A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.

Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (1/189)

New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction.  (+info)

A thymidine to cytosine substitution for codon 26 of exon 3 of apolipoprotein C-II gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (2/189)

A 52-year-old Japanese woman was evaluated for severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis. This hypertriglyceridemia was found to be due to the absence of serum apolipoprotein C-II (apo C-II) which was identified by Western blotting using polyclonal anti-apo C-II antiserum. DNA sequence analysis of the apo C-II gene from the patient revealed a homozygous nucleotide change: a thymidine (T) to cytosine (C) substitution in codon 26 (TGG->CGG) at the third exon of the apo C-II gene, that resulted in a Trp26 to Arg substitution. The mutation was also confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the restriction enzyme Hpa II. The same mutation has been found in a case previously reported in Japan, and was named apo C-II Wakayama. However, the case in Wakayama prefecture showed two concomitant point mutations at the 5'-flanking region upstream from the first exon, which were not identified in our case by RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme BstXI. Considering that the prefectures of these two cases, Nara and Wakayama, are next to each other, the mutation in our case may be a genetic forebear of apo C-II Wakayama. However, no familial relationship between the two cases has been documented.  (+info)

Protective effect of apolipoprotein A I, A II, C I and C II on endothelial cells injury induced by low density lipoprotein. (3/189)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of apo-lipoprotein (apo) A I, A II, C I and C II, the main proteins in high density lipoprotein (HDL), on the morphology and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells injured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. METHODS: Cultured human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins were exposed to LDL, HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II. The morphology of endothelial cells was examined with phase contrast and transmission electron microscope. The released amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) was also measured. RESULTS: Endothelial cells after being injured by LDL showed cell contraction, increased release of LDH and decreased secrection of prostacyclin (PGI2). However, the addition of HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II before incubation with LDL inhibited the cellular injury induced by LDL as demonstrated by lowered LDH release, increased level of PGF1 alpha and prevention of morphological changes. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that apoA I, A II, C I and C II, as well as HDL, may play an important role in combating atherogenesis by protecting endothelial cells from damages induced by LDL.  (+info)

Fibrinolytic factors, serum lipid and C-reactive protein predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with coronary atherosclerotic lesions. (4/189)

Although disturbances of the fibrinolytic system and serum lipid, and the presence of inflammation, may be risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), few reports have investigated these relationships in Japanese patients. Data on 106 patients (79 men and 27 women, mean age 62.3 years) with atherosclerotic lesions on the coronary angiogram were evaluated prospectively to identify whether the factors were useful in predicting the risk of coronary events during a follow-up of 50+/-4 months. Of the 106 patients who were followed, 11 patients had coronary events (4 acute myocardial infarction and 7 unstable angina pectoris). In univariate Cox analyses, a high level of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA), apolipoprotein CII, C-reactive protein (CRP), and a low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was each associated with a significant increase in the risk of future cardiac events. The stepwise model of Cox proportional hazards analysis selected only a high level of t-PA and CRP as predictors of cardiac events. Controlling for any risk factor did not lower the relation between t-PA and the risk of cardiac events, whereas the relative risk of cardiac events in CRP was not significant when controlled for HDL-C. Thus, in prospective data obtained from a cohort of Japanese patients with coronary atherosclerotic lesions, the elevation of t-PA was an independent predictor of subsequent cardiac events. The prognostic role of CRP in cardiac events was related to a low level of HDL-C.  (+info)

Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (5/189)

We have studied the three-dimensional structure of a biologically active peptide of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) in the presence of lipid mimetics by CD and NMR spectroscopy. This peptide, corresponding to residues 44-79 of apoC-II, has been shown to reverse the symptoms of genetic apoC-II deficiency in a human subject. A comparison of alpha-proton secondary shifts and CD spectroscopic data indicates that the structure of apoC-II(44-79) is similar in the presence of dodecylphosphocholine and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The three-dimensional structure of apoC-II(44-79) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, determined by relaxation matrix calculations, contains two amphipathic helical domains formed by residues 50-58 and 67-75, separated by a non-helical linker centered at Tyr63. The C-terminal helix is terminated by a loop formed by residues 76-79. The C-terminal helix is better defined and has a larger hydrophobic face than the N-terminal helix, which leads us to propose that the C-terminal helix together with the non-helical Ile66 constitute the primary lipid binding domain of apoC-II(44-79). Based on our structure we suggest a new mechanism of lipoprotein lipase activation in which both helices of apoC-II(44-79) remain lipid bound, while the seven-residue interhelical linker extends away from the lipid surface in order to project Tyr63 into the apoC-II binding site of lipoprotein lipase.  (+info)

In addition to the high-density lipoprotein fraction, apolipoprotein C-III is detected in chylomicrons and the very low-density lipoprotein fraction from serum of normolipidemic cows. (6/189)

Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a low-molecular-mass protein that is involved in the regulation of the triglyceride metabolism. Except for the hyperlipidemic calf, cattle apoC-III is mainly detected in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, and the distribution in chylomicrons (CM) and the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction has not yet been clarified. The purpose of the present study was to detect apoC-III in concentrated CM and VLDL fractions to examine whether apoC-III is distributed in the two fractions even in normolipidemic cattle. ApoC-III could be detected by immunoblot analysis in both concentrated cow CM and VLDL fractions, but not in the corresponding calf fractions. These results suggest that apoC-III is distributed in the CM and VLDL fractions, at least in cows, although the concentrations in these fractions are considerably lower than in the HDL fraction.  (+info)

Expression of the apolipoprotein C-II gene during myelomonocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells. (7/189)

Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), which is known to activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL), was identified by ordered differential display (ODD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a cDNA fragment exhibiting a distinct increase in expression during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation of promonocytic U937 cells into monocytes and macrophages. The amount of apoC-II mRNA expression detectable in U937 cells significantly increased and reached a maximum 24-48 h after treatment with 32 nM TPA. apoC-II mRNA was also detected in monocytic THP-1 cells but was not detected in promyelocytic HL-60 cells. In healthy human tissues, the most significant expression of apoC-II mRNA was in the liver. Although apoC-II mRNA expression was markedly up-regulated during the induced differentiation of HL-60 cells into monocytes and macrophages with 32 nM TPA, such expression was not induced during the differentiation of HL-60 cells into granulocytes with 1.25% dimethyl sulfoxide. These results suggest that human apoC-II expression is induced at the transcription level during myelomonocytic differentiation and may confer an important role to macrophages involved in normal lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Sub-micellar phospholipid accelerates amyloid formation by apolipoprotein C-II. (8/189)

Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms amyloid fibrils with characteristic beta-structure. This conformation is distinct from the alpha-helical fold of lipid-bound apoC-II. We have investigated the effect of the short-chain phospholipid, dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) on amyloid formation by apoC-II. The alpha-helical content of apoC-II increases in the presence of micellar DHPC (16 mM) and amyloid formation is inhibited. However, at sub-micellar DHPC concentrations (below 8 mM) amyloid formation is accelerated 6 fold. These results suggest that individual phospholipid molecules in vivo may exert significant effects on amyloid folding pathways.  (+info)

