Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.TriglyceridesApolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Apoprotein(a): A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 18.104.22.168.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Reversal of hyperlipidaemia in apolipoprotein C1 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor, but not by the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor. (1/107)We have shown previously that human apolipoprotein (apo)C1 transgenic mice exhibit hyperlipidaemia, due primarily to an impaired clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the circulation. In the absence of at least the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), it was shown that APOC1 overexpression in transgenic mice inhibited the hepatic uptake of VLDL via the LDLR-related protein. In the present study, we have now examined the effect of apoC1 on the binding of lipoproteins to both the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and the LDLR. The binding specificity of the VLDLR and LDLR for apoC1-enriched lipoprotein particles was examined in vivo through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDLR and the LDLR [giving rise to adenovirus-containing (Ad)-VLDLR and Ad-LDLR respectively] in APOC1 transgenic mice, LDLR-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and wild-type mice. Remarkably, Ad-VLDLR treatment did not reduce hyperlipidaemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human APOC1, irrespective of both the level of transgenic expression and the presence of the LDLR, whereas Ad-VLDLR treatment did reverse hyperlipidaemia in LDLR-/- and wild-type mice. On the other hand, Ad-LDLR treatment strongly decreased plasma lipid levels in these APOC1 transgenic mice. These results suggest that apoC1 inhibits the clearance of lipoprotein particles via the VLDLR, but not via the LDLR. This hypothesis is corroborated by in vitro binding studies. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the VLDLR (CHO-VLDLR) or LDLR (CHO-LDLR) bound less APOC1 transgenic VLDL than wild-type VLDL. Intriguingly, however, enrichment with apoE enhanced dose-dependently the binding of wild-type VLDL to CHO-VLDLR cells (up to 5-fold), whereas apoE did not enhance the binding of APOC1 transgenic VLDL to these cells. In contrast, for binding to CHO-LDLR cells, both wild-type and APOC1 transgenic VLDL were stimulated upon enrichment with apoE. From these studies, we conclude that apoC1 specifically inhibits the apoE-mediated binding of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles to the VLDLR, whereas apoC1-enriched lipoproteins can still bind to the LDLR. The variability in specificity of these lipoprotein receptors for apoC1-containing lipoprotein particles provides further evidence for a regulatory role of apoC1 in the delivery of lipoprotein constituents to different tissues on which these receptors are located. (+info)
Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (2/107)New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction. (+info)
Protective effect of apolipoprotein A I, A II, C I and C II on endothelial cells injury induced by low density lipoprotein. (3/107)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of apo-lipoprotein (apo) A I, A II, C I and C II, the main proteins in high density lipoprotein (HDL), on the morphology and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells injured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. METHODS: Cultured human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins were exposed to LDL, HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II. The morphology of endothelial cells was examined with phase contrast and transmission electron microscope. The released amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) was also measured. RESULTS: Endothelial cells after being injured by LDL showed cell contraction, increased release of LDH and decreased secrection of prostacyclin (PGI2). However, the addition of HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II before incubation with LDL inhibited the cellular injury induced by LDL as demonstrated by lowered LDH release, increased level of PGF1 alpha and prevention of morphological changes. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that apoA I, A II, C I and C II, as well as HDL, may play an important role in combating atherogenesis by protecting endothelial cells from damages induced by LDL. (+info)
Probing the conformation of a human apolipoprotein C-1 by amino acid substitutions and trimethylamine-N-oxide. (4/107)To test, at the level of individual amino acids, the conformation of an exchangeable apolipoprotein in aqueous solution and in the presence of an osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), six synthetic peptide analogues of human apolipoprotein C-1 (apoC-1, 57 residues) containing point mutations in the predicted alpha-helical regions were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectra and the melting curves of the monomeric wild-type and plasma apoC-1 in neutral low-salt solutions superimpose, indicating 31 +/- 4% alpha-helical structure at 22 degrees C that melts reversibly with T(m,WT) = 50 +/- 2 degrees C and van't Hoff enthalpy deltaH(v,WT)(Tm) = 18 +/- 2 kcal/mol. G15A substitution leads to an increased alpha-helical content of 42 +/- 4% and an increased T(m,G15A) = 57 +/- 2 degrees C, which corresponds to stabilization by delta deltaG(app) = +0.4 +/- 1.5 kcal/mol. G15P mutant has approximately 20% alpha-helical content at 22 degrees C and unfolds with low cooperativity upon heating to 90 degrees C. R23P and T45P mutants are fully unfolded at 0-90 degrees C. In contrast, Q31P mutation leads to no destabilization or unfolding. Consequently, the R23 and T45 locations are essential for the stability of the cooperative alpha-helical unit in apoC-1 monomer, G15 is peripheral to it, and Q31 is located in a nonhelical linker region. Our results suggest that Pro mutagenesis coupled with CD provides a tool for assigning the secondary structure to protein groups, which should be useful for other self-associating proteins that are not amenable to NMR structural analysis in aqueous solution. TMAO induces a reversible cooperative coil-to-helix transition in apoC-1, with the maximal alpha-helical content reaching 74%. Comparison with the maximal alpha-helical content of 73% observed in lipid-bound apoC-1 suggests that the TMAO-stabilized secondary structure resembles the functional lipid-bound apolipoprotein conformation. (+info)
