Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.TriglyceridesApolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Apoprotein(a): A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Reversal of hyperlipidaemia in apolipoprotein C1 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor, but not by the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor. (1/107)

We have shown previously that human apolipoprotein (apo)C1 transgenic mice exhibit hyperlipidaemia, due primarily to an impaired clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the circulation. In the absence of at least the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), it was shown that APOC1 overexpression in transgenic mice inhibited the hepatic uptake of VLDL via the LDLR-related protein. In the present study, we have now examined the effect of apoC1 on the binding of lipoproteins to both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and the LDLR. The binding specificity of the VLDLR and LDLR for apoC1-enriched lipoprotein particles was examined in vivo through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDLR and the LDLR [giving rise to adenovirus-containing (Ad)-VLDLR and Ad-LDLR respectively] in APOC1 transgenic mice, LDLR-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and wild-type mice. Remarkably, Ad-VLDLR treatment did not reduce hyperlipidaemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human APOC1, irrespective of both the level of transgenic expression and the presence of the LDLR, whereas Ad-VLDLR treatment did reverse hyperlipidaemia in LDLR-/- and wild-type mice. On the other hand, Ad-LDLR treatment strongly decreased plasma lipid levels in these APOC1 transgenic mice. These results suggest that apoC1 inhibits the clearance of lipoprotein particles via the VLDLR, but not via the LDLR. This hypothesis is corroborated by in vitro binding studies. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the VLDLR (CHO-VLDLR) or LDLR (CHO-LDLR) bound less APOC1 transgenic VLDL than wild-type VLDL. Intriguingly, however, enrichment with apoE enhanced dose-dependently the binding of wild-type VLDL to CHO-VLDLR cells (up to 5-fold), whereas apoE did not enhance the binding of APOC1 transgenic VLDL to these cells. In contrast, for binding to CHO-LDLR cells, both wild-type and APOC1 transgenic VLDL were stimulated upon enrichment with apoE. From these studies, we conclude that apoC1 specifically inhibits the apoE-mediated binding of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDLR, whereas apoC1-enriched lipoproteins can still bind to the LDLR. The variability in specificity of these lipoprotein receptors for apoC1-containing lipoprotein particles provides further evidence for a regulatory role of apoC1 in the delivery of lipoprotein constituents to different tissues on which these receptors are located.  (+info)

Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (2/107)

New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction.  (+info)

Protective effect of apolipoprotein A I, A II, C I and C II on endothelial cells injury induced by low density lipoprotein. (3/107)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of apo-lipoprotein (apo) A I, A II, C I and C II, the main proteins in high density lipoprotein (HDL), on the morphology and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells injured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. METHODS: Cultured human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins were exposed to LDL, HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II. The morphology of endothelial cells was examined with phase contrast and transmission electron microscope. The released amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) was also measured. RESULTS: Endothelial cells after being injured by LDL showed cell contraction, increased release of LDH and decreased secrection of prostacyclin (PGI2). However, the addition of HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II before incubation with LDL inhibited the cellular injury induced by LDL as demonstrated by lowered LDH release, increased level of PGF1 alpha and prevention of morphological changes. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that apoA I, A II, C I and C II, as well as HDL, may play an important role in combating atherogenesis by protecting endothelial cells from damages induced by LDL.  (+info)

Probing the conformation of a human apolipoprotein C-1 by amino acid substitutions and trimethylamine-N-oxide. (4/107)

To test, at the level of individual amino acids, the conformation of an exchangeable apolipoprotein in aqueous solution and in the presence of an osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), six synthetic peptide analogues of human apolipoprotein C-1 (apoC-1, 57 residues) containing point mutations in the predicted alpha-helical regions were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectra and the melting curves of the monomeric wild-type and plasma apoC-1 in neutral low-salt solutions superimpose, indicating 31 +/- 4% alpha-helical structure at 22 degrees C that melts reversibly with T(m,WT) = 50 +/- 2 degrees C and van't Hoff enthalpy deltaH(v,WT)(Tm) = 18 +/- 2 kcal/mol. G15A substitution leads to an increased alpha-helical content of 42 +/- 4% and an increased T(m,G15A) = 57 +/- 2 degrees C, which corresponds to stabilization by delta deltaG(app) = +0.4 +/- 1.5 kcal/mol. G15P mutant has approximately 20% alpha-helical content at 22 degrees C and unfolds with low cooperativity upon heating to 90 degrees C. R23P and T45P mutants are fully unfolded at 0-90 degrees C. In contrast, Q31P mutation leads to no destabilization or unfolding. Consequently, the R23 and T45 locations are essential for the stability of the cooperative alpha-helical unit in apoC-1 monomer, G15 is peripheral to it, and Q31 is located in a nonhelical linker region. Our results suggest that Pro mutagenesis coupled with CD provides a tool for assigning the secondary structure to protein groups, which should be useful for other self-associating proteins that are not amenable to NMR structural analysis in aqueous solution. TMAO induces a reversible cooperative coil-to-helix transition in apoC-1, with the maximal alpha-helical content reaching 74%. Comparison with the maximal alpha-helical content of 73% observed in lipid-bound apoC-1 suggests that the TMAO-stabilized secondary structure resembles the functional lipid-bound apolipoprotein conformation.  (+info)

