain binding sites that are specific for heparin and HS, with no binding for the other major glycosaminoglycans detected. Cyanogen bromide-generated peptides of mouse apoSAA1 and apoSAA2 were screened for heparin binding activity. Two peptides, an apoSAA1-derived 80-mer (residues 24-103) and a smaller carboxyl-terminal 27-mer peptide of apoSAA2 (residues 77-103), were retained by a heparin column. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CNBr-generated 27-mer also bound heparin, and by substituting or deleting one or more of its six basic residues (Arg-83, His-84, Arg-86, Lys-89, Arg-95, and Lys-102), their relative importance for heparin and HS binding was determined. The Lys-102 residue appeared to be required only for HS binding. The residues Arg-86, Lys-89, Arg-95, and Lys-102 are phylogenetically conserved suggesting that the heparin/HS binding activity may be an important aspect of the function of apoSAA. HS linked by its carboxyl groups to an Affi-Gel column or treated with carbodiimide to block its carboxyl groups lost the ability to bind apoSAA. HDL-apoSAA did not bind to heparin; however, it did bind to HS, an interaction to which apoA-I contributed. Results from binding experiments with Congo Red-Sepharose 4B columns support the conclusions of a recent structural study which found that heparin binding domains have a common spatial distance of about 20 A between their two outer basic residues. Our present work provides direct evidence that apoSAA can associate with HS (and heparin) and that the occupation of its binding site by HS, and HS analogs, likely caused the previously reported increase in amyloidogenic conformation (beta-sheet) of apoSAA2 (McCubbin, W. D., Kay, C. M., Narindrasorasak, S., and Kisilevsky, R. (1988) Biochem. J. 256, 775-783) and their amyloid-suppressing effects in vivo (Kisilevsky, R., Lemieux, L. J., Fraser, P. E., Kong, X., Hultin, P. G., and Szarek, W. A. (1995) Nat. Med. 1, 143-147), respectively. (+info)
Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (4/2216)We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors. (+info)
Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (5/2216)Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model. (+info)
Lipid transfer inhibitor protein defines the participation of lipoproteins in lipid transfer reactions: CETP has no preference for cholesteryl esters in HDL versus LDL. (6/2216)Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the net transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride (heteroexchange). It is generally held that CETP primarily associates with HDL and preferentially transfers lipids from this lipoprotein fraction. This is illustrated in normal plasma where HDL is the primary donor of the CE transferred to VLDL by CETP. However, in plasma deficient in lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity, HDL and LDL are equivalent donors of CE to VLDL (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1716-1724). Thus, we have hypothesized that the preferential transfer of CE from HDL in normal plasma is a consequence of LTIP activity and not caused by a preferential CETP-HDL interaction. We have tested this hypothesis in lipid mass transfer assays with partially purified CETP and LTIP, and isolated lipoproteins. With a physiological mixture of lipoproteins, the preference ratio (PR, ratio of CE mass transferred from a lipoprotein to VLDL versus its CE content) for HDL and LDL in the presence of CETP alone was approximately 1 (ie, no preference). Fourfold variations in the LDL/HDL ratio or in the levels of HDL in the assay did not result in significant preferential transfer from any lipoprotein. On addition of LTIP, the PR for HDL was increased up to 2-fold and that for LDL decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Under all conditions where LDL and HDL levels were varied, LTIP consistently resulted in a PR >1 for CE transfer from HDL. Short-term experiments with radiolabeled lipoproteins and either partially purified or homogenous CETP confirmed these observations and further demonstrated that CETP has a strong predilection to mediate homoexchange (bidirectional transfer of the same lipid) rather than heteroexchange (CE for TG); LTIP had no effect on the selection of CE or TG by CETP or its mechanism of action. We conclude, in contrast to current opinion, that CETP has no preference for CE in HDL versus LDL, suggesting that the previously reported stable binding of CETP to HDL does not result in selective transfer from this lipoprotein. These data suggest that LTIP is responsible for the preferential transfer of CE from HDL that occurs in plasma. CETP and LTIP cooperatively determine the extent of CETP-mediated remodeling of individual lipoprotein fractions. (+info)
Levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in patients with angiographically defined coronary atherosclerosis. (7/2216)Adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell membrane play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Levels of soluble forms of cell adhesion molecules are reportedly elevated in patients with peripheral artery vessel disease and in patients with an atherosclerotic aorta. The present study investigated the association of serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) with coronary heart disease (CHD) and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins (apo) in subjects with (n=52, M/F:43/9) and without (controls, n=40, M/F:25/15) angiographically proven coronary atherosclerosis. After controlling for age and gender, levels of sVCAM-1 (least squares mean +/- std error: 565+/-36 ng/ml vs 540+/-41 ng/ml, ns), sICAM-1 (261+/-17ng/ml vs 247+/-19ng/ml, ns), and sP-selectin (142+/-8ng/ml vs 149+/-10 ng/ml, ns) in patients with coronary atherosclerosis were not different from those in controls, as assessed by an analysis of covariance. After also adjusting for body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking by a multiple logistic function analysis, the association of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sP-selectin with CHD was still not significant. Levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sP-selectin were also not related to the extent of coronary atherosclerosis as judged by the number of stenosed vessels. However, inverse (p<0.05) relationships were observed between sVCAMs and serum levels of HDL3-cholesterol, apo A-II, and lipoprotein containing apo A-I and A-II, between sICAMs and levels of apo A-II and Lp A-I/A-II (Lp A-I/A-II), and between sP-selectin and lipoprotein containing only apo A-I. In conclusion, serum levels of soluble VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and P-selectin were not related to CHD or the extent of coronary atherosclerosis, but were inversely related to serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-related lipoproteins. (+info)
CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene expression. (8/2216)Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that is crucial in the regulation of a large number of genes involved in glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid metabolism and in determining the hepatic phenotype. We have previously shown that HNF-4 contains transcription activation functions at the N terminus (AF-1) and the C terminus (AF-2) which work synergistically to confer full HNF-4 activity. Here, we show that HNF-4 recruits the CREB-binding protein (CBP) coactivator on promoters of genes that contain functional HNF-4 sites. HNF-4 interacts with the N-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1-771) and the C-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1812-2441). The two activating functions of HNF-4, AF-1 and AF-2, interact with the N terminus and the N and C terminus of CBP, respectively. In addition, we show that in contrast to the other nuclear hormone receptors the interaction between HNF-4 and CBP is ligand-independent. Recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 results in an enhancement of the transcriptional activity of the latter. CBP does not activate gene expression in the absence of HNF-4, and dominant negative forms of HNF-4 prevent transcriptional activation by CBP, suggesting that the mere recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 is not sufficient for enhancement of gene expression. These findings demonstrate that CBP acts as a transcriptional coactivator for HNF-4 and provide new insights into the regulatory function of HNF-4. (+info)
The amphipathic helix in the exchangeable apolipoproteins : a review of secondary structure and function - Institutional...
Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E and compare these results with recently developed computer methods for analysis of the location and properties of amphipathic helixes. This comparison suggests that there are at least three distinct classes of amphipathic helixes (classes A, Y, and G*) in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison further suggests that lipid affinity resides largely in class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., et al. 1990. Proteins. 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid affinities from high to low. The positions of the four a ...
Gentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Anti Human Plasma Apolipoprotein A I protein antiserum \ APOA11-S
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Alpha Dia \ Anti_Human Plasma Apolipoprotein A_I protein antiserum \ APOA11-S for more molecular products just contact us
Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma results in an atheroprotective apolipoprotein profile in HepG2...
