A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

Allele-specific differences in apolipoprotein C-III mRNA expression in human liver. (1/417)

BACKGROUND: Sequence variations at the apolipoprotein (apo)C-III gene locus have been associated with increased plasma triglycerides. In particular, the S2 allele of an SstI polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region has been associated with hypertriglyceridemia in many populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether the variant S2 allele is related to increased mRNA expression in vivo. METHODS: We measured allele-specific apoC-III expression in liver biopsies of five obese subjects, using restriction isotyping and a primer extension method, both based on the SstI polymorphism. RESULTS: The expression of mRNA by the S1 and S2 alleles was similar in two patients, whereas the mRNA encoded by the S2 allele was 14%, 26%, and 29% more abundant than the wild-type mRNA in the remaining three patients. Because other polymorphisms at the apoC-III gene locus have been implicated in the S2-associated hypertriglyceridemia, we determined apoC-III haplotypes comprising promoter polymorphisms at -935, -641, -630, -625, -482, -455, as well as the SstI sites and a BbvI site, both located in the 3' untranslated region. None of these polymorphisms nor any haplotype exhibited a perfect association with allele-specific expression, but variation at the T-482C site correlated in four of five subjects with the relative allele abundance. CONCLUSION: These data provide preliminary evidence for allele-specific differences in apoC-III mRNA expression in vivo and suggest that such differences may contribute to associations of apoC-III gene polymorphisms with hypertriglyceridemia.  (+info)

Vitamin A is linked to the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in familial combined hyperlipidemia. (2/417)

There is growing evidence of the capacity of vitamin A to regulate the expression of the genetic region that encodes apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, C-III, and A-IV. This region in turn has been proposed to modulate the expression of hyperlipidemia in the commonest genetic form of dyslipidemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). The hypothesis tested here was whether vitamin A (retinol), by controlling the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, plays a role in modulating the hyperlipidemic phenotype in FCHL. We approached the subject by studying three genetic variants of this region: a C1100-T transition in exon 3 of the apoC-III gene, a G3206-T transversion in exon 4 of the apoC-III gene, and a G-75-A substitution in the promoter region of the apoA-I gene. The association between plasma vitamin A concentrations and differences in the plasma concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III based on the different genotypes was assessed in 48 FCHL patients and 74 of their normolipidemic relatives. The results indicated that the subjects carrying genetic variants associated with increased concentrations of apoA-I and C-III (C1100-T and G-75-A) also presented increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A. This was only observed among the FCHL patients, which suggested that certain characteristics of these patients contributed to this association. The G3206-T was not associated with changes in either apolipoprotein concentrations or in vitamin A. In summary, we report a relationship between genetically determined elevations of proteins of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and vitamin A in FCHL patients. More studies will be needed to confirm that vitamin A plays a role in FCHL which might also be important for its potential application to therapeutical approaches.  (+info)

Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (3/417)

New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction.  (+info)

Kinetics and mechanism of exchange of apolipoprotein C-III molecules from very low density lipoprotein particles. (4/417)

Transfer of apolipoprotein (apo) molecules between lipoprotein particles is an important factor in modulating the metabolism of the particles. Although the phenomenon is well established, the kinetics and molecular mechanism of passive apo exchange/transfer have not been defined in detail. In this study, the kinetic parameters governing the movement of radiolabeled apoC molecules from human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL3) particles were measured using a manganese phosphate precipitation assay to rapidly separate the two types of lipoprotein particles. In the case of VLDL labeled with human [14C]apoCIII1, a large fraction of the apoCIII1 transfers to HDL3 within 1 minute of mixing the two lipoproteins at either 4 degrees or 37 degrees C. As the diameter of the VLDL donor particles is decreased from 42-59 to 23-25 nm, the size of this rapidly transferring apoCIII1 pool increases from about 50% to 85%. There is also a pool of apoCIII1 existing on the donor VLDL particles that transfers more slowly. This slow transfer follows a monoexponential rate equation; for 35-40 nm donor VLDL particles the pool size is approximately 20% and the t1/2 is approximately 3 h. The flux of apoCIII molecules between VLDL and HDL3 is bidirectional and all of the apoCIII seems to be available for exchange so that equilibrium is attained. It is likely that the two kinetic pools of apoCIII are related to conformational variations of individual apo molecules on the surface of VLDL particles. The rate of slow transfer of apoCIII1 from donor VLDL (35-40 nm) to acceptor HDL3 is unaffected by an increase in the acceptor to donor ratio, indicating that the transfer is not dependent on collisions between donor and acceptor particles. Consistent with this, apoCIII1 molecules can transfer from donor VLDL to acceptor HDL3 particles across a 50 kDa molecular mass cutoff semipermeable membrane separating the lipoprotein particles. These results indicate that apoC molecules transfer between VLDL and HDL3 particles by an aqueous diffusion mechanism.  (+info)

CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene expression. (5/417)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that is crucial in the regulation of a large number of genes involved in glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid metabolism and in determining the hepatic phenotype. We have previously shown that HNF-4 contains transcription activation functions at the N terminus (AF-1) and the C terminus (AF-2) which work synergistically to confer full HNF-4 activity. Here, we show that HNF-4 recruits the CREB-binding protein (CBP) coactivator on promoters of genes that contain functional HNF-4 sites. HNF-4 interacts with the N-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1-771) and the C-terminal region of CBP (amino acids 1812-2441). The two activating functions of HNF-4, AF-1 and AF-2, interact with the N terminus and the N and C terminus of CBP, respectively. In addition, we show that in contrast to the other nuclear hormone receptors the interaction between HNF-4 and CBP is ligand-independent. Recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 results in an enhancement of the transcriptional activity of the latter. CBP does not activate gene expression in the absence of HNF-4, and dominant negative forms of HNF-4 prevent transcriptional activation by CBP, suggesting that the mere recruitment of CBP by HNF-4 is not sufficient for enhancement of gene expression. These findings demonstrate that CBP acts as a transcriptional coactivator for HNF-4 and provide new insights into the regulatory function of HNF-4.  (+info)

Characterization of remnant-like particles isolated by immunoaffinity gel from the plasma of type III and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic patients. (6/417)

Previous studies have investigated the potential atherogenicity and thrombogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants by isolating them from plasma within a remnant-like particle (RLP) fraction, using an immunoaffinity gel containing specific anti-apoB-100 and anti-apoA-I antibodies. In order to characterize lipoproteins in this RLP fraction and to determine to what extent their composition varies from one individual to another, we have used automated gel filtration chromatography to determine the size heterogeneity of RLP isolated from normolipidemic control subjects (n = 8), and from type III (n = 6) and type IV (n = 9) hyperlipoproteinemic patients, who by selection had similarly elevated levels of plasma triglyceride (406 +/- 43 and 397 +/- 35 mg/dl, respectively). Plasma RLP triglyceride, cholesterol, apoB, apoC-III, and apoE concentrations were elevated 2- to 6-fold (P < 0. 05) in hyperlipoproteinemic patients compared to controls. RLP fractions of type III patients were enriched in cholesterol and apoE compared to those of type IV patients, and RLP of type IV patients were enriched in triglyceride and apoC-III relative to those of normolipidemic subjects. In normolipidemic subjects, the majority of RLP had a size similar to LDL or HDL. The RLP of hyperlipoproteinemic patients were, however, larger and were similar in size to TRL, or were intermediate in size (i.e., ISL) between that of TRL and LDL. Compared to controls, ISL in the RLP fraction of type III patients were enriched in apoE relative to apoC-III, whereas in type IV patients they were enriched in apoC-III relative to apoE. These results demonstrate that: 1) RLP are heterogeneous in size and composition in both normolipidemic and hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and 2) the apoE and apoC-III composition of RLP is different in type III compared to type IV hyperlipoproteinemic patients.  (+info)

ApoCIII gene variants modulate postprandial response to both glucose and fat tolerance tests. (7/417)

BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between variation in the apolipoprotein (apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and response to an oral glucose test (OGTT) and oral fat load test (OFTT) in the EARSII group of young, healthy male offspring whose fathers had had a myocardial infarction before the age of 55 years (cases, n=407) compared with age-matched controls (n=415). The apoCIII variations examined were C3238G (SstI) in the 3'-UTR, C1100T in exon 3, C-482T in the insulin response element (IRE), and T-2854G in the apoCIII-AIV intergenic region. METHODS AND RESULTS: The postprandial response was regulated by variation at the T-2854G and C3238G sites. After the OFTT, carriers of the rare alleles had delayed clearance of triglyceride (Tg) levels; G-2854 carriers showed the largest effect on Tg (AUC, 24% greater, P<0.002; peak, 19% greater, P<0.005), and G3238 carriers showed a smaller response (AUC, 13% greater, P<0.05; peak, 13% greater, P=0.03). However, after adjustment for fasting level of Tg, only the effect with the T-2854G remained significant. Variation at the C-482T (IRE) determined response to the OGTT, with carriers of the rare T-482 having significantly elevated glucose (28.7% AUC, P=0.013) and insulin (20.5% AUC, P<0. 01) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that specific genetic variants at the apoCIII gene locus differentially affect postprandial and response to OGTT and suggest a novel mechanism for the effects of variation at this locus on risk for atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in renal failure: the relation to mode of dialysis. (8/417)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a differential effect of mode of dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the dyslipidemia of renal failure. METHODS: The lipoprotein profile was determined in 61 non-diabetic patients on chronic HD (N = 30) and CAPD treatment (N = 31), and in a control group of 27 healthy subjects. The analysis included the measurement of individual apolipoprotein (apo) A- and apo B-containing lipoproteins (LPs) separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography. Apo A-containing lipoproteins include lipoprotein A-I with apo A-I and lipoprotein A-I:A-II with apo A-I and apo A-II as the main protein constituents, whereas apo B-containing lipoproteins comprise simple cholesterol-rich lipoprotein B (LP-B), with apo B as the only protein moiety and complex triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein B complex (LP-Bc) particles with apo B, apo A-II, apo C, and/or apo E as the protein constituents. RESULTS: CAPD patients had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol (6.8 vs. 5.1 mmol/liter), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4.6 vs. 3.2 mmol/liter), TG (2.3 vs. 1.5 mmol/liter), apo B (155.3 vs. 105.7 mg/dl), LP-B (136.0 vs. 91.9 mg/dl), and LP-Bc (19.3 vs. 13.8 mg/dl) than HD patients. Both HD and CAPD patients had significantly higher TG, VLDL cholesterol, apo C-III, and apo E and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A-II, and lipoprotein A-I:A-II levels than control subjects. The distribution of apo C-III in high-density lipoprotein and VLDL-LDL was altered in CAPD patients in comparison with control subjects. This suggests that the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins is less efficient in patients on CAPD. Normotriglyceridemic (NTG; TG < or = 1.7 mmol/liter, 150 mg/dl) CAPD patients had significantly higher levels of TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B than NTG-HD patients. There was little difference in the LP-Bc levels between NTG-CAPD, NTG-HD, and controls. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) CAPD patients had significantly higher TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B levels than HTG-HD patients. The LP-Bc levels were significantly increased in HTG-HD and HTG-CAPD patients compared with controls, but the slightly higher levels in the CAPD patients did not differ significantly from the HD group. CONCLUSION: CAPD and HD patients have a lipoprotein profile characteristic of renal failure. Patients on long-term CAPD have higher levels of cholesterol-rich apo B-containing lipoproteins unrelated to TG levels. Many patients on CAPD also have a substantial elevation of the plasma concentrations of TG-rich LPs. The clinical significance of increased levels of potentially atherogenic LP-B during CAPD remains to be investigated.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-IV is a member of the apo A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster. In order to investigate its hypothetical coordinated regulation, an acute phase was induced in pigs by turpentine oil injection. The hepatic expression of the gene cluster as well as the plasma levels of apolipoproteins were monitored at different time periods. Furthermore, the involvement of the inflammatory mediators interleukins 1 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor in the regulation of this gene cluster was tested in cultured pig hepatocytes, incubated with those mediators and apo A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster expression at the mRNA level was measured. In response to turpentine oil-induced inflammation, a decreased hepatic apo A-IV mRNA expression was observed (independent of apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA) not correlating with the plasma protein levels. The distribution of plasma apo A-IV experienced a shift from HDL to larger particles. In contrast, the changes in apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA were reflected in their corresponding plasma
Apolipoprotein C-III, Human Plasma, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Native Apolipoprotein C-III from human plasma found in VLDL and chylomicrons. Involved in triglyceride uptake by cells. Inhibits lipoprotein lipase and uptake of lipoprotein remnants by the liver. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Background: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Elevated levels of apoC-III have been found to be an independent predictor for CHD risk and genetically reduced apoC-III is associated with protection from CHD, making apoC-III a therapeutic target. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to increase LDL-C in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Clinical data suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone, which lowers triglycerides to a similar extent as EPA + DHA, does not raise LDL-C, but also fails to lower apoC-III. Materials: The EVOLVE trial evaluated 2, 3, and 4 g/d of a novel omega-3 free-fatty acid (FFA) formulation containing both EPA + DHA compared with 4 g/d of olive oil. In 399 patients with severe HTG we evaluated the effects on plasma apoC-III levels and the correlations between change in apoC-III and change in plasma lipids (TG, LDL-C) ...