Accumulation of apolipoprotein C-I-rich and cholesterol-rich VLDL remnants during exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia in normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease. (5/107)

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia is common in normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Alterations in the composition of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are likely to underlie this metabolic disturbance. However, the composition of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), which are the most abundant postprandial TRLs, has never been defined in CAD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined postprandial changes in the number and composition of VLDLs in middle-aged, normolipidemic CAD patients and control subjects. TRLs from 14 patients and 14 control subjects aged 45 to 55 years were subfractionated by density gradient ultracentrifugation into Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) fractions >400, 60 to 400, and 20 to 60. The VLDLs were separated from chylomicron remnants by immunoaffinity chromatography. In CAD patients, the postprandial concentrations of triglycerides and large (Sf 60 to 400) VLDL particles were elevated. In addition, their postprandial large VLDLs were enriched in apolipoprotein (apo) C-I and their postprandial small (Sf 20 to 60) VLDL remnants were enriched with apo C-I and cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Perturbed handling of postprandial triglycerides in normolipidemic CAD patients involves the accumulation of apo C-I-rich large VLDL particles and the generation of small, apo C-I- and cholesterol-rich VLDL remnants.  (+info)

Structural studies of a baboon (Papio sp.) plasma protein inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transferase. (6/107)

A 38-residue protein associated with cholesteryl ester transfer inhibition has been identified in baboons (Papio sp.). The cholesteryl ester transfer inhibitor protein (CETIP) corresponds to the N-terminus of baboon apoC-I. Relative to CETIP, baboon apoC-I is a weak inhibitor of baboon cholesteryl ester transferase (CET). To study the structural features responsible for CET inhibition, CETIP was synthesized by solid-phase methods. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to model the lipoprotein environment, the solution structure of CETIP was probed by optical and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Circular dichroism data show that the protein lacks a well-defined structure in water but, upon the addition of SDS, becomes helical (56%). A small blue shift of 8 nm was observed in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of CETIP in the presence of saturating amounts of SDS, suggesting that tryptophan-23 is not buried deeply in the lipid environment. The helical nature of CETIP in the presence of SDS was confirmed by upfield 1Halpha secondary shifts and an average solution structure determined by distance geometry/simulated annealing calculations using 476 NOE-based distance restraints. The backbone (N-Calpha-C=O) root-mean-square deviation of an ensemble of 17 out of 25 calculated structures superimposed on the average structure was 1.06+0.30 A using residues V4-P35 and 0.51+/-0.17 A using residues A7-S32. Although the side-chain orientations fit the basic description of a class A amphipathic helix, both intramolecular salt bridge formation and "snorkeling" of basic side chains toward the polar face play minor, if any, roles in stabilizing the lipid-bound amphipathic structure. Conformational features of the calculated structures for CETIP are discussed relative to models of CETIP inhibition of cholesteryl ester transferase.  (+info)

Human apolipoprotein C-I accounts for the ability of plasma high density lipoproteins to inhibit the cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. (7/107)

The aim of the present study was to identify the protein that accounts for the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-inhibitory activity that is specifically associated with human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL). To this end, human HDL apolipoproteins were fractionated by preparative polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, and 30 distinct protein fractions with molecular masses ranging from 80 down to 2 kDa were tested for their ability to inhibit CETP activity. One single apolipoprotein fraction was able to completely inhibit CETP activity. The N-terminal sequence of the 6-kDa protein inhibitor matched the N-terminal sequence of human apoC-I, the inhibition was completely blocked by specific anti-apolipoprotein C-I antibodies, and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the identity of the isolated inhibitor with full-length human apoC-I. Pure apoC-I was able to abolish CETP activity in a concentration-dependent manner and with a high efficiency (IC(50) = 100 nmol/liter). The inhibitory potency of total delipidated HDL apolipoproteins completely disappeared after a treatment with anti-apolipoprotein C-I antibodies, and the apoC-I deprivation of native plasma HDL by immunoaffinity chromatography produced a mean 43% rise in cholesteryl ester transfer rates. The main localization of apoC-I in HDL and not in low density lipoprotein in normolipidemic plasma provides further support for the specific property of HDL in inhibiting CETP activity.  (+info)

Long terminal repeats are used as alternative promoters for the endothelin B receptor and apolipoprotein C-I genes in humans. (8/107)