The self-assembly of specific proteins to form insoluble amyloid fibrils is a characteristic feature of a number of age-related and debilitating diseases. Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that accumulate in amyloid deposits located within atherosclerotic plaques. X-ray diffraction analysis of aligned apoC-II fibrils indicated a simple cross-beta-structure composed of two parallel beta-sheets. Examination of apoC-II fibrils using transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the fibrils are flat ribbons composed of one apoC-II molecule per 4.7-A rise of the cross-beta-structure. Cross-linking results using single-cysteine substitution mutants are consistent with a parallel in-register structural model for apoC-II fibrils. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of apoC-II fibrils labeled with specific fluorophores provided ...
Amyloid fibrils have historically been characterized by diagnostic dye-binding assays, their fibrillar morphology, and a cross-beta x-ray diffraction pattern. Whereas the latter demonstrates that amyloid fibrils have a common beta-sheet core structure, they display a substantial degree of morphological variation. One striking example is the remarkable ability of human apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils to circularize and form closed rings. Here we explore in detail the structure of apoC-II amyloid fibrils using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction studies. Our results suggest a model for apoC-II fibrils as ribbons approximately 2.1-nm thick and 13-nm wide with a helical repeat distance of 53 nm +/- 12 nm. We propose that the ribbons are highly flexible with a persistence length of 36 nm. We use these observed biophysical properties to model the apoC-II amyloid fibrils either as wormlike chains or using a random-walk approach, and confirm that the probability of ring
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Action of Lipoprotein Lipase on Phospholipid Monolayers. Activation by Apolipoprotein C-II. AU - Vainio, Petri. AU - Virtanen, Jorma A.. AU - Kinnunen, Paavo K.J.. AU - Voyta, John C.. AU - Smith, Louis C.. AU - Gotto, Antonio. AU - Sparrow, James T.. AU - Pattus, Franc. AU - Verger, Robert. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. N2 - Action of lipoprotein lipase and its activation by apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) were studied with monomolecular films of 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol as a substrate. The enzyme velocity and the specific activity of the interface-bound enzyme show a bell-shaped curve as a function of lipid packing, both in the presence and absence of apoC-II. Above critical surface pressure of 20 dyn cm-1, lipoprotein lipase alone is no longer able to hydrolyze a monolayer of 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol. However, lipoprotein lipase readily penetrates into the phospholipid interface up to surface pressures exceeding 40 dyn cm-1, without any ...
Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from saccular stage (A, B, H, GD 19.5; C, G, PN 0; I
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Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation Maybe youve been eating fast food more often than you should, or youre not getting your recommended two-and-a-half hours of exercise each week. Or, it could be that you smoke, or your blood pressure is too high. Well, for whatever reason, you may be concerned about your risk of getting heart disease. Well, a few tests can help you learn that risk, so you can start making healthy lifestyle changes to reduce it. A coronary risk profile is a group of blood tests that measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Why is it important to know these levels? Because if you have too much of these substances in your blood from eating foods like burgers and French fries, they can clog your arteries. Eventually your arteries can become so clogged that youll have a heart attack or stroke. Men should have their cholesterol tested by the time theyre 35. Women should have it checked by age 45. If you have a condition like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein CII antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication and 2 independent reviews…
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Collagen II antibody [CIIC1] (collagen, type II, alpha 1) for IA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, Functional Assay. Anti-Collagen II mAb (GTX54398) is tested in Mouse, Chicken, Rat, Baboon, Horse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in capillaries,[5] which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia type IB, characterized by xanthomas, pancreatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly, but no increased risk for atherosclerosis. Lab tests will show elevated blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and chylomicrons[6] ...
Looking for online definition of ApoC-II in the Medical Dictionary? ApoC-II explanation free. What is ApoC-II? Meaning of ApoC-II medical term. What does ApoC-II mean?
The Apo E genotype of 86 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 77 age matched controls was determined by digestion of Apo E PCR products with the restriction enzyme CfoI. The frequency of the e4 allele was significantly increased in the patient group (0.33) as compared with controls (0.12). This effect was seen in patients with a family history and in sporadic cases. The odds ratio in homozygotes for the e4 allele was 11.24 (95% confidence interval 2.45-51.50). There was no relationship between age of onset and Apo E genotype. There was no linkage disequilibrium between the apolipoprotein E locus and a TaqI polymorphism at the Apo CII locus, and no allelic association between Apo CII and AD.. ...
Get an answer for For how long can a C-II drug prescription be filled after it is prescribed?I want to know the time period controlled drugs can filled in the pharmacy after it has been prescribed. and find homework help for other Health questions at eNotes
Good morning! CIIC is pleased to announce the publication of its latest inspection report, on the re-inspection of Toledo Correctional Institution (TOCI). The TOCI inspection and subsequent report was one of the most concerning of the biennium, but I am very pleased to say that TOCI has made an extraordinary transformation in the past year. In the 2013 inspection, a number of concerns were raised regarding a high number of inmate deaths, healthcare services, security, management of the maximum security inmate population, and others. Following the CIIC inspection report (and the DRCs internal concerns), the DRC made large changes in the institution, including shifts in administrative personnel, decreasing the inmate population, increasing staff, consulting outside experts, and essentially conducting a top-to-bottom review. The positive results were immediately apparent. TOCI has improved in almost every area.. The institution is overall safer, with a perceptibly more secure environment. ...
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Both active and passive connectivity associated with significant improvement in patient-reported perceptions of overall health, disease outlook and emotional well-being
and the therapeutic and commercial potential of WAYLIVRA and other products in development. Any statement describing Ionis or Akceas goals, expectations, financial or other projections, intentions or beliefs, including the commercial potential of TEGSEDI, WAYLIVRA or other of Ionis or Akceas drugs in development is a forward-looking statement and should be considered an at-risk statement. Such statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, particularly those inherent in the process of discovering, developing and commercializing drugs that are safe and effective for use as human therapeutics, and in the endeavor of building a business around such drugs. Ionis and Akceas forward-looking statements also involve assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove correct, could cause its results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Although Ionis and Akceas forward-looking statements reflect the good faith judgment of its ...
RAPOSO, HELENA F.... Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates. NUTRITION & METABOLISM 12 n. p. DEC 23 2015. Journal article.
C H Bolton, A P Corfield, L G Downs; Sialidase Activity Acting on Apolipoprotein CIII 1 and 2 in Human Leukocytes and Platelets. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 15P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067015P. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Implication of substrate-assisted catalysis on improving lipase activity or enantioselectivity in organic solvents. AU - Tsai, Shau Wei. AU - Chen, Chun Chi. AU - Yang, Hung Shien. AU - Ng, I. Son. AU - Chen, Teh Liang. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - In comparison with the biocatalyst engineering and medium engineering approaches, very few examples have been reported on using the substrate engineering approach such as substrate-assisted catalysis (SAC) for naturally occurring or engineered lipases and serine proteases to improve the enzyme activity and enantioselectivity. By employing lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of (R,S)-naproxen esters in water-saturated isooctane as the model system, we demonstrate the proton shuttle device to the leaving alcohol of the substrate as a new means of SAC to effectively improve the lipase activity or enantioselectivity. The result cannot only provide a strong evidence for the rate-limiting proton transfer for the bond-breaking of tetrahedron ...
Generation 2+ LICA antisense drug. AKCEA-APOCIII-LRx is a Generation 2+ ligand-conjugated antisense (LICA) drug designed to inhibit the production of apoC-III, for patients who are at risk of disease due to elevated triglyceride levels. ApoC-III is a protein produced in the liver that regulates triglyceride metabolism in the blood. People with severely elevated triglycerides, such as people with familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), are at high risk for acute pancreatitis and other serious conditions. ApoC-III is also the target of WAYLIVRA, the first approved medicine for patients with FCS.. About familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS). FCS is a rare, genetic disease characterized by extremely elevated triglyceride levels that is estimated to affect 3,000 to 5,000 people worldwide. People with FCS are at high risk of unpredictable and potentially fatal acute pancreatitis. In addition to pancreatitis, FCS patients are at risk of chronic complications due to permanent organ damage, including ...
A2A Integrated Logistics is a Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB), Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) and Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) innovative company structured to support a wide variety of Department of Defense (DoD) and commercial construction projects ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein CIII antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, sELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen…
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a serious disease that prevents the body from breaking down fats.. Eating even a little fat can make someone with FCS ill, and the condition causes chronic symptoms and can lead to potentially fatal pancreatitis. FCS is a genetic disorder passed down from parents. Because it is rare, many healthcare providers have never heard of FCS or may not know how to diagnose it.. Lipoprotein lipase is a digestive enzyme that helps the body break down structures called chylomicrons. People who have FCS have a problem with lipoprotein lipase: it is either missing or broken. Chylomicrons carry triglycerides (a type of fat) to where they are needed in the body for energy. A buildup of these particles causes an increase in triglycerides levels.. Patients with FCS have extremely high levels of triglycerides. Normal triglyceride levels fall below 150 mg/dL. For people with FCS, triglyceride levels can exceed 1,000 mg/dL, even after medication and/or a low-fat diet are ...
Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major...
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Over three billion are at risk of dengue infection with more than 100 million a year presenting with symptoms that can lead to deadly haemorrhagic disease. There are however no treatments available and the only licensed vaccine shows limited efficacy and is able to enhance the disease in some cases. These failures have mainly been due to the complex pathology and lack of understanding of the correlates of protection for dengue virus (DENV) infection. With increasing data suggesting both a protective and detrimental effect for antibodies and CD8 T-cells whilst having complex environmental dynamics. This review discusses the roles of genomic and immunological aspects of DENV infection, providing both a historical interpretation and fresh discussion on how this information can be used for the next generation of dengue interventions.
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Save money on your ACTIQ® oral transmucosal lozenge [C-II] prescription by switching to Tevas FDA-approved generic version, Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate (OTFC) Lozenges CII
25I-NBOH (NBOH-2CI, Cimbi-27) je fenetilaminski halucinogen. On deluje kao potentan agonist 5HT2A receptora,[1][2] sa Ki od 0,061 nM na ljudskom 5HT2A receptoru, te je dvanaest puta potentniji od liganda 2C-I. In vitro testovi su pokazali da ovo jedinjenje deluje kao agonist, ali rezultati životinjskih studija nisu objavljeni. Dok su N-benzilni derivati 2C-I liganda znatno povećavali potentnost, N-benzil derivati 2,5-dimetoksi-4-jodoamfetamina su neaktivni.[3] ...
WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
WELCOME to the 103rd Season of the TOK-cok, SING-song, FOOD-Loving, BBB-spreading & Cat-Loving thread! Earlier threads - EXPOSE yourself - I EXPOSE yourself - II EXPOSE yourself - III EXPOSE yourself - IV EXPOSE yourself - V EXPOSE yourself - VI
PERFECT TIMING - CAR WASH - WHEN IS THE MOST PERFECT TIME TO WASH YOUR CAR? UNDER THE RAIN? HAHAHA. WHY USE A HOSE TO CLEAN IF YOU CAN CLEAN WITH RAINWATER? THIS GUY IS FUNNY. MORE FU... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of biologically active apolipoproteins by chromatofocussing. AU - McLeod, Roger. AU - Lacko, Andras G.. AU - Pritchard, P. Haydn. AU - Frohlich, Jiri. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Chromatofocussing has been used to isolate homogeneous apolipoproteins (apo) from human very-low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins with protein recovery of 70%. The inclusion of sulfhydryl-reducing agent (dithiothreitol) was required during solubilization of the lipoproteins (following delipidation) to achieve reproducible elution profiles. Removal of polyvalent buffers from apoproteins was rapidly accomplished on small columns of hydroxylapatite. The biological activity of purified apo AI and apo CII was confirmed by assessment of their ability to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase or lipoprotein lipase, respectively. Functional properties of isolated apo E were assessed by in vitro interaction with the low-density lipoprotein receptor expressed by ...
Buy apolipoproteinc ii antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Monoclonal antibodies are available to most protein immunogens.
no scale, but i want to dose between 20-25mg. i used to eyeball 2c-t-7 doses by dividing the 100mg of powder into ~equal piles...suggestions? (feel free to suggest anything regarding 2c-i...doesnt
Going green isnt possible without integrated systems and efficient design, and it has just gotten easier. Under a program recently developed by the U.S ...