Background: Insulin resistance is linked to dyslipidemia, characterized by a decrease in high density lipo-proteins and an increase in low density lipoproteins. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing agents used to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the safety of certain TZD regimens has been questioned because of associated adverse effects on the plasma lipid profile. We examined the effect of a TZD, Ciglitazone, on apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion in human liver HepG2 cells. Methods and Results: The effect of Ciglitazone treatment on apolipoprotein synthesis was addressed at the level of transcription, translation and secretion. RT-PCR showed that Ciglitazone increased the transcription of apoE and apoAI but reduced the levels of apoCI and apoB mRNA. Western blot analysis showed an increase in apoAI and apoE secreted in the cell culture media, whereas the amounts of apoB100 and apoCI were reduced. To confirm that Ciglitazone regulates apolipoprotein
Apolipoproteins - LabCE.com, Laboratory Continuing Education
Apolipoproteins have multiple roles. One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). Apolipoproteins can also function as enzyme co-factors (receptor ligands), facilitating the transfer of their lipid cargo to specific cells. Thus, the apoliproteins are the smart or working-end of the lipoprotein particle. The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. So although the particles are composed of phospholipids and have lipid cargo, the few proteins on their surface are what give them their collective name of lipoproteins ...
Apolipoprotein L 5抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Apolipoprotein L 5抗体
Apolipoprotein L 5山羊多克隆抗体(ab79281)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务，中国75%以上现货。
Turnover of synthetic class A amphipathic peptide analogues of exchangeable apolipoproteins in rats. Correlation with physical...
Peptide analogues of the class A amphipathic helixes from exchangeable apolipoproteins mimic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in a number of ways, including the ability to activate the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, to associate with high density lipoproteins (HDLs), and to form HDL-like particles in the presence of lipids. This study investigated the metabolic properties of several of these peptide analogues in the rat. Peptide analogues studied were 18A (referred to as L-18A to differentiate it from D-18A, and which mimics apolipoprotein amphipathic helical domains in its charge distribution), 37pA (a dimer of two 18A monomers separated by a proline), 18R (with reversed charge distribution compared with 18A), and D-18A (identical in amino acid sequence to 18A but synthesized from D-amino acids). Peptides were radiolabeled with 125I. In addition, metabolism of rat and human 125I-apo A-I and human 14C-apo A-I was studied; no significant differences in clearance of these preparations were ...
Identification of a novel apolipoprotein, ApoN, in ovarian follicular fluid
A novel apolipoprotein, designated ApoN, has been identified in bovine ovarian follicular fluid using chromatographic purification methods, amino acid sequence analysis, molecular biology, and bioinformatics. The apolipoprotein is a hydrophobic 12-kDa protein processed from the C terminus of a 29-kDa precursor expressed in a number of tissues, including the ovary, testis, the anterior chamber of the eye, skeletal muscle, uterus, and liver. Bovine, porcine, and murine ApoN display significant homology at the amino acid level across the entire precursor sequence. Surprisingly, there appears to be no orthologous protein in the human, although an APON-like pseudogene is found on chromosome 12. The N-terminal fragment of the ApoN precursor shows significant homology with the N-terminal sequence of the precursor of the cholesterol transport regulatory protein ApoF, but the corresponding C-terminal sequences of ApoN and ApoF possess no homology. ApoN is present in the high-density lipoprotein fraction ...
Apolipoprotein F抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Apolipoprotein F抗体(ab81908)
Apolipoprotein F山羊多克隆抗体(ab81908)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务，中国75%以上现货。
Apolipoproteins A Summary Report | CureHunter
Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Absolute Quantification of Plasma Apolipoproteins for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction | SpringerLink
Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major...
Purification of biologically active apolipoproteins by chromatofocussing<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of biologically active apolipoproteins by chromatofocussing. AU - McLeod, Roger. AU - Lacko, Andras G.. AU - Pritchard, P. Haydn. AU - Frohlich, Jiri. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Chromatofocussing has been used to isolate homogeneous apolipoproteins (apo) from human very-low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins with protein recovery of 70%. The inclusion of sulfhydryl-reducing agent (dithiothreitol) was required during solubilization of the lipoproteins (following delipidation) to achieve reproducible elution profiles. Removal of polyvalent buffers from apoproteins was rapidly accomplished on small columns of hydroxylapatite. The biological activity of purified apo AI and apo CII was confirmed by assessment of their ability to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase or lipoprotein lipase, respectively. Functional properties of isolated apo E were assessed by in vitro interaction with the low-density lipoprotein receptor expressed by ...
Human APOO ELISA Kit | biobool.com
specificalPrinciple of the Assay: This assay employs the competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay technique. The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with APOO. Standards or samples are added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugated antibody preparation specific for APOO. The competitive inhibition reaction is launched between with pre-coated APOO and APOO in samples. A substrate solution is added to the wells and the color develops in opposite to the amount of APOO in the samples. The color development is stopped and the intensity of the color is measured. ...
Increased Apolipoprotein Deposits in Early Atherosclerotic Lesions Distinguish Symptomatic From Asymptomatic Patients |...
In this tissue microarray analysis of arterial apolipoprotein deposits, we found that vulnerable patients, that is, patients who experienced symptomatic atherosclerosis during their lifetime, have increased apoE and apoB deposits at the earliest lesional stages, that is, during intimal thickening or even in microscopically healthy arteries. The histomorphological pattern of apolipoprotein distribution in the arterial wall was nearly identical for apoE and apoB. As an unexpected finding, patients with diabetes mellitus had minimal intimal apolipoprotein deposits in early atherosclerosis as detected by immunohistochemistry.. The net amount of apolipoproteins in the arterial wall is the sum of delivery or influx, local synthesis or retention, and degradation or efflux. Our finding that apolipoproteins first accumulate in the arterial intima, that media deposits are found only when extensive intimal deposits are present, and that apolipoproteins are virtually absent from the adventitia supports the ...
PRIME PubMed | Associations among apolipoproteins, oxidized high-density lipoprotein and cardiovascular events in patients on...
PubMed journal article: Associations among apolipoproteins, oxidized high-density lipoprotein and cardiovascular events in patients on hemodialysis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
JLR] Good Cholesterol, Good Lungs
High-density lipoprotein is predominantly composed of the apolipoproteins apoAI and apoAII. These apolipoproteins are responsible for collecting lipids from arteries and transporting them back to the liver for reutilization, which provides protection against cardiovascular diseases. While many studies examine the cardiovascular effects of HDL and its apolipoproteins, few have looked at whether these molecules maintain the health of other bodily systems and organs. In this study, the authors show that apoA1 maintains pulmonary function in mice. Along with inhibiting stressors such as proinflammatory HDL formation and the activity of paranoxonase 1 (PON1) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) in the plasma, apoA1 was shown to limit pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress markers, such as 3NT, 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (4-HNE), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), xanthineoxidase, myeloperoxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lung milieu. Additionally, apoA1 was shown to enhance arterial ...
APOL6 Gene - GeneCards | APOL6 Protein | APOL6 Antibody
Complete information for APOL6 gene (Protein Coding), Apolipoprotein L6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Non-Mammalian Host Systems for the Expression of Mammalian Apolipoproteins | Springer for Research & Development
Recombinant mammalian apolipoproteins have been expressed in a variety of cultured mammalian cell lines (Reardon et al. 1986; Mallory et al. 1987; Blackhart et al. 1990; Yao et al. 1991), transgenic...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Physicochemical mechanism on formation and metabolism of HDL particles by apolipoproteins (KAKENHI...