To examine the potential regulatory involvement of retroelements in the human genome, we screened the transcribed sequences of GenBank and expressed sequence tag data bases with long terminal repeat (LTR) elements derived from different human endogenous retroviruses. These screenings detected human transcripts containing LTRs belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus-E family fused to the apolipoprotein CI (apoC-I) and the endothelin B receptor (EBR) genes. However, both genes are known to have non-LTR (native) promoters. Initial reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments confirmed and authenticated the presence of transcripts from both the native and LTR promoters. Using a 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol, we showed that the alternative transcripts of apoC-I and EBR are initiated and promoted by the LTRs. The LTR-apoC-I fusion and native apoC-I transcripts are present in many of the tissues tested. As expected, we found apoC-I preferentially expressed in liver, where about 15% of the transcripts are derived from the LTR promoter. Transient transfections suggest that the expression is not dependent on the LTR itself, but the presence of the LTR increases activity of the apoC-I promoter from both humans and baboons. The native EBR-driven transcripts were also detected in many tissues, whereas the LTR-driven transcripts appear limited to placenta. In contrast to the LTR of apoC-I, the EBR LTR promotes a significant proportion of the total EBR transcripts, and transient transfection results indicate that the LTR acts as a strong promoter and enhancer in a placental cell line. This investigation reports two examples where LTR sequences contribute to increased transcription of human genes and illustrates the impact of mobile elements on gene and genome evolution.  (+info)

*Apolipoprotein

... synthesis in the intestine is regulated principally by the fat content of the diet. Apolipoprotein synthesis in ... There are also intermediate-density lipoproteins formed by Apolipoprotein E. There are six classes of apolipoproteins and ... There are two major types of apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins B form low-density lipoprotein (sometimes referred to as "bad ... Apolipoprotein L Saito H, Lund-Katz S, Phillips MC (July 2004). "Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the ...

*Apolipoprotein C4

Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. Apolipoprotein ... 2008). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... Kamboh MI, Aston CE, Hamman RF (2000). "DNA sequence variation in human apolipoprotein C4 gene and its effect on plasma lipid ...

*Apolipoprotein C

In the field of molecular biology, apolipoprotein C is a family of four low molecular weight apolipoproteins, designated as C-I ... In the fasting state, the C apolipoproteins are mainly associated with HDL. During absorption of dietary fat, the C apoli- ... Mahley RW, Innerarity TL, Rall SC, Weisgraber KH (December 1984). "Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function ...

*Apolipoprotein C3

Karathanasis SK (Oct 1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV ... Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. Apo-CIII is a component ... Apolipoprotein C-III at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human APOC3 genome location and ... Zannis VI, Cole FS, Jackson CL, Kurnit DM, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1985). "Distribution of apolipoprotein A-I, C-II, C-III, and E ...

*Apolipoprotein O

... is the first chondroitine sulphate chain containing apolipoprotein. Apolipoproteins are proteins that binds to ... APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family. The human, apolipoprotein O is a 198 amino acids protein that contains a 23 ... Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. ... 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ...

*Apolipoprotein E

... is a fat-binding protein (apolipoprotein) that is part of the chylomicron and Intermediate-density lipoprotein ... The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC-I) and the apolipoprotein C2. The APOE ... "Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. X. The effect of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on quantitative levels of ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body. It is important in Alzheimer's ...

*Apolipoprotein C1

1988). "Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". J. Biol. Chem. 263 ( ... Myklebost O, Rogne S (1986). "The gene for human apolipoprotein CI is located 4.3 kilobases away from the apolipoprotein E gene ... Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I". Human APOC1 genome location and APOC1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...

*Apolipoprotein C2

... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. ... Connelly PW, Maguire GF, Little JA (1988). "Apolipoprotein CIISt. Michael. Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated ... "Entrez Gene: APOC2 apolipoprotein C-II". Jackson RL, Baker HN, Gilliam EB, Gotto AM (1977). "Primary structure of very low ...

*Apolipoprotein A1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene. It has a specific role in lipid metabolism. The ... Apolipoprotein A1 is the major protein component of HDL particles in plasma. Chylomicrons secreted from the intestinal ... Apolipoprotein A1 and APOE interact epistatically to modulate triglyceride levels in coronary heart disease patients. ... Described in 1980, it was the first known molecular abnormality of apolipoproteins. Paradoxically, carriers of this mutation ...

*Apolipoprotein L1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or 'good cholesterol' which is ... It forms a complex with high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the ... hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). It is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which consists of 6 other ...

*Apolipoprotein D

"Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". Muffat J, Walker DW (2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age- ... Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein ... Apolipoproteins D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Applied Research on Apolipoproteins ... Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene. Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced ...

*Apolipoprotein B

... (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene. Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein ... Su Q, Tsai J, Xu E, Qiu W, Bereczki E, Santha M, Adeli K (2009). "Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Apolipoprotein B100 McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J, Steyn K, ... Overproduction of apolipoprotein B can result in lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver ...

*Apolipoprotein A2

Apolipoprotein A-II is an apolipoprotein found in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. It has an approximate ... High HDL Cholesterol (Hyperalphalipoproteinemia) at eMedicine Apolipoprotein A-II at the US National Library of Medicine ...