We provide new information on the dose-ranging effect of rosuvastatin, a potent HMG-CoA (or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, on VLDL apoC-III metabolism in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. We demonstrated that rosuvastatin dose-dependently decreased VLDL apoC-III concentrations by increasing the FCR and decreasing the PR of VLDL apoC-III. These results add further to our work on the dose-dependent effect of rosuvastatin on apoB-containing lipoproteins and HDL particle kinetics in the same subjects (13,14).. Hypertriglyceridemia in insulin-resistant states, including the metabolic syndrome, results from overproduction and reduced catabolism of TRL and their remnants. These kinetic aberrations may be related to altered VLDL apoC-III metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that overproduction of VLDL apoC-III explained the higher VLDL apoC-III concentration in these subjects (17). The increased VLDL apoC-III concentration and production rate were associated with elevated ...
Host Species: Goat Concentration: 1 mg/ml (OD 1.35 / 280 nm) Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein CIII Purification: Affinity purified Buffer: 75 mM Sodium Phosphate, 75 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.02% NaN3, pH 7.2 Specificity Specifically binds to human apo CIII. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to 40,000. Use: The
Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an independent risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we investigated the associations among plasma apoCIII, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels and their roles in the clinical features of CHD in the Li and Han ethnic groups in China. A cohort of 474 participants was recruited (238 atherosclerotic patients and 236 healthy controls) from the Li and Han ethnic groups. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP and lipid profiles. Chi-squared, t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests and multiple unconditional logistic regression were employed to analyze lipid profiles and variations in plasma apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP in subgroups of CHD and their contributions to CHD using SPSS version 20.0 software. Compared to healthy participants, unfavorable lipid profiles were identified in CHD patients with enhanced systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, TC, LDL-C, apoB, Lp
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RAPOSO, HELENA F.... Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates. NUTRITION & METABOLISM 12 n. p. DEC 23 2015. Journal article.
C H Bolton, A P Corfield, L G Downs; Sialidase Activity Acting on Apolipoprotein CIII 1 and 2 in Human Leukocytes and Platelets. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 15P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067015P. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diferencias según sexo y estado diabético en la relación entre apolipoproteína C-III y ácidos grasos libres con los triglicéridos séricos en sujetos a riesgo para intolerancia a la glucosa.. AU - Flórez, H.. AU - Méndez, A. J.. AU - Jones, L.. AU - Goldberg, R. B.. PY - 1999/3. Y1 - 1999/3. N2 - Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can induce overproduction of triglyceride (TG) rich VLDL in the liver by increasing the availability of free fatty acids (FFA). Conversely, apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is an inhibitor of the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins. To explore the relationship among FFA, apo C-III and TG in hyperinsulinemic subjects, we studied 103 individuals (63 women and 40 men) with a body mass index (BMI) 25 Kg/m2: 59 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and 44 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for age, BMI, fasting insulin and TG, FFA were significantly higher in women than in men and in subjects with diabetes compared with ...
Gotto, A.M.; Jackson, A.S.; Catapano, A.L.; Smith, L.C.; Paoletti, R.; Fruchart, J.C.; Clavey, V.; Luc, G.; Dallongeville, J.; Staels, B.; Auwerx, J.
Recent development in gene targeting tools makes production of knockout (KO) rabbits possible. In the present work, we generated five...
C2C12 myotubes exposed to VLDL showed increased levels of ER stress and inflammatory markers whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were reduced and the insulin signalling pathway was attenuated. The effects of VLDL were also observed in isolated skeletal muscle incubated with VLDL. The changes caused by VLDL were dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 since they were prevented by the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or by knockdown of this kinase by siRNA transfection. ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. Finally, incubation ...
Results A higher triglyceride/cholesterol ratio of LDL was found more in HCV-infected donors than in healthy volunteers, and the triglyceride/cholesterol ratio of LDL-LVP was much increased, suggesting that the LPL hydrolysis of triglyceride may be impaired. VLDL, VLDL-LVP, LDL-LVP, but not LDL, suppressed LPL lipolytic activity, which was restored by antibodies that recognised apoC-III/-IV and correlated with the steadily abundant apoC-III/-IV quantities in those particles. In a cell-based system, treatment with VLDL and LVPs reversed the LPL-mediated inhibition of HCV infection in apoC-III/-IV-dependent manners. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that plasma HCV viral loads correlated negatively with LPL lipolytic activity, but positively with the apoC-III content of VLDL. Additionally, apoC-III in VLDL was associated with a higher proportion of HCV-RNA than was IgG.. ...
Jianglin Fan is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Production of Apolipoprotein C-III Knockout Rabbits using Zinc Finger Nucleases
Isis Publishes Data Demonstrating Antisense Targeting of ApoC-III Significantly Reduces ApoC-III and Triglycerides Research Shows Antisense Inhibition of ApoC-III and Triglycerides in Multiple...
The authors of the following article have requested that it be retracted from publication in Circulation Research:. Kawakami A, Osaka M, Aikawa M, Uematsu S, Akira S, Libby P, Shimokado K, Sacks FM, Yoshida M. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates apolipoprotein CIII-induced monocyte activation. Circ Res. 2008;103:1402-1409.. The corresponding author, Dr Akio Kawakami, admitted to the editors to improperly handling the collection and presentation of data in this article such that the authors can no longer verify the authenticity and accuracy of the data presented. These errors include, but may not be limited to, the blots in Figure 2A, Figure 4D, and Online Figure III originating from unrelated experiments of the corresponding author, and the incorrect reporting of n in Figures 5 and 6, which are less than indicated. As such, data in those figures are not verifiable.. All co-authors involved in this study other than the corresponding author, Dr Kawakami, had no knowledge of any scientific impropriety ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein CIII antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, sELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen…
Transcriptionally controlled transcription factor. Binds to DNA sites required for the transcription of alpha 1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein CIII, transthyretin genes and HNF1-alpha. May be essential for development of the liver, kidney and intestine.
Ionis Pharmaceuticals, through its wholly owned subsidiary Akcea Therapeutics, is developing IONIS APOCIII LRx, a GalNAc3 conjugated antisense oligonucleotide
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as good cholesterol and can help ward off coronary heart disease (CHD). However, researchers have found that a subclass of HDL cholesterol can actually cause harm. A new study by the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found that apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small protein that has been linked to HDL cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease, but a lack of the protein can protect the heart.
Added to this, both observational and genetic studies have been concordant in showing that remnant cholesterol (which includes intermediate-density lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins, and chylomicron remnants, the products of the lipolytic degradation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins produced by the liver and intestine) is causal for ischaemic heart disease 8. Genetic studies have also shown associations between different players in triglyceride metabolism, apolipoprotein CIII and the angiopoietins-like 3 and 4 (ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4) and coronary artery disease (9-11); the latest Focus report discusses recent data for ANGPTL3 inhibition. Moreover, given the pivotal role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in controlling the expression of a number of key genes in triglyceride and HDL metabolism, efforts have been directed to modulating the unique receptor-cofactor binding profile to improve the potency and selectivity of PPAR? ligands (the SPPARM? concept). The ...
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WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
Another substance class on the rise in cardiovascular medicine are so-called anti-sense oligonucleotides, single strands of DNA or RNA binding complementary to a chosen mRNA sequence, thereby preventing protein translation. Besides a fascinating novel anti-coagulatory approach by inhibiting coagulation factor XI production, the biggest focus of this novel therapeutic approach lies on lipidology. Within this review we will highlight the current evidence on antisense therapy against apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A as well as apolipoprotein CIII, that are in very different stages of development, however, with some exciting early data.. Kurzfassung: Biologika begr nden eine neue Medikamentenklasse, werden biotechnologisch hergestellt und greifen gezielt in molekularbiologische Mechanismen ein. Lange Zeit eine Dom ne der H matologie, Onkologie sowie der Rheumatologie, treten monoklonale Antik rper als Therapeutika nun auch langsam in der Kardiologie ihren Siegeszug an. Neben dem schon seit mehr ...
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T rk yeti kinlerinde koroner kalp hastal (KKH) morbidite ve mortalitesinin di er toplumlardan farkl bi imde y ksek oldu una ili kin TEKHARF al mas bilgisi, yak n zamanda daha g l bi imde do rulanm t r. Bu derlemede, an lan g zlemin alt nda yatan kandaki koruyucu proteinlerin i levlerini yitirmesinin, hatta proenflamatuvar ve aterojen niteliklere b r nmesi olay n n, toplumumuzda metabolik sendrom (MetS) yayg nl na e lik eden dislipidemi, oksidatif s re ve sistemik yang sonucuna ba lanabilece i zerinde duruldu. Koruyucu i levlerinde bozukluk g zlemlenen proteinler y ksek yo unluklu lipoprotein (HDL) par ac klar ile, bunun zerinde yer alan apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, A-II ve C-III, ayr ca, adiponektin olup d nyada ilk kez genel n fusta tarif edilmektedir. MetS, tip 2 diyabet ve KKH den olu an kardiyometabolik riskte, kanda C-reaktif protein (CRP), apoB, apoC-III, fibrinojen y ksekli i ve adiponektin d kl gibi yang g stergelerinin rol , bunlar n MetS e dair ATP-III tan m ndan ba ms zl k oran ve bunda ...
hazard ratio per 1 SD [HR/SD]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 1.67), apoC-III (HR/SD: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.63), and apoE (HR/SD: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.52). Associations were independent of high-density lipoprotein ...