Principal Investigator：Saito Hiroyuki, Project Period (FY)：2013-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section：一般, Research Field：Physical pharmacy
Rosiglitazone Enhances Apolipoprotein M (Apom) Expression in Rats Liver [Abstract]
Abstract. Apolipoprotein M (APOM) has been suggested as a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which plays a crucial role behind the mechanism of HDL-mediated anti-atherosclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that insulin resistance could associate with decreased APOM expressions. In agreement with our previous reports, here, we further confirmed that the insulin sensitivity was also reduced in rats treated with high concentrations of glucose; such effect could be reversed by administration of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). The present study shows that Apom expression is significantly affected by either rosiglitazone or hyperglycemia alone without cross interaction with each other, which indicates that the pathway of Apom expression regulating by hyperglycemia might be differed from that by rosiglitazone. Further study indicated that hyperglycemia could significantly inhibit mRNA levels of Lxrb (P=0.0002), small heterodimer ...
Alzheimers amyloid β interaction with normal human plasma high density lipoprotein: Association with apolipoprotein and lipids
Article: We report studies of the interaction of Alzheimers amyloid beta protein (Aβ) with normal human plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL), aiming to clarify to which lipoprotein (LP) structural constituent (apolipoprotein or lipid) soluble Aβ is primarily bound. Purified HDLs were incubated wit...
Apolipoprotein M promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol in vivo - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske...
The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice ...
B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Signal Peptide Circulates in Human Blood | Circulation
Our results are the first demonstration of a defined signal sequence as a distinct, separate entity within the circulation in humans. Whereas Christofferson et al18 reported that the SP of apolipoprotein M is retained along with the entire apolipoprotein M protein in the circulation of humans and that this uncleaved SP helps prevent renal filtration of apolipoprotein M through hydrophobic association with circulating lipoproteins, they did not detect the apolipoprotein M SP as a distinct, separate entity. We found no evidence on immunoassay or HPLC for the SP fragment BNPsp (17-26) in human plasma to be associated with proBNP (1-108), ie, as a component of preproBNP (1-134). Nevertheless, we cannot exclude the existence of such an association because our BNPsp (17-26) assay is designed to detect free carboxyl terminal residues in position 26 of the SP, which requires cleavage of proBNP (1-108). Future work with assays directed toward the amino terminal region of preproBNP (1-134) is needed to ...
Production and purification of recombinant mouse apolipoprotein F :: University of Southern California Dissertations and Theses
Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is a 35 kDa protein encoded by a cDNA cloned from the murine lacrimal gland. In the present paper, the murine apoF has been expressed as a recombinant histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified from expressing cultures. We report here the unique distinctions of apoF including comparisons of apoF with other apolipoproteins (apoD, apoE, and apoN), as well as why this protein was produced. The data presented here provide evidence that isolated recombinant apoF purified in the experimental conditions described here can be used for functional studies ...
Low-resolution epitope characterisation in a family of seed apolipoproteins using polyclonal antibodies - WestminsterResearch
Polyclonal antibodies raised against a range of seed apolipoproteins from the family Cruciferae have been used for the first time for low resolution epitope characterisation. Antibodies were raised against the major seed apolipoproteins of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativum. In each case, the antibodies recognized, in addition to the 19-20 kDa apolipoprotein to which they were raised, similar 19-20 kDa apolipoproteins from a wide range of species in the family Cruciferae, but not in other plant families. Homologous or heterologous two-sites (sandwich) assays were performed with the format [antibody A - test apolipoprotein - antibody B - 2° antibody]. The results showed a drastically reduced antibody B binding by apolipoproteins preincubated with an antibody A. This indicated the presence of a single major epitope on many of the apolipoproteins. The antigenicity of native and denatured apolipoproteins was similar, although the antigenicity of the former was much more readily ...
Gender and ethnic differences in a case-control study of dyslipidemia: using the apolipoprotein A-V gene as an exemplar in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gender and ethnic differences in a case-control study of dyslipidemia. T2 - using the apolipoprotein A-V gene as an exemplar in cardiovascular genetics.. AU - Wung, Shu Fen. AU - Aouizerat, Bradley. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Common, complex genetic disorders such as coronary heart disease (CHD) frequently show large population differences, contributing to health disparities. It is also well known that CHD risk factor profiles and the frequency of coronary events differ by gender. Study of premature CHD has revealed that apolipoproteins are important discriminating factors for distinguishing individuals with CHD. Recent findings indicated that apolipoprotein A-V (APOA-V) gene promoter polymorphisms are an important determinant of plasma triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein cholesterol, and a risk factor for CHD. Variations in APOA-V may have varying impacts in different ethnic groups. The purpose of this interdisciplinary genetic research project was to determine (1) the ...
Apolipoprotein M/ApoM Antibody (8F12C6B8) [Alexa Fluor® 488] (NB110-60526AF488): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Apolipoprotein M/ApoM Antibody (8F12C6B8) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Protection Against Insulin Resistance by Apolipoprotein M/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate | 4 Diabetes
AbstractSubjects with low serum HDL cholesterol levels are reported to be susceptible to diabetes, with insulin resistance believed to be the underlying
Produktübersicht anti-Apolipoprotein M Antikörper
Monoklonale und polyklonale Apolipoprotein M Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Apolipoprotein M Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Apolipoprotein - Wikipedia
Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water. However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating the lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation (i.e., blood, lymph). Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues. In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. In particular, apoA1 is the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins; apoA4 is thought to act primarily in ...
Correlations between Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and DES
DES regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ovarian carcinogenesis.
APOM Gene - GeneCards | APOM Protein | APOM Antibody
Complete information for APOM gene (Protein Coding), Apolipoprotein M, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Apolipoprotein localization in human cranial arteries, coronary arteries, and the aorta. | Stroke
Apolipoproteins from human plasma high density (HDL), low density (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were visualized in human arteries employing immunofluorescence techniques. Comparison between the localization patterns in extracranial and intracranial arteries and those in coronary arteries and the aorta was made. ApoA-I from HDL, apoB from LDL, and apoC-III from VLDL, as well as neutral lipid, were all localized to connective tissue and extracellular lipid pools in atherosclerotic lesions, and only to areas of intimal thickening in grossly uninvolved arteries. The degree of superposition of localizations was similiar in each vascular bed, and within the error resulting from the structural changes due to the focal nature of the atherosclerotic process. These results suggest a broad specificity in localization of apolipoproteins in most arterial lesions, and suggest that no differences in apolipoprotein accumulation exist between extracranial and intracranial arteries, coronary ...
General antibody news | AntibodyChain
Humans resist infection by the African parasite Trypanosoma brucei owing to the trypanolytic activity of the serum apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). Following uptake by endocytosis in the parasite, APOL1 forms pores in endolysosomal membranes and triggers lysosome swelling. Here we show that APOL1 induces both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (LMP and MMP). Trypanolysis coincides with MMP and consecutive release of the mitochondrial TbEndoG endonuclease to the nucleus. APOL1 is associated with the kinesin TbKIFC1, of which both the motor and vesicular trafficking VHS domains are required for MMP, but not for LMP. The presence of APOL1 in the mitochondrion is accompanied by mitochondrial membrane fenestration, which can be mimicked by knockdown of a mitochondrial mitofusin-like protein (TbMFNL). The BH3-like peptide of APOL1 is required for LMP, MMP and trypanolysis. Thus, trypanolysis by APOL1 is linked to apoptosis-like MMP occurring together with TbKIFC1-mediated transport of ...
Pdf Hypertension And Cardiovascular Disease 2016
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Xu N, Ahren B, Jiang J, Nilsson-Ehle pdf Hypertension and: click of apolipoprotein M looting is associated by Internet list in temporary resources. Biochimica et biophysica acta.
Apolipoprotein AV: Low concentration, high impact :: TNO Repository
Chemicals / CAS: lipoprotein lipase, 83137-80-8, 9004-02-8; APOA5 protein, human; Apolipoproteins A; Apolipoproteins; Triglycerides ...
Most recent papers with the keyword APOL1 associated nephropathy | Read by QxMD
Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis ...