Accumulation of apolipoprotein C-I-rich and cholesterol-rich VLDL remnants during exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia in normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease. (5/107)BACKGROUND: Exaggerated postprandial triglyceridemia is common in normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Alterations in the composition of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are likely to underlie this metabolic disturbance. However, the composition of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), which are the most abundant postprandial TRLs, has never been defined in CAD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined postprandial changes in the number and composition of VLDLs in middle-aged, normolipidemic CAD patients and control subjects. TRLs from 14 patients and 14 control subjects aged 45 to 55 years were subfractionated by density gradient ultracentrifugation into Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) fractions >400, 60 to 400, and 20 to 60. The VLDLs were separated from chylomicron remnants by immunoaffinity chromatography. In CAD patients, the postprandial concentrations of triglycerides and large (Sf 60 to 400) VLDL particles were elevated. In addition, their postprandial large VLDLs were enriched in apolipoprotein (apo) C-I and their postprandial small (Sf 20 to 60) VLDL remnants were enriched with apo C-I and cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Perturbed handling of postprandial triglycerides in normolipidemic CAD patients involves the accumulation of apo C-I-rich large VLDL particles and the generation of small, apo C-I- and cholesterol-rich VLDL remnants. (+info)
Structural studies of a baboon (Papio sp.) plasma protein inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transferase. (6/107)A 38-residue protein associated with cholesteryl ester transfer inhibition has been identified in baboons (Papio sp.). The cholesteryl ester transfer inhibitor protein (CETIP) corresponds to the N-terminus of baboon apoC-I. Relative to CETIP, baboon apoC-I is a weak inhibitor of baboon cholesteryl ester transferase (CET). To study the structural features responsible for CET inhibition, CETIP was synthesized by solid-phase methods. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to model the lipoprotein environment, the solution structure of CETIP was probed by optical and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Circular dichroism data show that the protein lacks a well-defined structure in water but, upon the addition of SDS, becomes helical (56%). A small blue shift of 8 nm was observed in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of CETIP in the presence of saturating amounts of SDS, suggesting that tryptophan-23 is not buried deeply in the lipid environment. The helical nature of CETIP in the presence of SDS was confirmed by upfield 1Halpha secondary shifts and an average solution structure determined by distance geometry/simulated annealing calculations using 476 NOE-based distance restraints. The backbone (N-Calpha-C=O) root-mean-square deviation of an ensemble of 17 out of 25 calculated structures superimposed on the average structure was 1.06+0.30 A using residues V4-P35 and 0.51+/-0.17 A using residues A7-S32. Although the side-chain orientations fit the basic description of a class A amphipathic helix, both intramolecular salt bridge formation and "snorkeling" of basic side chains toward the polar face play minor, if any, roles in stabilizing the lipid-bound amphipathic structure. Conformational features of the calculated structures for CETIP are discussed relative to models of CETIP inhibition of cholesteryl ester transferase. (+info)
Human apolipoprotein C-I accounts for the ability of plasma high density lipoproteins to inhibit the cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. (7/107)The aim of the present study was to identify the protein that accounts for the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-inhibitory activity that is specifically associated with human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL). To this end, human HDL apolipoproteins were fractionated by preparative polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, and 30 distinct protein fractions with molecular masses ranging from 80 down to 2 kDa were tested for their ability to inhibit CETP activity. One single apolipoprotein fraction was able to completely inhibit CETP activity. The N-terminal sequence of the 6-kDa protein inhibitor matched the N-terminal sequence of human apoC-I, the inhibition was completely blocked by specific anti-apolipoprotein C-I antibodies, and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the identity of the isolated inhibitor with full-length human apoC-I. Pure apoC-I was able to abolish CETP activity in a concentration-dependent manner and with a high efficiency (IC(50) = 100 nmol/liter). The inhibitory potency of total delipidated HDL apolipoproteins completely disappeared after a treatment with anti-apolipoprotein C-I antibodies, and the apoC-I deprivation of native plasma HDL by immunoaffinity chromatography produced a mean 43% rise in cholesteryl ester transfer rates. The main localization of apoC-I in HDL and not in low density lipoprotein in normolipidemic plasma provides further support for the specific property of HDL in inhibiting CETP activity. (+info)
Long terminal repeats are used as alternative promoters for the endothelin B receptor and apolipoprotein C-I genes in humans. (8/107)To examine the potential regulatory involvement of retroelements in the human genome, we screened the transcribed sequences of GenBank and expressed sequence tag data bases with long terminal repeat (LTR) elements derived from different human endogenous retroviruses. These screenings detected human transcripts containing LTRs belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus-E family fused to the apolipoprotein CI (apoC-I) and the endothelin B receptor (EBR) genes. However, both genes are known to have non-LTR (native) promoters. Initial reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments confirmed and authenticated the presence of transcripts from both the native and LTR promoters. Using a 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol, we showed that the alternative transcripts of apoC-I and EBR are initiated and promoted by the LTRs. The LTR-apoC-I fusion and native apoC-I transcripts are present in many of the tissues tested. As expected, we found apoC-I preferentially expressed in liver, where about 15% of the transcripts are derived from the LTR promoter. Transient transfections suggest that the expression is not dependent on the LTR itself, but the presence of the LTR increases activity of the apoC-I promoter from both humans and baboons. The native EBR-driven transcripts were also detected in many tissues, whereas the LTR-driven transcripts appear limited to placenta. In contrast to the LTR of apoC-I, the EBR LTR promotes a significant proportion of the total EBR transcripts, and transient transfection results indicate that the LTR acts as a strong promoter and enhancer in a placental cell line. This investigation reports two examples where LTR sequences contribute to increased transcription of human genes and illustrates the impact of mobile elements on gene and genome evolution. (+info)
Native Human Apolipoprotein C-I Protein | Cell Sciences
Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates
Natural Human Apolipoprotein CI (ab77901) | Abcam
S09] Rabbit Anti-Human Apolipoprotein CI Antiserum - AcademyBiomed
Host Species: Rabbit Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein CI Specificity Specifically binds to human apo CI. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to 80,000. Use: The antibody can be used for detection of apo CI in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays, immunoblots, enzyme conjugation, or biotinylation. Storage: -20°
Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimer's...