*Apolipoprotein L

... (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The ... reproducible up-regulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high-susceptibility locus for ...

*Apolipoprotein H

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoprotein H and Applied Research ... serum phospholipids and are called anti-apolipoprotein antibodies. In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies (Anti ... Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), previously known as β2-glycoprotein I and beta-2 glycoprotein I, is a 38 kDa multifunctional ... The first four domains found in Apolipoprotein H resemble each other, however the fifth one appears to be different. This ...

*Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies

In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ...

*Apolipoprotein B deficiency

... (also known as "Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100") is an autosomal dominant disorder ...

*Apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5' UTR cis-regulatory element

The apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5' UTR cis regulatory element is an RNA element located in the 5' UTR of the human apoB mRNA. This ... Pontrelli, L; Sidiropoulos KG; Adeli K (2004). "Translational control of apolipoprotein B mRNA: regulation via cis elements in ... Page for Apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5' UTR cis-regulatory element at Rfam. ...

*Lipocalin

... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...

*ApoA-1 Milano

Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...

*Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), also known as apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), is a protein ...

*APOM

Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ... 2005). "Leptin inhibits apolipoprotein M transcription and secretion in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells". Biochim. ...

*APOA2

Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...

*APOL3

Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...

*Gladstone Institutes

Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ...
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Buy our Natural Human Apolipoprotein CI. Ab77901 is a full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
Host Species: Rabbit Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein CI Specificity Specifically binds to human apo CI. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to 80,000. Use: The antibody can be used for detection of apo CI in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays, immunoblots, enzyme conjugation, or biotinylation. Storage: -20°
According to a recent study reported in the Neural Regeneration Research, APOE ε4 plays an important role in augmenting cognitive decline, and APOC1 H2 may act synergistically with APOE ε4 in increasing the risk of cognitive decline in Chinese patients with late-onset Alzheimers disease.
no scale, but i want to dose between 20-25mg. i used to eyeball 2c-t-7 doses by dividing the 100mg of powder into ~equal piles...suggestions? (feel free to suggest anything regarding 2c-i...doesnt
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Explore the structures and analogues of N-{1-[2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]piperidin-4-yl}-N-phenylpropanamide, N-(2C-I) fentanyl in book II of TiHKAL: The Continuation. Alexander & Ann Shulgin
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
The C-I Plastic Pattern posts are ideal for cast posts and cores using either the direct or indirect technique. Simply half-fill the lubricated post hole with self-cure resin or wax, then seat the C-I plastic burnout post. Fill a core pattern with wax or acrylic and slip the pattern over the post to create a fast, ready-to-sprue post/core assembly. After youve removed the pattern, use the stainless steel temporary post to retain the interim restoration. Simply cement the post, fill a plastic crown with tooth-colored acrylic and seat it over the posts head for coverage until the casting comes back from the laboratory ...
A lot of studies have been conducted to examine the association of genetic polymorphism and risk of CAD. A meta-analysis of 9 studies that included 1,700 CAD patients and 4,081 healthy controls suggested that ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of CAD and myocardial infarction in East Asians, especially among Chinese and Korean populations [22]. A meta-analyses of 26 studies that included 12,776 cases and 6,371 controls found that -1562C,T polymorphism in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-9 may have association with CAD risk in Asian populations [23]. A meta-analyses of 22 studies including 3,502 CAD patients and 3,071 controls suggested that the angiotensin II receptor, type 1 gene A1166C polymorphism might be a genetic marker for the development of CAD in Chinese populations, especially in the context of studies with northern and older subjects [24, 25]. A meta-analyses of 11 studies involving 22,584 subjects showed that PTGS2 -765G/C was associated ...
We report several new findings that are essential for understanding how apoE is regulated in the brain. The highest levels of apoE mRNA in both control and transgenic mice were found in astrocytes of the olfactory bulb and in Bergmann glia of the cerebellum. Analysis of multiple independent lines for each construct minimizes the possibility that differences in apoE mRNA transgene expression between constructs are because of integration artifacts or position effects. In the brain, apoE gene expression under the control of the ME.1 and ME.2 domains was detected only in astrocytes. Our data further suggest that astrocytes are responsible for a majority of apoE expression in the absence of inflammatory signals.. Astrocyte apoE expression was specified by distal regions located 3.3 kb and 15 kb downstream of the apoE gene. These distal sequences are 95% identical in nucleotide sequence, and they probably arose from the duplication event that yielded the two apoC-I genes (Fig. 1). In the absence of ...
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Background: Insulin resistance is linked to dyslipidemia, characterized by a decrease in high density lipo-proteins and an increase in low density lipoproteins. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing agents used to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the safety of certain TZD regimens has been questioned because of associated adverse effects on the plasma lipid profile. We examined the effect of a TZD, Ciglitazone, on apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion in human liver HepG2 cells. Methods and Results: The effect of Ciglitazone treatment on apolipoprotein synthesis was addressed at the level of transcription, translation and secretion. RT-PCR showed that Ciglitazone increased the transcription of apoE and apoAI but reduced the levels of apoCI and apoB mRNA. Western blot analysis showed an increase in apoAI and apoE secreted in the cell culture media, whereas the amounts of apoB100 and apoCI were reduced. To confirm that Ciglitazone regulates apolipoprotein
