Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.TriglyceridesCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Apoprotein(a): A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hypobetalipoproteinemia, Familial, Apolipoprotein B: An autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutations of APOLIPOPROTEINS B, main components of CHYLOMICRONS and BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include abnormally low LDL, normal triglyceride level, and dietary fat malabsorption.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mice, Inbred C57BLDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Methaqualone: A quinazoline derivative with hypnotic and sedative properties. It has been withdrawn from the market in many countries because of problems with abuse. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Kringles: Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Egg Proteins, Dietary: Proteins found in eggs which are consumed as a food.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta: A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.AzetidinesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.FluorobenzenesImmunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Strikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chylomicron Remnants: Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.LDL-Receptor Related Proteins: A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amyloidosis, Familial: Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.

Assembly of very low density lipoprotein: a two-step process of apolipoprotein B core lipidation. (1/248)

The liver plays a primary role in lipid metabolism. Important functions include the synthesis and incorporation of hydrophobic lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters into the core of water-miscible particles called lipoproteins and the secretion of these particles into the circulation for transport to distant tissues. In this article, we present a brief overview of one aspect of the assembly process of very low density lipoproteins, namely, possible mechanisms for combining core lipids with apolipoprotein B. This is a complex process in which apolipoprotein B interacts with core lipids to form very low density lipoproteins by a two-step process that can be dissociated biochemically.  (+info)

Perfluorooctanoic acid, a peroxisome-proliferating hypolipidemic agent, dissociates apolipoprotein B48 from lipoprotein particles and decreases secretion of very low density lipoproteins by cultured rat hepatocytes. (2/248)

The hypolipidemic effect is evoked by various peroxisome proliferators. Modulation of gene transcription via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is generally responsible for this effect. In addition, we have found a PPAR-independent mechanism in which fibrates, known peroxisome proliferators, decrease hepatic secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) through inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (T. Nishimaki-Mogami et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1304 (1996) 21-31). In the present study, we show a novel mechanism by which perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a potent peroxisome proliferator and inhibitor of PE methylation, exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PFOA (100 microM) added to the medium rapidly decreased the secretion of triglyceride by cultured rat hepatocytes, which was independent of the activity of cellular PE methylation. Analysis of the density of apoB secreted into the medium showed that PFOA decreased apoB48 in VLDL, but increased apoB48 in the bottom d>1.21 fraction. This lipid-poor apoB48 was also generated by incubating medium that had been harvested from control cells with PFOA, indicating that PFOA has the ability to dissociate apoB48 from lipoprotein particles. Exposure of cells to PFOA for 2 h prior to the experiment was sufficient to generate lipid-poor apoB48, indicating that PFOA exerted its effect intracellularly. Taken together, the data suggest that a strong interaction of PFOA with apoB48 disturbs the association of apoB48 with lipids in the process of intracellular VLDL assembly, thereby inhibiting VLDL secretion. This study shows that the mechanisms of hypolipidemic effect caused by various classes of peroxisome proliferators are diverse.  (+info)

Antipeptide antibodies reveal interrelationships of MBP 200 and MBP 235: unique apoB-specific receptors for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins on human monocyte-macrophages. (3/248)

Two human monocyte-macrophage (HMM) membrane binding proteins, (MBP) 200 and 235, are receptor candidates that bind to the apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 domain in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins for uptake independent of apoE. Microsequence analysis of the purified reduced MBP 200R characterized tryptic peptides of MBP 200R. A synthetic peptide mimicking a unique, unambiguous 10-residue sequence (AEGLMVTGGR) induced antipeptide antibodies that specifically recognized MBP 200, 235 and 200R, in 1- and 2-dimensional analyses, indicating 1) the ligand binding protein was sequenced and 2) MBP 200 and 235 yielded MBP 200R upon reduction. These antibodies identified the MBPs in human blood-borne, THP-1, U937 MMs, and endothelial cells (EC) but not in human fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis located the MBPs on the MM surface as necessary for receptor function. The 10-residue, unambiguous MBP 200-derived sequence is unique, with no matches in extant protein databases. Antipeptide antibodies bind to the MBPs in reticuloendothelial cells that have this receptor activity, but not to proteins in cells that lack this receptor activity. These studies provide the first direct protein sequence and immunochemical data that a new, unique apoB receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exists in human monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells.  (+info)

Isolated rabbit enterocytes as a model cell system for investigations of chylomicron assembly and secretion. (4/248)