Human Apolipoprotein C2 , apo-C2 ELISA Kit
Apolipoprotein C2 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in capillaries, which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia type IB, characterized by xanthomas, pancreatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly, but no increased risk for atherosclerosis. Lab tests will show elevated blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and chylomicrons ...
100mg of 2c-i on the way...tips? - Trip Reports - Shroomery Message Board
Explore N-(2C-I) fentanyl | TiHKAL · info
Genetic Variant in Apolipoprotein C3 Gene and Fatty Liver in Obese Children - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov
25I-NBOH - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
25I-NBOH (NBOH-2CI, Cimbi-27) je fenetilaminski halucinogen. On deluje kao potentan agonist 5HT2A receptora, sa Ki od 0,061 nM na ljudskom 5HT2A receptoru, te je dvanaest puta potentniji od liganda 2C-I. In vitro testovi su pokazali da ovo jedinjenje deluje kao agonist, ali rezultati životinjskih studija nisu objavljeni. Dok su N-benzilni derivati 2C-I liganda znatno povećavali potentnost, N-benzil derivati 2,5-dimetoksi-4-jodoamfetamina su neaktivni. ...
Medium White C-I Glass Fiber Post Refill
The C-I Plastic Pattern posts are ideal for cast posts and cores using either the direct or indirect technique. Simply half-fill the lubricated post hole with self-cure resin or wax, then seat the C-I plastic burnout post. Fill a core pattern with wax or acrylic and slip the pattern over the post to create a fast, ready-to-sprue post/core assembly. After youve removed the pattern, use the stainless steel temporary post to retain the interim restoration. Simply cement the post, fill a plastic crown with tooth-colored acrylic and seat it over the posts head for coverage until the casting comes back from the laboratory ...
Apolipoprotein C3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with lipids and coronary artery disease in a Chinese population | Lipids...
A lot of studies have been conducted to examine the association of genetic polymorphism and risk of CAD. A meta-analysis of 9 studies that included 1,700 CAD patients and 4,081 healthy controls suggested that ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of CAD and myocardial infarction in East Asians, especially among Chinese and Korean populations . A meta-analyses of 26 studies that included 12,776 cases and 6,371 controls found that -1562C,T polymorphism in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-9 may have association with CAD risk in Asian populations . A meta-analyses of 22 studies including 3,502 CAD patients and 3,071 controls suggested that the angiotensin II receptor, type 1 gene A1166C polymorphism might be a genetic marker for the development of CAD in Chinese populations, especially in the context of studies with northern and older subjects [24, 25]. A meta-analyses of 11 studies involving 22,584 subjects showed that PTGS2 -765G/C was associated ...
We report several new findings that are essential for understanding how apoE is regulated in the brain. The highest levels of apoE mRNA in both control and transgenic mice were found in astrocytes of the olfactory bulb and in Bergmann glia of the cerebellum. Analysis of multiple independent lines for each construct minimizes the possibility that differences in apoE mRNA transgene expression between constructs are because of integration artifacts or position effects. In the brain, apoE gene expression under the control of the ME.1 and ME.2 domains was detected only in astrocytes. Our data further suggest that astrocytes are responsible for a majority of apoE expression in the absence of inflammatory signals.. Astrocyte apoE expression was specified by distal regions located 3.3 kb and 15 kb downstream of the apoE gene. These distal sequences are 95% identical in nucleotide sequence, and they probably arose from the duplication event that yielded the two apoC-I genes (Fig. 1). In the absence of ...
25I-NBOH - Wikipedia
25I-NBOH acts as a potent agonist for the 5HT2A receptor, with a Ki of 0.061 nM at the human 5HT2A receptor, similar to the better-known compound 25I-NBOMe, making it some twelve times the potency of 2C-I itself. Although in vitro tests show this compound acts as an agonist, animal studies to confirm these findings have not been reported. While the N-benzyl derivatives of 2C-I had significantly increased binding to 5HT2A receptor fragments, compared to 2C-I, the N-benzyl derivatives of DOI were less active compared to DOI. 25I-NBOH is notable as one of the most selective agonist ligands for the 5-HT2A receptor with an EC50 value of 0.074 nM with more than 400 times selectivity over the 5-HT2C receptor. ...
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Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma results in an atheroprotective apolipoprotein profile in HepG2...