The objective of the present study was to determine whether information about a biometrically inferred single gene with large effects on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport is useful in predicting the probability of having hypertension. We used multivariate logistic regression to model the relationship between the probability of having hypertension and predictor traits in a sample of 382 unrelated adult women and 347 unrelated adult men from Rochester, Minn. First, we identified a set of demographic, biochemical, and physiological predictors. Second, we analyzed whether the relationship between the probability of having hypertension and the identified predictor traits was heterogeneous between the biometrically inferred single locus genotypes with large effects on sodium-lithium countertransport level. Third, if there was no heterogeneity, we assessed whether sodium-lithium countertransport genotypes made an additional contribution to predicting the probability of having hypertension ...
Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an independent risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we investigated the associations among plasma apoCIII, hs-CRP and TNF-α levels and their roles in the clinical features of CHD in the Li and Han ethnic groups in China. A cohort of 474 participants was recruited (238 atherosclerotic patients and 236 healthy controls) from the Li and Han ethnic groups. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP and lipid profiles. Chi-squared, t-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests and multiple unconditional logistic regression were employed to analyze lipid profiles and variations in plasma apoCIII, TNF-α, hs-CRP in subgroups of CHD and their contributions to CHD using SPSS version 20.0 software. Compared to healthy participants, unfavorable lipid profiles were identified in CHD patients with enhanced systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, TC, LDL-C, apoB, Lp
OSAKA, Japan and FLORHAM PARK, N.J. and STAMFORD, Conn., March 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - Shionogi Inc. and Purdue Pharma L.P. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Symproic® (naldemedine) 0.2 mg tablets C-II as a…. .rlw-block ul{ list-style: none !important; margin-left: 0 !important; padding-left: 0 !important; } .rlw-block .rlw-li { list-style-type: none; } .rlw-block a { display: inline !important; text-decoration: none; font-weight: normal; } .rlw-block h4 { background: none !important; } .rlw-block .rlw-thumb { border: 1px solid #eee !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 2px 10px 2px 0; padding: 3px !important; width: 100%; height: 150px; object-fit: cover; } .rlw-summary { font-size: 12px; } .rlw-time { color: #bbb; font-size: 11px; } .rlw-comment { color: #bbb; font-size: 11px; padding-left: 5px; } .rlw-alignleft { display: inline; float: left; } .rlw-alignright { display: inline; float: right; } .rlw-aligncenter { display: block; ...
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ApoC-II was the only apolipoprotein from human very low density lipoprotein that activated rat adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase. Activation was blocked by antiserum against apoC-II. Addition of increasing amounts of activator did not alter the apparent Km of lipoprotein lipase (0.32 mM triolein), but it did produce a progressive increase in the apparent Vmax from 0.8 to 2.2 µmoles free fatty acid/mg hour-1. Substrate concentrations above 1.27 mM triolein diminished activation by 0.25-5.0 µg/ml of apoC-II as much as 20%. Reversal of this apparent substrate inhibition was achieved by increasing the activator concentration to 50.0 µg/ml. Each of five nonactivating apolipoproteins-apoC-I, C-III-1, C-III-2, A-I, and A-II-inhibited lipoprotein lipase up to 85-100%. ApoC-II also produced less inhibition under appropriate conditions. Inhibition was dependent on apoprotein concentration, inversely related to substrate triglyceride concentration, and unobserved with nonlipoprotein proteins. The ...
Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E and compare these results with recently developed computer methods for analysis of the location and properties of amphipathic helixes. This comparison suggests that there are at least three distinct classes of amphipathic helixes (classes A, Y, and G*) in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison further suggests that lipid affinity resides largely in class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., et al. 1990. Proteins. 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid affinities from high to low. The positions of the four a ...
A 39-year-old man with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency (height 177.7 cm, body weight 67 kg, and body mass index 21.2 kg/m,sup,2,/sup,) showed severe hypertriglyceridemia (2, 032 mg/dl). LPL activity and concentration were markedly low in postheparin plasma. LPL gene analysis revealed a homozygous mutation, Asp204 → Glu in exon 5. Fasting plasma glucose (81 mg/dl) and insulin (2.7 (μU/ml) levels were normal. Plasma glucose pattern during oral glucose (75 g) tolerance test was normal, however 30 minutes after glucose-loading the insulin secretion unexpectedly increased to 89.4 μU/ml. These data suggested that chylomicronemia might be related to a hyper-response of insulin secretion to glucose without obesity.,br,(Internal Medicine 41: 300-303, 2002). ...
Tsao YK, Wei CF, Robberson DL, Gotto AM, Chan L (Dec 1985). Isolation and characterization of the human apolipoprotein A-II gene. Electron microscopic analysis of RNA:DNA hybrids, nucleotide sequence, identification of a polymorphic MspI site, and general structural organization of apolipoprotein genes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (28): 15222-31. PMID 2415515 ...
So heres the deal, theres this great, little-known enzyme, called lipoprotein lipase, that we all have. The awesome thing about this enzyme is that it helps the body process and burn fat. Yes I know - lipoprotein lipase just became your best friend! But heres the catch, similar to many other enzymes, lipoprotein lipase is only generated when muscles are being used and active. Research done on lab rats shows that lipoprotein lipase was only produced in leg muscles when the rats were active, standing, or scurrying around. Therefore, if you want to get these enzymes to work, you need to get in motion and burn some energy. Besides, living a sedentary life is not good for your physical and mental health. Spending most of your time sitting around and being inactive can lead to a series of health problems like weight gain, diabetes, heart disease, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and even cancer!. The key to get lipoprotein lipase to work is to spend as little time as possible inert. If you do ...
ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant
Apolipoprotein F山羊多克隆抗体(ab81908)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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View Ldlr/Ldlr Tg(APOC3)3707Bres/? involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J * CBA/J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Retinyl esters (present in meats) and beta-carotene (present in plants) are the two main sources of retinoids in the diet. ... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ... In the event that two species names have identical designations, they are discriminated from one another by adding one or more ... share only one or two of these. Proteins known to belong to this family include alpha-1-microglobulin (protein HC); major ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Upon reelin binding, Dab1 is phosphorylated by two tyrosine kinases, Fyn and Src. The phosphorylated Dab1 then causes further ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. >sp,Q9BQE5,1-337 ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene, but only one of them has been fully ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ...
However, the two models do not have the same meaning and can be falsified based on data (that is, if observational data show an ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ... Where two models match on all relevant variables and data from one model is known to be unbiased, data from one population can ... The two effects have a common cause. There exists a (non-causal) spurious correlation between A and C that can be eliminated by ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... two mechanisms for repression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (1): 187-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.1.187-195.2000. PMC 85074. ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 indicate the presence of two isoforms in human ...
... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2; 602600), are also required. Both receptors bound Dab1 on their cytoplasmic tails and ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ... 19 (2): 239-49. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80936-8. PMID 9292716. S2CID 1273677. Long H, Bock HH, Lei T, Chai X, Yuan J, Herz J ... 47 (2): 165-74. doi:10.1002/gcc.20519. PMID 18008369. S2CID 24674687. Deguchi K, Inoue K, Avila WE, et al. (2003). "Reelin and ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(79)92068-3. Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ...
Endogenous inducers include i) lipids such as lipoxin and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; and ii) peptides such as adrenomedullin and ... apolipoprotein; and iii) hemin. NRF2 inducers with downstream HO-1 induction include: genistein, 3-hydroxycoumarin, oleanolic ... HO-2 is encoded by the HMOX2 gene. HO-2 is 36 kDa and shares 47% similarity with the HO-1 amino acid sequence. A third heme ... 273 (2): 837-841. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.2.837. PMID 9422739. Maharshak N, Ryu HS, Fan TJ, Onyiah JC, Schulz S, Otterbein SL, Wong ...
Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... "Farnesoid X receptor agonists suppress hepatic apolipoprotein CIII expression". Gastroenterology. 125 (2): 544-55. doi:10.1016/ ... Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... 290 (1-2): 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00557-7. PMID 12062799. Pineda Torra I, Claudel T, Duval C, Kosykh V, Fruchart JC, ...
Dance GS, Sowden MP, Cartegni L, Cooper E, Krainer AR, Smith HC (2002). "Two proteins essential for apolipoprotein B mRNA ... Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 also known as C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1 is a protein that in ... Like all APOBEC proteins, A1 coordinates a zinc atom with two cysteine and one histidine residues that serve as a Lewis acid. ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (April 2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec ...
Two transcription initiation sites and two polyadenylation sites are identified in the gene structure. The reelin protein ... All members of this family are receptors for Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Therefore, they are often synonymously referred to as ' ... Moreover, the two main receptors of reelin are able to form clusters that most probably play a major role in the signaling, ... The two main reelin receptors seem to have slightly different roles: VLDLR conducts the stop signal, while ApoER2 is essential ...
Also, a specific isoform of apolipoprotein, APOE4, is a major genetic risk factor for AD. While apolipoproteins enhance the ... Two main measures are used in epidemiological studies: incidence and prevalence. Incidence is the number of new cases per unit ... Two other genes associated with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease are ABCA7 and SORL1. Most cases of Alzheimer's are not ... Nevertheless, two-thirds of nursing home residents have dementias. Dementia caregivers are subject to high rates of physical ...
Kim SY, Park SM, Lee ST (January 2006). "Apolipoprotein C-II is a novel substrate for matrix metalloproteinases". Biochem. ... Two molecules of ApoC-II can attach to each LPL dimer.> It is estimated that up to forty LPL dimers may act simultaneously on a ... In the Golgi apparatus, the oligosaccharides are further altered to result in either two complex chains, or two complex and one ... "Activation of lipoprotein lipase by native and synthetic fragments of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Dance GS, Sowden MP, Cartegni L, Cooper E, Krainer AR, Smith HC (April 2002). "Two proteins essential for apolipoprotein B mRNA ... Mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA undergoes site-specific C to U deamination, which is mediated by a multi-component enzyme ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (April 2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec-1 ...
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Apolipoprotein C-II Deficency - 207750 Yamamura T, Sudo H, Ishikawa K, Yamamoto A ( ... "Familial type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". Atherosclerosis. 34 (1): 53-65. doi:10.1016/ ... Hyperlipoproteinemia type II is further classified into types IIa and IIb, depending mainly on whether elevation in the ... The lipoprotein density and type of apolipoproteins it contains determines the fate of the particle and its influence on ...
Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, ... Gordon DA (1997). "Recent advances in elucidating the role of the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein in apolipoprotein B ... 1999). "A common binding site on the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein for apolipoprotein B and protein disulfide ... The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... Lackner KJ, Law SW, Brewer HB (Sep 1984). "Human apolipoprotein A-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapo A-II". FEBS ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ...
... to apolipoproteins A-I and A-II: location of a PLTP binding domain in the amino terminal region of apoA-I". J. Lipid Res. 39 (1 ... to apolipoproteins A-I and A-II: location of a PLTP binding domain in the amino terminal region of apoA-I". J. Lipid Res. 39 (1 ... At least two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. PLTP has been shown to interact ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two lipid transfer proteins found in human plasma. The encoded protein ...
August 1992). "Apolipoprotein AI mutation Arg-60 causes autosomal dominant amyloidosis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (16 ... with congenital mutations in apolipoprotein A1 and lysozyme. It is also known as "Ostertag" type, after B. Ostertag, who ... 118 (3): 321-2. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.10.022. PMID 15745733. Granel B, Valleix S, Serratrice J, et al. (January 2006). " ... 20 (2): 444-51. doi:10.1681/ASN.2008060614. PMC 2637055. PMID 19073821. Uemichi T, Liepnieks JJ, Gertz MA, Benson MD (September ...
... and involves apolipoprotein A1. "FAP-IV" is also known as "Finnish-type", and involves gelsolin. Fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1 ... "FAP-I" and "FAP-II" are associated with transthyretin. (Senile systemic amyloidosis [abbreviated "SSA"] is also associated with ... These proteins include: transthyretin (ATTR, the most commonly implicated protein), apolipoprotein A1, and gelsolin. Due to the ... July 1996). "Lattice corneal dystrophy type II associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy type IV". Ophthalmology. 103 (7 ...
HDL particles donate apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent VLDL particle. Once loaded with apolipoproteins C- ... resulting in HDL donation of apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent chylomicron. The chylomicron at this stage ... Apolipoprotein C-II activates LPL, causing hydrolysis of the VLDL particle and the release of glycerol and fatty acids. These ... Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme on endothelial cells lining the blood ...