A method is described for the isolation of viable enterocytes from rabbit small intestine. The procedure can also be used to isolate populations of epithelial cells from the crypt/villus gradient. The isolated enterocytes synthesized and secreted apoB-48 and triacylglycerol in particles of the density of chylomicrons. Secretion was stimulated by addition of bile salt/lipid micelles. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that newly synthesized apoB-48 is degraded intracellularly and that degradation is inhibited by provision of lipid micelles, suggesting that regulation of chylomicron assembly and secretion is broadly similar to that of very low density lipoprotein assembly in hepatocytes. This procedure for preparation of isolated enterocytes will provide a useful model system for investigation of the molecular details of chylomicron assembly.  (+info)

Impaired postprandial clearance of squalene and apolipoprotein B-48 in post-menopausal women with coronary artery disease. (5/248)

It is not known in detail whether postprandial lipaemia is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. To investigate this, we administered an oral vitamin A/squalene/fat meal to 24 post-menopausal women with angiographically proven CAD who were not taking hormone replacement therapy, and to 30 healthy controls (18 without and 12 with hormone replacement therapy) to evaluate the effects of CAD on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. This was done by assessing squalene, triacylglycerols, retinyl palmitate and apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) during the subsequent 24 h. The subjects with CAD had significantly higher fasting concentrations of squalene and apoB-48 in triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) compared with the controls. The postprandial areas under the incremental curve of TGRL apoB-48, chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and TGRL squalene, and of retinyl palmitate in VLDL only, were significantly higher in women with CAD than in controls. Adjustment for fasting values did not eliminate the differences in postprandial squalene and apoB-48 between CAD and controls. The postprandial responses of control subjects were not influenced by hormone replacement therapy. The peaks of squalene and retinyl palmitate of the controls, but not of the women with CAD, occurred significantly earlier (P<0.01 for both) in chylomicrons than in VLDL. The findings suggest that lipoproteins that accumulate postprandially are labelled by dietary squalene, and that these lipoproteins may be atherogenic in post-menopausal women.  (+info)

Alimentary lipemia, postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and common carotid intima-media thickness in healthy, middle-aged men. (6/248)

BACKGROUND: Alimentary lipemia has been associated with coronary heart disease and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). This study was designed to investigate the relations of subclasses of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) with IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-six healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein (apo) E3/E3 genotype underwent an oral fat tolerance test and B-mode carotid ultrasound examination. The apo B-48 and apo B-100 contents of each fraction of TRLs were determined as a measure of chylomicron remnant and VLDL particle concentrations. In the fasting state, LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) and basal proinsulin (P<0. 05) were significantly related to IMT, whereas HDL cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, and insulin were not. In the postprandial state, plasma triglycerides at 1 to 4 hours (P<0.01 at 2 hours), total triglyceride area under the curve (AUC) (P<0.05), incremental triglyceride AUC (P<0.01), and the large VLDL (Sf 60 to 400 apo B-100) concentration at 3 hours (P<0.05) were significantly related to IMT. Multivariate analyses showed that plasma triglycerides at 2 hours, LDL cholesterol, and basal proinsulin were consistently and independently related to IMT when cumulative tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and systolic blood pressure were included as confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence for postprandial triglyceridemia as an independent risk factor for early atherosclerosis and also suggest that the postprandial triglyceridemia is a better predictor of IMT than particle concentrations of individual TRLs.  (+info)

Delayed clearance of postprandial large TG-rich particles in normolipidemic carriers of LPL Asn291Ser gene variant. (7/248)

The carrier frequency of Asn291Ser polymorphism of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is 4;-6% in the Western population. Heterozygotes are prone to fasting hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations especially when secondary factors are superimposed on the genetic defect. We studied the LPL Asn291Ser gene variant as a modulator of postprandial lipemia in heterozygote carriers. Ten normolipidemic carriers were compared to ten control subjects, who were selected to have similar age, sex, BMI, and apolipoprotein (apo)E-phenotype. The subjects were given a lipid-rich mixed meal and their insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. The two groups had comparable fasting triglycerides and glucose utilization rate during insulin infusion, but fasting HDL cholesterol was lower in carriers (1.25 +/- 0.05 mmol/L) than in the control subjects (1. 53 +/- 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.005). In the postprandial state the most pronounced differences were found in the very low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) fraction, where the carriers displayed higher responses of apoB-48 area under the curve (AUC), apoB-100 AUC, triglyceride AUC, and retinyl ester AUC than the control subjects. The most marked differences in apoB-48 and apoB-100 concentrations were observed late in the postprandial period (9 and 12 h), demonstrating delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich particles of both hepatic and intestinal origin. Postprandially, the carriers exhibited enrichment of triglycerides in HDL fraction. Thus, in normolipidemic carriers the LPL Asn291Ser gene variant delays postprandial triglyceride, apoB-48, apoB-100, and retinyl ester metabolism in VLDL1 fraction and alters postprandial HDL composition compared to matched non-carriers.  (+info)