Apolipoproteins | ProSpec
ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant
Research Festival | Intramural Research Program | National Institutes of Health
Apolipoproteins are proteins which bind to lipids, forming lipoprotein complexes to encapsulate cholesterol and triglycerides. Structure and transport of lipoproteins are regulated by the binding of specific apolipoproteins where they serve as receptors and ligands. Apolipoprotein C-3 (ApoC3) inhibits hydrolysis of lipids by lipase. Elevated levels of ApoC3 are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Despite its importance in lipid metabolism, fundamental lipid binding properties of ApoC3 remain to be characterized. Using unilamellar vesicles with varied lipid composition and curvature, we apply single-liposome microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to determine membrane binding affinity, secondary structure formation, and membrane integrity, respectively. back to top. ...
Apolipoprotein H - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab
Explore the science and understand more clearly the Apolipoprotein H topic by reading the best articles made from Experts, Scientific and Academics!
Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins Foreign Language Flashcards - Cram.com
Trying to learn ? We can help! Memorize these flashcards or create your own flashcards with Cram.com. Learn a new language today.
GENETIC-VARIATION AT THE APOLIPOPROTEIN GENE LOCI CONTRIBUTE TO RESPONSE OF PLASMA-LIPIDS TO DIETARY CHANGE - UCL Discovery
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Apolipoproteins - Proteins-Enzymes - Lipids Metabolism - Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome - Products
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
Tissue expression of APOO - Staining in cervix, uterine - The Human Protein Atlas
Expression of APOO (FAM121B, MGC4825, Mic23, MIC26, My025) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA003187 in immunohistochemistry.
Apolipoprotein m (APOM) levels and APOM rs805297 G/T polymorphism are associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. -...
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the apolipoprotein M (APOM) rs805297 G/T polymorphism is associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chinese population. METHODS We studied APOM rs805297 G/T gene polymorphism in 520 RA patients, and 520 controls in a Chinese population. Genotyping was done by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The blood plasma concentration of APOM was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 84 RA patients and 84 controls. RESULTS When the APOM rs805297 G/T GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT or GT/TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for RA (TT vs. GG, adjusted odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.11-2.77, P=0.016; GT + TT vs. GG, adjusted odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67, P=0.037). The average concentration of APOM in plasma was significantly higher in RA patients compared to controls. Stratification analysis found a significantly increased risk for RA associated with the APOM rs805297 TT
anti-Apolipoprotein M antibody [3H3] | GeneTex
Apolipoprotein M antibody [3H3] (apolipoprotein M) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Apolipoprotein M mAb (GTX84882) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RGD1309808 (similar to apolipoprotein L2; apolipoprotein L-II) - Chinchilla Research Resource Database
INVOLVED IN lipid transport (inferred); lipoprotein metabolic process (inferred); FOUND IN extracellular region (inferred); INTERACTS WITH 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 6-propyl-2-thiouracil; buspirone
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for apolipoproteins A-I and bin urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used formeasuring apolipoproteins A-I and B in the urine. ApoB is absentin urine of healthy subjects, and apoA-I is determined in tracequantity. In patients with chronic glomerulonephritis quantity ofapoA-I in urine was 117 times as much as in control group. ApoBis present in urine of patients in considerable quantity(1528*315 *g/l).) The ELISA method for determining apoA-I andapoB in urine makes it possible to evaluate the gravity ofpathological process in kidney ...
PLOS ONE: Evaluating Molecular Mechanical Potentials for Helical Peptides and Proteins
Multiple variants of the AMBER all-atom force field were quantitatively evaluated with respect to their ability to accurately characterize helix-coil equilibria in explicit solvent simulations. Using a global distributed computing network, absolute conformational convergence was achieved for large ensembles of the capped A21 and Fs helical peptides. Further assessment of these AMBER variants was conducted via simulations of a flexible 164-residue five-helix-bundle protein, apolipophorin-III, on the 100 ns timescale. Of the contemporary potentials that had not been assessed previously, the AMBER-99SB force field showed significant helix-destabilizing tendencies, with beta bridge formation occurring in helical peptides, and unfolding of apolipophorin-III occurring on the tens of nanoseconds timescale. The AMBER-03 force field, while showing adequate helical propensities for both peptides and stabilizing apolipophorin-III, (i) predicts an unexpected decrease in helicity with ALA→ARG+ substitution, (ii)
Human ApoB-100 ELISA | ApoB-100 ELISA | ApoB-100 Assay
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
Human ApoB-100 ELISA | ApoB-100 ELISA | ApoB-100 Assay
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
Abstract 004: Independent Effects of 1.5 Ounces/Day Almonds on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins in Mildly...
Introduction: Almonds have been studied in the context of blood cholesterol-lowering diets, which consistently show beneficial effects on CVD risk factors. The independent effects of almonds beyond the contributions of a heart healthy diet have not been evaluated.. Hypothesis: A cholesterol-lowering diet with 1.5 oz. /d almonds will elicit greater cardioprotective effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins than the same cholesterol-lowering diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution.. Methods: A randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled feeding study was designed to test the effects of 1.5 oz. /d almonds compared to a calorie-matched, high carbohydrate snack. All foods provided were exactly the same in both diets except for the snack (almonds or muffin; 245 kcal/d). Thus, differences in the nutrient profiles of the control diet (59.3% CHO, 15.4% PRO, 25.2% FAT, no almonds/d) and almond diet (51.8% CHO, 16.7% PRO, 31.5% FAT, 1.5 oz. of almonds/d) were due to the nutrient profile ...
OriGene - APOL4 (NM 030643) Human ORF cDNA Clone
APOL4 - APOL4 (GFP-tagged) - Human apolipoprotein L, 4 (APOL4), transcript variant a available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS: We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional ...
ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-I | Creative Bioarray
Apo-A1 is a 29.0 kDa protein produced in the liver and intestine, and secreted as the predominant constituent of nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle. Apo-A1, which is found exclusively in HDL, has a unique ability to capture and solubilize free cholesterol. This Apo- 1 ability enables HDL to remove excess peripheral cholesterol and return it to the liver for recycling and excretion. This process, called reverse cholesterol transport, is though to inhibit atherogenesis. For this reason HDL is also known as the good cholesterol. The therapeutic potential of Apo-A1 has been recently assessed in patients with acute coronary syndromes, using a recombinant form of a naturally occurring variant of Apo-A1 (called Apo-A1 Milano). The availability of recombinant normal Apo-A1 should facilitate further investigation into the potential usefulness of apoA-I in preventing atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Recombinant human Apo-A1 is a 28.2 kDa protein of 244 amino acid residues ...
Apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I) polymorphism in Asians. | [email protected]
Saha, N.,Kamboh, M.I.,Kelly, L.J.,Ferrell, R.E.,Tay, J.S. (1992). Apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I) polymorphism in Asians.. Human Biology 64 (4) : 617-621. [email protected] Repository ...
Abacavir sulfate | Melatonin membrane receptors in peripheral tissues
Trypanolytic variants where encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with kidney disease in African Us citizens, but whether genotypes for 271 BLACK cases, 168 Western european American cases, and 939 control content. untreated HIV-infected people have a 50% risk for developing HIVAN. The result of holding two risk alleles points out 18% of FSGS and 35% of HIVAN; additionally, eliminating this impact would decrease FSGS and HIVAN by 67%. A study of globe populations indicated the fact that kidney risk alleles can be found just on African chromosomes. In conclusion, African Us citizens holding two risk alleles possess a elevated risk Abacavir sulfate for glomerular disease significantly, and includes a make use of in scientific practice. African Us citizens have got a fourfold elevated risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to the three leading factors behind chronic kidney disease (CKD): diabetic nephropathy, hypertension-attributed CKD, and glomerulonephritis.1C3 Two admixture mapping ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Collapsing glomerulopathy | Read by QxMD
Collapsing glomerulopathy (CGP) is a pattern of kidney injury seen on renal biopsy with multiple associations and etiologies. It is most commonly described in African-Americans and others with recent African ancestry. The disease is rapidly progressive and often presents with abrupt onset of renal failure and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Since its description 30 years ago, this entity has transformed from a morphologic diagnosis typically seen in the setting of HIV infection to a complicated diagnosis with numerous etiologies, many of which are associated with underlying apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1)-risk variants or other genetic disorders ...