At two years of age, the offspring are sexually mature and are abandoned by the mother. Order: Pholidota (Weber, 1904) ( ... Amrine-Madsen, H.; Koepfli, K.P.; Wayne, R.K.; Springer, M.S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides ... In 2020, two novel RNA viruses distantly related to pestiviruses and coltiviruses have been detected in the genomes of dead ... They are somewhat particular and tend to consume only one or two species of insects, even when many species are available to ...
"Entrez Gene: APOBEC3B apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B". Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Shirakawa, ... 2 (9): E275. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020275. PMC 479043. PMID 15269786. Yu Q, Chen D, König R, et al. (2005). "APOBEC3B and ...
When camels have only two toes present, the claws are transformed into nails. When camels have only two toes present, the claws ... and apolipoproteins. In 2001, the fossil limbs of a Pakicetus (amphibioid cetacean the size of a wolf) and Ichthyolestes (an ... Two major body types are known: Suinids and hippopotamuses are characterized by a stocky body, short legs, and a large head; ... The uterus has two horns (uterus bicornis). The number of mammary glands is variable and correlates, as in all mammals, with ...
"Entrez Gene: APOBEC2 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 2". Human APOBEC2 genome location and ... 1997). "Tissue-specific inhibition of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in the liver by adenovirus-mediated transfer of a dominant ... 1994). "Dimeric structure of a human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing protein and cloning and chromosomal localization of its gene ... Liao W, Hong SH, Chan BH, Rudolph FB, Clark SC, Chan L (Aug 1999). "APOBEC-2, a cardiac- and skeletal muscle-specific member of ...
33-43 Amrine-madsen, H.; Koepfli, K.P.; Wayne, R.K.; Springer, M.S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, ... split in two groups: order Oxyaenodonta on one side and order Hyaenodonta plus stem-relatives (Altacreodus and Tinerhodon) on ... "Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals". Nature. 409 (6820): 610-614. Bibcode:2001Natur.409.. ... 28 (2): 225-240. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00118-0. PMID 12878460. Halliday, Thomas J. D.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali ( ...
This condition is caused by a mutation in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), that serves as a ligand for the liver receptor for ... Primary hyperlipoproteinemia Apolipoprotein B deficiency List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; ... Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. James, William D.; Berger, ...
Amrine-madsen, H.; Koepfli, K.P.; Wayne, R.K.; Springer, M.S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides ... 28 (2): 225-240. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00118-0. PMID 12878460. Kenneth D. Rose (2008). "9 - Palaeanodonta and Pholidota". ... 2), 56-68. Prevosti, F. J., & Forasiepi, A. M. (2018). "Introduction. Evolution of South American Mammalian Predators During ...
2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... in the apolipoprotein E, C-I, and C-II gene locus". Genomics. 28 (2): 291-300. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1144. PMID 8530039.. ...
Aktivin i inhibin • ADAM • Alfa 1-antihimotripsin • Apolipoprotein H • CD70 • Asijaloglikoprotein • Avidin • B-ćelijski ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... CD201 • CD202b • CD204 • CD205 • CD206 • CD207 • CD208 • CD209 • CDw210 (a, b) • CD212 • CD213a (1, 2) • CD217 • CD218 (a, b) ... 2]. Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija, (BAFF) koji je takođe poznat kao faktor nekroze tumora ligand superfamilija član 13B, je ...
Munger KL, Chitnis T, Ascherio A. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology (Comparative Study). 2009, 73 ... 載脂蛋白B缺乏症(英语:Apolipoprotein B deficiency) ... 磷酸酯 · 三聚氰胺(美耐皿) · 酸酐 · 順丁烯二酸酐 · 順丁烯二酸 · 己二酸鹽(英语:Adipate)(己二酸二(2 ... 肥胖會增加心血管
... adjusted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on the ... two enzymes that are activated by SCAP when cholesterol levels are low. The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts ... By serving as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes, the apolipoproteins that reside on the surface of a given ... van der Steeg WA (2008). "High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoprotein A-I ...
These tests must be carried out on a minimum of two occasions at least 6 weeks apart and be positive on each occasion, ... This is tested for by using a minimum of two coagulation tests that are phospholipid-sensitive, due to the heterogeneous nature ... The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) and two antibody blood tests ... 316 (2): 142-51. doi:10.1097/00000441-199808000-00009. PMID 9704667.. *^ Chantarangkul V, Tripodi A, Arbini A, Mannucci PM ( ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ... 2 (72): 171-76. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(93)90155-6.. *^ a b c d e f g h i Repas TB, Tanner JR (February 2014). "Preventing early ... Having two abnormal copies (being homozygous) may cause severe cardiovascular disease in childhood. Heterozygous FH is a common ...
APOA4: apolipoprotein A-IV. *ATM: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (includes complementation groups A, C and D) ...
Sodium phenylbutyrate phase II human triasl with 12 to 15 g/day showed restored mRNA levels of Htt mutant repressed genes but ... and familial inheritance of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4. In addition to these common factors, there are a number of other ... Class I and II HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A, vorinostat, and sodium butyrate, and Class III HDACis, such as ... Sodium butyrate is a class I and II HDACi and has been shown to recover learning and memory after 4 weeks,[13] decrease ...
CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and glucuronidation.[1] Four major metabolites, two of which are active.[2][1]. ... a subgroup of individuals with the apolipoprotein E4 genotype showed sustained benefits with donepezil throughout the study.[34 ... 2015-01-01). "Donepezil improves gait performance in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease: a phase II clinical trial". ... 40 (2): 54-62. PMID 17514186.. *^ Jelic V, Kivipelto M, Winblad B (April 2006). "Clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment: ...
Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Table 6-2 in: Elizabeth D ... There are two speckled patterns: fine and coarse. The fine speckled pattern has fine nuclear staining with unstained metaphase ... doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-2-200401200-00013. PMID 14706971.. *^ a b c Ho, KT; Reveille, JD (2003). "The clinical relevance of ...
2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ... 57 (2): 283-92. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2009.08.001. PMC 3220186 . PMID 19692168. Lin JC, Kuo WR, Chiang FY, et al. (2009). " ... 36 (2): 405-14. doi:10.3892/ijo_00000513. PMID 20043075. Chung SS, Kim M, Youn BS, et al. (2009). "Glutathione peroxidase 3 ... 66 (2): 96-8. doi:10.1159/000133675. PMID 8287691. Guey LT, García-Closas M, Murta-Nascimento C, et al. (2010). "Genetic ...
It was recently shown that bacteria also have a sort of 5' cap consisting of a triphosphate on the 5' end.[24] Removal of two ... An example in humans is the apolipoprotein B mRNA, which is edited in some tissues, but not others. The editing creates an ... This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates ... 2 (10): 17056. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2017.56.. *^ a b Gousseinov, Elina; Kozlov, Mikhail; Scanlan, Claire; Hammons, Aaron; Bei ...
1997). „Signaling of type II oncostatin M receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (25): 15760-4. PMID 9188471. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.25. ... Aktivin i inhibin • ADAM • Alfa 1-antihimotripsin • Apolipoprotein H • CD70 • Asijaloglikoprotein • Avidin • B-ćelijski ... 2]. Glikoprotein 130 (takođe poznat kao gp130, IL6ST, IL6-beta ili CD130) je transmembranski protein. On je osnivački član ... CD201 • CD202b • CD204 • CD205 • CD206 • CD207 • CD208 • CD209 • CDw210 (a, b) • CD212 • CD213a (1, 2) • CD217 • CD218 (a, b ...
ApoA-II. structures of apolipoprotein a-ii and a lipid surrogate complex provide insights into apolipoprotein-lipid ... Lackner KJ, Law SW, Brewer HB (Sep 1984). "Human apolipoprotein A-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapo A-II". FEBS ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II".. *^ Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan ... Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene.[5] ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... Soluble in alcohols, (C2H5)2O, phenyls, haloalkanes, acetates[4] ...
APOE: Apolipoprotein E, gene associated with Alzheimer's disease. *BCKDHA: Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha ... at kumakatawan sa pagitan ng 2 at 2.5% ng kabuuang DNA sa selula. Ang pagtukoy sa mga gene sa bawat kromosoma ay isang aktibong ...
... two in pairs), two world titles, and the 1992 Olympic gold medal in singles figure skating. Rena Inoue, a Japanese immigrant to ... Specifically too, the apolipoprotein *e4 allele is linked to Alzheimer's disease as well. Also, there is increased coronary ... and was a multiple national champion and an Olympian with two different partners. Two-time Olympian Mirai Nagasu won the 2008 U ... "The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice", a National Park Service Teaching with ...
Apolipoproteins. *Growth factors. *Chemokines. The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier ... 2] The glycocalyx plays a major role in regulation of endothelial vascular tissue, including the modulation of red blood cell ...
"II. THE PROKARYOTIC CELL: BACTERIA". Retrieved 1 May 2011.. *^ a b c d e f g h White, D. (2007). The physiology and ... In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl ... Stage two occurs in the cytoplasmic membrane. It is in the membrane where a lipid carrier called bactoprenol carries ... The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating ...
In 2015 a randomized, two-period crossover human study, showed that EPA and DHA from oil extracted from the small crustacean ... and astaxanthin-rich extract from the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus attenuates atherogenesis in female apolipoprotein E- ... "Amer Zool (2). doi:10.1093/icb/38.2.321.. *^ Bledsoe, G.E. (2003). "Caviars and fish roe products". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 43 ... 2. O. {\displaystyle {\ce {RCOOH + R'OH ,=, RCOOR' + H2O}}}. Various types of wax esters exist. Some are saturated, and others ...
This region is called the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region, and is composed of two heavy chains that contribute two or ... The Ig monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of four polypeptide chains; two identical heavy chains and two identical ... They are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. There are ... Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an ...
... the doctor had collected thirty-two cases. Sixteen of them were born to women taking primidone. 25% of the thirty-two cases had ... and apolipoproteins A and B.[24] ... two adult survivors ingested 30 g[46] 25 g,[51] and 22.5 g.[47] ... or within two weeks of stopping any one of them may potentiate the effects of primidone or change one's seizure patterns.[54] ... 12 (2): 183-8. PMID 13403983.. *^ a b c Kidd, Patrick; David L. Mollin (October 26, 1957). "Megaloblastic Anaemia and Vitamin- ...
Two other naturally occurring 13-HODEs that may accompany the production of 13(S)-HODE are its cis-trans (i.e., 9E,11E) isomers ... "Lack of macrophage fatty-acid-binding protein aP2 protects mice deficient in apolipoprotein E against atherosclerosis". Nature ... Other studies have lumped together the 9-(S), 9(R), 13 (S)-, and 13(R)-HODEs along with the two ketone metabolites of these ... 18 (2): 349-56. doi:10.1021/tx049685x. PMID 15720142.. *^ a b c d Yoshida, Yasukazu; Umeno, Aya; Akazawa, Yoko; Shichiri, ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". American Journal of ... "Spred1 and TESK1--two new interaction partners of the kinase MARKK/TAO1 that link the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton" ... Lock P, I ST, Straffon AF, Schieb H, Hovens CM, Stylli SS (December 2006). "Spred-2 steady-state levels are regulated by ... 2 Frameshift (c.1048_c1049 delGG, c.149_1152del 4 bp)[9] ...
Nussenzveig DR, Mathew S, Gershengorn MC (1995). "Alternative splicing of a 48-nucleotide exon generates two isoforms of the ... Zhang, Jianying; Herscovitz Haya (February 2003). "Nascent lipidated apolipoprotein B is transported to the Golgi as an ... Linnik, K M; Herscovitz H (August 1998). "Multiple molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B during its maturation. ... The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ...
APOA4: Apolipoprotein A-IV. *Ataksijska telangiektazija,mutirana ATM (uključujući kkomplementacijske grupe A, C i D) ...
"Lack of macrophage fatty-acid-binding protein aP2 protects mice deficient in apolipoprotein E against atherosclerosis". Nat. ... 2: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-7. PMC 31346. PMID 11299043.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). ... FABP2‏ (Fatty acid binding protein 2) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين FABP2 في الإنسان.[1] ... 12 (2): 241-53. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90371-X. PMID 1740333.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). ...
apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding. • GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T, Figeys D ( ... 46 (2): 757-63. doi:10.3892/ijo.2014.2748. PMID 25394485.. *^ a b c d e Wilson JM, Menkhaus P, Gustin BW (May 1987). "Volume ... 2 (8): 531-9. doi:10.1038/35019573. PMID 10934474.. *^ a b Noda Y, Takeya R, Ohno S, Naito S, Ito T, Sumimoto H (February 2001 ...
The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed ... 37 (2): 49-52. PMID 1609267.. *^ Dobson, HM; Muir, MM; Hume, R (1984). "The effect of ascorbic acid on the seasonal variations ...
Literature: Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) (IPR006801). References used in this entry. The following publications were referred ... Structures of apolipoprotein A-II and a lipid-surrogate complex provide insights into apolipoprotein-lipid interactions.. Kumar ... Apolipoprotein A-II, HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis.. Tailleux A, Duriez P, Fruchart JC, Clavey V.. Atherosclerosis 164 1- ... Purification, primary structure, and antimicrobial activities of bovine apolipoprotein A-II.. Motizuki M, Itoh T, Yamada M, ...
1989). "A deletion mutation in the ApoC-II gene (ApoC-II Nijmegen) of a patient with a deficiency of apolipoprotein C-II". J. ... Apolipoprotein C-II or apolipoprotein C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II ... 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. ...
Anti-Apolipoprotein A II antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Apolipoprotein A II antibody (Biotin). See all Apolipoprotein A II primary antibodies. ... The antibody can be used for detection of human Apolipoprotein A II in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays and immunoblots. ... Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle. ...
Sheep polyclonal Apolipoprotein A II antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to full ... Anti-Apolipoprotein A II antibody. See all Apolipoprotein A II primary antibodies. ... Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. ...