Human apolipoprotein A-I kinetics within triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. (8/248)

Stable isotope methodology was used to determine the kinetic behavior of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction and to compare TRL apoA-I kinetics with that of apoA-I in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and TRL apoB-48. Eight subjects (5 males and 3 females) over the age of 40 were placed on a baseline average American diet and after 6 weeks received a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]-l-leucine for 15 h while consuming small hourly meals of identical composition. HDL and TRL apoA-I and TRL apoB-48 tracer/tracee enrichment curves were obtained by gas chromatography;-mass spectrometry. Data were fitted to a compartmental model to determine the fractional secretion rates of apoA-I and apoB-48 within each lipoprotein fraction. Mean plasma apoA-I levels in TRL and HDL fractions were 0. 204 +/- 0.057 and 134 +/- 15 mg/dl, respectively. The mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of TRL apoA-I was 0.250 +/- 0.069 and HDL apoA-I was 0.239 +/- 0.054 pools/day, with mean estimated residence times (RT) of 4.27 and 4.37 days, respectively. The mean TRL apoB-48 FCR was 5.2 +/- 2.0 pools/day and the estimated mean RT was 5.1 +/- 1.8 h. Our results indicate that apoA-I is catabolized at a slower rate than apoB-48 within TRL, and that apoA-I within TRL and HDL fractions are catabolized at similar rates.  (+info)