Background: Insulin resistance is linked to dyslipidemia, characterized by a decrease in high density lipo-proteins and an increase in low density lipoproteins. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing agents used to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the safety of certain TZD regimens has been questioned because of associated adverse effects on the plasma lipid profile. We examined the effect of a TZD, Ciglitazone, on apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion in human liver HepG2 cells. Methods and Results: The effect of Ciglitazone treatment on apolipoprotein synthesis was addressed at the level of transcription, translation and secretion. RT-PCR showed that Ciglitazone increased the transcription of apoE and apoAI but reduced the levels of apoCI and apoB mRNA. Western blot analysis showed an increase in apoAI and apoE secreted in the cell culture media, whereas the amounts of apoB100 and apoCI were reduced. To confirm that Ciglitazone regulates apolipoprotein
APOC3 rabbit monoclonal antibody - (H00000345-K) - Products - Abnova
The Fiber Disease - Page 276 - Biology-Online
transcranial mangnetic stimulation should be a given in an empirical order with an unchecked fetish for modernity.. but man how could all those pharm animals and doctors, and all the pushers keep that salary. I know I m way off topic , just as the blokes who created incapacattak swarmbot oxygen sucker are further off topic so flame ready. .. regardless the materials needed is so minimal it should cost less than 100$ I seen crude modified helmet for cheap but they are only dealing with a single state.. but true TMS for 2006... we should be able to persuade synaptic processes to execute such complex synthesis as to render molecules 2 C-i, or 5 MEO AMT, hell if we new venture capitalists with testicals it would be as standard as a ring tone.. at least knock out the coffee house, those of us suffering have financed enough ...
Meet "Smiles": The Next Scary Designer Drug | The Fix
This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated when monocytes differentiate into macrophages. The encoded protein plays a central role in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. This protein has also been shown to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma. A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream in the same orientation, on the same chromosome. This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016 ...
Олександр Шульгін - Вікіпедія
Шульгін відомий тим, що сприяв поширенню MDMA в кінці 70-х, початку 80-х. Він та його дружина Анна (Енн) Шульгіна написали відомі книги PiHKAL («Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved») та TiHKAL («Tryptamines I Have Known And Loved»). Шульгін синтезував та дослідив велику кількість триптамінів та фенілетиламінів, включаючи сімейство 2C*, з яких найвідоміші - 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-I, та 2C-B. Працюючи на компанію Dow Chemical[en], Шульгин зареєстрував серію успішних та цінних патентів, це дало йому можливість отримати ліцензію агентства DEA на дослідження психоактивних сполук та свободу у виборі напрямку ...
Vacuolar H+-ATPase meets glycosylation in patients with cutis laxa :: MPG.PuRe
Phenotypes for Ldlr Tg(APOC3)3707Bres MGI:4367083 MGI Mouse
APOC1 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt | Biocompare.com
Our interest in benzo[c]isoxazoles is concerned with their application as precursors of a variety of bioactive compounds (Angibaud et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 1990; Hester et al., 1989; McEvoy et al., 1968). The title compound will be used in our further investigations as arylation agent in palladium-catalyzed reactions with alkenes and alkynes.. The title compound crystalizes in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic P21 space group with two independent molecules in the asymmetric part (A and B), see Fig. 1. The molecules are almost planar, the dihedral angles between the mean planes of benzoisoxazole and benzene rings being 4.2 (3)° and 4.1 (3)° for A and B, respectively. The geometrical parameters of the molecules are similar and consistent with the previously studied 2,1-benzoxazole derivatives (Teslenko et al., 2008).. Crystal packing is governed by hydrogen bonds of C-H···N type and other intermolecular interactions including C-I···π and C-I···O. Intermolecular interactions ...
RANDOX 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5) ELISA [R-NBOMe] Equl offers Enzyme Assay Kits, Reagent Mixtures, Enzymes, Glycobiology,...
RANDOX 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5) ELISA [R-NBOMe] - 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5) is a psychedelic drug and derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic 2C-I. NBOMe is a powerful hallucinogenic with only a small amount needed to cause effects. These effects can last between six and ten hours and include feelings of euphoria, mental and physical stimulation and unusual body
The Chicago Syndicate: Griselda Blanco: The Cocaine Queen
The protein encoded by this gene is a major apoprotein of the chylomicron. It binds to a specific liver and peripheral cell receptor, and is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. This gene maps to chromosome 19 in a cluster with the related apolipoprotein C1 and C2 genes. Mutations in this gene result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016 ...
References | Appendix | C-I Dressings | Guidelines Library | Infection Control | CDC
Gary L. Nelsestuen | College of Biological Sciences
Yan Zhang, Alan R. Sinaiko, Gary L. Nelsestuen (2011). Glycoproteins and Glycosylation: Apolipoprotein C3 Glycoforms by top-down MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry" methods in Molecular Biology, in press.. D. W. Mahoney, T. M. Therneau, C. J. Heppelmann, L. Higgins, L. M. Benson, R. M. Zenka, P. Jagtap, G. L. Nelsestuen, H. R. Bergen, A. L. Oberg (2011). Relative Quantification: Characterization of bias, variability and fold changes in mass spectrometry data from iTRAQ labeled peptides. J Proteome Res. PMID: 21755926. S. K. Akkina, Y. Zhang, G. L. Nelsestuen, W. S. Oetting and H. N. Ibrahim (2009). Temporal stability of the urinary proteome after kidney transplant: more sensitive than protein composition? Journal of Proteome Research (special issue on temporal and spatial proteomics) 8, 94-103. PMID: 19012427. S. B. Harvey, Y. Zhang, J. Wilson-Grady, T. Monkkonen, G. L. Nelsestuen, R. S. Kasthuri, M. R. Verneris, T. C. Lund, E. Wesley Ely, G. R. Bernard, H. Zeisler, M. Homoncik, B. Jilma, T. Swan, and ...