Das APOH Gen kodiert das Apolipoprotein H, welches die Brücke zwischen Lipidstoffwechsel, Koagulation und Infektabwehr schlägt. Es wurde gefunden, dass einige SNPs eine Bedeutung für die Plasmakonzentration besitzen. Damit könnten sie auch einen Effekt auf die prothombotische Wirkung insbesondere bei Patienten mit Phospholipid-Antikörpern besitzen.. ...
Lipoprotein Syndromes, Primary/Non-Genetic - Endocrinology Advisor
This entire discussion has focused on the traditional lipid markers used in the assessment of cardiac risk: total cholesterol, HDLc, triglyceride, and LDLc. This is because there is little evidence to support the routine use of other markers, even though they are widely promoted in the lay press, by commercial laboratories, and online. Included among these tests are apo A-1, apo B-100, Lp(a), homocysteine, and C-Reactive Protein (CRP).. Apo A-1 and apo B-100 are the apolipoproteins uniquely associated with the HDL and LDL particles, respectively. Apo A-1 and apo B-100 levels are, thus, very highly correlated with HDLc and LDLc levels, respectively. Not surprisingly, low apo A-1 levels and high apo B-100 levels are associated with increased cardiac risk. However, neither parameter adds incremental information to that available from HDLc and LDLc. As a result, it is difficult to recommend their routine use. Conversely, these parameters can be helpful in confirming extremely high or low HDLc or ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to determine apolipoprotein B, the major protein in low-density lipids (LDLs) and present in large amounts (approximately 4%) in both very-low-density lipids (VLDLs) and chylomicrons. Apolipoprotein B is found in at least two forms: B-100 (Apo B-100) synthesized in the liver, and B-48 (Apo B-48), probably synthesized in the intestines. Levels of apolipoproteins in plasma are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases.. Entry Terms : Apolipoprotein B Determination Reagents , Reagents, Immunoassay, Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B. UMDC code : 19817 ...
Serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in pregnant non-diabetic patients. | Journal of Clinical Pathology
You need to be signed in to access email alerts. If you have an account log in with your user name and password. If you dont have an account you can just enter your email address in the email box below ...
Tissue expression of APOO - Staining in oral mucosa - The Human Protein Atlas
Expression of APOO (FAM121B, MGC4825, Mic23, MIC26, My025) in oral mucosa tissue. Antibody staining with HPA003187 in immunohistochemistry.
APO D30 Pill Images (Blue & White / Capsule-shape)
Pill with imprint APO D30 is Blue & White, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Duloxetine Hydrochloride Delayed-Release 30 mg. It is supplied by Apotex Corp..
Indian Heart Journal
Apolipoproteins AI/B/E gene polymorphism and their plasma levels in patients with coronary artery disease in a tertiary care-center of Eastern India ...
Notes from Dr. RW: November 2010
significant risk factors for all stroke were: history of hypertension (OR 2·64, 99% CI 2·26-3·08; PAR 34·6%, 99% CI 30·4-39·1); current smoking (2·09, 1·75-2·51; 18·9%, 15·3-23·1); waist-to-hip ratio (1·65, 1·36-1·99 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·5%, 18·8-36·0); diet risk score (1·35, 1·11-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·8%, 11·2-29·7); regular physical activity (0·69, 0·53-0·90; 28·5%, 14·5-48·5); diabetes mellitus (1·36, 1·10-1·68; 5·0%, 2·6-9·5); alcohol intake (1·51, 1·18-1·92 for more than 30 drinks per month or binge drinking; 3·8%, 0·9-14·4); psychosocial stress (1·30, 1·06-1·60; 4·6%, 2·1-9·6) and depression (1·35, 1·10-1·66; 5·2%, 2·7-9·8); cardiac causes (2·38, 1·77-3·20; 6·7%, 4·8-9·1); and ratio of apolipoproteins B to A1 (1·89, 1·49-2·40 for highest vs lowest tertile; 24·9%, 15·7-37·1). Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 88·1% (99% CI 82·3-92·2) of the PAR for all stroke. When an alternate ...
The Long Saga of Apo-A1 Milano | In the Pipeline
Its been six years since I titled a post Remember Apo-A1 Milano? If you go back even further, I wrote about the topic on this blog back in 2003 (!); scroll
Doxycycline and cept
Mar 7, 2005. rich lipoproteins secreted from doxycycline-treated cells was larger. cept that these two key apolipoproteins may interact within the
APOF Tattooable Synthetic Guinea Pig
Tired of people asking to be your tattoo guinea pig? Now you can have a guinea pig of your very own whos more than willing to offer his skin up for practice. With life-like curvature and texture, our guinea pig is just dying to be tatted up by apprentice
Progesterone in human serum (high)- CAS Number 57-83-0
Buy Progesterone in human serum (high) - CAS Number 57-83-0 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and place orders.
Полиморфизм гена Apo E у пациентов с метаболическим синдромом и когнитивными расстройствами | Зуева | Артериальная гипертензия
Полиморфизм гена Apo E у пациентов с метаболическим синдромом и когнитивными расстройствами
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis. Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein, while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway. The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triglycerides that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver. The synthesis of ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare. People ...
Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
Farnesoid X receptor
"Farnesoid X receptor agonists suppress hepatic apolipoprotein CIII expression". Gastroenterology. 125 (2): 544-55. doi:10.1016/ ...
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ...
"Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. XVIII. apolipoprotein polymorphisms in Australian Aborigines", Human Biology, 63 (2 ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Gain of toxic Apolipoprotein E4 effects in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons Is Ameliorated by a Small-Molecule Structure Corrector. ... Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ... In 2018 published an article in Nature Medicine about apolipoprotein E(apoE) gene expression-pluripotent stem cell cultures ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
2003). "[Apolipoprotein E and bleomycin hydrolase. Polymorphisms: association with neurodegenerative diseases]". Ann. Biol. ...
Long non-coding RNA
A recent study found that a lncRNA in the antisense direction of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) regulates the transcription of ... Halley, Paul; Kadakkuzha, Beena (2014). "Regulation of the apolipoprotein gene cluster by a long noncoding RNA". Cell Reports. ...
The main apolipoprotein component is apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48). While circulating in blood, chylomicrons exchange ... Apolipoproteins are significant in the synthesis and metabolism of chylomicrons. The villi, lined with the microvilli of the ... The triglycerides are then combined with phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and apolipoprotein B-48 to form a nascent ... components with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The HDL donates apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) to the ...
Karathanasis SK (1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV genes ... "Genetic polymorphism of human plasma apolipoprotein A-IV is due to nucleotide substitutions in the apolipoprotein A-IV gene". J ... Apolipoprotein A-IV (also known as apoA-IV, apoAIV, or apoA4) is plasma protein that is the product of the human gene APOA4. ... "Entrez Gene: APOA4 apolipoprotein A-IV". Luo CC, Li WH, Moore MN, Chan L (February 1986). "Structure and evolution of the ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II. A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Hauser, Paul S.; Ryan, Robert O. (October 2013). "Impact of Apolipoprotein E on Alzheimer's Disease". Current Alzheimer ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". Marino D, Perković M, Hain A, Jaguva Vasudevan AA, Hofmann H, Hanschmann KM ... C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the APOLD1 gene. It is located on Chromosome 12 ... "Entrez Gene: Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1". Retrieved 2012-11-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) APOLD1 ... apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] on NCBI Human APOLD1 genome location and APOLD1 gene details page ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
Harold Smith (scientist)
L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing: An Update". Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Baylor ...