View Ldlr/Ldlr Tg(APOC3)3707Bres/? involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J * CBA/J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
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Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from saccular stage (A, B, H, GD 19.5; C, G, PN 0; I
Serum: Use a serum separator tube (SST) and allow samples to clot for two hours at room temperature or overnight at 4°C before centrifugation for 15 minutes at 1000 ×g. Remove serum and assay immediately or aliquot and store samples at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles ...
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UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Apolipoprotein A-IV/ApoA4 Antibody Pair. Matched antibody pairs validated for ELISA or IP-Western Blot. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
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APOC4 Antibody 16530-1-AP has been identified with IF, WB, ELISA. 16530-1-AP detected 17 kDa band in human plasma tissue with 1:200-1:1000 dilution...
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in capillaries,[5] which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia type IB, characterized by xanthomas, pancreatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly, but no increased risk for atherosclerosis. Lab tests will show elevated blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and chylomicrons[6] ...
Apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes, and ligands for cell-surface receptors. Most of the apoliporoteins exhibit proteoforms, arising from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, oxidation, and sequence truncations. Reviewed here are recent studies correlating apolipoproteins proteoforms with the specific clinical measures of lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic risk. Targeted mass spectrometric immunoassays toward apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III were applied on large cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical cohorts. Several correlations were observed, including greater apolipoprotein A-I and A-II oxidation in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and a divergent apoC-III proteoforms association with plasma triglycerides, indicating significant differences in the metabolism of the individual apoC-III proteoforms. These are the first studies of their kind, correlating
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Mar 7, 2005. rich lipoproteins secreted from doxycycline-treated cells was larger. cept that these two key apolipoproteins may interact within the
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Apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein) je bílkovinná složka lipoproteinů. Apolipoproteinů existuje více druhů a jednotlivé typy se vyskytují v konkrétních lipoproteinech. Apolipoproteiny mají více funkcí, jsou strukturálně důležité, pomáhají transportu lipoproteinových částic, a dokonce mohou fungovat jako koenzymy některých enzymů ...
article: Hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis - Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica 2020 September;66(3):238-45 - Minerva Medica - Journals
Aim: There remains high unmet medical need for therapies to treat cardio/metabolic diseases. We validated in human trials, a platform for reducing the synthesis of genes expressed in the liver. The platform utilizes a GalNAc ligand attached to the 3 end of the sense strand of an RNAi molecule to enable delivery specifically to the liver. Here we extend the platform to targets of interest in cardiovascular disease, including PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3.. METHODS: Chemically modified siRNAs were designed and were screened for potency in vitro. pM active siRNA molecules were developed targeting PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3. The siRNAs were tested in either rodents or in non-human primates (NHPs) for activity.. RESULTS: In NHPs a single dose of ALN-PCSsc at 6 mg/kg reduced PCSK9 levels up to 97% and LDL-C up to 67%. Moreover the nadir effect (without any rebound of LDL-C) lasted ,30 days indicating that once a month or longer dosing frequency in clinic should be supported. Multidose studies in NHP at ...
Read Chapter CIII of Of Human Bondage by William Somerset Maugham. The text begins: Mrs. Athelny lent Philip money to pay his landlady enough of her bill to let him take his things away. For five shillings and the pawn-ticket on a suit he was able to get from a pawnbroker a frock coat which fitted him fairly well. He redeemed the rest of his clothes. He sent his box to Harrington Street by Carter Patterson and on Monday morning went with Athelny to the shop. Athelny introduced him to the buyer of the costumes and left him. The buyer was a pleasant, fussy little man of thirty, named Sampson; he shook hands with Philip, and, in order to show his own accomplishment of which he was very proud, asked him if ...
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Hypertriglyceridemia occurs when there are too many triglycerides, which are a type of fatty molecule, in the blood. This can be associated with hardening of the arteries and inflammation of the pancreatitis. Talk to a cardiologist about lowering your triglyceride levels in Kalamazoo, MI.
Too high of triglyceride levels, or hypertriglyceridemia, leads to increased risks of heart disease, stroke and fatty liver, among others.
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Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Meilani, Meilani; Yeheskiel, Tigor; Ueda, Shuhei; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Kameoka, ...
Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Meilani, Meilani; Yeheskiel, Tigor; Ueda, Shuhei; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Kameoka, ...
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1996). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's Disease. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer's Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer ... "Maestre CV" (PDF). Maestre, Gladys Elena (1996). Apolipoproteins and Alzheimer's disease (Thesis). OCLC 36257436. Staff, M. D. ... "The apolipoprotein ?4 allele in patients with Alzheimer's disease". Annals of Neurology. 34 (5): 752-754. doi:10.1002/ana. ... "Apolipoprotein E and alzheimer's disease: Ethnic variation in genotypic risks". Annals of Neurology. 37 (2): 254-259. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Gaudet RG, Zhu S, Halder A, Kim BH, Bradfield CJ, Huang S, et al. (2021). "A human ... Six transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. Expressed in the gut, it has antibiotic properties ... This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene family. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, where it may affect ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... It is separated into a ligand binding domain of eight ligand binding regions, an EGF-like domain containing three cysteine-rich ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ...
Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II. A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been documented to be ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... They are typically composed of 80-100 proteins per particle (organized by one, two or three ApoA. HDL particles enlarge while ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and atherosclerosis". Current Opinion in ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2 ( ...
... peptides such as adrenomedullin and apolipoprotein; and iii) hemin. NRF2 inducers with downstream HO-1 induction include: ... The human genome may encode three isoforms of HMOX. The degradation of heme forms three distinct chromogens as seen in healing ... The reaction comprises three steps, which may be: Heme b3+ + O 2 + NADPH + H+ → α-meso-hydroxyheme3+ + NADP+ + H 2O α-meso- ... 312 (3): C302-C313. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00360.2016. PMID 28077358. Leung GC, Fung SS, Gallio AE, Blore R, Alibhai D, Raven EL, ...
August 1992). "Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (16 ... with congenital mutations in apolipoprotein A1 and lysozyme. It is also known as "Ostertag" type, after B. Ostertag, who ... 118 (3): 321-2. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.10.022. PMID 15745733. Granel B, Valleix S, Serratrice J, et al. (January 2006). " ... 5 (3): 188-92. doi:10.3109/13506129809003844. PMID 9818055. Soutar AK, Hawkins PN, Vigushin DM, et al. ( ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Luo, Audrey; Jung, Jeesun; Longley, Martha; Rosoff, Daniel B.; Charlet, Katrin; ...
Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein particle. Its gene is ... In January 2013, The US FDA also approved mipomersen, which inhibits the action of the gene apolipoprotein B, for the treatment ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ...
"Antisense Inhibition of Apolipoprotein C-III in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 ( ... 62 (3): 489-95. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2009.04.046. PMID 20159315. Polyzos SA, Perakakis N, Mantzoros CS (2019). "Fatty liver in ...
... although nonglycosylated and immature forms of apolipoprotein[a] are competent to associate with apolipoprotein B-100 in vitro ... The half-life of Lp(a) in circulation is approximately three to four days. The mechanism and sites of Lp(a) catabolism are ... The structure of apolipoprotein(a) is similar to plasminogen and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and it competes with ... III. Contribution of Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes to normal lipid variation". Hum. Genet. 82 (1): 73-8. doi:10.1007/BF00288277 ...
Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, ... Gordon DA (1997). "Recent advances in elucidating the role of the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein in apolipoprotein B ... 1999). "A common binding site on the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein for apolipoprotein B and protein disulfide ... The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ...
Basu SK, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Feb 1983). "Independent pathways for secretion of cholesterol and apolipoprotein E by ... 89 (3): 331-40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80213-5. PMID 9150132. S2CID 17882616. DeBose-Boyd RA, Brown MS, Li WP, Nohturfft A, ... 65 (3): 429-34. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90460-G. PMID 2018975. S2CID 54388220. Chen WJ, Andres DA, Goldstein JL, Russell DW, ... 102 (3): 315-23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00037-4. PMID 10975522. S2CID 18054832. Yang T, Espenshade PJ, Wright ME, et al. ( ...
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 also known as C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1 is a protein that in ... The structure of A1 relies on three dimensional folds induced by a zinc complex. These folds allow the enzyme to access the RNA ... "Entrez Gene: APOBEC1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1". Rosenberg BR, Hamilton CE, Mwangi MM, ... Lau PP, Zhu HJ, Nakamuta M, Chan L (1997). "Cloning of an Apobec-1-binding protein that also interacts with apolipoprotein B ...
All members of this family are receptors for Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Therefore, they are often synonymously referred to as ' ... This fragment may serve postnatally to prevent apical dendrites of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons from overgrowth, ... Andersen OM, Benhayon D, Curran T, Willnow TE (August 2003). "Differential binding of ligands to the apolipoprotein E receptor ... Herz J, Beffert U (October 2000). "Apolipoprotein E receptors: linking brain development and Alzheimer's disease". Nature ...
Takahashi K, Ikeo K, Gojobori T (1991). "Evolutionary origin of numerous kringles in human and simian apolipoprotein(a)". FEBS ... Kringle domains have been found in plasminogen, hepatocyte growth factors, prothrombin, and apolipoprotein(a). Kringles are ... 212 (3): 541-552. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(90)90330-O. PMID 2157850. Castellino FJ, Beals JM (1987). "The genetic relationships ... Kringle domains are characterised by a triple loop, 3-disulfide bridge structure, whose conformation is defined by a number of ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ... Mendelian randomization requires three core instrumental variable assumptions. Namely: The genetic variant(s) being used as an ... in which he advocated a study design using Apolipoprotein E allele as an instrumental variable anchor to study the observed ... 7 Suppl 3: 9-12. PMID 1855097. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, et al. (July 2002 ...
A specific isoform of apolipoprotein, APOE4, is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. While apolipoproteins ... The three stages are described as early or mild, middle or moderate, and late or severe. The disease is known to target the ... There are three sets of criteria for the clinical diagnoses of the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease: the 2013 fifth edition of ... Three broad time periods, which can span decades, define the progression of Alzheimer's disease from the preclinical phase, to ...
... and involves apolipoprotein A1. "FAP-IV" is also known as "Finnish-type", and involves gelsolin. Fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1 ... Senile systemic amyloidosis [abbreviated "SSA"] is also associated with transthyretin aggregation.) "FAP-III" is also known as ... These proteins include: transthyretin (ATTR, the most commonly implicated protein), apolipoprotein A1, and gelsolin. Due to the ... 11 (3): 185-6. doi:10.1038/nrd3675. PMID 22378262. Grogan, Kevin (19 June 2012). "FDA rejects Pfizer rare disease drug ...