Microsoft word - fdm atr drug index.txt
Acetaminophen Sigma 77C-0092 NSAmobarbital Sigma 121C-1650 C-IIL-Amphetamine Sulfate K&K Laboratories 75309 C-IID-Amphetamine Sulfate K&K Laboratories 83567 C-IIDL-Amphetamine Sulfate K&K Laboratories 99752 C-IIAprobarbital Sigma 59C-0208 CIIIAtropine ICN 15100 CVAmobarbital Na Binkmann CIIAspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Mallinckrodt AMN NSBarbituric Acid Sigma 45C-0233 C-IIIBenactyzine Aldrich B70-4 NSBenzocaine K&K Labs 15414 NSBenzphetamine HCl Sigma 105F-0122 C-IIIBrewers YeastButabarbital Sigma 62C-1840 CIIICarisoprodol Wallace RRC 48417 NSCarbromal ICN 4491 NSChloropromazine HCl Brinkmann NSChlorodiazepoxide Brinkmann 23006 CIVBenzoylecgonine Hydrate Sigma 68F-4001 C-IIBarbital Fisher 770026 CIVBufotenine Monooxalate Hydrate Sigma 80503 C-IButethal Sigma 65F-0442 C-IIICaffeine Applied Science 204 NSN,N-Diethyltryptamine HCl (DET) Applied Science 1 C-I*3-Chloropropylamine HCl ICN 28392 C-IChlordiazepoxide HCl Sigma 62F-0753 C-IVChloral Hydrate 41F-0500 Sigma C-IV Chloropheniramine maleate ...
glossary:lipoprotein very low density vldl
Class of lipoproteins that transport triglycerides from the intestine and liver to adipose and muscle tissues. Synthesized by the liver, they contain primarily triglycerides in their lipid cores, with some cholesterol esters. As their triglycerides are cleaved by endothelial lipoprotein lipase and transferred to hepatic tissues, the VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles lose most of their apolipoprotein C and become intermediate-density lipoproteins. ...
apoc2-mutant zebrafish to study hypertriglyceridemia | Disease Models & Mechanisms
Hypertriglyceridemia is characterised by high levels of triglycerides in the blood and is associated with several metabolic disorders and with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It can be caused by several factors, including obesity, excessive alcohol consumption and an unhealthy diet. In addition, individuals with genetic defects in apolipoprotein-CII (APOC2; an activator of lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyses triglycerides to deliver fatty acids to body tissues) display hypertriglyceridemia even on a normal diet. Here, Yury Miller and colleagues generated mutant zebrafish bearing apoc2 loss-of-function mutations. These animals, fed a normal diet, exhibit severe hypertriglyceridemia and accumulate lipid and lipid-laden macrophages in the vasculature, which constitute early events in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. Notably, injection of wild-type zebrafish plasma with functional Apoc2 or a human APOC2-mimetic peptide can rescue hypertriglyceridemia in the mutants. ...
APOC4 Antibody 16530-1-AP | Proteintech
APOC1 ELISA & Assay Kits
Utility of discovery approach using proteomics to create a biomarker profile for coronary microvascular dysfunction. |...
Baseline characteristics were not different between cases and controls, except for beta-blocker use and which was higher in cases, and mean (SD) CFR which was lower in cases [1.19 (0.23) and 2.78 (0.78) in cases and controls respectively; p < 0.01]. We identified 5345 peptides corresponding to 209 proteins, and identified 197 proteins by peptides with suitable properties to infer relative quantitation values. While the calculated values for some proteins (e.g. vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, apolipoprotein C and Von Willebrand Factor) indicate fold-differences between groups, these are most likely a result of high values in only 1-2 patients and are not statistically significant ...
Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement mice show increased prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with...
Human Apolipoprotein A I peptide (ab66674) References
Abstract 7: A Subcutaneous, Potent and Durable RNAi Platform Targeting Metabolic Diseases, Genes PCSK9, ApoC3 and ANGPLT3 |...
Aim: There remains high unmet medical need for therapies to treat cardio/metabolic diseases. We validated in human trials, a platform for reducing the synthesis of genes expressed in the liver. The platform utilizes a GalNAc ligand attached to the 3 end of the sense strand of an RNAi molecule to enable delivery specifically to the liver. Here we extend the platform to targets of interest in cardiovascular disease, including PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3.. METHODS: Chemically modified siRNAs were designed and were screened for potency in vitro. pM active siRNA molecules were developed targeting PCSK9, ANGPLT3 and ApoC3. The siRNAs were tested in either rodents or in non-human primates (NHPs) for activity.. RESULTS: In NHPs a single dose of ALN-PCSsc at 6 mg/kg reduced PCSK9 levels up to 97% and LDL-C up to 67%. Moreover the nadir effect (without any rebound of LDL-C) lasted ,30 days indicating that once a month or longer dosing frequency in clinic should be supported. Multidose studies in NHP at ...