Apolipoprotein A-II. Apolipoprotein A-II, Apo-AII, ApoA-II (Apolipoprotein A2) [Cleaved into: Proapolipoprotein A-II, ProapoA- ... Apolipoprotein A-IIARBA annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ... Apolipoprotein A-IISequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to sequence analysisi ... tr,V9GYS1,V9GYS1_HUMAN Apolipoprotein A-II OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=APOA2 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Absence of CC chemokine receptor-2 reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.. Dawson TC1, Kuziel WA, Osahar ...
Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ... ACTION - (A) Select for download / view details OR (B) Select two chains for comparison ... You can also use the structure comparison tool to compare any 2 given structures. ...
Tags: Randox Reagents, lipids, apolipoprotein, cardiac, Apo C-II, Apolipoprotein C-II, triglyceride, hypertriglyceridemia, ... Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II) Assay. Posted on 1st October 2020 at 9:00 am.. Written by Randox Communications ... Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ... A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Metabolism: Clinical and ...
Browse our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... anti-apolipoprotein A-II antibody, anti-Apolipoprotein A2 antibody. 6 Results for "apolipoprotein-a-ii-apoa2" in Primary ... Alternate Names for Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies. anti-Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 antibody, anti-APOA2 antibody, anti- ...
Browse our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alternate Names for Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies. anti-Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 antibody, anti-APOA2 antibody, anti- ... Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies. We offer Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ...
Y. Zhao, Z. Guo, X. Lin et al., "Apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoproteins induce foam cell formation by activation of PERK-EIF-2 ... J. A. Piedrahita, S. H. Zhang, J. R. Hagaman, P. M. Oliver, and N. Maeda, "Generation of mice carrying a mutant apolipoprotein ... A. H. Hasty, M. F. Linton, L. L. Swift, and S. Fazio, "Determination of the lower threshold of apolipoprotein E resulting in ... D. Wu, C. Sharan, H. Yang et al., "Apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoproteins induce foam cell formation by downregulation of ...
Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients. ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ... Lipoprotein(a), Apolipoprotein(a) Polymorphism, and Insulin Treatment in Type II Diabetic Patients ...
Compare apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely ... Human Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 2 (APOBEC2) ELISA Kit ... Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-Apolipoprotein C-II antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal Apolipoprotein C-II antibodies for many applications. ... More Antibodies against Apolipoprotein C-II Interaction Partners. Zebrafish Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) interaction partners ... Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for ...
Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Renal Function in German Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients. ... Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Renal Function in German Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients ... Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Renal Function in German Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients ... Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Renal Function in German Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients ...
Apolipoprotein A-II (A-II) did not increase with age in men (r = −0.20, n = 172), but showed a slight increase with age in ... To study apolipoprotein A-II, a simple, precise, and accurate immunodiffusion assay was developed and applied in a population ... The Measurement of Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II Levels in Men and Women by Immunoassay. ... The Measurement of Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II Levels in Men and Women by Immunoassay. ...
Genetic variation in the apolipoprotein H (beta2-glycoprotein I) gene affects plasma apolipoprotein H concentrations. Mehdi, H ... A hydrophobic sequence at position 313-316 (Leu-Ala-Phe-Trp) in the fifth domain of apolipoprotein H (beta2-glycoprotein I) is ... Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoproteins A-IV, E and H in Koreans. Kim, H.S., Kamboh, M.I. Hum. Hered. (1998) [Pubmed] ... Assignment of apolipoprotein H (APOH: beta-2-glycoprotein I) to human chromosome 17q23----qter; determination of the major ...
These two peptides were found to share 100% sequence homology with human hepatitis B virus X associated protein-1 (XAP-1) and ... Apolipoprotein B gene regulatory factor-2 (BRF-2) is structurally and immunologically highly related to hepatitis B virus X ... Hepatic cell-specific expression of the human apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene is controlled by at least four cis-acting elements ... 12, 3183-3191]. In this paper we report the isolation of two isoforms of BRF-2 by further purification using high-performance ...
RDN promoted atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice infused with angiotensin II associated with upregulation of MMP ... RDN decreased systolic blood pressure in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Mice that had RDN had more severe aortic arch ... RDN decreased systolic blood pressure in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Mice that had RDN had more severe aortic arch ... Methods: Hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm were induced by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (1 µg/kg/min ...
Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I. J Biol Chem 265:17805-17815. ... Two Distal Downstream Enhancers Direct Expression of the Human Apolipoprotein E Gene to Astrocytes in the Brain. Sharon Grehan ... 1995a) Identification and characterization of a new human gene (APOC4) in the apolipoprotein E, C-I, and C-II gene locus. ... Two distal downstream enhancers controlling astrocyte expression of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene in the brain were ...
Targeted mass spectrometric immunoassays toward apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III were applied on large cross-sectional and ... Several correlations were observed, including greater apolipoprotein A-I and A-II oxidation in patients with diabetes and ... Reviewed here are recent studies correlating apolipoproteins proteoforms with the specific clinical measures of lipid ... Apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes, and ligands for cell-surface ...
HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according ... HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according ... and apoE and the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with T2D risk. ... medicalxpress.com/news/2017-01-apolipoproteins-linked-incident-diabetes.html ...
VLDL and apolipoprotein CIII induce ER stress and inflammation and attenuate insulin signalling via Toll-like receptor 2 in ... Åvall K, Ali Y, Leibiger IB et al (2015) Apolipoprotein CIII links islet insulin resistance to β-cell failure in diabetes. Proc ... Hiukka A, Fruchart-Najib J, Leinonen E, Hilden H, Fruchart JC, Taskinen MR (2005) Alterations of lipids and apolipoprotein CIII ... Aalto-Setälä K, Fisher EA, Chen X et al (1992) Mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia in human apolipoprotein (apo) CIII transgenic ...
APOA2; apolipoprotein A-II; apoAII; Apo-AII; ApoA-II; apolipoprotein A2; cb1032; wu:fb57h11; zgc:193613; uncharacterized ... This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein ... Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. ...
Sialidase Activity Acting on Apolipoprotein CIII 1 and 2 in Human Leukocytes and Platelets C H Bolton C H Bolton ... C H Bolton, A P Corfield, L G Downs; Sialidase Activity Acting on Apolipoprotein CIII 1 and 2 in Human Leukocytes and Platelets ... Study of DNA polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in patients with peripheral arterial disease Clin Sci ... DDAH-2 alleviates contrast medium iopromide-induced acute kidney injury through nitric oxide synthase ...
2) was more effective in inhibiting lesions than mR18L, possibly due to its ability to promote the secretion of apoE from ... Two apolipoprotein E mimetic peptides with similar cholesterol reducing properties exhibit differential atheroprotective ... Objective: We investigated two apoE mimetic peptides with similar long-term plasma cholesterol reducing abilities for their ... Epub 2012 Nov 2. Authors Shaila P Handattu 1 , Gaurav Nayyar, David W Garber, Mayakonda N Palgunachari, Candyce E Monroe, ...
Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Khadija Ouguerram, Thierry ... Effect of atorvastatin on apolipoprotein B100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes ...
HDL-apo A-I and apo A-II. Cellular uptake of HDL-[3H]CE labeled with [125I]apo A-I or [125I]apo A-II was compared in CHO-K1 and ... Abstract 102: Profound Exclusion of Apolipoprotein A-II from Selective Hepatic Cholesteryl Ester Uptake. Baiba K Gillard, G. R ... Relative to CE, both apo A-I and apo A-II were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, relative to the apo A-I and apo A-II ... Abstract 102: Profound Exclusion of Apolipoprotein A-II from Selective Hepatic Cholesteryl Ester Uptake ...
angiotensin II. AoSMC. aortic smooth muscle cell. ApoE−/−. apolipoprotein E-deficient. AT1R. angiotensin II type 1 receptor. ... Approach and Results-AAA was induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via infusion of angiotensin II (1.0 μg/kg per minute SC ... Modulation of Kinin B2 Receptor Signaling Controls Aortic Dilatation and Rupture in the Angiotensin II-Infused Apolipoprotein E ... Osteoprotegerin deficiency limits angiotensin II-induced aortic dilatation and rupture in the apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse. ...
A-II HDL) and both apoA-I and apoA-II (A-I/A-II HDL). When lipid-free apoA-II was incubated with either VLDLs and lipoprotein ... Formation of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein particles from lipid-free apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Moira A. ... Formation of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein particles from lipid-free apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Biochem J ... When both lipid-free apoA-I and lipid-free apoA-II were incubated with LDL and sodium oleate, both apolipoproteins were ...
  • This study was designed to investigate whether RDN affects atherosclerosis severity in hypertensive ApoE −/− mice infused with angiotensin II. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two distal downstream enhancers controlling astrocyte expression of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene in the brain were identified by analysis of transgenic mice generated with various constructs of the apoE/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression of the human apoE transgene at these sites was specified by two enhancer domains: one enhancer is located 3.3 kb downstream of the apoE gene, and a duplication of this sequence is located 15 kb downstream of the apoE gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • The localization of the two astrocytic enhancers reveals an unexpected complexity in the control of apoE production that is essential to understanding apoE function in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a protein ( M r = 35,000) that functions in the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • They examined the correlation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE and the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with T2D risk. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We investigated two apoE mimetic peptides with similar long-term plasma cholesterol reducing abilities for their effects on atherosclerotic lesions in Western diet-fed female LDL-receptor (LDL-R) null mice. (nih.gov)
  • Incubation of HepG2 cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages with both peptides in the presence of oxidized phospholipid showed that Ac-hE18A-NH(2) promotes the secretion of apoE from the cells whereas mR18L does not. (nih.gov)
  • Despite similar reductions in plasma cholesterol levels, Ac-hE18A-NH(2) was more effective in inhibiting lesions than mR18L, possibly due to its ability to promote the secretion of apoE from hepatocytes and macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of T helper 2 responses against human Apolipoprotein B100 does not affect atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. (lu.se)
  • APOE genotypes and allele distribution were ascertained in a blinded manner from frozen samples (2% with ε 2/ε 2, 9% with ε 2/ε 3, 1% with ε 2/ε 4, 71% with ε 3/ε 3, 17% with ε 3/ε 4, and 1% with ε 4/ε 4). (acpjc.org)
  • Risk factors were age, observation interval, sex (men), and APOE ε 2/ε 2 and ε 2/ε 3 genotypes. (acpjc.org)
  • Only 19 of the 88 patients (22%) who developed Alzheimer disease, however, had APOE ε 4/ε 4 ( n = 2) or ε 3/ε 4 ( n = 17) genotypes. (acpjc.org)
  • Sex and APOE ε 2/ε 2 or ε 2/ε 3 genotype were not associated with Alzheimer disease. (acpjc.org)
  • APOE = apolipoprotein E. (acpjc.org)
  • PROJECT SUMMARY According to the most recent Alzheimer's Association report, 2015 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures, one out of nine Americans over the age of 65 has Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and an estimated 40-65% of them carry at least one copy of the ?4 allele of gene for a cholesterol transport protein, apolipoprotein E (ApoE). (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • In Aim 2, we will explore the protein interactome of these Apoer2 isoforms and probe how the various ApoE isoforms affect their trafficking and signaling, as well as their ability to regulate APP processing. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • We examined regulatory roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (KO) kidneys. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic ACE2 deletion resulted in modest elevations in systolic blood pressure levels and Ang II type 1 receptor expression and reduced nephrin expression in kidneys of the ApoE/ACE2 DKO mice with a decrease in renal Ang-(1-7) levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Renal dysfunction and ultrastructure injury were aggravated in the ApoE/ACE2 DKO mice and Ang II-infused ApoEKO mice with increased plasma levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and enhanced levels of Ang II in plasma and kidneys. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of fats in the body of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOE belongs to a family of fat-binding proteins called apolipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these allelic forms differ from each other by only one or two amino acids at positions 112 and 158, these differences alter APOE structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a secretory protein that plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis in the plasma ( Weisgraber, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Comparison of the APOE allele (E * 2, E * 3, and E * 4) frequencies estimated in this study with those reported for several other population samples showed that there are marked differences between the Dutch population and the populations of Japan, New Zealand, Finland, and the United States. (springer.com)
  • The hyperlipideamic apolipoprotein e-knockout (ApoE-/-) mouse is a well-established animal model system for studying the mechanisms of the atherosclerotic process. (pmiscience.com)