"Deficiency of glycine N-methyltransferase aggravates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice". Molecular Medicine. 18 (5 ... 87: 132-3. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.01.007. PMID 23340451. Chen CY, Ching LC, Liao YJ, Yu YB, Tsou CY, Shyue SK, Chen YM, Lee ... 235 (3): 296-304. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2008.12.013. PMID 19146867. Chen YM, Shiu JY, Tzeng SJ, Shih LS, Chen YJ, Lui WY, Chen PH ... 18 (3): 412-22. doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00258. PMC 3356423. PMID 22183894. Chen M, Ho CW, Huang YC, Wu KY, Wu MT, Jeng HA, Chen ...
"Entrez Gene: APOBEC3C apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3C". Yu Q, Chen D, König R, Mariani R, ... 457 (3): 295-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.103. hdl:2297/44628. PMID 25576866. Yu Q, König R, Pillai S, Chiles K, Kearney M, ... 8 (3): 148-57. PMID 17078485. Madsen P, Anant S, Rasmussen HH, Gromov P, Vorum H, Dumanski JP, Tommerup N, Collins JE, Wright ... 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. Kinomoto M, Kanno T, Shimura M, Ishizaka Y, Kojima A, Kurata T, ...
Ichinose A (1992). "Multiple members of the plasminogen-apolipoprotein(a) gene family associated with thrombosis". Biochemistry ... 4 (3): 449-51. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(89)90356-X. PMID 2714803. Magnaghi P, Citterio E, Malgaretti N, et al. (1994). "Molecular ... 3 (3): 437-42. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.3.437. PMID 8012354. Kida M, Wakabayashi S, Ichinose A (1997). "Characterization of the 5'- ... 259 (3): 618-25. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00055.x. PMID 10092845. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ...
... cause cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis in three Japanese patients from two unrelated families". Journal of Lipid Research. 38 (5 ... "Overexpression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI". ... 61 (3): 185-91. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0004.2002.610303.x. PMID 12000359. S2CID 45930401. Björkhem I, Araya Z, Rudling M, Angelin B ... 86 (3): 526-34. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvq015. PMID 20083572. Mast N, Lin JB, Pikuleva IA (September 2015). "Marketed Drugs Can ...
It contains three exons that span more than 5 kb of genomic DNA, and it encodes a fucosyltransferase that produces the H ... Apolipoprotein E, gene associated with Alzheimer's disease. Gene map locus 19q13.2 CIC: Capicua transcriptional repressor. Gene ... 64 (3): 189-196. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2000.6430189.x. PMC 3376086. PMID 11409409. Dean, L. (2005). "Ch. 5: The ABO blood ... ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. ( ...
"Entrez Gene: APOBEC3D apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D (putative)". Identification of ...
April 1987). "Association of an apolipoprotein CII allele with familial dementia of the Alzheimer type". Journal of ... 4 (2-3): 97-108. doi:10.3109/01677068709102337. PMID 2885403. Martin GM (1971). "Brief proposal on immortality: an interim ...
"The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevents accelerated atherosclerosis in uremic apolipoprotein E knockout mice". Kidney ... 89 (3): 529-536. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02346.x. PMID 15086510. (Articles without KEGG source, ECHA InfoCard ID from ... 50 (3): 341-351. doi:10.1177/002215540205000306. PMID 11850437. Pacher P, Obrosova IG, Mabley JG, Szabó C (2005). "Role of ... 12 (3): 267-275. doi:10.2174/0929867053363207. PMC 2225483. PMID 15723618. Ivanovski O, Szumilak D, Nguyen-Khoa T, Ruellan N, ...
Christenson LK, Strauss III JF (2001). "Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: an update on its regulation and mechanism of ... "Overexpression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI". ... Lin D, Sugawara T, Strauss III JF, Clark BJ, Stocco DM, Saenger P, Rogol A, Miller WL (March 1995). "Role of steroidogenic ... Steroidogenic enzyme Kallen CB, Billheimer JT, Summers SA, Stayrook SE, Lewis M, Strauss III JF (October 1998). "Steroidogenic ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... 2004). "Analysis of the Gene-Dense Major Histocompatibility Complex Class III Region and Its Comparison to Mouse". Genome Res. ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ...
Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2014-06-12, 6: 121. PMC ... Incidence and subtypes of dementia in three elderly populations of central Spain. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008, ... 阿茲海默症患者的預期壽命較短[221],診斷後的預期餘命約三到十年[221],少於3%的人能活超過14年[222]。會造成存活年數顯著減少的特徵包括認知障礙嚴重度增加、
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... 7 (3): 145-9. PMC 4285059 . PMID 25584098. doi:10.14740/jocmr2030w.. *. Clarke, R; Frost, C; Collins, R; Appleby, P; Peto, R ( ... Barel sirove nafte od 42 US gal (35 imp gal; 160 L) daje približno 10 US gal (8,3 imp gal; 38 L) dizela, 4 US gal (3,3 imp gal ... 3] Naziv „mineralno ulje" je pogrešan naziv, jer minerali nisu izvor nafte, već su to drevne biljke i životinje. Mineralno ulje ...
Xu H, Finkelstein DI, Adlard PA (12 de junho de 2014). «Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease». ... Bermejo-Pareja F, Benito-León J, Vega S, Medrano MJ, Román GC (2008). «Incidence and subtypes of dementia in three elderly ... 3 (2): 60-1. PMID 17279076. doi:10.1038/ncpneuro0402. *↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Förstl H, Kurz A (1999). «Clinical ... Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D, Pericak-Vance M, Enghild J, Salvesen GS, Roses AD (1993). «Apolipoprotein E: high- ...
The sequences of most members of the family, the core or kernel lipocalins, are characterised by three short conserved ... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain;[16] crustacyanin;[17] epididymal-retinoic acid ... Although lipocalins are a broad family of greatly varied proteins, their three-dimensional structure is a unifying ... This nomenclature system is defined by a designation that is composed of the first three letters of the genus; a space; the ...
Many people with this condition have low levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins AII and CIII. Stokes, A; and ... see MODY 3; HNF1A) and perhaps HNF1β (MODY 5) as well. This transcription network plays a role in the early development of the ...
apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 and ε4 are associated with increased risk of getting cerebral amyloid antipathy. The use of ... 61 (3): 282-293. doi:10.1093/jnen/61.3.282. PMID 11895043. Mittal, S.; Wu, Z.; Neelavalli, J.; Haacke, E. M. (2009). " ... 3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces. Abnormalities in each of these ... 3): 343-357. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2002.tb00449.x. ISSN 1015-6305. PMC 8095796. PMID 12146803. S2CID 8930792. Dickson, Dennis ...
... namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III. Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, ... There are three "growth factor" repeats; A, B and C. A and B are closely linked while C is separated by the YWTD repeat region ... The receptor also recognizes apolipoprotein E (ApoE) which is found in chylomicron remnants and IDL. In humans, the LDL ... It is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), which is embedded in the outer phospholipid layer ...
The three early syndromes may overlap. As of 2020, the DLB Diagnostic Study Group's position is that criteria for MCI-LB can be ... Berge G, Sando SB, Rongve A, Aarsland D, White LR (November 2014). "Apolipoprotein E ε2 genotype delays onset of dementia with ... More than three out of four people with RBD are diagnosed with a neurodegenerative condition within ten years, but additional ... Three syndromes of prodromal DLB have been proposed: 1) mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB); 2) delirium-onset ...
2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ... Série III. 318 (2): 263-72. PMID 7757816. Kahle KT, Ring AM, Lifton RP (2008). "Molecular physiology of the WNK kinases". Annu ... 33 (10): 2250-3. doi:10.2337/dc10-0452. PMC 2945168. PMID 20628086. This article incorporates text from the United States ... "Entrez Gene: WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 3". Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, et al. (2005). "The DNA sequence of the ...
... apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic compound - arrestin - ... 3' end - 5' end ABC-Transporter Genes - abl gene - acetic acid - acetyl CoA - acetylcholine - acetylcysteine - acid - acidic ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase ubiquitin - urea - urea cycle - uric acid - UV/VIS spectroscopy vaccine - vacuole - valence - valine ... interleukin-3 receptor - intermediate filament - intermediate filament protein - intermembrane space - Intermolecular force - ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... 51 (3): 695-697. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13914.x. Foster, R., Williamson, C.S. and Lunn, J. (2009). "Briefing Paper: ... 136 (3): e1-e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111. S2CID 367602. Media summary: "Coconut oil 'as unhealthy as ... ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3. "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021. "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high ...
... polymorphisms on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects". Biochimica et ... 1682 (1-3): 56-62. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2004.01.008. PMID 15158756. Ruaño G, Bernene J, Windemuth A, Bower B, Wencker D, Seip ... 118 (3-4): 393-403. doi:10.1007/s00439-005-0055-3. PMID 16195894. S2CID 13637004. Yamada Y, Matsuo H, Warita S, Watanabe S, ... This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... 33 (10): 2250-3. doi:10.2337/dc10-0452. PMC 2945168. PMID 20628086. v t e This article incorporates text from the United States ...
Three types of DCs have been defined in human blood: the CD1c+ myeloid DCs, the CD141+ myeloid DCs and the CD303+ plasmacytoid ... Monocytes can be induced to differentiate into dendritic cells by a self-peptide Ep1.B derived from apolipoprotein E. These are ... In the lymph node and secondary lymphoid organs, all three APCs can activate naive T cells. Whereas mature dendritic cells are ... For this activation of CD8+, concurrent interaction of all three cell types, namely CD4+ T helper cells, CD8+ T cells and ...
... mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins (apoA1 and apoE) (reverse cholesterol ... Oram JF, Vaughan AM (June 2000). "ABCA1-mediated transport of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to HDL apolipoproteins". ... October 1999). "The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway". The ... January 3, 2000. Retrieved May 28, 2018. Brunham LR, Singaraja RR, Hayden MR (2006). "Variations on a gene: rare and common ...
... encoding protein Apolipoprotein M (6p21.33) ATXN1: encoding protein Ataxin 1 (6p16.3-p16.76) TSBP1: encoding protein TSBP1 ( ... ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. ( ... ocular albinism 3 OPRM1: μ-opioid receptors (6q24-q25) OTSC7: otosclerosis 7 PLG: plasminogen (6q26) PBCRA1 PARK2: Parkinson ... nudix hydrolase 3 (6p21.31) PFDN6: prefoldin subunit 6 (6p21.32) PHACTR1: phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (6p24.1) PKHD1: ...
... and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1). Polymorphism may affect ERβ function and lead to altered responses in postmenopausal women ... doi:10.1007/978-3-319-99350-8_12. ISBN 978-3-319-99349-2. ISSN 2196-9906. Dey P, Barros RP, Warner M, Ström A, Gustafsson JÅ ( ... 83 (3): 1025-1028. doi:10.1210/jcem.83.3.4788. PMID 9506768. Moore JT, McKee DD, Slentz-Kesler K, Moore LB, Jones SA, Horne EL ... 52 (3): 858-867. doi:10.1021/jm801458t. PMID 19128016. Barkhem T, Carlsson B, Nilsson Y, Enmark E, Gustafsson J, Nilsson S ( ...