Medical News Today: Alzheimer's: Targeting ApoE gene may 'stop the disease' | Nursing-Resource.com
Gentaur Molecular :Reliatech \ Human ApoE2 Source E. coli \ 100-124
apoc2 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad
APOC4 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad
Zika virus has oncolytic activity against glioblastoma stem cells | JEM
Figure 4. Mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar attenuates growth of mouse glioma cells and prolongs survival of mice with glioma in vivo. (A) Mouse glioma cells (C57BL/6 background: GL26, GL261, and CT-2A), microglial cells (BV2), and MS-DNCs were infected with the parental or mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar, and relative cell number was assessed over 1 wk, normalized to day 0. (B) Viral titer from supernatants of ZIKV-Dakar-infected cells (GL26, GL261, CT-2A, BV2, and MS-DNCs) was measured at 1 wk by FFA. (C-I) Mouse glioma model with GL261 and CT-2A. 1 wk after implantation, bioluminescence imaging (BLI; C) and H&E staining (D and E) demonstrating glioma. 3 wk after GL261 (F and G) and CT-2A (H and I) implantation without (F and H) or with mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar treatment (G and I). (J, left) Mice bearing GL261 glioma were treated with PBS (n = 15) or 103 FFU of the mouse-adapted-ZIKV-Dakar (n = 18). (J, right) Mice bearing CT2A glioma were treated with PBS (n = 7) or 103 FFU of the mouse-adapted ZIKV-Dakar (n ...
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Direct Recruitment of Insulin Receptor and ERK Signaling Cascade to Insulin-Inducible Gene Loci | Diabetes
Gck is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism, including hepatic control of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis (44). Thus, it would not be surprising if a chronic hyperglycemic state in the ob/ob mice were to trigger a homeostatic mechanism that maintains elevated constitutive Gck transcription to meet the metabolic burden posed by the high glucose load (Fig. 5A). The higher Gck mRNA levels in ob/ob mice, at least in part, reflect increased transcription as evidenced by higher Pol II density (Fig. 5B, row 1). The higher rates of transcription are further supported by the more open chromatin structure revealed by H3K9/14Ac differences between the two strains (Fig. 5B, row 7). The constitutive IR and MAPK ChIP signals at Gck in the lean and obese mice seem to match Pol II levels (row 1), suggesting that, in both strains, fasting activities of Pol II, IR (rows 1-3), and MAPK components (rows 4-6) are functionally coupled. After glucose feeding, Gck mRNA and 3′ end Pol II, IR, and MAPK ...
Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A I (ab50239) | アブカム
A dynamic model for the biotransformation of atorvastatin has been developed using quantitative metabolite measurements in primary human hepatocytes. The model comprises kinetics for transport processes and metabolic enzymes as well as population liver expression data allowing us to assess the impact of inter-individual variability of concentrations of key proteins. Application of computational tools for parameter sensitivity analysis enabled us to considerably improve the validity of the model and to create a consistent framework for precise computer-aided simulations in toxicology. The model is parameterized for patient 1 and reproduces the time courses in figure 2 of the article. ...
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare. People ...
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), also known as apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), is a protein ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ... 2005). "Leptin inhibits apolipoprotein M transcription and secretion in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells". Biochim. ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis. Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein, while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway. The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triglycerides that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver. The synthesis of ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... McGhee KA, Morris DW, Schwaiger S (2005). "Investigation of the apolipoprotein-L (APOL) gene family and schizophrenia using a ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, classification, and sites of distribution". Genomics. 74 (1): 71-8. ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II. A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been documented to be ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Harold Smith (scientist)
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
This inability to bind LDL is due to VLDLR's incapability to bind apolipoprotein B (apoB), which is present in LDL. Receptor- ... VLDLR binds compounds containing apolipoprotein E (apoE). These ligands attach to the cysteine binding repeats in the N- ... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1529 (1-3): 287-98. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00155-4. PMID 11111096 ...
David J. Galton
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and atherosclerosis". Current Opinion in ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69: ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ...
DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3H, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3H or APOBEC ... This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) family of proteins. The ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100298 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA ...
Lin CC, Tsai P, Sun HY, Hsu MC, Lee JC, Wu IC, Tsao CW, Chang TT, Young KC (Nov 2014). "Apolipoprotein J, a glucose-upregulated ... Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular ... Trougakos IP, Gonos ES (Nov 2002). "Clusterin/apolipoprotein J in human aging and cancer". The International Journal of ... Mitochondria portal Clusterin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoproteins and ...
Farnesoid X receptor
Apolipoprotein C2 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimer's...
Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein CI are involved in cognitive impairment progression in Chinese late-onset Alzheimers ... Current evidence shows that apolipoprotein E (APOE), apolipoprotein CI (APOC1) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related ...
Genetic Variant in Apolipoprotein C3 Gene and Fatty Liver in Obese Children - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov
Human Apolipoprotein C2 , apo-C2 ELISA Kit
Apolipoprotein C4 - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein B100: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ...
Apolipoprotein CII: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
Apo B (Apolipoprotein B)
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood | SpringerLink
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
Apolipoprotein A-IV (O46409) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Apolipoprotein A/E (IPR000074) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A | Nature
Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. *Robert D. Bell1,2. , ... Bell, R., Winkler, E., Singh, I. et al. Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512- ...
Apolipoproteins C - MeSH - NCBI
... and ProteinsProteinsApoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and ProteinsProteinsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and Drugs CategoryLipidsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... Apolipoproteins C. A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; ...
Apolipoprotein - Wikipedia
Apolipoprotein synthesis in the intestine is regulated principally by the fat content of the diet. Apolipoprotein synthesis in ... There are also intermediate-density lipoproteins formed by Apolipoprotein E. There are six classes of apolipoproteins and ... There are two major types of apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins B form low-density lipoprotein (sometimes referred to as "bad ... Apolipoprotein L Saito H, Lund-Katz S, Phillips MC (July 2004). "Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the ...