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human APOC3 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human APOC3 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00000345-K) - Products - Abnova
transcranial mangnetic stimulation should be a given in an empirical order with an unchecked fetish for modernity.. but man how could all those pharm animals and doctors, and all the pushers keep that salary. I know I m way off topic , just as the blokes who created incapacattak swarmbot oxygen sucker are further off topic so flame ready. .. regardless the materials needed is so minimal it should cost less than 100$ I seen crude modified helmet for cheap but they are only dealing with a single state.. but true TMS for 2006... we should be able to persuade synaptic processes to execute such complex synthesis as to render molecules 2 C-i, or 5 MEO AMT, hell if we new venture capitalists with testicals it would be as standard as a ring tone.. at least knock out the coffee house, those of us suffering have financed enough ...
This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated when monocytes differentiate into macrophages. The encoded protein plays a central role in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. This protein has also been shown to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma. A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream in the same orientation, on the same chromosome. This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016 ...
Autor: Guillard, Mailys et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009-09; Keywords: Glycosylation; Cutis laxa; V-ATPase; Congenital disorders of glycosylation; OMIM 219200; Apolipoprotein C III; Titel: Vacuolar H+-ATPase meets glycosylation in patients with cutis laxa
View Ldlr/Ldlr Tg(APOC3)3707Bres/? involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J * CBA/J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
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Our interest in benzo[c]isoxazoles is concerned with their application as precursors of a variety of bioactive compounds (Angibaud et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 1990; Hester et al., 1989; McEvoy et al., 1968). The title compound will be used in our further investigations as arylation agent in palladium-catalyzed reactions with alkenes and alkynes.. The title compound crystalizes in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic P21 space group with two independent molecules in the asymmetric part (A and B), see Fig. 1. The molecules are almost planar, the dihedral angles between the mean planes of benzoisoxazole and benzene rings being 4.2 (3)° and 4.1 (3)° for A and B, respectively. The geometrical parameters of the molecules are similar and consistent with the previously studied 2,1-benzoxazole derivatives (Teslenko et al., 2008).. Crystal packing is governed by hydrogen bonds of C-H···N type and other intermolecular interactions including C-I···π and C-I···O. Intermolecular interactions ...
RANDOX 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5) ELISA [R-NBOMe] - 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5) is a psychedelic drug and derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic 2C-I. NBOMe is a powerful hallucinogenic with only a small amount needed to cause effects. These effects can last between six and ten hours and include feelings of euphoria, mental and physical stimulation and unusual body
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The protein encoded by this gene is a major apoprotein of the chylomicron. It binds to a specific liver and peripheral cell receptor, and is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. This gene maps to chromosome 19 in a cluster with the related apolipoprotein C1 and C2 genes. Mutations in this gene result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016 ...
Appendix to the Updated Recommendations on the Use of Chlorhexidine-Impregnated Dressings for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections (2017)
Yan Zhang, Alan R. Sinaiko, Gary L. Nelsestuen (2011). Glycoproteins and Glycosylation: Apolipoprotein C3 Glycoforms by top-down MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry" methods in Molecular Biology, in press.. D. W. Mahoney, T. M. Therneau, C. J. Heppelmann, L. Higgins, L. M. Benson, R. M. Zenka, P. Jagtap, G. L. Nelsestuen, H. R. Bergen, A. L. Oberg (2011). Relative Quantification: Characterization of bias, variability and fold changes in mass spectrometry data from iTRAQ labeled peptides. J Proteome Res. PMID: 21755926. S. K. Akkina, Y. Zhang, G. L. Nelsestuen, W. S. Oetting and H. N. Ibrahim (2009). Temporal stability of the urinary proteome after kidney transplant: more sensitive than protein composition? Journal of Proteome Research (special issue on temporal and spatial proteomics) 8, 94-103. PMID: 19012427. S. B. Harvey, Y. Zhang, J. Wilson-Grady, T. Monkkonen, G. L. Nelsestuen, R. S. Kasthuri, M. R. Verneris, T. C. Lund, E. Wesley Ely, G. R. Bernard, H. Zeisler, M. Homoncik, B. Jilma, T. Swan, and ...
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Class of lipoproteins that transport triglycerides from the intestine and liver to adipose and muscle tissues. Synthesized by the liver, they contain primarily triglycerides in their lipid cores, with some cholesterol esters. As their triglycerides are cleaved by endothelial lipoprotein lipase and transferred to hepatic tissues, the VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles lose most of their apolipoprotein C and become intermediate-density lipoproteins. ...
Volanesorsen (INN, codenamed ISIS 304801, previously known as ISIS-APOCIIIRx) is a cholesterol-reducing drug. It is a second-generation 2-O-methoxyethyl (2-MOE) chimeric antisense therapeutic oligonucleotide (ASO) that targets the messenger RNA for apolipoprotein C3 (apo-CIII). It is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hypertriglycidemia, familial chylomicronemia syndrome and familial partial lipodystrophy. The drug was discovered and developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals. The complete sequence of volanesorsen is: 3-A*-G*-mC*-T*-T*-dmC-dT-dT-dG-dT-dmC-dmC-dA-dG-dmC-T*-T*-T*-A*-T*-5 * = 2-O-(2-methoxyethyl) m = 5-methyl d = 2-deoxy "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names: List 75" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 March 2017. Pechlaner, R; Tsimikas, S; Yin, X; Willeit, P; Baig, F; Santer, P; Oberhollenzer, F; Egger, G; Witztum, JL; Alexander, VJ; Willeit, J; Kiechl, S; Mayr, M (21 ...