The presence of the Apolipoprotein c4 allele. ARD is treated with abstinence from further alcohol consumption. Multiple ...
The basics of MR were invented by Martijn B. Katan in 1986, when he suggested the use of apolipoprotein E alleles, that had ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Apolipoproteins C - MeSH - NCBI
... and ProteinsProteinsApoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and ProteinsProteinsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and Drugs CategoryLipidsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... Apolipoproteins C. A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; ...
Apolipoprotein C4 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein C2 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein alzheimer's disease connection - English
Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzhei… ... Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection * 1. Anti Alzheimers Herbs. Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www. ... The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE ... alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid ...
Apolipoprotein - Wikipedia
... apolipoprotein D apolipoprotein E apolipoprotein F apolipoprotein H apolipoprotein L apolipoprotein M apolipoprotein(a) ... apolipoprotein A (apoA1, apoA2, apoA4, and apolipoprotein A-V (apoA5)) apolipoprotein B (apo B48 and apo B100) apolipoprotein C ... Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to ... Apolipoprotein synthesis in the intestine is regulated principally by the fat content of the diet. Apolipoprotein synthesis in ...
Apolipoprotein B100: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ...
Apolipoprotein CII: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
Apolipoprotein L1 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which ... Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol which is ... particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). The APOL1 ...
What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
Apo B (Apolipoprotein B)
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood | SpringerLink
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
Apolipoprotein A-IV (O46409) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Apolipoprotein A/E (IPR000074) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A | Nature
Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. *Robert D. Bell1,2. , ... Bell, R., Winkler, E., Singh, I. et al. Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512- ...
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
RCSB PDB - 1NFN: APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 (APOE3)
APOLIPOPROTEIN E3. A. 191. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: E2, APOE. ... Novel mechanism for defective receptor binding of apolipoprotein E2 in type III hyperlipoproteinemia.. Dong, L.M., Parkin, S., ... The defective binding of apolipoprotein (apo) E2 to lipoprotein receptors, an underlying cause of type III hyperlipoproteinemia ... The defective binding of apolipoprotein (apo) E2 to lipoprotein receptors, an underlying cause of type III hyperlipoproteinemia ...
RCSB PDB - 1GS9: Apolipoprotein E4, 22k domain
Absolute Quantification of Plasma Apolipoproteins for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction | SpringerLink
Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major... ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. ... Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of ... Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid ...
NHANES 2011-2012: Apolipoprotein B Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
NHANES 2007-2008: Apolipoprotein B Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2007-2008 Apolipoprotein B data to the 2005-2006 Apolipoprotein B data. The Dade ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_E) Data File: ApoB_E.xpt First Published: July 2010. Last Revised: NA Note: See Analytic Note on ...
Conversion of apolipoprotein-spec... preview & related info | Mendeley
HDL3species containing both apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II, and HDL3(AI w/o AII), HDL3species containing ... initially with three apolipoprotein A-I, to larger particles with four apolipoprotein A-I per particle. © 1989. ... Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein populations during incubation of human plasma. *Nichols A ... Nichols, A. V., Blanche, P. J., Shore, V. G., & Gong, E. L. (1989). Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density ...
Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis
First, plasma apolipoprotein E maintains overall plasma cholesterol homeostasis by facilitating efficient hepatic uptake of ... Apolipoprotein E plays a key protective role in atherosclerosis. Its capacity to safeguard against this disease can be ... Second, lesion apolipoprotein E in concert with apolipoprotein A-I facilitates cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam ... Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000 Jun;11(3):243-51. doi: 10.1097/00041433-200006000-00004. ...
Apolipoproteins | ProSpec
Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant ... ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, ... About Apolipoprotein:. The binding of lipids (soluble oil molecules) and cholesterol to Apoliproteins result in the formation ... 6 main classes of apolipoproteins are APOA, APOB, APOC, APOD, APOE and APOH. APOA1 takes an important role in the return of ...
Apolipoprotein E: Possible Therapeutic Target for Atherosclerosis: Ingenta Connect
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100 | Scientific Reports
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing
Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ... SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing. Thursday, April 22, 2010 General News ... HOUSTON, April 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins | PNAS
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease | G M Anantharamaiah | Springer
... of this unique and specialized field but also updates on the current state of research and development of apolipoprotein ... Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors: Anantharamaiah, G M, Goldberg, Dennis (Eds.) ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors. * G M Anantharamaiah ...
Phosphonate-phosphate and diphosphonate apolipoprotein e modulators - Niesor, Eric Joseph
The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E ... Rubinsztein, "Apolipoprotein E-a review of its roles in lipoprotein metabolism, neuronal growth and repair and as a risk factor ... Poirier, "Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimers disease," Trends in Neurosciences 17:525-530, 1994 ... Apolipoprotein E was expressed as % change from mean control value. Cholesterol was measured with a commercially available ...
LipoproteinsApoEProteinsGeneApoA1Lipids and apolipoproteinsLecithin-cholesterol acyAlzheimer'sAtherosclerosisApoBMetabolismCholesterolB100High-density lipApoDParticlesProtein apolipoproteinAntibodiesCIIIPolymorphismTriglyceridesModulateLipoprotein lipaseGenesLipid and apolipoproteinLevels of apolipoproteinsGeneticSpeciesExchangeableDeficiencySerum apolipoproteinPlasma apolipoproteinSpecific apolipoproteinsRenalSecretionAmyloidAmphipathicPathways1990APOL1LipocalinCardiovascular eventsSearchVLDLMRNAPrecursor
- Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Different lipoproteins contain different classes of apolipoproteins, which influence their function. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) is the major structural protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), although it is present in other lipoproteins in smaller amounts. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA4) is present in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein B plays a particularly important role in lipoprotein transport being the primary organizing protein of many lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) plays an important role in lipid metabolism specific in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (wikipedia.org)
- Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (labtestsonline.org)
- Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
- McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J et al (2008) Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. (springer.com)
- Apolipoproteins are composed from various lipoproteins such as exchangeable Apolipoprtoeins and non-exchangeable. (prospecbio.com)
- Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (abcam.com)
- Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
- While LDL, HDL, and (sometimes) VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) are the only classes mentioned in regards to diagnostic tests, there are four other classes of lipoproteins that differ in size, lipid composition, and apolipoproteins. (taconic.com)
- The Apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). (randox.com)
- Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a component of plasma lipoproteins, has been suggested to bind and traffic Ags for NKT cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
- Apolipoprotein E (apoE) 3 is a multifunctional component of plasma lipoproteins that is found on very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein, and chylomicron remnant lipoprotein complexes. (jimmunol.org)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In particular, increased apolipoprotein B levels, both in whole plasma and in specific lipoprotein fractions, e.g. low density lipoproteins (LDL) , seem to be associated to a raised risk, the opposite being the case for apo AI . (springer.com)
- Swaney JB, Braithwaite F, Eder HA (1977) Characterization of the apolipoproteins of rat plasma lipoproteins. (springer.com)
- Brewer HB, Fairwell T, La Rue A, Rorian R, Hauser A, Bronzert TJ (1978) The amino acid sequence of human apo AI, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins. (springer.com)
- Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (jove.com)
- Apolipoprotein E or apo E is the most important protein found in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, or VLDL cholesterol. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene on chromosome 19, which has been associated with many lateonset familial cases of Alzheimers disease as well as sporadic cases in the over-60 age group. (slideshare.net)
- Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the transport and uptake of cholesterol by way of its high affinity interaction with lipoprotein receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent findings with apoA1 and apoE suggest that the tertiary structures of these two members of the human exchangeable apolipoprotein gene family are related. (wikipedia.org)
- Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that probably evolved from a common ancestral gene. (ebi.ac.uk)
- APOE is primarily located in HDL and VLDL Apolipoproteins act as lipid transfer carrier enzymes, cofactors and receptor ligands which control lipoprotein metabolism. (prospecbio.com)
- Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids between peripheral tissues and the liver. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. (genomebc.ca)
- Apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body. (wikidoc.org)
- The gene, APOE , is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC-I) and the apolipoprotein C2 . (wikidoc.org)
- The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. (pnas.org)
- Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. (osti.gov)
- They examined the correlation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE and the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with T2D risk. (medicalxpress.com)