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
RCSB PDB - 1GS9: Apolipoprotein E4, 22k domain
NHANES 2011-2012: Apolipoprotein B Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
NHANES 2007-2008: Apolipoprotein B Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2007-2008 Apolipoprotein B data to the 2005-2006 Apolipoprotein B data. The Dade ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_E) Data File: ApoB_E.xpt First Published: July 2010. Last Revised: NA Note: See Analytic Note on ...
Conversion of apolipoprotein-spec... preview & related info | Mendeley
HDL3species containing both apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II, and HDL3(AI w/o AII), HDL3species containing ... initially with three apolipoprotein A-I, to larger particles with four apolipoprotein A-I per particle. © 1989. ... Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein populations during incubation of human plasma. *Nichols A ... Nichols, A. V., Blanche, P. J., Shore, V. G., & Gong, E. L. (1989). Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density ...
Apolipoprotein C-I | SpringerLink
Apolipoprotein E: Possible Therapeutic Target for Atherosclerosis: Ingenta Connect
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100 | Scientific Reports
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing
Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ... SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing. Thursday, April 22, 2010 General News ... HOUSTON, April 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins | PNAS
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease | G M Anantharamaiah | Springer
... of this unique and specialized field but also updates on the current state of research and development of apolipoprotein ... Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors: Anantharamaiah, G M, Goldberg, Dennis (Eds.) ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors. * G M Anantharamaiah ...
Phosphonate-phosphate and diphosphonate apolipoprotein e modulators - Niesor, Eric Joseph
The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E ... Rubinsztein, "Apolipoprotein E-a review of its roles in lipoprotein metabolism, neuronal growth and repair and as a risk factor ... Poirier, "Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimers disease," Trends in Neurosciences 17:525-530, 1994 ... Apolipoprotein E was expressed as % change from mean control value. Cholesterol was measured with a commercially available ...
JCI - Combined hyperlipidemia in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein Cl.
Apolipoprotein - Genome BC
Anti-Apolipoprotein E antibody (FITC) | Abcam
Anti-Apolipoprotein CII antibody (Biotin) | Abcam
Anti-Apolipoprotein CII antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... At least 9 distinct polymorphic forms of apolipoproteins are known. The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact ... In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to ... Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract ...
APOC2ApoEHumanLipoproteinsProteinsAPOA1SerumAlzheimer'sB100ApoBAtherosclerosisRole of apolipoproteinCholesterolCardiovascular DiseaseAPODProtein apolipoproteinChromosomeAlleleFamilialPolymorphismLipocalinPlasma2001MRNA editinLevels of apolipoproteinLipids and apolipoproteinsDeficiencyMutationsParticlesApoMMurineSecretionAmyloidSpeciesPathways1990ExpressionPrecursorSearchDescriptorReceptorVertebrate
- Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (labtestsonline.org)
- Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
- Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (abcam.com)
- Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The Apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). (randox.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Apolipoproteins are composed from various lipoproteins such as exchangeable Apolipoprtoeins and non-exchangeable. (prospecbio.com)
- Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (jove.com)
- Apolipoprotein E or apo E is the most important protein found in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, or VLDL cholesterol. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein M-containing lipoproteins. (semanticscholar.org)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and ApoB48 are the full-length and C-terminally truncated versions of ApoB, an essential constituent of several classes of lipoproteins that are secreted by the liver and intestine [ 1 ]. (clinsci.org)
- Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (springer.com)
- 1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion" . (wikidoc.org)
- Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein D Kits (32) and Apolipoprotein D Proteins (24) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
- Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
- This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
- Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
- Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Two novel APOA1 gene mutations in a Japanese renal transplant recipient with recurrent apolipoprotein A-I related amyloidosis. (nih.gov)
- Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. (nih.gov)
- HDL begins to develop when two copies of the protein apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mediate the removal of excess lipids from peripheral cells and form a nanodisc. (pnas.org)
- Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). (pnas.org)
- AIM: To determine the association between apolipoprotein A1 ( APOA1 ) (−75 guanine [G] to adenine [A] and +83/84 M2 +/− , MspI ) and apolipoprotein C3 ( APOC3 ) ( SstI ) polymorphisms with gallstone disease. (hindawi.com)
- An example of non-exchangeable apolipoprotein is APOAB which is attached to the lipoprotein particle while examples of Lipoprotein exchangeable are APOM, APOD, APOJ, APOH and APOA1 which are transported between different lipoprotein molecules. (prospecbio.com)
- Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The report provides comprehensive information on the Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
- In this study a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at birth and the differences with adults. (springer.com)
- In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- The proband, a 65-year-old woman, had greatly diminished concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol (0.19 mmol/L) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (21.9 mg/dL). (ahajournals.org)
- Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (randox.com)
- Serum apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1), apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100) and lipoprotein-(a) (LPA) were measured in the Pathology Laboratories of Postgraduate Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar using turbiditrimetric kits of Roche Diagnostics, on chemistry auto analyzer, modular P-800 by Roche, Cobas (Japan). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The data show that a single dose of the gene therapy carrying a short hairpin RNA to silence Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) resulted in a reduction of serum cholesterol of approximately 80% without any signs of toxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the absence of serum, the cells secrete apolipoprotein E, but not cholesterol. (sciencemag.org)
- Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
- The novel apolipoprotein A5 is present in human serum, is associated with VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins. (semanticscholar.org)
- Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (nature.com)
- Elevated IgM against Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine-modified Apolipoprotein A1 peptide 141-147 in Taiwanese with Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
- To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
- The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
- Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
- RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
- The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)