  • Hypertension was induced in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein-e-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice by application of angiotensin-II and the mice were exposed to mainstream smoke from the reference cigarette 2R4F (University of Kentucky) for 30 days. (pmiscience.com)
  • AAA formation was seen only in angiotensin-ii treated ApoE-/--mice. (pmiscience.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of repeated systemic inoculations with Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ), a putative periodontal pathogen, on the progression of atherosclerosis in heterozygous apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE +/− ) mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, O 2 − production was significantly reduced in GCH-Tg/ ApoE-KO mice measured both in aortic sections using oxidative confocal microtopography and in whole aorta by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE4) is the most important known genetic risk for AD and is prevalent in 20-25% of Canadians, but at present, knowing an individual's ApoE genotype does not help the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of AD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: The angiotensin II (AngII)-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mouse model is widely used to study atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. (edu.au)
  • The genotypic distribution of apoE was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in these two populations. (who.int)
  • Specific Aim : In the brain, apolipoprotein E(ApoE) is secreted from astrocytes and microglias, and plays important roles in lipid transportation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To address this question, in this study, we examine for the first time the renoprotective actions of alagebrium in diabetic RAGE apolipoprotein E ( apoE ) double-knockout (KO) mice, with a particular emphasis on glomerular fibrosis and inflammation, comparing its effects with those of the ACE inhibitor, quinapril. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An association between apolipoprotein E ( apoE ) gene polymorphism and temperament has been found in the Young Finns cohort. (scirp.org)
  • S. J. Tsai, Y. W. Yu and C. J. Hong, "Personality Traits in Young Female Apolipoprotein E (apoE) Epsilon4 and Non-Epsilon4 Carriers," American Journal of Medical Genetics. (scirp.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein component of plasma lipoproteins that mediates the binding, internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Three major isoforms of ApoE have been described in human (E2, E3 and E4) which differ by only one or two amino acids. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype is a major genetic determinant of LDL size. (longecity.org)
  • 66 apoE 3/3, 8 apoE 4/3, 10 apoE 3/2) were subjected to 3 dietary periods, each lasting 4 wk. (longecity.org)
  • 0.04) in subjects with the apoE 4/3 genotype compared with those with apoE 3/3 and apoE 3/2 in the basal state. (longecity.org)
  • The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 483 IS - 1 N2 - The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II or apolipoprotein C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apo C - II is a 79-amino acid protein synthesised in the liver and is the co-factor for lipid transport in the bloodstream 1 . (randox.com)
  • Lhoták, B. A. Hilditch, and R. C. Austin, "Activation of the unfolded protein response occurs at all stages of atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice," Circulation , vol. 111, no. 14, pp. 1814-1821, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B gene regulatory factor-2 (BRF-2) is structurally and immunologically highly related to hepatitis B virus X associated protein-1 (X. (nih.gov)
  • These two peptides were found to share 100% sequence homology with human hepatitis B virus X associated protein-1 (XAP-1) and monkey UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB). (nih.gov)
  • oligomerization appears to be an essential step for imparting sequence-specificity to BRF-2 protein and thereby facilitating its role as a trans-activator of the apoB gene. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein particles. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. (creative-biogene.com)
  • In contrast, HDL-CE uptake is selective, occurring without a concomitant net uptake of the major HDL protein, apo A-I and even though apo E and apo A-I bind equally well to SR-BI, apoA-I-containing particles mediate 2-fold more selective CE uptake. (ahajournals.org)
  • Uptake of CE, apo A-I, and apo A-II SR-BI-over expressing CHO cells was 32,800 ± 4800, 9.3 ± 2.7, and 2.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg cell protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, sites of apoA-I, A-II, and H mRNA and protein accumulation were determined in mouse fetal lungs by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in late gestation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to apoC-II protein, none of the three studied apolipoproteins accumulated within secretory granule-like structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because apoA-I, apoA-II, and apoH were co-regulated with apoC-II both over developmental time and from sample to sample in our previous QPCR study with whole lungs [ 11 ], it would be relevant to determine whether similar patterns of mRNA and protein accumulation sites, including the presence of apolipoproteins in secretory granules, are common features to all these apolipoproteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this application, we propose to investigate the consequences of the two main physiological splicing events of Apoer2 on gene expression, protein interactions, behavior and cognition. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Recognizes the apoplipoprotein-II protein. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. (cdc.gov)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the vertebrate apolipoprotein L (APOL) family has not previously been ascribed to any definite pathophysiological function, although the conserved BH3 protein domain suggests a role in programmed cell death or an interference with mitochondrial processes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Youle RJ and Strasser A: The BCL-2 protein family: Opposing activities that mediate cell death. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To identify the mechanisms by which cocoa induces HDL levels and since apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) is the major protein in HDLs, we analyzed, upon incubation with cocoa metabolites, ApoAI mRNA levels, its transcriptional regulation, and the levels of the transcription factors involved in this process. (wiley.com)
  • The key is a naturally occurring protein called apolipoprotein A-I binding protein (AIBP). (news-medical.net)
  • Immunoreactive apolipoprotein E is a widely distributed cellular protein. (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo)E is an important protein determinant in cholesterol homeostasis in man. (jci.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Increases Insulin Secretion and Production From Pancreatic ß-Cells via a G-Protein-cAMP-PKA-FoxO1-Dependent Mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • Increased level of MSU crystal-bound protein apolipoprotein A-I in acute gouty arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, we showed expression of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), the essential cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), in the fetal mouse lung and found the protein on the day of the surge of surfactant synthesis (gestation day 17.5) in secretory granule-like structures in the distal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we will answer the following questions: Does apoC-II protein localization change according to the stage of lung development, thus according to the need in surfactant? (nih.gov)
  • Do the sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression change according to the stage of lung development and to protein localization? (nih.gov)
  • The present study investigated whether the sites of apoC-II and LPL mRNA and protein accumulation are regulated in the mouse lung between gestation day 15 and postnatal day 10. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies demonstrated apolipoprotein B (apoB), a protein mainly located in LDL-C, was an independent predictor of the development of CVD especially in patients with T2DM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Y. Song, M. J. Stampfer and S. Liu, "Meta-Analysis: Apolipo-protein E Genotypes and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease," Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 141, No. 2, 2004, pp. 137-147. (scirp.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apoB is among the major proteins of very low-, low- (LDL), and intermediate-density lipoproteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Hiukka A, Fruchart-Najib J, Leinonen E, Hilden H, Fruchart JC, Taskinen MR (2005) Alterations of lipids and apolipoprotein CIII in very low density lipoprotein subspecies in type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • We have shown previously that apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are formed by the conjugation of lipid-free apoA-I with lipids derived from other lipoprotein fractions in a process dependent on non-esterified fatty acids, generated by the lipolysis of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) or provided exogenously. (portlandpress.com)
  • When both lipid-free apoA-I and lipid-free apoA-II were incubated with LDL and sodium oleate, both apolipoproteins were recovered in HDLs that contained phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol as their main lipids. (portlandpress.com)
  • AIMS: To explore the association between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio compared with conventional lipids in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study shows that approximately two ounces of nuts a day, as a replacement for carbohydrate foods, can improve glycemic control and blood lipids in those with type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Plasma lipids and apoproteins A-I, A-II and B levels were measured in 125 children whose fathers had coronary atherosclerosis (paternal coronary heart disease group), in 172 children with blood pressure lability and in 154 children selected at random from a representative subsample (reference). (biomedsearch.com)
  • L-Serine-mediated release of apolipoprotein E and lipids from microglial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Baseline lipids were measured directly, and apolipoproteins were measured with immunoassays. (annals.org)
  • abstract = "The dyslipidemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes can be improved by aerobic exercise. (elsevier.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), the second major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein, has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Duchateau PN, Pullinger CR, Orellana RE, Kunitake ST, Naya-Vigne J, O'Connor PM, Malloy MJ and Kane JP: Apolipoprotein L, a new human high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein expressed by the pancreas. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (medscape.com)
  • Prior studies have found inverse associations between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or apolipoprotein A-I levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD). (annals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To examine the association of renal function in diabetic patients with apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I) polymorphism in Asians. (nus.edu.sg)
  • El-Lebedy D, Raslan HM, Mohammed AM. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (bmj.com)
  • By isoelectric focusing of delipidated sera followed by immunoblotting we studied the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism in 2018 randomly selected 35-years-old males from three different areas in the Netherlands. (springer.com)
  • Boerwinkle E, Utermann G (1988) Simultaneous effects of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein B, and cholesterol metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The role of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in determining levels, variability, and covariability of cholesterol, beta-lipoprotein, and triglycerides in a sample of unrelated individuals. (springer.com)
  • Ehnholm C, Lukka M, Kuusi T, Nikkilä E, Utermann G (1986) Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in the Finnish population: gene frequencies and relation to lipoprotein concentrations. (springer.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism In Two Populations Of Andhra Pradesh. (who.int)
  • Venkatramana P, Reddy Chengal, Ferrell R E. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism In Two Populations Of Andhra Pradesh. (who.int)
  • No significant difference was observed between these two populations for apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism. (who.int)
  • Hepatic cell-specific expression of the human apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene is controlled by at least four cis-acting elements located between positions -128 and +122 [Chuang, S. S., & Das, H. K. (1996) Biochem. (nih.gov)
  • ApoB gene regulatory factor-2 (BRF-2) interacts with the sequence (-104 to -85). (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that BRF-2 and XAP-1 are structurally and immunologically highly related trans-activators of the apoB gene. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the ability of human apoA-II transgenic mice HDL to protect against oxidative modification of apoB-containing lipoproteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, overexpression of human apoA-II in mice impairs the ability of HDL to protect apoB-containing lipoproteins from oxidation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9,10 A second proatherogenic mechanism may involve impaired inhibition of the oxidative modification of apoB-containing lipoproteins, as described in murine apoA-II transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we assessed whether the protection conferred by HDL against oxidative modification of apoB-containing lipoproteins is impaired in human apoA-II transgenic mice, an animal model of familial combined hyperlipidemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibit atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic animal models of atherosclerosis. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there was a significant association between the apoB/apoA-I ratio and IMT in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic animal models of atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
  • This study demonstrates that in type 2 diabetes, a supervised exercise program reduces VLDL apoB pool size, which may be due to a decrease in VLDL apoB secretion rate. (elsevier.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) consists of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 549 kDa and is mostly synthesised in the liver. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Because of their associations with the respective lipoproteins, apoA1 is inversely and apoB is positively associated with cardiovascular risk (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. (randox.com)
  • Several correlations were observed, including greater apolipoprotein A-I and A-II oxidation in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and a divergent apoC-III proteoforms association with plasma triglycerides, indicating significant differences in the metabolism of the individual apoC-III proteoforms. (mdpi.com)
  • METHODS: We analysed data from 247 patients with Type 2 diabetes, aged 55-66 years, in the Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes-a Prospective study in Primary care (CARDIPP-1) study. (diva-portal.org)