Stable isotope infusion protocol. Following a 14-h overnight fast, an IV will be inserted into a superficial vein in each forearm, one for infusion and one for sampling. At 7 am, a fasting blood sample will be drawn and the subject will begin to ingest the first of 15 identical small hourly meals, each equivalent to 1/15th of their daily food intake. This will be achieved by giving the patient the drink BOOST (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Ottawa, On) and, using the Harris Benedict Equation (HBE) to determine the number of total energy requirements. This is based on height, weight, age and activity factors. The subject will have nothing else to eat until the end of the study. At the same time an IV infusion with either heparin plus intralipid or saline or glycerol as indicated above will be started. At 10 am (3 hours after starting the ingestion of hourly feeds), a primed-constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine ([D3]L-leucine 98%, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, MA) will be started, as ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese men: A new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state. AU - Wong, A.T.Y.. AU - Chan, Dick. AU - Pang, Jing. AU - Watts, Gerald. AU - Barrett, Hugh. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Context: The mechanisms responsible for impaired chylomicron metabolism have not been adequately investigated in obese subjects. Objective: We aimed to compare apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese and lean men by developing a new model to describe the kinetics of apoB-48 particles in the postprandial state. Design, Setting, and Patients: Seven obese and 13 age-matched lean men were given an oral fat load. apoB-48 tracer to tracee ratios were measured after intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Outcomes Measures: Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein secreted from the pancreas into the digestive tract and from the lactating mammary gland into human milk. The physiological role of this protein is in cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamin ester hydrolysis and absorption. This encoded protein promotes large chylomicron production in the intestine. Also its presence in plasma suggests its interactions with cholesterol and oxidized lipoproteins to modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. In pancreatic tumoral cells, this encoded protein is thought to be sequestrated within the Golgi compartment and is probably not secreted. This gene contains a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the coding region that may influence the function of the encoded protein ...
1) Lipid intake, absorption and intestinal lipoprotein formation. By: Dr. Tso, Dr. Hui, Dr. Jandack, Dr. Sun, Dr. Howles, Dr Heubi, Dr. Woollett. ...
In agreement with a range of previous studies we report that a single session of moderate intensity exercise decreases fasting triacylglycerol concentration on the subsequent day. There was a trend towards a significant decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol concentration following the moderate fat mixed meal; however when postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were corrected for their corresponding fasting concentration, no decrease was observed. Despite the improvement in triacylglycerol concentration there was no reduction in fasting or postprandial chylomicron particle number. Insulin sensitivity, measured by HOMA score, and NEFA levels in either the fasting or postprandial states were also not altered in this group of subjects.. The extent of the reduction in fasting triacylglycerol concentration observed in the present study was 16% which is comparable to that reported in other studies [9-12]. In the fasting state the majority of circulating triacylglycerol resides associated with ...
Background: We previously demonstrated the presence and localization of hepatic apoB100 and intestinal apoB48 in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence (IF), immunoelectron microscopy, and western blot; however, co-localization of apoB48 and apoB100 with macrophages has not been shown.. Methods: In 3 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA), plaques were stained for apoB100/CD68 and apoB48/CD68 dual stain (DS)-IF. CD68 was used to localize macrophages. Slides were processed for antigen retrieval and incubated with primary antibodies(ApoB100: ab50069-100 rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing the C-terminal; apoB48:Shibayagi AKHB48E goat monoclonal antibody recognizing the C-terminal; CD68: Santa Cruz Biotechnologies SC-20060 mouse monoclonal antibody) and species-specific secondary antibodies (Invitrogen;A21447,A21235,A21244, or A11010).Confocal microscopy was used to visualize DS-IF.. Results: There is intense CD68 staining throughout the plaques, ...
Da) and in size (diameter 30-80 nm), have a plasma density of 0.93-1.006 g/mL, and migrate in the prebeta region on lipoprotein electrophoresis. These particles are rich in triglyceride (about 60% by weight in the core of the particle) and contain about 10% cholesteryl ester. On their surface these particles contain about 8% protein, 7% free cholesterol, and 15% phospholipids. Although they resemble chylomicrons, the major protein of these particles is apoB-100, compared to apoB-48 in chylomicrons. Other surface proteins include apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III. In the fed state, the average daily production of VLDL apoB-100 in humans is about 20 mg/kg/day.3 When VLDLs enter the bloodstream, the particles pick up apoE and other apolipoproteins from HDL. Most of the triglycerides in VLDLs are rapidly removed via the action of LPL, similar to intestinal chylomicron particles. In the fat, the free fatty acids are converted back into triglyceride for long-term energy storage. As with chylomicrons, ...
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Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor.
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อนึ่ง ครั้งแรกในการเขียนบล๊อค - *คนเขียน* บล๊อคนี้มีคนเขียนอยู่คนเดียวนะครับ นานๆเข้ามาเล่นที เอาประสบการณ์ที่เจอในชีวิต มาเล่าเป็นเรื่องราว ย้อนให้คิด ให้เตือนใจ เป็นแนวทาง มีอะไรก็มาแชร... ...
PMID 20170916] Association of selected ABC gene family single nucleotide polymorphisms with postprandial lipoproteins: results from the population-based Hortega study. ...