- The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
- VL - 483 IS - 1 N2 - The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (e4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE e4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. (diva-portal.org)
- METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null mice that had knockout of a single allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) gene were compared with littermate Apoe null mice with intact insulin receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
- In addition to stabilizing lipoprotein structure and solubilizing the lipid component, apolipoproteins interact with lipoprotein receptors and lipid transport proteins, thereby participating in lipoprotein uptake and clearance. (wikipedia.org)
- In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, ligands for cell-surface receptors and lipid transport proteins, and cofactors for enzymes (e.g. apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). (wikipedia.org)
- APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which are involved in autophagic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (springer.com)
- 1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion" . (wikidoc.org)
- Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein D Kits (32) and Apolipoprotein D Proteins (24) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
- Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
- This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
- Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
- These proteins, known as apolipoproteins, are the major identifying characteristics of a lipoprotein. (labce.com)
- One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). (labce.com)
- Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Apolipoprotein C-IV , also known as apolipoprotein C4 , is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. (wikipedia.org)
- 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
- 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip" . (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- 1986). "The structure of the human apolipoprotein C-II gene. (wikipedia.org)
- 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
- 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. (medscape.com)
- This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (nih.gov)
- This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. (nih.gov)
- Two novel APOA1 gene mutations in a Japanese renal transplant recipient with recurrent apolipoprotein A-I related amyloidosis. (nih.gov)
- The objective of this study was to evaluate whether apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (nih.gov)
- We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (jci.org)
- Apolipoprotein E genotype and the association between C-reactive protein and postoperative delirium: Importance of gene-protein interactions. (harvard.edu)
- There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. (harvard.edu)
- Apolipoprotein All (ApoAII) amyloidosis, first reported in 2001 in a family with renal amyloidosis, is associated with mutations in the stop codon of the apolipoprotein AII gene resulting in a carboxyl terminal peptide extension of 21 amino acid residues in the protein. (highbeam.com)
- Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene . (wikidoc.org)
- Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (pnas.org)
- The data show that a single dose of the gene therapy carrying a short hairpin RNA to silence Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) resulted in a reduction of serum cholesterol of approximately 80% without any signs of toxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apo B) exists in two forms, each the product of a single gene. (sciencemag.org)
- The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 all. (bio-medicine.org)
- The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative fact. (bio-medicine.org)
- The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative factor for neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
- A research team from Department of Neurology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China pointed out a non-invasive and fast method to genotype large samples to help to elucidate the role of apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele in neural regeneration in the cases with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (bio-medicine.org)
- APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (antibodies-online.com)
- The apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk of developing late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- It forms a complex, known as a trypanosome lytic factor (TLF), with high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). (wikipedia.org)
- Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. (nih.gov)
- An example of non-exchangeable apolipoprotein is APOAB which is attached to the lipoprotein particle while examples of Lipoprotein exchangeable are APOM, APOD, APOJ, APOH and APOA1 which are transported between different lipoprotein molecules. (prospecbio.com)
- HDL begins to develop when two copies of the protein apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mediate the removal of excess lipids from peripheral cells and form a nanodisc. (pnas.org)
- Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). (pnas.org)
- AIM: To determine the association between apolipoprotein A1 ( APOA1 ) (−75 guanine [G] to adenine [A] and +83/84 M2 +/− , MspI ) and apolipoprotein C3 ( APOC3 ) ( SstI ) polymorphisms with gallstone disease. (hindawi.com)
- HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Dec. 28 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
- Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The report provides comprehensive information on the Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
Lipids and apolipoproteins4
- Noma A Yokosuka T, Kitamura K (1983) Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins as discriminators for presence and severity of angiographically defined coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
- Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Reliable assessment of the separate and joint associations of major blood lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease is important for the development of screening and therapeutic strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Chen CH, Albers JJ (1985) Activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase by apolipoproteins E-2, E-3, and AIV isolated from human plasma. (springer.com)
- LDL-cholesterol (LDL- C), apolipoproteins (apo) B, CIII, and E, and by decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. (tudelft.nl)
- Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (nature.com)
- Elevated IgM against Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine-modified Apolipoprotein A1 peptide 141-147 in Taiwanese with Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
- To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
- The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
- Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
- RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
- The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)
- All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (bmj.com)
- Several recently published studies showed the existence of an association between the allele ε4 of the apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in developed countries. (scielo.br)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The method developed for apolipoprotein E genotyping is accurate and reliable, and also suitable for genotyping large samples, which may help determine the role of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
- Ajeganova S, Ehrnfelt C, Alizadeh R, Rohani M, Jogestrand T, Hafström I et al (2011) Longitudinal levels of apolipoproteins and antibodies against phosphorylcholine are independently associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis 5 years after rheumatoid arthritis onset-a prospective cohort study. (springer.com)
- Eo HS, Lee KB, Kim AK, Kim MH, Kim DH, Kim DI (2011) Association with inflammatory cells and apolipoproteins to the progression of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- Garber DW, Handattu SP, Datta G, Mishra VK, Gupta H, White CR et al (2006) Atherosclerosis and vascular disease: effects of peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
- Horejsi B, Ceska R (2000) Apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a) as candidate genes of premature development of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- Seishima M (2016) Physiological function of apolipoproteins and atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- Zivanovic Z, Divjak I, Jovicevic M, Rabi-Zikic T, Radovanovic B, Ruzicka-Kaloci S et al (2018) Association between apolipoproteins AI and B and ultrasound indicators of carotid atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- Apolipoprotein E plays a key protective role in atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
- Avogaro P, Bittolo-Bon G, Cazzolato G, Quinci GB (1979) Are apolipoproteins better discriminators than lipids for atherosclerosis? (springer.com)
- Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. (biomedsearch.com)
- The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
- Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. (jci.org)
- Birmingham, AL), developer of the VAP Cholesterol Test, announced it has received a patent on its method to derive and report apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) using the Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Recently, we have reported that serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and apoB levels were strongly associated with the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy ( 1 ), and these associations were more prominent than those of traditional lipids (e.g., total cholesterol). (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, Cox proportional hazards models with quartiles of each variable adjusted for confounders and hs-CRP or IL-6 identified apolipoprotein (apo)B-to-apoA-I ratio (apoB/apoA-I) and oxidized HDL, but not apoA-I or apoA-II, as independent risk factors for composite CVD events. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
- 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (ahajournals.org)
- Apolipoprotein M (apoM) participates in the lipid metabolism and exhibit anti‑atherosclerotic functions and it is presented in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major regulatory roles in both pre- and pro-atherosclerotic mechanisms. (springer.com)
- Lipoprotein (a) and Low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B metabolism following apheresis in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) and coronary artery disease. (harvard.edu)
- Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. (randox.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fidge NH (1980) The redistribution and metabolism of iodinated apolipoprotein AIV in rats. (springer.com)
- The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. (labce.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or 'good cholesterol' which is synthesized in the liver and also in many other tissues, including pancreas, kidney, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
- First, plasma apolipoprotein E maintains overall plasma cholesterol homeostasis by facilitating efficient hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants. (nih.gov)