  • Elevation of triglyceride (TG) levels, hypertriglyceridemia, has been shown to be related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • and 2) to evaluate prevention and treatment programs targeting cardiovascular disease in the U.S. (cdc.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein B and cardiovascular disease risk: position statement from the AACC Lipoproteins and Vascular Diseases Division Working Group on Best Practices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2 Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technological Research Center for Molecular Diagnostics of Cardiovascular Diseases, No 63 Huangtang Road, Meijiang District, Meizhou, 514031, People's Republic of China. (cdc.gov)
  • Definition of human apolipoprotein A-I epitopes recognized by autoantibodies present in patients with cardiovascular diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Association Between ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) Immune Complexes and Adverse Cardiovascular Events. (medscape.com)
  • Increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Our aim was to describe the apolipoprotein was 18%, compared with 8% in Canadians of European profile with respect to cardiovascular risk in a Canadian descent (1). (cdc.gov)
  • associated with cardiovascular risk (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Our aim was to describe the apolipoprotein profile with respect to cardiovascular risk in a Canadian First Nation community. (cdc.gov)
  • Sixty percent of women were at increased cardiovascular risk because of low apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels, compared with 35% of men. (cdc.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein and lipid profiles in this First Nation population suggest high cardiovascular risk. (cdc.gov)
  • Our objective was to describe the apolipoprotein profile and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in a Canadian First Nation community. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein A-II, goat polyclonal, recognizes human apolipoprotein A-II. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The antibody can be used for detection of human Apolipoprotein A II in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays and immunoblots. (abcam.com)
  • Apo C - II is a surface constituent of lipoproteins and the C - terminal helix activates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) 2 . (randox.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoproteins induce foam cell formation by activation of PERK-EIF-2 α signaling cascade," Journal of Bioanalysis and Biomedicine , vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 113-120, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoproteins induce foam cell formation by downregulation of lysosomal hydrolases in macrophages," Journal of Lipid Research , vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2571-2578, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Levels of plasma OxLDL, and the cholesterol and phospholipid profiles in plasma lipoproteins were compared between apolipoprotein E-deficient rats (16-week-old males) and wild-type (control) rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (jove.com)
  • Isolation and partial characterization of a variant of human apolipoprotein E isolated from very low density lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does Incorporation of EPA and DHA in Lipoproteins Differ According to Apolipoprotein E Genotype? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Apolipoproteins may also offer advantages over lipoprotein cholesterol measurements because they are direct measurements, whereas LDL, for example, is calculated from other lipoproteins from a fasting blood sample. (cdc.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein A-II, HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Reviewed here are recent studies correlating apolipoproteins proteoforms with the specific clinical measures of lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic risk. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate in vivo metabolism of apoA-I and apoA-II in five normotriglyceridemic ESRD-HD patients and compared it with five control subjects using endogenous stable isotope labeling methods coupled with a multicompartmental modeling. (asnjournals.org)
  • We therefore conducted an in vivo metabolism study of apoA-I and apoA-II in normotriglyceridemic ESRD-HD patients using endogenous stable isotope labeling methods coupled with a multicompartmental modeling for data analysis. (asnjournals.org)
  • Temporal and geographic co-expression of apoAI, AII, and H genes with surfactant production site suggests that the three apolipoproteins are secreted to play roles supporting the lung-specific surfactant lipid-related metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gregg RE, Zech LA, Schaefer EJ, Stark D, Wilson D, Brewer HB (1986) Abnormal in vivo metabolism of apolipoprotein E4 in humans. (springer.com)
  • The effect of 6 months supervised exercise on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B metabolism was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine before and after 6 months of the exercise program. (elsevier.com)
  • Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , 89 (2), 688-694. (elsevier.com)
  • Structures of apolipoprotein A-II and a lipid-surrogate complex provide insights into apolipoprotein-lipid interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2-Aminopurine inhibits lipid accumulation induced by apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoprotein in macrophages: potential role of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 α phosphorylation in foam cell formation," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , vol. 326, no. 2, pp. 395-405, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • When lipid-free apoA-II was incubated with either VLDLs and lipoprotein lipase or LDLs and sodium oleate, a significant proportion of the apoA-II was recovered in the HDL density fraction. (portlandpress.com)
  • Patients who have ESRD and undergo hemodialysis (HD) are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1,2 ⇓ ), which is due at least in part to lipid abnormalities, typically called uremic dyslipidemia ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, a role for these apolipoproteins in fatty acid recruitment from triglycerides for surfactant lipid synthesis can be postulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we examined the association between soy isoflavones and lipid profiles, apolipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in China. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eto M, Watanabe K, Ishii K (1986b) Reciprocal effects of apolipoprotein E alleles (ɛ2 and ɛ4) on plasma lipid levels in normolipidemic subjects. (springer.com)
  • Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that accumulate in amyloid deposits located within atherosclerotic plaques. (unibas.ch)
  • This comprehensive book provides not only the stages in the development of this unique and specialized field but also updates on the current state of research and development of apolipoprotein mimetics as therapeutic modalities for various lipid-mediated disorders. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth. (nih.gov)
  • A noticeable increase in surfactant lipid content was measured before the end of gestation day 18, which correlates temporally with the presence of apoC-II in secretory granules in distal epithelium with no or small lumina but not with large lumina. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrates that apoC-II and LPL mRNAs correlate temporally and geographically with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth and suggests that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL is regionally modulated by apoC-II secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Age, sex, the number of components of MetS and LDL-C were entered at model 1, the use of lipid-lowering medications at model 2, and the individual components of MetS were added at model 3. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in children hereditarily predisposed to coronary heart disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Association of Apolipoprotein E Genotypes with Lipid Levels and Coronary Risk," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 298, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1300-1311. (scirp.org)
  • To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
  • Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
  • The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)
  • Measurements of plasma cholesterol and apo B and E concentrations showed that the E * 4 allele is associated with elevated plasma cholesterol and apo B levels and with decreased apo E concentrations, whereas the opposite is true for the E * 2 allele. (springer.com)
  • Eto M, Watanabe K, Ishii K (1986a) A racial difference in apolipoprotein E allele frequencies between the Japanese and Caucasian populations. (springer.com)
  • The apolipoprotein e4 allele on chromosome 19 is an important risk factor for cognitive decline. (bmj.com)
  • We observed a significantly increased risk of cognitive decline associated with a lower level of education in subjects without an apolipoprotein e4 allele. (bmj.com)
  • Several recently published studies showed the existence of an association between the allele ε4 of the apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in developed countries. (scielo.br)
  • Whether this observation is consistent across low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels or total atherogenic particle burden (apolipoprotein B100) is less well-studied, particularly in women. (annals.org)
  • To determine the association between HDL-C or apolipoprotein A-I level and CVD across a range of LDL-C and apolipoprotein B100 values. (annals.org)
  • Participants were at low risk for CVD, the number of events in the lowest apolipoprotein B100 stratum was small, only a single baseline measurement was obtained, and residual confounding may have occurred. (annals.org)
  • Primary structure of the bovine analogues to human apolipoproteins CII and CIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • HealthDay)-Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are correlated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Dec. 28 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here, our aim was to examine whether VLDL and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is a 79 amino acids long glycoprotein that is synthesized predominantly in the liver and to a lesser degree in the intestine. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • What is the role of apolipoprotein studies in the workup of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)? (medscape.com)
  • Absence of CC chemokine receptor-2 reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (nih.gov)
  • RDN promoted atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice infused with angiotensin II associated with upregulation of MMP-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we show that this process is also able to generate HDL particles containing apoA-II (A-II HDL) and both apoA-I and apoA-II (A-I/A-II HDL). (portlandpress.com)
  • ApoA-I and apoA-II were both present in the larger HDLs, whereas only apoA-I was present in the smaller particles. (portlandpress.com)
  • Immunoaffinity chromatography on an anti-(apoA-I)-Sepharose column revealed that 10-20% of the apoA-II resided in particles that also contained apoA-I. The majority of the A-I/A-II HDL were present in a population of pre-β2 particles of 10.8 nm diameter. (portlandpress.com)
  • These results in vitro illustrate a potential mechanism for the formation of HDLs containing both apoA-I and apoA-II. (portlandpress.com)
  • Human apoA-II transgenic mice constitute an animal model for this proatherogenic disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • When challenged with an atherogenic diet, antigens related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were markedly increased in the aorta of 11.1 transgenic mice (high human apoA-II expressor). (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, incubation of isolated human apoA-II with control mouse plasma at 37°C decreased PON1 activity and displaced the enzyme from HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further, the displacement of PON1 by apoA-II could explain in part why PON1 is mostly found in HDL particles with apoA-I and without apoA-II, as well as the poor antiatherogenic properties of apoA-II-rich HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • HDLs are classified according to their content of major apolipoproteins: apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-II. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 In contrast, the role of apoA-II is less understood, 2,3 and overexpression of mouse 4 and human apoA-II has generally been found to be proatherogenic. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5-8 One mechanism by which the apoA-II expression may promote atherogenesis is altered reverse cholesterol transport. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 Although antioxidant properties have been ascribed to apoA-I and apoA-II, 12 it is currently believed that an important part of HDL antioxidant properties is related to their associated enzymes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Low levels of HDL cholesterol and its major apoprotein constituents apoA-I and apoA-II are common in patients who have ESRD and are undergoing hemodialysis (HD), but the metabolic basis for the low HDL is poorly understood. (asnjournals.org)
  • HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-II levels were markedly decreased in the ESRD-HD patients by 39, 30, and 44%, respectively, in comparison with the control subjects. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conversely, the apoA-II production rate significantly decreased by 31% to 1.50 ± 0.61 mg/kg per d in the ESRD-HD patients in comparison with control subjects of 2.17 ± 0.40 mg/kg per d ( P = 0.047) with apoA-II fractional catabolic rate unchanged. (asnjournals.org)
  • These results revealed that the decreased levels of apoA-I are due solely to the increased rate of catabolism, whereas the reduced apoA-II levels are due primarily to the decreased rate of production in ESRD-HD patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • This differential regulation of apoA-I and apoA-II further supports the concept that apoA-I and apoA-II have distinct metabolic pathways. (asnjournals.org)
  • Three different positive signals with the anti-apoA-II antibody were found: one transient signal in the nucleus of a portion of mesenchymal cells, a second at lower levels throughout the mesenchyme, and another in capillaries with a specific increase from gestation day 17.5/18.5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Choose from our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-II antibody LS-C505484 is an AP-conjugated goat polyclonal antibody to human Apolipoprotein A-II. (lsbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (below the yellow line) (G-O) was performed using an anti-apoC-II polyclonal antibody (G to I, K to M, O) or goat IgG as negative control (J, N). Positive signals (red) were found in secretory granule-like structures in distal epithelial cells on GD 19.5 (H) and PN0 (G) but not in later timepoints. (nih.gov)
  • Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
  • APOC2 and 2 more synonyms used to describe this biomarker that Amplion uses in its algorithms. (biomarkerbase.com)
  • 27 Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) Kits ELISA de 9 fabricants sont disponibles sur www.anticorps-enligne.fr. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Single doses of peptides Ac-hE18A-NH(2) and mR18L were administered retro-orbitally to LDL-R null mice on Western diet and plasma cholesterol was measured at 10 min, 4 h, and 24 h post administration. (nih.gov)