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B-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza (EC 2.4.1.38, UDP-galaktoza---glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein 4-beta-galaktozil-transferaza, beta-N-acetil-beta1-4-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid galaktoziltransferaza, uridin difosfogalaktoza-glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, beta-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, GalT, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom UDP-alfa-D-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza.[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , AbD \ MOUSE ANTI HUMAN APOLIPOPROTEIN B, Product Type Monoclonal Antibody, Specificity APOLIPOPROTEIN B, Target Species Human, Host Mouse, Format Purified, Isotypes IgG1, Applications E, R, Clone F< \ 0650-0954 for more molecular products just contact us
Complete information for APOBEC3B gene (Protein Coding), Apolipoprotein B MRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 3B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:12:7977648:8016835:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035465 transcript:OTTMUST00000090769 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Apob description:apolipoprotein B ...
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Dr Allan Goldman trained as a doctor in South Africa before coming to London in 1990. He completed his paediatric intensive care specialisation in both London and Australia. He took up the post of consultant at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) in 1998. ...
Lipins play important roles in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and gene regulation, and mutations in these genes cause lipodystrophy, myoglobinuria, and inflammatory disorders. While all lipins (lipin 1, 2, and 3) act as phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes, which are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate, lipin 1 has been the focus of most of the lipin-related research. In the current issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. show that while lipin 2 and 3 are expendable for the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into triglycerides, lipin 2/3 PAP activity has a critical role in phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron assembly in enterocytes.. ...
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
HIRATA, Mario Hiroyuki; BORELLI, Primavera; MARANHÃO, Raul Cavalcante. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich emulsions in rats with protein mal nutrition. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, New York, v. 12, n. 1 , p. 47-57, 1993. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.1993.10718282 ...
Homo sapiens apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D (putative) (APOBEC3D), mRNA. (H00140564-R01) - Products - Abnova
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Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
oxLDL particles contain MDA-modified peptide fragments derived from degradation of apoB-100.2 Autoantibodies against several such MDA-modified apoB-100 peptides have been found in humans.11 The present studies show that human IgG1 generated against one of these MDA peptide sequences reduces atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and that this is associated with reduced accumulation of the corresponding oxLDL-associated epitope and of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.. These observations are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating that immunization with oxLDL inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in mice and rabbits.9,10 Activation of this protective immunity is associated with a marked increase in oxLDL-specific IgG. We have recently identified a large number of MDA-modified sequences in apoB-100 that are recognized by antibodies present in human plasma.11 Immunization of apoE−/− mice with some of these peptide sequences resulted in inhibition of atherosclerosis to a similar ...
LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. Apo B may regulate cholesterol synthesis through its interaction with specific cell membrane receptors and by inhibition of HMG Co A reductase. This enzyme has been identified as the rate controlling enzyme in cholest
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Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease Peter P Toth1,2 1Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Preventive Cardiology, CGH Medical Center, Sterling, IL, USA Abstract: Approximately 25% of US adults are estimated to have hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride [TG] level ≥150 mg/dL [≥1.7 mmol/L]). Elevated TG levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia (TG levels ≥500 mg/dL [≥5.6 mmol/L]) is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Plasma TG levels correspond to the sum of the TG content in TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs; ie, very low-density lipoproteins plus chylomicrons) and their remnants. There remains some uncertainty regarding the direct causal role of TRLs in the progression of atherosclerosis and CVD, with cardiovascular outcome studies of TG-lowering agents, to date, having produced inconsistent
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of simvastatin on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetic dyslipidemia. T2 - A SILHOUETTE Trial Sub-study. AU - Miller, Michael. AU - Dobs, Adrian S. AU - Yuan, Z.. AU - Battisti, W. P.. AU - Palmisano, J.. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Objective: To determine if simvastatin effectively decreases the elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), TG-rich lipoproteins, and small, dense LDL particles, which are characteristic of diabetic dyslipidemia. Research design and methods: We conducted a prespecified analysis from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 6-week crossover trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and low HDL-C (,40 mg/dL). Each patient was randomized to 1 of 6 possible treatment arms; each patient received simvastatin 80 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, and placebo over 3 periods. We used the validated vertical auto profile (VAP) method to directly assess TG-rich lipoproteins and LDL subclasses. We assessed the efficacy of simvastatin to ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Adenovirus-mediated rescue of lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice. Lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is essential for high density lipoprotein maturation in mice. AU - Strauss, Juliane Gertrude. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