- All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (bmj.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative factor for neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
- A research team from Department of Neurology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China pointed out a non-invasive and fast method to genotype large samples to help to elucidate the role of apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele in neural regeneration in the cases with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (bio-medicine.org)
- The method developed for apolipoprotein E genotyping is accurate and reliable, and also suitable for genotyping large samples, which may help determine the role of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (bio-medicine.org)
- The apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk of developing late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. (medicalhealthtests.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- This could explain reduced capacity of the liver to synthesize apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B) molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, LDL). (thefreedictionary.com)
- At the end of 12 weeks, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) were significantly lower in the soy nut group compared with the control group. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Birmingham, AL), developer of the VAP Cholesterol Test, announced it has received a patent on its method to derive and report apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) using the Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Is vitellogenin an ancestor of apolipoprotein B100 of human low-density lipoprotein and human lipoprotein lipase? (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) plays a key role in peripheral fat deposition, it is not considered a suitable therapeutic target in obesity. (portlandpress.com)
- The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (cdc.gov)
- Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. (jci.org)
- Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
- 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (ahajournals.org)
- Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. (biomedsearch.com)
- Apolipoprotein M (APOM) has been suggested as a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which plays a crucial role behind the mechanism of HDL-mediated anti-atherosclerosis. (medsci.org)
Role of apolipoprotein1
- Apolipoproteins B form low-density lipoprotein (sometimes referred to as "bad cholesterol") particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of the other apolipoproteins form high-density lipoprotein ("good cholesterol") particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein levels and ratios are more significant than LDL cholesterol levels in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (medscape.com)
- Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
- Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (ahealthyme.com)
- Although apolipoprotein A levels can be measured, it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk. (ahealthyme.com)
- LDL-cholesterol (LDL- C), apolipoproteins (apo) B, CIII, and E, and by decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. (tudelft.nl)
- Cholesterol-loaded macrophages secrete cholesterol and apolipoprotein E. The current studies show that this secretion occurs by two independent pathways. (sciencemag.org)
- In the presence of monensin (an inhibitor of protein secretion), the cells secrete cholesterol, but little apolipoprotein E. After secretion, apolipoprotein E and cholesterol associate with high-density lipoprotein to form a particle that can deliver cholesterol to the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
- We conclude that apolipoprotein E does not function to remove cholesterol from macrophages but rather to participate in "reverse cholesterol transport. (sciencemag.org)
- Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Despite the hyperinsulinemia, atherosclerotic lesion size was not different between the 2 groups at time points up to 52 weeks of age when measured as en face lesion area in the aorta, cross-sectional plaque area in the aortic sinus, and cholesterol abundance in the brachiocephalic artery. (biomedsearch.com)
- High-dose recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(milano) mobilizes tissue cholesterol and rapidly reduces plaque lipid and macrophage content in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene . (wikidoc.org)
- On www.antibodies-online.com are 116 Apolipoprotein D (APOD) Antibodies from 22 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
- Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a small glycoprotein responsible for the local transport of small hydrophobic ligands. (semanticscholar.org)
- Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency is a very rare (rarer than LPL deficiency) autosomal recessive disorder in which apolipoprotein CII (apoC-II), a cofactor for LPL, is absent, the clearance of chylomicrons from the blood is greatly impaired and triglycerides (TG) accumulate in the plasma. (renalandurologynews.com)
- This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (nih.gov)
- We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (jci.org)
- OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, we observed in a previous small study decreased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in preoperative patients with kidney cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
Levels of apolipoprotein1
Lipids and apolipoproteins1
- 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
- 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
- Deficiency of apoC-II can also be verified by gel electrophoresis of the apolipoproteins contained in VLDL and chylomicrons on 2D gels. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
- In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. (medlineplus.gov)
- The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
- In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (abcam.com)
- It does not interchange between lipoprotein particles, as do the other apolipoproteins, and it is found in IDL and LDL after the removal of the Apo-A, E, and C. Apo-B48 is present in chylomicrons and their remnants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Antibodies directed against murine Apolipoprotein AI and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles specifically immunoprecipitated metabolically labelled radioactive apolipoproteins from the culture supernatant of 10.5 days post coitum (days p.c.) yolk sac visceral endoderm cultured in vitro. (nih.gov)
- Our Apolipoprotein L2 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
- Our Apolipoprotein C1 ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
- Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
- 2008). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and correlates with liver steatosis" . (wikipedia.org)
- Selenium has a positive effect on apolipoprotein B expression in hypercholesterolemia. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Apolipoprotein expression was examined in the postimplantation mouse embryo. (nih.gov)
- No evidence for apolipoprotein expression by other embryonic or extraembryonic tissues at this stage was obtained. (nih.gov)
- Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (pnas.org)
- Apolipoprotein D expression in human brain reactive astrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E". Science. (wikipedia.org)
- The ability of apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) to act as a high-affinity ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) was exploited to gain entry of HDL with AuNPs into glioblastoma cells. (dovepress.com)
- To the best of our knowledge, the vertebrate apolipoprotein L (APOL) family has not previously been ascribed to any definite pathophysiological function, although the conserved BH3 protein domain suggests a role in programmed cell death or an interference with mitochondrial processes. (spandidos-publications.com)