  • Peptide mR18L and not Ac-hE18A-NH(2) reduced plasma cholesterol levels significantly at 4 h post administration. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • NFκB regulates plasma apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-cholesterol through inhibition of PPARα'Journal of Biological Chemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • KFκB regulates plasma apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-cholesterol through inhibition of PPARα'Journal of Biological Chemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Apolipoprotein CI (ApoCI) functions as a cofactor for LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase), the enzyme responsible for most plasma cholesterol esterification. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Apolipoproteins may also offer advantages over risk because of low apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels, com- lipoprotein cholesterol measurements because they are pared with 35% of men. (cdc.gov)
  • The sample of 483 men and women from a cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Table 2). (cdc.gov)
  • Each Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Finally, incubation of myotubes with a neutralising antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 abolished the effects of apoCIII on ER stress, inflammation and insulin resistance, indicating that the effects of apoCIII were mediated by this receptor. (springer.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human apoLipoprotein J and has negligible cross-reactivity with Type A-I, A-II, B, C-I, C-II, C-III and E apoLipoproteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • No. R1029P Apolipoprotein AI antibody staining of Paraffin-Embedded Human Liver. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • No. R1031P Apolipoprotein AII antibody staining of Paraffin-Embedded Human Adrenal at 5 µg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • No. AP16668PU-N APOA4 antibody staining of Paraffin Embedded Human Intestine at 2 µg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • No. AP16949PU-N Apolipoprotein CI antibody Staining of Paraffin Embedded Human Liver at 3.8 µg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The plasma A-I/A-II weight ratio was 3.6±0.4 for men and 3.8±0.5 for women. (jci.org)
  • Only the plasma from the Ac-hE18A-NH(2) group had significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels at the end of the treatment protocol. (nih.gov)
  • The apolipoprotein A-V genotype and plasma apolipoprotein A-V and triglyceride levels: prospective risk of type 2 diabetes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • C or S19W was found on type 2 diabetes risk.Conclusions/interpretation In contrast to animal studies, in man, plasma APOA5 positively correlates with plasma triglyceride levels. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Native apolipoprotein A-II from human plasma. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Therefore, it has been attempted to identify the specific genetic determinants of plasma TG levels, and a novel member of the apolipoprotein family, apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), was identified by the comparative sequencing of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster region [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For the quantitative in vitro determination of Apo A-II in serum or plasma. (randox.com)
  • Serum samples were obtained in 1990 and frozen at -20°C until 1993, when the apolipoprotein E phenotype was determined by isoelectric focusing of delipidated plasma samples followed by immunoblotting. (bmj.com)
  • Apo E is produced in most organs and occurs in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, constituting 10-20% of VLDL and 1-2% of HDL. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
  • Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (nature.com)
  • Genetic evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the present study we further investigated regulation of apoM expression in Caco-2 cells stimulated by a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO901317. (lu.se)
  • Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Temperament: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to the Late Teens," Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2003, pp. 662-664. (scirp.org)
  • The results demonstrate the important role of both intra- and inter-subunit charge interactions in stabilizing apoC-II amyloid fibrils, a process that may be a key factor in determining the general ability of proteins to form amyloid fibrils. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (springer.com)
  • New vessels grow into the vitreous cavity, which consists of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, resulting in traction retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoproteins are proteins on the surface of the lipoprotein complex that bind to specific enzymes or transport proteins on the cell membranes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The circularization of amyloid fibrils formed by apolipoprotein C-II. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils assemble via a reversible pathway that includes fibril breaking and rejoining. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Hatters2003TheCO, title={The circularization of amyloid fibrils formed by apolipoprotein C-II. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Taken together, our results suggested that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL could be regionally controlled by modulation of apoC-II secretion [ 12 ] for the purpose of surfactant synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Umpleby, A. M. / The effect of a six-month exercise program on very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B secretion in type 2 diabetes . (elsevier.com)
  • Secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and -9, osteoprotegerin, and osteopontin by human AAA explant was reduced in the presence of the B2R antagonist (B9330). (edu.au)
  • Dietary restriction reduces atherosclerosis and oxidative stress in the aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice," Mechanisms of Ageing and Development , vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 1121-1131, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Association of multiple cellular stress pathways with accelerated atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice," Circulation , vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 207-213, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm were induced by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (1 μg/kg/min) for 28 days in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • RDN decreased systolic blood pressure in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • RDN did not affect the size of aortic aneurysms formed or the incidence of aortic rupture in mice receiving angiotensin II. (frontiersin.org)
  • The higher MMP-2 expression could be the results of the greater amount of atheroma in the RDN mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. (springer.com)
  • The Ang II-mediated reductions of renal ACE2 and nephrin levels in ApoEKO mice were remarkably rescued by rhACE2 supplementation, along with augmentation of renal Ang-(1-7) levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, rhACE2 treatment significantly reversed Ang II-induced renal inflammation, superoxide generation, kidney dysfunction and adverse renal injury in ApoEKO mice with suppression of the NOX4 and TNF-alpha-TNFRSF1A signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-(MMP)-2, -3, -8, -9, and -12 in AAA was enhanced in smoke-exposed angiotensin-II treated hyperlipemic mice. (pmiscience.com)
  • Zymographic activity analysis revealed that the activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 was highest in the mice exposed to all three risk factors. (pmiscience.com)
  • Approach and Results - AAA was induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via infusion of angiotensin II (1.0 μg/kg per minute SC). (edu.au)
  • Progression of angiotensin II-induced aortic dilatation was inhibited in mice receiving a B2R antagonist (B9330). (edu.au)
  • The amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides derived from HPLC-purified heavier BRF-2 isoform were determined to be YLAIAPPIIK and ALYYLQIHPQELR. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-peptide antisera raised against two synthetic peptides of XAP-1 recognized a approximately 120-kDa polypeptide band in both BRF-2 isoforms in a western blot analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Both peptides reduced total plaque macrophage load compared to the saline treated animals, with peptide Ac-hE18A-NH(2) having a greater reduction. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Goldberg is President and Co-Founder of LipimetiX Development, LLC, a biotechnology company developing apolipoprotein E mimetic peptides licensed from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Research Foundation. (springer.com)
  • B2R agonist and antagonist peptides enhanced and inhibited, respectively, angiotensin II-induced neutrophil activation and aortic smooth muscle cell inflammatory phenotype. (edu.au)
  • Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Histomorphometry of plaque cross-sectional area in the proximal aortas, en face measurement of plaque area over the aortic trees, Pg 16S ribosomal DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction, ELISA for systemic proinflammatory mediators, and immunolocalization of macrophages in the proximal aorta were performed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Typically less than 1% cross reactivity against other types of apoLipoprotein was detected by ELISA against purified standards. (rockland-inc.com)
  • In this paper we report the isolation of two isoforms of BRF-2 by further purification using high-performance liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • When activated by its essential co-factor, apoC-II, LPL catalyzes cleavage of acyl-glycerol esters in triglycerides of circulating VLDL and chylomicrons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As angiotensin II infusion also induces aortic aneurysm we also assessed the effect of RDN on aortic aneurysm severity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The B2R agonist (B9772) promoted aortic rupture in response to angiotensin II associated with an increase in neutrophil infiltration of the aorta in comparison to controls. (edu.au)
  • Synonyms for apo C-II deficiency include: C - II an apolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia type Ib 5 . (randox.com)
  • Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (randox.com)
  • In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Conformational rearrangement of apoC-II at lipoprotein surfaces promotes interaction with LPL (show LCP1 Antibodies ). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that LXR agonist TO901317 induced apoM expression in Caco-2 cells might be mediated via the LXR/FXR pathway. (lu.se)
  • ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. (springer.com)
  • Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B: clinical use in patients with coronary heart disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both mR18L and Ac-hE18A-NH(2) showed reduced atherosclerotic lesion areas. (nih.gov)
  • 1,2 ⇓ Recent studies have suggested associations of atherosclerotic risk with infectious agents, 1-3 ⇓ ⇓ and several pathogens such as Chlamydia pneumoniae , Helicobacter pylori , Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis have been detected in human atheromas. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rationale: Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2), a thiol-specific peroxidase, has been reported to regulate proinflammatory responses, vascular remodeling, and global oxidative stress.Objective: Although Prdx2 has been proposed to retard atherosclerosis development, no direct evidence and mechanisms have been reported.Methods and Results: We show that Prdx2 is highly expressed in endothelial and immune cells in atherosclerotic lesions and blocked the increase of endogenous H(2)O(2) by atherogenic stimulation. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • J. Lewerenz and P. Maher, "Basal levels of eIF2 α phosphorylation determine cellular antioxidant status by regulating ATF4 and xCT expression," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 284, no. 2, pp. 1106-1115, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • RDN significantly increased the aortic mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), A-II, and H was previously observed at 16 to 50-fold higher levels in the fetal than the adult mouse lung. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Start Forskningsoutput TO901317 regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via. (lu.se)
  • The major sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression changed over time and were found mainly in the distal epithelium at the end of gestation but not after birth. (nih.gov)
  • Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and apolipoprotein a-I in urine as biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: a proteomics study. (medscape.com)
  • The active peptide of apo C - II corresponds to residues 44 - 79 and has been identified to reverse the symptoms of genetic apo C - II deficiency. (randox.com)
  • The report of recognizable cognitive changes in nuns half a century before the development of frank Alzheimer disease ( 2 ) could conceivably be used as a pretext to justify genetic screening for jobs that require intellectual capacity. (acpjc.org)
  • Both an excess and deficiency of apo C - II is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced LPL activity. (randox.com)
  • Whilst extremely rare, a deficiency in apo C-II results in excess fasting hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia. (randox.com)
  • Biologically and clinically, apo C - II deficiency closely mimics LPL deficiency. (randox.com)
  • Hoffmann MM, März W. Apo C-II Deficiency. (randox.com)
  • 2 ) reported using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) to identify three biomarkers that simultaneously improved the detection of early-stage ovarian cancer, in particular test specificity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apo C-II assay was compared to commercially available methods. (randox.com)
  • Materials and methods: Caco-2 cells were cultured in the presence of either TO901317, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist guggulsterone or TO901317 together with guggulsterone at different concentrations for 24 hrs. (lu.se)
  • Targeted mass spectrometric immunoassays toward apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III were applied on large cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical cohorts. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of recombinant human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) in an animal model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We previously reported the antiangiogenic effect of recombinant human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accumulation of apoC-II in secretory granule-like structures was not systematically observed, but was found in the distal epithelium only at the end of gestation and soon after birth, mainly in epithelia with no or small lumina. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a model where apoC-II is retained in secretory granules in distal epithelial cells until the lumina reaches a minimum size, and is then secreted when the rate of surfactant production becomes optimal. (nih.gov)