ApoB-containing lipoproteins are assembled in at least 2 stages.11,13,17 The first of these, with the initiation step resulting in VLDL precursors, involves the folding of apoB into a precise secretion-competent conformation by interaction with the membrane lipids of the endoplasmic reticulum.17 In the present work, particles similar to the VLDL precursors were secreted in association with the HDL fraction of the medium (Figure 2), as has been shown previously.18,19 The second step, the maturation phase, depends on fusion of the VLDL precursor with a neutral, lipid-rich, apoB-free particle to produce full-size VLDL.17. Insulin inhibits the overall assembly of VLDL from apoB (see review1) by a mechanism that involves an increase in apoB degradation. Insulin injection directly into the portal vein in humans decreases VLDL output into the hepatic vein.4 A postprandial decrease in splanchnic VLDL output after an oral glucose load has also been reported,20 and increased portal insulin resulting from ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to determine apolipoprotein B, the major protein in low-density lipids (LDLs) and present in large amounts (approximately 4%) in both very-low-density lipids (VLDLs) and chylomicrons. Apolipoprotein B is found in at least two forms: B-100 (Apo B-100) synthesized in the liver, and B-48 (Apo B-48), probably synthesized in the intestines. Levels of apolipoproteins in plasma are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases.. Entry Terms : "Apolipoprotein B Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B". UMDC code : 19817 ...
TABLE-US-00001 Embodiment R1 R2 R2a R20 R21 R3 R4 R5 A-1 a-1 b-1 c-1 c-1 c-1 d-1 e-1 f-1 A-2 a-2 b-2 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-2 e-2 f-2 A-3 a-3 b-3 c-3 c-3 c-3 d-3 e-3 f-3 A-4 a-4 b-4 c-3 c-3 c-3 d-4 e-4 f-4 B-1 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-3 B-2 a-3 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-3 B-3 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-3 f-3 B-4 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-4 f-3 B-5 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-4 B-6 a-4 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-3 B-7 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-3 f-4 B-8 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-4 f-4 B-9 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-4 B-10 a-3 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-3 f-3 B-11 a-3 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-4 f-3 B-12 a-3 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-3 f-4 B-13 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-4 f-4 B-14 a-3 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-4 f-4 B-15 a-4 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-3 f-3 B-16 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-4 f-3 B-17 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-3 e-4 f-4 B-18 a-4 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-4 f-3 B-19 a-4 b-3 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-4 f-4 B-20 a-3 b-4 c-2 c-2 c-2 d-4 e-4 f-4 C-1 a-3 ...
Representative light micrographs of H&E- (A-D), PAM- (E-H), and Oil RedO-stained (I, J) kidney sections from 36-week-old human apoB Tg.SHR-cp/cp (A, E, I),
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Compo- Compo- Compo- Compo- Compo- nent nent nent nent nent (A) (B) (C) (F) (D) Comparative (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 -- (D)-1 Example 1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [0.6] Example 1 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 2 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 3 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 4 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [10.0] [0.6] Example 5 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 6 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 7 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 8 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [10.0] [0.6] Example 9 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 10 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 11 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 12 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] ...
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Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene.[1][2] MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia.[2] Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. ...
The significant role of adaptive immunity in atherosclerosis is well established and makes it likely that antigen-presenting DCs are of importance for disease development. This was recently supported by studies that showed that transfer of LDL-loaded DCs into hypercholesterolemic mice accelerated atherosclerosis,31 and that an extended lifespan of DCs affected plaque inflammation and cholesterol metabolism.37 One may surmise that manipulation of DC activity could be used to reduce the autoimmune response to LDL components and ameliorate atherosclerosis.. We now show that DCs can be made tolerogenic to LDL autoimmunity by treating them with IL-10 while loading them with ApoB100. Such ApoB100-loaded tolerogenic DCs inhibited the proliferative and proinflammatory T-cell response to ApoB100 and promoted the development of regulatory T cells. When injected into atherosclerosis-prone huB100tg×Ldlr−/− mice, they induced antiinflammatory activity, reduced immune cell infiltration into lesions, and ...
TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that in the fasted state, the majority of chylomicrons are small enough for transcytosis to arterial subendothelial space and accelerate atherogenesis. However, the size distribution of chylomicrons in the absorptive state is unclear. This study explored in normolipidaemic subjects the postprandial distribution of the chylomicron marker, apoB-48, in a TAG-rich lipoprotein plasma fraction (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf,400), in partially hydrolysed remnants (Sf 20-400) and in a TAG-deplete fraction (Sf,20), following ingestion of isoenergetic meals with either palm oil (PO), rice bran or coconut oil. Results from this study show that the majority of fasting chylomicrons are within the potentially pro-atherogenic Sf,20 fraction (70-75 %). Following the ingestion of test meals, chylomicronaemia was also principally distributed within the Sf,20 fraction. However, approximately 40 ...