... (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic subunit 3G) is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene that ... 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6718. PMID 11863358. Greene WC, Debyser Z, Ikeda Y, Freed EO, Stephens E, Yonemoto W, et ... 12 (3): 591-601. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00353-8. PMID 14527406. Pillai SK, Wong JK, Barbour JD (March 2008). "Turning up the ... CD1 is catalytically inactive, but very important for binding to DNA and RNA and is key to defining the 5'->3' processivity of ...
Throughout her youth, Nelson was an avid horseback rider, competing at the national level in Three-Day Equestrian events. She ... and Apolipoproteins". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 68 (1): 17-21. doi:10.1210/jcem-68-1-17. PMID 2491859. ... ISBN 978-0-553-10931-3. (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2021, Articles ...
... and two positive blood test results spaced at least three months apart that detect lupus anticoagulant, anti-apolipoprotein ... Based on this statement, Definite CAPS diagnosis requires: a) Vascular thrombosis in three or more organs or tissues and b) ... apolipoprotein H) complex. The use of testing for antibodies specific for individual targets of aPL such as β2 glycoprotein 1 ... apolipoprotein H)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (11): 4120-4124. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4120M. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.11.4120 ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... which has 3' overlap with this gene on the opposite strand. Mutations in this gene and disruption of the autophagy process have ... also functions as an antisense transcript in the post-transcriptional regulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 ...
In the three adults who are reported to have succumbed, the doses were 20-30 g. However, two adult survivors ingested 30 g 25 g ... and apolipoproteins A and B. It was first reported to exacerbate hepatic porphyria in 1975. In 1981, it was shown that ... and alprazolam 4 mg/day for three and a half months experienced auditory hallucinations that led to discontinuation of ... 3-4. Retrieved 2007-10-12.[dead link] Mattson RH; Cramer JA; Collins JF; Smith DB; Delgado-Escueta AV; Browne TR; Williamson PD ...
The three main blood levels collected to assess for dyslipidemia is triglycerides(TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( ... Low density lipoproteins are made up of cholesterol, TG, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins. LDL-C molecules bind to the ... A 3-month trial of dietary changes is recommended in primary prevention before considering medication, but in secondary ... This agent consists of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid from fish oil and works to lower the hepatic ...
2007). "Distinct roles of haptoglobin-related protein and apolipoprotein L-I in trypanolysis by human serum". Proc. Natl. Acad ... 60 (3): 295-308. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5927. PMID 10493829. Xu XR, Huang J, Xu ZG, et al. (2002). "Insight into hepatocellular ... 3 (9): 1250-61. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030129. PMC 1971115. PMID 17845074. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... and apolipoprotein B (apo B), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in adults with primary ... whereas their effect on HDL metabolism is associated with changes in HDL apolipoprotein expression." Fenofibrate is a fibrate ... Retrieved 3 March 2019. Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, Crouse JR, Leiter LA, Linz P, et al. (April 2010). "Effects of ... 23 (3): 235-241. doi:10.1007/s10557-008-6160-5. PMID 19160032. S2CID 7987660. Elam MB, Ginsberg HN, Lovato LC, Corson M, Largay ...
Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: ... 2009; 3(1-4):173-9. Bellows CF, Molina RM, Brain JD. Diminished organelle motion in murine Kupffer cells during the ...
"Identification of a non-canonical E-box motif as a regulatory element in the proximal promoter region of the apolipoprotein E ... 271 (3): 1405-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1405. PMID 8576131. Ghosh AK, Datta PK, Jacob ST (Feb 1997). "The dual role of helix- ... 271 (3): 1405-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1405. PMID 8576131. Pognonec P, Boulukos KE, Aperlo C, Fujimoto M, Ariga H, Nomoto A, ... 11 (3): 422-35. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072. PMID 11230166. Bengtsson SH, Madeyski-Bengtson K, Nilsson J, Bjursell G ( ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... 33 (10): 2250-3. doi:10.2337/dc10-0452. PMC 2945168. PMID 20628086. Li XQ, Du X, Li DM, Kong PZ, Sun Y, Liu PF, Wang QS, Feng ...
Kynamro targets the mRNA product of the APOB gene, which codes for the Apolipoprotein B-100 protein, a component of low-density ... doi:10.1038/s41375-018-0067-3. ISSN 1476-5551. PMC 6127082. PMID 29487387. Cheng, Xinwei; Liu, Qibing; Li, Hong; Kang, Chen; ...
"Apolipoprotein C-III(Lys58----Glu). Identification of an apolipoprotein C-III variant in a family with ... Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII, and apolipoprotein C3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. ... Apolipoprotein+C-III at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human APOC3 genome location and ... Zannis VI, Cole FS, Jackson CL, Kurnit DM, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1985). "Distribution of apolipoprotein A-I, C-II, C-III, and E ...
Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients ... apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B-100), apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), malondialdehyde (MDA) (as index for lipid peroxidation), and ... Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients ... In the omega-3 fatty acid group, fasting TG decreased significantly by 31.2 % (P = 0.01) relative to the placebo group; there ...
Tissue and/or cellular expressions of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), amyloid β (Aβ) precursor protein ( ... Tissue levels of IL-1α were elevated in patients of both APOE ε3,3 and APOE ε4,4 genotypes, and this elevation was apparent as ... 3) Aβ plaques were noted at early ages in our epilepsy patients, regardless of APOE genotype (APOE ε4,4 age 10; APOE ε3,3 age ... 3 = 173 ± 27 vs 356 ± 45; P ≤ 0.01) and greater DNA damage (APOE ε4,4 vs APOE ε3,3 = 67 ± 10 vs 39 ± 2; P = 0.01). ...
Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic Peptide COG1410 Promotes Autophagy by Phosphorylating GSK-3β in Early Brain Injury Following ... Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic Peptide COG1410 Promotes Autophagy by Phosphorylating GSK-3β in Early Brain Injury Following ... COG1410, a mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor binding region, exerts positive effect on ... Furthermore, the up-regulated autophagy by COG1410 was further promoted by p-GSK-3β agonist, whereas decreased by p-GSK-3β ...
Nevertheless, the issue about whether Lp-PLA2 is associated with apolipoprotein particles in individuals who have been ... while apolipoprotein particles were measured by the department of laboratory. ,i,Results,/i,. The plasma concentration of Lp- ... levels and apolipoprotein particles are regarded as the risk maker for cardiovascular heart disease. ... denoting the communication between Lp-PLA2 and apolipoprotein particles in the state of CAD. ...
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia: analysis of three Spanish cases with two new mutations in the APOB gene. Gene. 2013 Nov 15. ... Beta apolipoproteins. Beta apolipoproteins are the largest of the apolipoproteins. They are critically important for the ... Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... CMs, VLDL, and LDL carry apolipoproteins on their surface; these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta ...
Among men, factors were age, apolipoprotein A1 level, apolipoprotein B level, and insulin resistance. Seventy-five percent of ... b Defined using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (13).. c Defined as ,102 cm for men and ,88 cm for women.. d Defined as a ... apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), total apolipoprotein B (apoB), and homocysteine levels from fasting participants (low-density ... Abbreviations: SE, standard error; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; apo, apolipoprotein. a Calculated by logistic ...
apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3Bprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17352 See related. Ensembl ... APOBEC3B apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 9582, updated on 4-Dec- ... Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. ... Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. ...
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia: analysis of three Spanish cases with two new mutations in the APOB gene. Gene. 2013 Nov 15. ... Beta apolipoproteins. Beta apolipoproteins are the largest of the apolipoproteins. They are critically important for the ... Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... CMs, VLDL, and LDL carry apolipoproteins on their surface; these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta ...
Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... Saura, J., Petegnief, V., Wu, X., Liang, Y. and Paul, S.M. (2003) Microglial Apolipoprotein E and Astroglial Apolipoprotein J ... Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... LPS Regulates Apolipoprotein E and Aβ Interactionswith Effects on Acute Phase Proteins and Amyloidosis () ...
The disease is linked to defects in the gene for apolipoprotein E. ...
Apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) is found in chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins ( ... Apolipoprotein C-III is an 8.8 kDa protein that appears to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and activate lecithin-cholesterol ... Apolipoprotein-lipid complexes are referred to as lipoproteins. The apolipoproteins are plasma protein components that complex ... Apo C-III may cause hypertriglyceridemia by inhibiting the catabolism and the clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins (TLRs), and the ...
... Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Jun;16(3):269-79. doi: 10.1097 ... This reaction is mediated by a membrane protein ABCA1, and lipid-free or lipid-poor helical apolipoproteins recruit cellular ... The reaction is composed of two elements: the assembly of HDL particles with phospholipid by apolipoprotein, and cholesterol ... The other mechanism is an apolipoprotein-mediated process to generate HDL by removing cellular phospholipid and cholesterol. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein A I antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF, sELISA and tested in Human. Cited in 8 publication(s). ... Independently reviewed in 3 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to… ... Lv P et al. Apolipoprotein C-III in the high-density lipoprotein proteome of cerebral lacunar infarction patients impairs its ... Anti-Apolipoprotein A I antibody. See all Apolipoprotein A I primary antibodies. ...
Characterization of Apolipoprotein A-I Pathways in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis ... Levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been found to be reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF, while administration of ... clinical phenotyping and genotyping protocol that will assess whether holo-apoA-I and apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides, can ... Step 3 Enroll in the clinical study If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and ...
All experiments were repeated at least three times.. Animal experimental procedures. All of the experiments performed in the ... In apolipoprotein E‑knockout mice, a high‑fat diet reduced miR‑126 expression and induced apoptosis as determined by the ... In the present study, apolipoprotein E (apoE)‑/‑ mice were fed a high‑fat diet in order to establish a model of AS. Mice were ... MicroRNA‑126 inhibits endothelial permeability and apoptosis in apolipoprotein E‑knockout mice fed a high‑fat diet. *Authors: * ...
Select only one of the three options below: *. I am an Author of this Work, and the Work was prepared on my own time - not as ... Confirmation of the ϵ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene as a risk factor for late‐onset Alzheimers disease. T. Brousseau, S ... We compared apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution between patients with sporadic late-onset AD (n = 36) and controls of ... In this study, we investigated the possible association of a genetic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene with late-onset ...
Select only one of the three options below: *. I am an Author of this Work, and the Work was prepared on my own time - not as ... Physical Activity May Reduce Apolipoprotein E4-Associated Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease. Jacob Raber, Sirwan K.L. ... Physical Activity May Reduce Apolipoprotein E4-Associated Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease ... Non-AAN Member subscribers (800) 638-3030 or (301) 223-2300 option 3, select 1 (international). Sign Up. Information on how to ...
Serum apolipoprotein AI Apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B results were measured only during 1988-1991. Three different ... Apolipoprotein Apolipoprotein AI(4)(5) AI(4)(5) Apolipoprotein Apolipoprotein B(4)(5) B(4)(5) Cholesterol (5) Cholesterol (5) ... Apolipoprotein AI(4)(5) Apolipoprotein AI(4)(5) Apolipoprotein B(4)(5) Apolipoprotein B(4)(5) Cholesterol (5) Cholesterol (5) ... Analytic Considerations o NHANES III (1988-94) was designed so that the surveys first three years, 1988-91, its last three ...