Hypertriglyceridemia is characterised by high levels of triglycerides in the blood and is associated with several metabolic disorders and with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It can be caused by several factors, including obesity, excessive alcohol consumption and an unhealthy diet. In addition, individuals with genetic defects in apolipoprotein-CII (APOC2; an activator of lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyses triglycerides to deliver fatty acids to body tissues) display hypertriglyceridemia even on a normal diet. Here, Yury Miller and colleagues generated mutant zebrafish bearing apoc2 loss-of-function mutations. These animals, fed a normal diet, exhibit severe hypertriglyceridemia and accumulate lipid and lipid-laden macrophages in the vasculature, which constitute early events in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. Notably, injection of wild-type zebrafish plasma with functional Apoc2 or a human APOC2-mimetic peptide can rescue hypertriglyceridemia in the mutants. ...
APOC4 Antibody 16530-1-AP has been identified with IF, WB, ELISA. 16530-1-AP detected 17 kDa band in human plasma tissue with 1:200-1:1000 dilution...
66 products from 17 suppliers. Compare and order APOC1 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
Baseline characteristics were not different between cases and controls, except for beta-blocker use and which was higher in cases, and mean (SD) CFR which was lower in cases [1.19 (0.23) and 2.78 (0.78) in cases and controls respectively; p < 0.01]. We identified 5345 peptides corresponding to 209 proteins, and identified 197 proteins by peptides with suitable properties to infer relative quantitation values. While the calculated values for some proteins (e.g. vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, apolipoprotein C and Von Willebrand Factor) indicate fold-differences between groups, these are most likely a result of high values in only 1-2 patients and are not statistically significant ...
Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement mice show increased prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with vascular amyloid deposition.
References for Abcams Human Apolipoprotein A I peptide (ab66674). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Aim: There remains high unmet medical need for therapies to treat cardio/metabolic diseases. We validated in human trials, a platform for reducing the synthesis of genes expressed in the liver. The platform utilizes a GalNAc ligand attached to the 3 end of the sense strand of an RNAi molecule to enable delivery specifically to the liver. Here we extend the platform to targets of interest in cardiovascular disease, including PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3.. METHODS: Chemically modified siRNAs were designed and were screened for potency in vitro. pM active siRNA molecules were developed targeting PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3. The siRNAs were tested in either rodents or in non-human primates (NHPs) for activity.. RESULTS: In NHPs a single dose of ALN-PCSsc at 6 mg/kg reduced PCSK9 levels up to 97% and LDL-C up to 67%. Moreover the nadir effect (without any rebound of LDL-C) lasted ,30 days indicating that once a month or longer dosing frequency in clinic should be supported. Multidose studies in NHP at ...
The ApoE gene may have a more influential role than first thought; it may amplify the damage done by the tau protein, causing neurodegeneration.
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Figure 4. Mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar attenuates growth of mouse glioma cells and prolongs survival of mice with glioma in vivo. (A) Mouse glioma cells (C57BL/6 background: GL26, GL261, and CT-2A), microglial cells (BV2), and MS-DNCs were infected with the parental or mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar, and relative cell number was assessed over 1 wk, normalized to day 0. (B) Viral titer from supernatants of ZIKV-Dakar-infected cells (GL26, GL261, CT-2A, BV2, and MS-DNCs) was measured at 1 wk by FFA. (C-I) Mouse glioma model with GL261 and CT-2A. 1 wk after implantation, bioluminescence imaging (BLI; C) and H&E staining (D and E) demonstrating glioma. 3 wk after GL261 (F and G) and CT-2A (H and I) implantation without (F and H) or with mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar treatment (G and I). (J, left) Mice bearing GL261 glioma were treated with PBS (n = 15) or 103 FFU of the mouse-adapted-ZIKV-Dakar (n = 18). (J, right) Mice bearing CT2A glioma were treated with PBS (n = 7) or 103 FFU of the mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar (n ...
Gck is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism, including hepatic control of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis (44). Thus, it would not be surprising if a chronic hyperglycemic state in the ob/ob mice were to trigger a homeostatic mechanism that maintains elevated constitutive Gck transcription to meet the metabolic burden posed by the high glucose load (Fig. 5A). The higher Gck mRNA levels in ob/ob mice, at least in part, reflect increased transcription as evidenced by higher Pol II density (Fig. 5B, row 1). The higher rates of transcription are further supported by the more open chromatin structure revealed by H3K9/14Ac differences between the two strains (Fig. 5B, row 7). The constitutive IR and MAPK ChIP signals at Gck in the lean and obese mice seem to match Pol II levels (row 1), suggesting that, in both strains, fasting activities of Pol II, IR (rows 1-3), and MAPK components (rows 4-6) are functionally coupled. After glucose feeding, Gck mRNA and 3′ end Pol II, IR, and MAPK ...
Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A I Full length protein datasheet (ab50239). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, assays and other reagents.
A dynamic model for the biotransformation of atorvastatin has been developed using quantitative metabolite measurements in primary human hepatocytes. The model comprises kinetics for transport processes and metabolic enzymes as well as population liver expression data allowing us to assess the impact of inter-individual variability of concentrations of key proteins. Application of computational tools for parameter sensitivity analysis enabled us to considerably improve the validity of the model and to create a consistent framework for precise computer-aided simulations in toxicology. The model is parameterized for patient 1 and reproduces the time courses in figure 2 of the article. ...
Comparing Strong and Weak Halogen Bonding in Solution: C-13 NMR, UV/Vis, Crystallographic, and Computational Studies of an Intramolecular Model Widner, D.L.*; Robinson, E.R.*; Perez, A.B.*; Vang, H.G.*; Thorson, R.A.*; Driscoll, Z.L.*; Giebel, S.M.*; Berndt, C.W.*; Bosch, E.; Speetzen, E.D.; Bowling, N.P. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2017, 5739-5749.. C-I•••N and C-I•••pi halogen bonding in the structures of 1-benzyliodoimidazole derivatives Nwachukwu, C.I.; Bowling, N. P.; Bosch, E. Acta Crystallogr. C 2017, 73, 2-8. Conjugated, trans-Spanning Ligands as Models for Multivalent p-Phenylene Ethynylenes Vang, H.G.*; Driscoll, Z.L.*; Robinson, E.R.*; Green, C.E.*; Bosch, E.; Bowling, N.P. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 891-895.. Extended Self-complementary Halogen Bond Dimers Kirchner, L.M.; Bowling, N.P.; Bosch, E., J. Chem. Crystallogr. 2015, 45, 466-475.. The power of non-conventional phenyl C-H•••N hydrogen bonds: supportive crystal-packing force and dominant supramolecular ...
Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price