- Second, lesion apolipoprotein E in concert with apolipoprotein A-I facilitates cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells within the intima of the lesion. (nih.gov)
- Apolipoprotein levels and ratios are more significant than LDL cholesterol levels in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (medscape.com)
- The proband, a 65-year-old woman, had greatly diminished concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol (0.19 mmol/L) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (21.9 mg/dL). (ahajournals.org)
- Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
- These complex molecules have a "shell" composed of cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins, and a core with the transport material: cholesterol esters and triglycerides (see Figure 1). (taconic.com)
- Apolipoproteins are protein-lipid complexes that bind oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol. (taconic.com)
- Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (ahealthyme.com)
- Although apolipoprotein A levels can be measured, it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk. (ahealthyme.com)
- At the end of 12 weeks, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) were significantly lower in the soy nut group compared with the control group. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cholesterol-loaded macrophages secrete cholesterol and apolipoprotein E. The current studies show that this secretion occurs by two independent pathways. (sciencemag.org)
- In the absence of serum, the cells secrete apolipoprotein E, but not cholesterol. (sciencemag.org)
- In the presence of monensin (an inhibitor of protein secretion), the cells secrete cholesterol, but little apolipoprotein E. After secretion, apolipoprotein E and cholesterol associate with high-density lipoprotein to form a particle that can deliver cholesterol to the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
- We conclude that apolipoprotein E does not function to remove cholesterol from macrophages but rather to participate in "reverse cholesterol transport. (sciencemag.org)
- Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for several conventional factors, were calculated for 1-SD higher values: 0.52 loge triglyceride, 15 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 mg/dL non-HDL-C, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein AI, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein B, and 33 mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Lipid assessment in vascular disease can be simplified by measurement of either total and HDL cholesterol levels or apolipoproteins without the need to fast and without regard to triglyceride. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 1 , 2 Expert opinion is divided about whether assessment of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) should replace assessment of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol levels in assessment of vascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Despite the hyperinsulinemia, atherosclerotic lesion size was not different between the 2 groups at time points up to 52 weeks of age when measured as en face lesion area in the aorta, cross-sectional plaque area in the aortic sinus, and cholesterol abundance in the brachiocephalic artery. (biomedsearch.com)
- Serum apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1), apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100) and lipoprotein-(a) (LPA) were measured in the Pathology Laboratories of Postgraduate Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar using turbiditrimetric kits of Roche Diagnostics, on chemistry auto analyzer, modular P-800 by Roche, Cobas (Japan). (thefreedictionary.com)
- This could explain reduced capacity of the liver to synthesize apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B) molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, LDL). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Is vitellogenin an ancestor of apolipoprotein B100 of human low-density lipoprotein and human lipoprotein lipase? (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) plays a key role in peripheral fat deposition, it is not considered a suitable therapeutic target in obesity. (portlandpress.com)
- Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. (wikidoc.org)
- Apolipoproteins are associated with survival among patients on hemodialysis (HD), but these associations might be influenced by dysfunctional (oxidized) high-density lipoprotein (HDL). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system and apoD can also modulate the stability and oxidation status of these molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- On www.antibodies-online.com are 116 Apolipoprotein D (APOD) Antibodies from 22 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
- Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Apolipoproteins function in lipid transport as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. (springer.com)
- The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
- In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (abcam.com)
- It does not interchange between lipoprotein particles, as do the other apolipoproteins, and it is found in IDL and LDL after the removal of the Apo-A, E, and C. Apo-B48 is present in chylomicrons and their remnants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Antibodies directed against murine Apolipoprotein AI and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles specifically immunoprecipitated metabolically labelled radioactive apolipoproteins from the culture supernatant of 10.5 days post coitum (days p.c.) yolk sac visceral endoderm cultured in vitro. (nih.gov)
- In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- Immunohistochemical staining at sectioned 10.5 days p.c. embryos with anti-Apolipoprotein AI antibodies revealed specific localization of immunoreactive material in the yolk sac visceral endoderm. (nih.gov)
- Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
- Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
- Primary structure of the bovine analogues to human apolipoproteins CII and CIII. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfers of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
- Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency is a very rare (rarer than LPL deficiency) autosomal recessive disorder in which apolipoprotein CII (apoC-II), a cofactor for LPL, is absent, the clearance of chylomicrons from the blood is greatly impaired and triglycerides (TG) accumulate in the plasma. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E levels and the use of such compounds in therapy, including cardiovascular and neurological disease states. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Global Structure and Dynamics of Human Apolipoprotein CII in Complex with Micelles: Evidence for Increased Mobility of the Helix Involved in the Activation of Lipoprotein Lipase. (randox.com)
- Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid protein in the pathology of Alzheimers disease has been further fueled by the results of molecular genetics studies that have identified genes associated with familial (inherited) Alzheimers disease on chromosomes 21, 14, 1, and 19. (slideshare.net)
- Title: The relationship between apolipoprotein genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes may be associated with alteration in lipid profile and susceptibility to gallstone disease. (hindawi.com)
Lipid and apolipoprotein2
- In this study a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at birth and the differences with adults. (springer.com)
- In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and there are no differences between males and females. (springer.com)
Levels of apolipoproteins1
- The determination of the circulating levels of apolipoproteins has become common practice in clinical laboratories, in view of the apparent correlation between levels of specific apolipoproteins and increased or decreased cardiovascular risk [1, 2]. (springer.com)
- Hundreds of genetic polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins have been described, and many of them alter their structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
- However, most apolipoproteins cannot be detected using standard clinical immunoassays, and multiplexing is not available for some species of apolipoproteins. (springer.com)
- Our Apolipoprotein L2 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
- Our Apolipoprotein C1 ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
- Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Deficiency of apoC-II can also be verified by gel electrophoresis of the apolipoproteins contained in VLDL and chylomicrons on 2D gels. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
- Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (randox.com)
- Kukita M, Hiwada K, Kokubu T (1984) Serum apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and B levels and their discriminative values in relatives of patients with coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
- Serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and -B have been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
- OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Apply their overview of the roles of specific apolipoproteins in the brain to physiological and pathophysiological processes. (cyberounds.com)
- Vlad C, Burlacu A, Florea L, Artene B, Badarau S, Covic A et al (2019) A comprehensive review on apolipoproteins as nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in end-stage renal disease: current evidence and perspectives. (springer.com)
- Apolipoprotein A-I Increases Insulin Secretion and Production From Pancreatic ß-Cells via a G-Protein-cAMP-PKA-FoxO1-Dependent Mechanism. (medscape.com)
- Nonhereditary apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) amyloid is characterized by deposits of nonvariant protein in atherosclerotic arteries. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating a lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation (i.e., blood, lymph). (wikipedia.org)
- Nevertheless, due to of their amphipathic/detergent like characteristics, Apolipoproteins fence in the lipids, forming a lipoprotein particle which is soluble in water, hence travel in blood. (prospecbio.com)
- Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (rockland-inc.com)
- 1990). "Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease" . (wikidoc.org)
- We have discovered that natural variant versions of Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) that protect humans against infection by the parasite Trypanosoma rhodesiense (responsible for sleeping sickness) also cause kidney disease. (europa.eu)
- Pechlaner R, Tsimikas S, Yin X, Willeit P, Baig F, Santer P et al (2017) Very-low-density lipoprotein-associated apolipoproteins predict cardiovascular events and are lowered by inhibition of APOC-III. (springer.com)
- Association Between ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) Immune Complexes and Adverse Cardiovascular Events. (medscape.com)
- encoded search term (How are specimens collected and prepared for apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) testing? (medscape.com)
- Your search returned 60 Apolipoprotein A-IV ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
- Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
- The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals). (ovid.com)
- Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and apolipoprotein a-I in urine as biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: a proteomics study. (medscape.com)