Order an Apolipoprotein B Blood Test to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and monitor treatment for high cholesterol.
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. ...
Navigation Data (b-13-72-np.050 [SINS]) YYYYMMDDHHMMSST YYYYMMDDHHMMSST 197207300820000 197209150119000 197209150519000 197209151245000 197209151310000 197209151310000 197209152044000 197209160920000 197209161354000 197209161354000 197209161415000 197209170134000 197209170540000 197209222345000 197209230022000 197209230022000 197209230116000 197209230116000 197209230208000 197209230208000 197209230330000 197209230330000 197209230540000 197209230600000 YYYYMMDDHHMMSST YYYYMMDDHHMMSST Magnetics Data (b-13-72-np.221_050) YYYYMMDDHHMMSST YYYYMMDDHHMMSST 197207302000000 197207310445000 197207310500000 197207310510000 197207310630000 197208011525000 197208020105000 197208020400000 197208020435000 197208021355000 197208022300000 197208031840000 197208040135000 197208040400000 197208040415000 197208040645000 197208040820000 197208041815000 197208050130000 197208051540000 197208060615000 197208060800000 197208060825000 197208061300000 197208061310000 197208062115000 197208070430000 197208070800000 ...
74.0 74.1 Mahley RW, Weisgraber KH, Huang Y (Aprili 2006). "Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in ... Polvikoski T, Sulkava R, Haltia M, et al. (Novemba 1995). "Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid ... Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D, et al. (Machi 1993). "Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and ... 48] Nadharia tete nyingine inasisitiza kwamba ugonjwa huu unaweza kuwa unasababishwa na kuvunjika kwa mayelinindani ya ubongo ...
48]。對於肝臟發生損傷但尚未確診的患者檢查何種免疫球蛋白升高情況
Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2014-06-12, 6: 121. PMC ... Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D. Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and increased frequency of ... Polvikoski T, Sulkava R, Haltia M. Apolipoprotein E, Dementia, and Cortical Deposition of Beta-amyloid Protein. The New England ... Mahley RW, Weisgraber KH, Huang Y. Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including ...
Gatto LM, Sullivan DR, Samman S (May 2003). "Postprandial effects of dietary trans fatty acids on apolipoprotein(a) and ... because palm oil results in adverse changes in the blood concentrations of LDL and apolipoprotein B just as trans fat does.[191 ... higher after the trans meal than after the cis meal and that lipoprotein concentrations were enriched in apolipoprotein(a) ... 48 (2): 61-6. doi:10.1159/000075591. PMID 14679314.. *^ "Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, nutrition and ...
"Entrez Gene: APOE apolipoprotein E".. *↑ Liu CC, Liu CC, Kanekiyo T, Xu H, Bu G (Feb 2013). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer ... "Alzheimer Research Forum: Meta-Analyses of apolipoprotein E AD Association Studies".. *↑ Weisgraber KH, Innerarity TL, Mahley ... Mahley RW, Rall SC (2002). "Apolipoprotein E: far more than a lipid transport protein". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... Apolipoproteins E Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ...
... and apolipoprotein A-I: significance for cardiovascular risk: the IDEAL and EPIC-Norfolk studies". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51 (6 ... ಕೊಲೆಸ್ಟರಾಲ್‌ ಸಾಗಣೆಯ ಅಣುಗಳ ಕನಿಷ್ಠ ಸಾಂದ್ರತೆಯ ವಿಧವಾದ ಕಿಲೋಮೈಕ್ರೋನ್ಸ್‌ನ ಕೋಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅಪೋಲಿಪೋಪ್ರೊಟೀನ್‌ B-48, ಅಪೋಲಿಪೋಪ್ರೊಟೀನ್‌ ಸಿ, ಮತ್ತು ...
These people have defects usually in either the LDL receptor or apolipoprotein B genes, both of which are responsible for LDL ... 14 (2): 243-48. doi:10.2174/092986707779313381. PMID 17266583.. *^ Blum A, Shamburek R (April 2009). "The pleiotropic effects ... Bibcode:1981AmJC...48..728H. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.06.054. PMID 28797470.. ...
... and familial inheritance of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4. In addition to these common factors, there are a number of other ... 104 (48): 19114-9. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10419114K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706167104. PMC 2141917. PMID 18025470.. ... 48] An ALS mouse model through gain-of-function mutations in SOD1 has been developed.[49]. c9orf72. A gene called c9orf72 was ...
... a specific isoform of apolipoprotein, APOE4, is a major genetic risk factor for AD. While apolipoproteins enhance the breakdown ... The best known genetic risk factor is the inheritance of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE).[44][45] Between 40 and ... "Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid protein". The New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (19): ... "Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease". Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 6: 121. doi:10.3389/ ...
Zhang, Jianying; Herscovitz Haya (February 2003). "Nascent lipidated apolipoprotein B is transported to the Golgi as an ... Linnik, K M; Herscovitz H (August 1998). "Multiple molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B during its maturation. ... The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ... Nussenzveig DR, Mathew S, Gershengorn MC (1995). "Alternative splicing of a 48-nucleotide exon generates two isoforms of the ...
... and apolipoproteins A and B.[24] ... 48] a combination of bemegride and amiphenazole;[51] and a ... 63 (1): 48-9. PMC 1810946. PMID 5417773.. *^ Baumslag, Naomi; T. Edelstein; J. Metz (January 3, 1970). "Reduction of Incidence ... Out of these, one person taking it with phenytoin and phenobarbital died, twelve became drowsy and four were comatose.[48] ... 48][49][50] The crystals are white,[47][49] needle-like,[48] shimmering, hexagonal plates consisting mainly of primidone.[47][ ...
For example, having two copies of ApoE4 (a variant of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E that also plays a role in Alzheimer's ... 48 (5): 1210-1217. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.116.015674. PMID 28341753.. *^ Santos-Franco JA, Zenteno M, Lee A (April 2008). " ... It is possible to screen for the development of vasospasm with transcranial Doppler every 24-48 hours. A blood flow velocity of ...
16] Independent pathways for secretion of cholesterol and apolipoprotein E by macrophages. Science. 1983 Feb 18;219(4586):871-3 ... 1987 Mar 13;48(5):827-35. [36] 42 bp element from LDL receptor gene confers end-product repression by sterols when inserted ... 1987 Mar 27;48(6):1061-9. [37] Acid-dependent ligand dissociation and recycling of LDL receptor mediated by growth factor ... 48] SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol-regulated proteolysis. Cell. 1994 Apr 8;77(1):53-62 ...