The role of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) in regulating serum TG has presented a promising new avenue of research in the ... Inhibiting Apolipoprotein C-III Production to Reduce Triglyceride Levels in Patients With FCS. ... Mechanistically, apoC-III modulates plasma TG through inhibition of LPL and other LPL-independent pathways including blunting ... In the liver, volanesorsen crosses the hepatocyte cell and nuclear membranes and binds to a specific site on apoC-III mRNA, to ...
Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ...
Since Ang III and Ang IV have opposite effects (Ang III inhibits GLUT4 and activates IRAP and, vice versa, Ang IV activates ... 2017). Apolipoprotein E4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling by trapping insulin receptor in the endosomes. Neuron 96:115-129.e5 ... Liao, F., Yoon, H., and Kim, J. (2017). Apolipoprotein E metabolism and functions in brain and its role in Alzheimers disease ... three partners in crime. Aging Cell 10, 403-417. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00681.x ...
Apolipoprotein E ε4 and incidence of Alzheimer disease in a community population of older persons. JAMA. 1997 Mar 12;277(10): ... Apolipoprotein E ε4 and incidence of Alzheimer disease in a community population of older persons. In: JAMA. 1997 ; Vol. 277, ... Apolipoprotein E ε4 and incidence of Alzheimer disease in a community population of older persons. / Evans, Denis A.; Beckett, ... Conclusions.-The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is an important genetic risk factor for AD but accounts for a fairly small fraction ...
Human being apolipoprotein E has 3 isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41.. By Anna Sanders in Blogging August 8, 2018. 0 Comment ... Human being apolipoprotein E has 3 isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. of CypA (discover Supplementary Info). Searching for ...
Apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms in people in the East Mediterranean area of Turkey  Tamer, L.; Tanriverdi, K.; Ercan, B.; ... Three mutations of Apo B-100 protein result in defective binding [‎Arg 3500 ----, [‎corrected]‎ Gln, Arg 3500 ----, [‎corrected ... Genetic pattern of 3 cases of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in a family  Yazdanpanah, P.; Javan, A.; Nadimi, B.; ...
Must consent to apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping. *If using drugs to treat symptoms related to AD, doses must be stable for ... 221AD302 Phase 3 Study of Aducanumab (BIIB037) in Early Alzheimers Disease (EMERGE). The safety and scientific validity of ... A Phase 3 Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety ... CDR-SB integrates assessments from 3 domains of cognition (memory, orientation, judgment/problem-solving) and 3 domains of ...
Apolipoprotein E2 transgenic rabbits. Modulation of the type III hyperlipoproteinemic phenotype by estrogen and occurrence of ... Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia): the role of apolipoprotein E in normal and abnormal metabolism. Scriver ... What are the ATP III guidelines classification of triglycerides?. According to the ATP III guidelines, when does triglyceride ... Corbo RM, Scacchi R. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele distribution in the world. Is APOE*4 a thrifty allele?. Ann Hum Genet. ...
Human apolipoprotein C-I: concentration in blood serum and lipoproteins. Polz E, Kotite L, Havel RJ, Kane JP, Sata T. Polz E, ... Clinical Trial, Phase III * Clinical Trial, Phase IV * Clinical Trial, Veterinary * Comment ... Interchange of apolipoproteins between chylomicrons and high density lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia in man. Havel RJ, ... Sex-related differences in the concentrations of apolipoprotein E in human blood plasma and plasma lipoproteins. Phillips NR, ...
ApoAI: Apolipoprotein AI; ApoB: Apolipoprotein B; BUN: Blood urea nitrogen; Cr: Creatinine; GLU: Glucose; HDL-C: High-density ... Therapy with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improved the outcomes of CAD patients[3]. The pathologic basis of adverse ... 3]. Piccolo R, Giustino G, Mehran R, et al. Stable coronary artery disease: revascularisation and invasive strategies. Lancet. ... All-cause mortality did not differ significantly among there four groups (Table 3). The rate of MACCE occurred during the ...
  • COG1410, a mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor binding region, exerts positive effect on neurological deficits in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (duke.edu)
  • In the present study, apolipoprotein E (apoE)‑/‑ mice were fed a high‑fat diet in order to establish a model of AS. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Corbo RM, Scacchi R. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele distribution in the world. (medscape.com)
  • In humans the APOE gene is polymorphic with 3 different variants (APOEε2, APOEε3, APOEε4) contrary to other mammals who only have one type. (su.se)
  • We have previously shown that the APOE gene product apolipoprotein E (apoE) negatively affects amyloid-β uptake in cultures of primary human glial cells (Nielsen et al 2010, Mulder et al 2014) as well as rodent cells (Fu et al 2016). (su.se)
  • We injected AAV-PHP.eB into the bloodstream of wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as mouse strains carrying genetic mutation in apolipoprotein E gene ( Apoe ) or low-density lipoprotein receptor gene ( Ldlr ), or lacking various components of the immune system. (thno.org)
  • Total n - 3 PUFA in the Sf 60 - 400 and Sf 20 - 60 fractions were not APOE genotype dependant. (fabresearch.org)
  • In this context, apolipoprotein E gene ( APOE ) is a key element with a well-established association among their alleles and the neurodegenerative consequences of mercury intoxication. (hugginsappliedhealing.com)
  • One of the biggest risk factors for Alzheimer's disease is the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 gene. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the Alzheimer's Association, adults who possess one copy of the APOE e4 gene are three times more likely to develop the disease than those without the gene, while those with two copies are 8-12 times more likely to develop Alzheimer's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We have used a pharmaceutical BH 4 formulation to investigate the effects of BH 4 supplementation on atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-KO (apolipoprotein E-knockout) mice. (portlandpress.com)
  • Six apolipoprotein fasting serum concentrations were measured using a Luminex proteomics platform (xMAP Multiplex immunoassay): apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), apolipoprotein A-II (apoAII), apolipoprotein B (apoB), apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII), apolipoprotein C-III (apoCIII) and apolipoprotein E (apoE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice deficient in either Apolipoprotein E ( Apoe ) or Low density lipoprotein ( Ldl ) receptor ( Ldlr ) almost certainly are the two most commonly used mouse models for hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis research. (jax.org)
  • In humans, mutations in LDLR and APOE are associated several hereditary hyperlipidemic disorders, including familial hypercholesterolemia and type III hyperlipidemia, and patients with these conditions have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. (jax.org)
  • Title: Bovine apolipoprotein E in plasma: increase of ApoE concentration induced by fasting and distribution in lipoprotein fractions. (genscript.com)
  • Bos taurus apolipoprotein E (APOE), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • While several genes are probably involved in Alzheimer's disease, one important gene that increases risk is apolipoprotein E4 (APOE). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Simple lipid profiles do not provide adequate information for detailed diagnosis and additional assays such as apolipoprotein (apo)B 100 , apoE genotype and next-generation sequencing may be useful. (bmj.com)
  • BACE1 (β-secretase activity of the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme), ApoE (apolipoprotein E), and transthyretin gene expression were unchanged with the high-DHA diet. (jneurosci.org)
  • This approach led to the identification of LOXL1 protein and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in PEX material. (edu.au)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a strong suppressor for AS [ 8 - 10 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Sporadic EOAD starts at 60 on average, and the topography of cortical impairment and the corresponding symptoms mainly depends on the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. (j-alz.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of ApoE from Hep G2 cells treated with Brefeldin A #9972 (10 ng/ml, 90 min), using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or ApoE (pan) (D7I9N) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: The three main alleles of the APOE gene (ε4, ε3 and ε2) carry differential risks for conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease. (edu.au)
  • We've discovered apolipoprotein E (ApoE) as an extracellular binding proteins of LILRB4. (desestressarte.com)
  • The three most common alleles of APOE are e2, e3 and e4 and each produce a slightly different version of the ApoE protein. (cardiovasculardna.com)
  • 3 A genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene which encodes for apolipoprotein E, the ϵ4 allele, is an unmodifiable risk factor for sporadic AD, or AD that affects people without a family history of the condition. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • While the apolipoprotein E ε 4 allele (ApoE- ε 4) is related to cognitive and brain decline in the general population, its effect on the brain in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains unclear. (silverchair.com)
  • ApoE genotyping could not be performed for three patients with T1DM. (silverchair.com)
  • Identified patients were evaluated for relevant disorders, including genetic testing for a 3-base pair deletion in APOE that causes deletion of leucine at position 167 of apolipoprotein E. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with splenomegaly and dyslipidemia, one of whom had a heterozygous APOE p.Leu167del mutation. (duke.edu)
  • We discuss possible causes, review the literature relating to the rare APOE p.Leu167del mutation, and present a 3-generation kindred with variable phenotypic expression of this mutation. (duke.edu)
  • Increasing evidence states that the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and apolipoprotein particles are regarded as the risk maker for cardiovascular heart disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Each lipoprotein is characterized by its lipid composition and by the type and number of apolipoproteins it possesses. (medscape.com)
  • these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta apolipoproteins, which remain part of the lipoprotein throughout its metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III is an 8.8 kDa protein that appears to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and activate lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and thus regulates the activities of these enzymes. (nexelis.com)
  • Plasma levels of lipoprotein apo C-III predict coronary heart disease (CHD), and are associated with metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia, which are in turn associated with type 2 diabetes. (nexelis.com)
  • Xie BS, Wang X, Pan YH, Jiang G, Feng JF, Lin Y. Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in mice. (thno.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) is the major structural component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), exhibiting significant atheroprotective functions [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the major protein constituent of the atherogenic low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and of chylomicrons [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are three accepted essential elements in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: lipoprotein serum concentration, endothelial permeability and binding of lipoproteins in the arterial intima. (bmj.com)
  • Another clinical trial is now under way to determine whether drastically lowering levels of lipoprotein(a) in people who already have cardiovascular disease lessens their risk of heart attack and stroke ( SN: 3/15/19 ). (sciencenews.org)
  • Lipoprotein(a) is made up of a particle of LDL plus a protein called apolipoprotein(a). (sciencenews.org)
  • Distribution of apolipoprotein E among lipoprotein fractions in the lactating cow. (genscript.com)
  • Enterocytes secrete chylomicron (CM) particles containing a short form (48%) of apolipoprotein (apo) B (apoB 48 ), while hepatocytes secrete very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with full length apoB (apoB 100 ). (bmj.com)
  • Female sex hormones may have direct atheroprotective effects on the vasculature, 1-3 and estrogens may inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 4-7 which is pivotal for atherosclerotic plaque formation. (lww.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a structural protein that constitutes a major component of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a major component of very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C), and LDL-C. The total serum apoB level corresponds to the total number of VLDL-C, IDL-C, and LDL-C particles because they are associated with apoB molecule. (medscape.com)
  • Other apolipoproteins (A, C, D, E, and their subtypes) are soluble and are exchanged between lipoproteins during metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein-lipid complexes are referred to as lipoproteins. (nexelis.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) is found in chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (nexelis.com)
  • Apo C-III may cause hypertriglyceridemia by inhibiting the catabolism and the clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins (TLRs), and the association of apo C-III with CHD has been commonly attributed to these properties. (nexelis.com)
  • Interchange of apolipoproteins between chylomicrons and high density lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia in man. (nih.gov)
  • Lipoproteins have 3 subcategories, what are they & what are their levels? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • However, there are no available studies investigating the possible influence of mesenteric fat to specific apolipoproteins, constituents of serum lipoproteins and key molecules to their function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of these particles carries one apolipoprotein-B100 (apoB) molecule, which makes them apoB-containing lipoproteins. (acc.org)