Apolipoprotein J Antibody 600-101-198Apolipoprotein J Antibody 600-101-198

Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. It maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state for ... Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and ... Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. It prevents stress ... C-III and E apoLipoproteins. Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not ...
more infohttps://rockland-inc.com/Product.aspx?id=34660

Native Human Apolipoprotein C-I Protein |  Cell SciencesNative Human Apolipoprotein C-I Protein | Cell Sciences

Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
more infohttp://www.cellsciences.com/native-human-apolipoprotein-c-i-protein

Correlations between Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and DESCorrelations between Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and DES

DES regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ... Correlations between Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and DES. Diethylstilbestrol regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during ... Apolipoprotein D featured image credit opm.phar.umich.edu.. DES DIETHYLSTILBESTROL RESOURCES. *Source DES and epigenetics ... Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a glycoprotein which is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. It is structurally and functionally ...
more infohttps://diethylstilbestrol.co.uk/apod/

Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in | Open-iDistribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in | Open-i

Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from saccular stage ... Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in ... Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in ... Figure 5: Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. Mouse tissue sections are from ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2991289_1471-213X-10-111-5&req=4

A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations  ...A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations ...

Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that ... A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations ... A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils : experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations. ...
more infohttps://edoc.unibas.ch/21186/

Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain | Reproductive Biology...Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain | Reproductive Biology...

Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human ... From: Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain ...
more infohttps://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-7-92/figures/1

Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) DNA Test Lab Cost INR 30000.00 best genetic offer discount price Delhi Mumbai Kolkata...Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) DNA Test Lab Cost INR 30000.00 best genetic offer discount price Delhi Mumbai Kolkata...

Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore ... Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Test Description. Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency ... Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2) TEST DETAILS. Deatils about the test Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2). *What is ... Make the payment Online for Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency (APOC2). * Fill the Form with your details for Apolipoprotein C-II ...
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Lack of association of very low density lipoprotein receptor gene polymorphism with caucasian Alzheimers disease<...Lack of association of very low density lipoprotein receptor gene polymorphism with caucasian Alzheimer's disease<...