  • ABCA1, a target gene of liver X receptor (LXR), mediates the rate-controlling step in HDL synthesis by increasing cellular efflux of phospholipids and cholesterol to apo A-I containing lipoproteins, and thus plays a protective role in preventing atherosclerosis [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins are major lipoproteins in blood and the elevated concentration in plasma may lead to increased transport of lipoproteins into adipose tissues resulting in the excessive fat deposition. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent studies demonstrated that the apo C-III in TLRs not only modulates their metabolism, but also may directly contribute to the development of atherosclerosis by activating the proinflammatory signal transduction of vascular cells. (nexelis.com)
  • Modulation of the type III hyperlipoproteinemic phenotype by estrogen and occurrence of spontaneous atherosclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Davignon J, Gregg RE, Sing CF. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Lipids and apolipoprotein profiles in men with aneurysmal and stenosing aorto-iliac atherosclerosis. (bmj.com)
  • These particles consist of a core of cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by a monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins (apolipoproteins). (medscape.com)
  • The apolipoproteins are plasma protein components that complex with cholesterol, cholesterol esters, glycerides (triglycerides, etc.) and phospholipids, as well as other lipid soluble substances, such as lipid-soluble vitamins, and facilitate their transport and metabolism. (nexelis.com)
  • The other mechanism is an apolipoprotein-mediated process to generate HDL by removing cellular phospholipid and cholesterol. (nih.gov)
  • This reaction is mediated by a membrane protein ABCA1, and lipid-free or lipid-poor helical apolipoproteins recruit cellular phospholipid and cholesterol to assemble HDL particles. (nih.gov)
  • The reaction is composed of two elements: the assembly of HDL particles with phospholipid by apolipoprotein, and cholesterol enrichment in HDL. (nih.gov)
  • Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (medscape.com)
  • The 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) defined target LDLc levels and levels based on risk for CHD. (medscape.com)
  • The relationship between LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk is well-established: When there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can get into the walls of arteries, stoking an inflammatory immune response that leads to thickened walls and narrowed arteries ( SN: 5/3/17 ). (sciencenews.org)
  • We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin - 1 surgical and the other genetic - to quantitatively track RCT following injection of [ 3 H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages upstream of blocked or absent lymphatic vessels. (jci.org)
  • According to estimates based on data gathered from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), only 1.4 million (6.6%) of 21.1 million Americans eligible for cholesterol-lowering drug therapy under National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines were actually using such therapy. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Using global, local and nodal efficiencies of these two networks, we then examined (i) the differences of functional and WM structural network between cognitively normal ɛ 4 carriers and non-carriers simultaneously, (ii) the sensitivity of these indices as biomarkers, and (iii) their relationship to behavior measurements, as well as to cholesterol level. (nature.com)
  • OBJECTIVE:To evaluate relationships between apolipoprotein B (Apo B), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-HDL-C in high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy.DESIGN AND METHODS:This post-hoc analysis calculated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels corresponding to an Apo B of 0.9 g/L following treatment with 1) statin monotherapy (baseline) and 2) ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20mg or rosuvastatin 10mg (study end). (unipa.it)
  • A typical western diet contains relatively equal amounts of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols, mainly plant sterols, of which about 55% of the dietary cholesterol is absorbed and retained compared to ~1% of the dietary non-cholesterol sterols [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Like a three-legged stool, a strong cardiovascular platform rests on several points: cholesterol, blood pressure-and circulation. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that carrying the apolipoprotein (apo) E epsilon 4 (E4+) genotype disrupts omega-3 fatty acids (n - 3 PUFA) metabolism. (fabresearch.org)
  • This research shows that exercise can mitigate the risk of dementia for people without the variant of the apolipoprotein genotype," he adds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fluid biomarker data were related to AD pathology and neuropsychological markers and adjusted for confounders such as age, sex, apolipoprotein E genotype, and biobank storage time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This test analyzes your Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype, which influences both your lifetime risk for heart disease and the best diet to avoid it. (baledoneen.com)
  • Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • n-3 polyunsaturated N-acylethanolamines are CB2 cannabinoid receptor-preferring endocannabinoids BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • He will always be remembered for his discovery that the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene is the major risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • The p85α subunit of phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PIK3R1) and the regulatory subunit 3 of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R3) were selected as candidate genes because both encode key proteins involved in insulin signalling and because polymorphisms in these genes have been previously implicated in insulin resistance or type II diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Mutations in subunits of COG complex result in glycosylation enzymes being delivered to the wrong location, causing defects in N- and O-glycosylation of proteins 3,4 . (cdghub.com)
  • Smith's lab at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute has been investigating a class of defender proteins called APOBEC3s (for apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like, family 3), or A3s. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Three of these proteins - A3F, A3G and A3H - are known to impede retroviruses by infiltrating the invader virions and then performing a massive mutation on the DNA copy of the HIV-1 genome. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Although not all causes of Alzheimer's disease are known, experts do know that a small percentage are related to mutations of three genes, which can be passed down from parent to child. (mayoclinic.org)
  • And as the disease progresses, a protein called apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) forms amyloid deposits similar to those associated with Alzheimer's. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Epidemiological studies suggest that increased intake of the omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (jneurosci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII, and apolipoprotein C3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • se realiz una b squeda bibliogr fica en Scopus a trav s de HInari, en la BVS, en Scielo y en Medline a trav s de PubMed. (medigraphic.com)
  • For example, the group showed high levels of triglycerides but lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids. (medscape.com)
  • Pemafibrate, the first selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator, showed a favorable benefit-risk balance but the large clinical phase 3 trial (Pemafibrate to Reduce Cardiovascular OutcoMes by Reducing Triglycerides IN patiENts With diabe Tes [PROMINENT]) was recently stopped due to the underperformance from interim analysis. (kstudy.com)
  • Novel biomarkers of risk, such as apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB (2), and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and homocysteine (3-5), have been proposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Can Apolipoproteins and Complement Factors be Biomarkers of Alzheimerâ s Disease? (eurekaselect.com)
  • and (3) Novel biomarkers for detection, classification and risk stratification of early kidney disease. (ucsf.edu)
  • Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the present study demonstrated that miR‑126 reduced TGFβ expression following binding to the 3'‑untranslated region of TGFβ mRNA. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Because of its proprietary design, volanesorsen is highly specific for reducing apoC-III mRNA translation, while significantly reducing the potential for unintended off-target pharmacology. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • In the liver, volanesorsen crosses the hepatocyte cell and nuclear membranes and binds to a specific site on apoC-III mRNA, to effectively prevent translation of the apoC-III protein. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Abundance of mRNA of apolipoprotein b100, apolipoprotein e, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in liver from periparturient dairy cows. (genscript.com)
  • C to U editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA involves the interaction of a multicomponent editing enzyme complex with a requisite RNA sequence embedded within an AU-rich context. (wustl.edu)
  • Here we show that ABCA1 mRNA levels were significantly suppressed by 20 ng/ml of TNF-α, but all three antioxidants were able to antagonize this suppressive effect of TNF-α. (alliedacademies.org)
  • viral spike protein binds the mouse and rat angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor versions with lower affinity compared to human ACE2, and thus lab animals have limited viral replication and spontaneously clear infection soon after exposure (1-3). (ddw-online.com)
  • PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) is the most important enzyme [ 7 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c. (who.int)
  • The role of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) in regulating serum TG has presented a promising new avenue of research in the effort to control elevated TG levels. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Lately, it was established that ApoA5 is present in the human serum and it can be detected by polyclonal antibodies against both the HN2 and COOH termini, but at much lower concentration than other apolipoproteins. (prospecbio.com)
  • Aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of mesenteric fat thickness (MFT) with serum apolipoprotein levels in patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography in a single center. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum samples were collected at 30 min before transient limb ischemia and at 1 hour (h), 3 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h after completion of three cycles. (hindawi.com)
  • 10 Circulating APOL1 associates with HDL 3 particles and functions as a trypanolytic factor in human serum. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the possible association of a genetic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene with late-onset AD. (neurology.org)
  • We compared apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution between patients with sporadic late-onset AD (n = 36) and controls of the same age (n = 38). (neurology.org)
  • Association of the Apolipoprotein E polymorphism with migraine: a meta-analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphism in apolipoprotein E among migraineurs and tension-type headache subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels are used to evaluate the risk for cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Mahley RW, Rall SC Jr. Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia): the role of apolipoprotein E in normal and abnormal metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • In apolipoprotein E‑knockout mice, a high‑fat diet reduced miR‑126 expression and induced apoptosis as determined by the upregulation of caspase‑3 activity. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Zhang SH, Reddick RL, Piedrahita JA, Maeda N. Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and arterial lesions in mice lacking apolipoprotein E. Science . (medscape.com)
  • An anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice enhances atherosclerotic plaque stabilization in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • IL-22 affects smooth muscle cell phenotype and plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. (lu.se)
  • Mechanistically, apoC-III modulates plasma TG through inhibition of LPL and other LPL-independent pathways including blunting of receptor mediated clearance of TRLs from the liver, inhibition of hepatic lipase activity, and promotion of the intrahepatic assembly and secretion of TG rich VLDL particles. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of AMPA Receptor 1 (GluA1) from mouse brain extracts, using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or AMPA Receptor 1 (GluA1) (D4N9V) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Furthermore, activation of several molecular pathways (i.e. plasma kallikrein, von Willebrand factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate and its receptor, cytokines/ adipokines, cellular fibronectin and apolipoprotein Eå2 allele) may lead to hematoma expansion. (novapublishers.com)
  • FH is usually caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the LDL receptor gene, a mutation in the gene responsible for apolipoprotein B (APOB), or by a gain-of-function mutation in the PCSK9 gene (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9). (familyheart.org)
  • Apolipoprotein CIII is also found on HDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the issue about whether Lp-PLA2 is associated with apolipoprotein particles in individuals who have been diagnosed as stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains largely unexplored. (hindawi.com)
  • The results concerning Lp-PLA2 levels were calculated by Elisa Kit, while apolipoprotein particles were measured by the department of laboratory. (hindawi.com)
  • The plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 provide positively a key link with apoB, apoB/apoA-1 among stable CAD, denoting the communication between Lp-PLA2 and apolipoprotein particles in the state of CAD. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, because each LDL particle contains one molecule of apolipoprotein B-100, the majority of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) would indirectly test the number of LDL particles. (hindawi.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) comprises nearly 70% of the apolipoproteins on the HDL particles, allowing an effective calculation of HDL concentration. (hindawi.com)
  • LDLR also binds to LDL particles via interactions with apolipoprotein B (APOB) to clear LDL from the circulation. (jax.org)
  • The presence of Apolipoprotein C-3 (APOC-3) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), found in those with higher sized HDL particles, seem to maintain the inverse reactions in humans to those of the identified yeast genes, RAS2 and SCH9. (brighthub.com)
  • Scheitel M, Stanic M, Neuberger M. PM10, PM2.5, PM1, number and surface of particles at the child's seat when smoking a cigarette in a car[J]. AIMS Environmental Science, 2016, 3(4): 582-591. (aimspress.com)
  • In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. (who.int)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D supplementation results in a substantial reduction in coronary calcium scores and slowed plaque growth. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Management of raised TGs includes optimising diet, reducing exacerbating factors as well as lipid-lowering medications such as statins, fibrates, niacin and omega-3 fatty acids. (bmj.com)
  • The essential fatty acids, which include the omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, are crucial components of the diet. (jneurosci.org)
  • 2015. Potential for dietary ω-3 fatty acids to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduce the risk of primary liver cancer. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • To date, there are only few drug classes targeting triglyceride levels such as fibrates and ω-3 fatty acids. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, ongoing trials evaluating novel apolipoprotein C-III inhibitors, ω-3 fatty acids, as well as fibroblast growth 21 analogues are discussed. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The A-I and A-IV genes are transcribed from the same strand, while the A-1 and C-III genes are convergently transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breakpoints of the deletion are within the two genes, so the deletion allele is predicted to have the promoter and coding region of APOBEC3A, but the 3' UTR of APOBEC3B. (nih.gov)
  • In all three diseases, GEP has revealed dysregulation of genes related to neuroinflammation. (nature.com)
  • APOL1 is one of six closely related apolipoprotein L family member genes clustered on chromosome 22. (asnjournals.org)
  • Familial EOAD, accounting for 30% of cases, is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in three genes, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN 2. (j-alz.com)
  • The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes show to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (healthappsopenday.com)
  • We aimed to investigate whether circulating markers of gut-related inflammation, LPS binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) can be modulated by n-3 PUFA supplementation and/or diet counselling, and whether these markers are related to cardiovascular (CV) outcome. (researchgate.net)
  • PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) induces formation of inflammasome activates caspase-1, which subsequently cleaves the precursor form of IL-1β (pro-IL-1β) into the processed, secreted form IL-1β to promote the immune responses in AS. (aging-us.com)
  • Smelt AH, de Beer F. Apolipoprotein E and familial dysbetalipoproteinemia: clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] The exact location of the mutations of the LCAT gene cannot yet be used to predict the clinical or biochemical manifestations of either familial LCAT deficiency or fish eye disease. (medscape.com)
  • The genetic causes of hypertriglyceridaemia range from familial combined hyperlipidaemia through the autosomal recessive remnant hyperlipidaemia (related to apolipoprotein E variants) and familial chylomicronaemia syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • An increase in apoC-III levels induces the development of hypertriglyceridemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the DHA supplement contain very low levels of EPA, E4+ subjects with high EPA at fasting potentially have disrupted postprandial n - 3 PUFA metabolism after receiving a high-dose of DHA. (fabresearch.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-II (apoAII) is the second most important protein component of HDL and seems to have a significant role in triglyceride metabolism [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms in patients with migraine. (cdc.gov)
  • The gene area of Apolipoprotein C-III (gene polymorphisms [15]. (healthappsopenday.com)
  • In patients of African ancestry, genetic variants in APOL1 , which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with the nondiabetic kidney diseases, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and hypertensive nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
  • The Apo E gene has three variants (E2, E3, and E4), resulting in 6 possible genotypes: Apo E 2/2, Apo E 2/3, Apo E 2/4, Apo E 3/3, Apo E 3/4 and Apo E 4/4. (baledoneen.com)
  • Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (A β ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of A β and are important to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. (scirp.org)
  • Patients with obstructive coronary stenosis in all three main coronary arteries (segment score) had greater than twofold higher likelihood of early AMD, OR 2.67 (95% CI 1.24 to 5.78). (bmj.com)
  • 3- Many FH patients remain at high risk for coronary heart disease or even death in the fourth or fifth decade of life if FH is left untreated. (familyheart.org)
  • Secondary outcome measures include blood pressure, lipid levels, apolipoproteins, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and safety of supplementation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The incidence of ARIA-E was higher in apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) carriers than in ApoE4 non-carriers (42% and 20%, respectively). (drugs.com)
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (who.int)
  • Levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been found to be reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF, while administration of human apoA-I has been shown to reduce bleomycin-induced collagen deposition in a murine model. (centerwatch.com)
  • Following administration of 300 mg/wk of volanesorsen for 13 weeks via subcutaneous injection, three FCS patients in an open label trial showed significant, rapid, and prolonged reductions in mean fasting plasma apoC-III (-81%) and TG (-69%) levels. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • In a Phase 2 trial, patients with high to very high TG levels treated with 300 mg/wk of volanesorsen administered for 13 weeks showed substantial lowering of apoC-III and TG of -80% and -71%, respectively. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Objective: The current study has investigated the effects of celery seed extract, as a drug supplement, with the active ingredient of 3-n-butylphthalide, on mental problems primarily anxiety and secondary depression in hypertensive patients. (researchgate.net)
  • 2 Previous studies showed that the mortality risk of CVD in CKD patients aged 25-34 years is 100-150 times higher than that in other age groups, 3 , 4 while in the end-stage kidney disease stage, CVD deaths account for more than 50% of the total mortality of CKD patients. (dovepress.com)
  • ARIA-E was observed in 35% of patients treated at 10 mg/kg, compared to 3% of patients on placebo. (drugs.com)
  • She recommends that clinicians prescribe one of these new treatments to patients at the time of kidney biopsy, or in those not responding to the current standard treatment - mycophenolate - after three months. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • 2 However, despite the existence of numerous BP-lowering pharmacotherapies, more than half of all patients with hypertension may have inadequately controlled BP 3 (i.e. failing to lower their BP below the recommended threshold, typically 130/80 mmHg 4 ). (medrxiv.org)
  • This article describes three patients and illustrates the heterogeneity in the presentation of monogenic chylomicronaemia. (bmj.com)
  • 1 3 Although the vast majority of patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia have a polygenic background, a monogenic cause resulting in a deficiency in lipolysis explains about 1%-2% of cases. (bmj.com)
  • Patients classified as having POCD at the time of hospital discharge after noncardiac surgery are at greater risk of dying within 3 months than those without it, and if they have POCD at both hospital discharge and 3 months postoperatively, are nearly 5 times more likely to die 1 year later [2,3]. (sapub.org)
  • 60 year of age at hospital discharge and 10-13% of patients 3 months after surgery [4]. (sapub.org)
  • We verified the specificity of two commercially available antibodies against APOL1 using multiple approaches (Supplementary Figures 1, 2, and 3) and examined formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human kidney sections without renal pathology to determine the normal cellular distribution of APOL1 in renal parenchyma. (asnjournals.org)
  • The Hg gene has two alleles (Hg 1 and Hg 2), resulting in 3 possible genotypes: Hg 1-1 (low risk), Hg 1-2 (intermediate risk) and Hg 2-2 (high risk). (baledoneen.com)
  • PM 1 was highly correlated to particle number (mean 97,701 pt cm −3 , SD 82,537) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA, mean 270 cm 2 cm −3 , SD 229). (aimspress.com)
  • Mahley RW, Huang Y, Rall SC Jr. Pathogenesis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia). (medscape.com)
  • For treating too much fat in the blood (hyperlipoproteinemia): 300 mg of pantethine 3 to 4 times daily. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia? (cardiovasculardna.com)
  • Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found predominantly in marine fish and algae. (jneurosci.org)
  • Methods: 484 men aged 65-75 years, at high CV-risk, were included and randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to 36-month intervention with dietary counselling, n-3 PUFA supplementation, or both. (researchgate.net)
  • N-3 PUFA supplementation was placebo-controlled. (researchgate.net)
  • Results: There were no significant differences in changes of either LBP or sCD14 in the intervention groups compared to their respective controls (n-3 PUFA vs. placebo: p = 0.58, p = 0.15, diet vs. no-diet: p = 0.53, p = 0.59, respectively). (researchgate.net)
  • However, neither n-3 PUFA nor diet intervention had an effect on these markers. (researchgate.net)
  • The Canadian First Nations population has poorer overall health than does the general Canadian population (1), specifically in terms of chronic diseases, chronic disease risk factors (2), and injuries and accidents (3). (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is linked to defects in the gene for apolipoprotein E. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease that occurs primarily in older individuals, 55 to 75 years of age, with a median survival of approximately 3 years from time of diagnosis. (centerwatch.com)
  • As a result, strategies to inhibit apoC-III may present a viable strategy to lower disease-causing elevated TG levels. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • To examine the relation between apolipoprotein E status and risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a defined population and estimate the fraction of incident AD attributable to the ε allele. (elsevier.com)
  • The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is an important genetic risk factor for AD but accounts for a fairly small fraction of disease occurrence in this population-based study. (elsevier.com)
  • With five different types of Hepatitis from A to E, the most common types of viral Hepatitis are A, B and C. These three viruses affect millions of people worldwide, causing both short-term illnesses and long-term liver disease. (randox.com)
  • 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are used for treatment of various autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases ( 1 ), such as rheumatoid arthritis ( 2 ), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ( 3 , 4 ), as well as after kidney transplantations ( 5 ) or in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It also provides the first detailed, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative maps of cortical gray matter and whole brain changes over time in any disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • As much as 70% of sufferers 65 years or old expire of their disease within a calendar year of medical diagnosis (3). (desestressarte.com)
  • But some studies suggest that apolipoprotein A test results are a good measure of your heart disease risk. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The accuracy of your heart disease risk is better when both apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B levels are measured and looked at together. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-V gene therapy for disease prevention / treatment: a critical analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • People with Apo E 2/2 or 2/3 genotypes, which occur in 11% of the population, have the lowest risk for heart disease and do best with a diet containing 30% to 35% fat from heart-healthy sources, such as Omega-3 rich oily fish, nuts and olive oil. (baledoneen.com)
  • About 25% of people have the Apo E 3/4 or 4/4 genotypes, which are linked to the highest risk for heart disease. (baledoneen.com)
  • Human genomics 2017 Mar 11 (1): 3. (cdc.gov)
  • An isoform of apolipoprotein E, whose gene maps in this region, is more frequent in AD. (neurology.org)
  • In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial individuals identified as having a high risk of type 2 diabetes (non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or positive diabetes risk score) are randomised into one of three groups and given 4 doses of either placebo, or 100,000 IU Vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) or 100,000 IU Vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) at monthly intervals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, mid range and high level Mouse ApoB100 were tested on 3 different plates, 20 replicates in each plate. (elabscience.com)
  • When a second cigarette was smoked on the way back, PM 10 concentrations rose again to 300 μg m −3 . (aimspress.com)