Multiple logistic regression analysis using apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele, 5-, 8-, or 9-repeat allele of the VLDL-R gene, ... Multiple logistic regression analysis using apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele, 5-, 8-, or 9-repeat allele of the VLDL-R gene, ... Multiple logistic regression analysis using apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele, 5-, 8-, or 9-repeat allele of the VLDL-R gene, ... Multiple logistic regression analysis using apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele, 5-, 8-, or 9-repeat allele of the VLDL-R gene, ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/lack-of-association-of-very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-gene

Hepatitis delta virus epigenetically enhances clusterin expression via histone acetylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma...Hepatitis delta virus epigenetically enhances clusterin expression via histone acetylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma...

Trougakos, I. P. & Gonos, E. S. ( 2002; ). Clusterin/apolipoprotein J in human aging and cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 34, ... Trougakos, I. P. & Gonos, E. S. ( 2006; ). Regulation of clusterin/apolipoprotein J, a functional homologue to the small heat ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.007211-0

Apolipoprotein C4 - WikipediaApolipoprotein C4 - Wikipedia

Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apolipoprotein_C4

Apolipoprotein C2 - WikipediaApolipoprotein C2 - Wikipedia

Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APOC2

Apolipoprotein News, ResearchApolipoprotein News, Research

The key is a naturally occurring protein called apolipoprotein A-I binding protein (AIBP). AIBP binds to toll-like receptor 4 ( ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Apolipoprotein

Apolipoprotein B100: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaApolipoprotein B100: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003502.htm

Apolipoprotein CII: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaApolipoprotein CII: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003505.htm

Apo B (Apolipoprotein B)Apo B (Apolipoprotein B)

The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/apo-b

Apolipoprotein A-IV (O46409) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIApolipoprotein A-IV (O46409) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/O46409

Apolipoprotein A/E (IPR000074) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIApolipoprotein A/E (IPR000074) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR000074

Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood | SpringerLinkLipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood | SpringerLink

... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0731-7_57

Apolipoprotein C-I | SpringerLinkApolipoprotein C-I | SpringerLink

ApoC-I ist ein Apolipoprotein der triglyzeridreichen Lipoproteine und High Density Lipoproteine (HDL; s. High Density ... Lackner K.J., Peetz D. (2019) Apolipoprotein C-I. In: Gressner A.M., Arndt T. (eds) Lexikon der Medizinischen ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-662-48986-4_268

Apolipoprotein - Genome BCApolipoprotein - Genome BC

Apolipoprotein. DOWNLOAD Grade 10, 11, 30-60 mins. Help Trevor, 51, understand his high-cholesterol diagnosis in this case ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimers disease. Students take on the ...
more infohttps://www.genomebc.ca/education-resource/apolipoprotein/

APOLIPOPROTEIN B, SERUMAPOLIPOPROTEIN B, SERUM

ID:1,Note:Reference Interval has been last updated on 22 Apr 2013. ,Date:2013-04-26T11:00:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
more infohttps://www.sgh.com.sg/patient-care/specialties-services/apolipoprotein-b-serum

RCPA - ApolipoproteinRCPA - Apolipoprotein

Apolipoprotein. Keywords: Lipoprotein(a), Lipoprotein A1, LPA1, ApoA1, Lipoprotein B, LPB, ApoB, Lipoprotein E, LPE, ApoE, ... The apolipoproteins usually quantitated are apo A-I, apo B and apo (a); apo E genotyping or phenotyping may also be done. ...
more infohttps://www.rcpa.edu.au/Library/Practising-Pathology/RCPA-Manual/Items/Pathology-Tests/A/Apolipoprotein

APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIAPOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=335

APOLIPOPROTEIN A-1, SERUMAPOLIPOPROTEIN A-1, SERUM

ID:1,Note:Reference Interval has been last updated on 22 Apr 2013. ,Date:2013-04-29T10:55:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
more infohttps://www.sgh.com.sg/patient-care/specialties-services/apolipoprotein-a-1-serum-

Apolipoprotein Disorders | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural MedicineApolipoprotein Disorders | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine

This topic contains 9 study abstracts on Apolipoprotein Disorders indicating that the following substances may be helpful: B- ... Diseases : Apolipoprotein A/B ratio imbalances, Apolipoprotein Disorders, High Cholesterol. Pharmacological Actions : HMG-CoA ... Diseases : Apolipoprotein Disorders, Cholesterol: LDL/HDL ratio, Myocardial Infarction. Additional Keywords : Cholesterol Myth ... Diseases : Apolipoprotein Disorders, Cholesterol: LDL/HDL ratio, Myocardial Infarction. Additional Keywords : Cholesterol Myth ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/apolipoprotein-disorders
  • Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2008). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and correlates with liver steatosis" . (wikipedia.org)