... and apolipoprotein A-I: significance for cardiovascular risk: the IDEAL and EPIC-Norfolk studies"। J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.। 51 (6 ... কাইলমাইক্রন যা সবচেয়ে কম ঘনত্বের কলেস্টেরল পরিবাহী অণু,তার মধ্যে থাকে অপোলিপোপ্রোটিন B-48, অপোলিপোপ্রোটিন C, অপোলিপোপ্রোটিন E ...
"Lack of macrophage fatty-acid-binding protein aP2 protects mice deficient in apolipoprotein E against atherosclerosis". Nature ... 48 (36): 8721-30. doi:10.1021/bi9009242. PMC 2746553. PMID 19645454.. *^ Laneuville, O; Breuer, D. K; Xu, N; Huang, Z. H; Gage ... 48] whereas 13(R)-HODE (and 9(R)-HODE, and 9(S)-HODE) are weak stimulators of the in vitro directed migration of the human ...
Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ... A blood sample is collected with a heel prick from the newborn 24-48 hours after birth and sent to the lab for analysis. In the ...
48-52, doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00438.x, PMID 18307699. ...
... because palm oil results in adverse changes in the blood concentrations of LDL and apolipoprotein B just as trans fat does.[185 ... higher after the trans meal than after the cis meal and that lipoprotein concentrations were enriched in apolipoprotein(a) ... 48 (2): 61-6. doi:10.1159/000075591. PMID 14679314.. *^ "Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, nutrition and ... "Postprandial effects of dietary trans fatty acids on apolipoprotein(a) and cholesteryl ester transfer" (PDF). Am J Clin Nutr ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare.[1] People ...
"DNA methylation polymorphisms precede any histological sign of atherosclerosis in mice lacking apolipoprotein E". The Journal ...
Apolipoprotein E)會導致類澱粉蛋白質斑塊在大腦中累積[83],因此推測Aβ是導致阿茲海默症的原因,進一步的證據則是來自於轉殖基因老鼠實驗,研究人員在實驗老鼠身上表現突變型人類APP基因,結果發現實驗老鼠的大腦會產生纖維狀的類澱粉蛋白質斑塊 ... Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid protein. N Engl J Med. November 1995,
Specifically too, the apolipoprotein *e4 allele is linked to Alzheimer's disease as well. Also, there is increased coronary ... research has been put on concerning apolipoprotein E genotypes; this polymorphism has three alleles (*e2, *e3, and *e4)and was ... In professional sports, Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947-48 season, when he played for the New York Knicks ... Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 ...
... such as apolipoprotein C2 may also be lost by increased filtration of proteins. ... 48] it may be possible to suspend the LMWH while maintaining the OACs for at least 6 months.[49] ...
Cornelius, C; Fastbom; Winblad; Viitanen (2004). "Aspirin, NSAIDs, risk of dementia, and influence of the apolipoprotein E ... 48 (8): 314-8. ISSN 0160-6689. PMID 3611032.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help); ,access-date=. requires ,url=. (help) ...
... is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, presentation of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to the corresponding receptors, and docking of proteases at the cell membrane, as well as in signaling for cell survival. All these biological properties are essential to the physiological activities of normal cells, but they are also associated with the pathologic activities of cancer cells. Experiments in animals have shown that targeting of CD44 by antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, and CD44-soluble proteins markedly reduces the malignant activities of various neoplasms, stressing the therapeutic potential of anti-CD44 agents. High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia.[24] Furthermore, because alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications generate many different CD44 sequences, including, perhaps, tumor-specific ...
... a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as apolipoprotein(a). ... Hemostatic factors: High levels of fibrinogen and coagulation factor VII are associated with an increased risk of CAD.[48] ...
apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding. • GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • mitogen-activated protein kinase ... 275 (48): 37742-51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004897200. PMID 10954711.. *^ Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, ... 21 (24): 3939-48. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205478. PMID 12032833.. *^ a b Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG (August 2000). " ...
Lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins AI, AII, B, CII, CIII and E in newborns. Biol Neonate 1991; 60(3-4): 187-92. ... Ruiz M, Frej C, Holmer A, Guo LJ, Tran S, Dahlback B. High-density lipoprotein-associated apolipoprotein M limits endothelial ... Duvillard L, Pont F, Florentin E, Galland-Jos C, Gambert P, Verges B. Metabolic abnormalities of apolipoprotein B-containing ... Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum. Pediatr Res 1980; 14(5): 757-61. ...
... a framework for identifying plasma biomarkers related to clinical outcomes in pediatric ARDS Apolipoprotein E4 causes age- ... health insurance data Highly scalable generation of DNA methylation profiles in singles cells Gain of toxic apolipoprotein E4 ... with trigeminal neurons Short-term modulation of the lesioned language network Functional recombinant apolipoprotein A5 that is ... the synthesis and alignment of ECM Structural stability and local dynamics in disease-causing mutants of human apolipoprotein A ...
... apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in patients with primary (heterozygous ... After 48 hours, there were no detectable levels of radioactivity in the plasma. ... The changes in lipid endpoints after an additional 48 weeks of treatment with Ezetimibe Tablets co-administered with ... 48% women, 85% Caucasians, 7% Blacks, 4% Hispanics, 3% Asians) and elevated LDL-C were treated with Ezetimibe Tablets 10 mg/day ...
The atheroprotective effects of systemic delivery of either apolipoprotein A-I (wtApoA-I) or the naturally occurring mutant ... Effects of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) on aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. ... Apolipoprotein A-I (wtApoA-I) is the primary protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL) [1] and like HDL cholesterol ... Parolini C, Chiesa G, Gong E, Caligari S, Cortese MM, Koga T, Forte TM, Rubin EM: Apolipoprotein A-I and the molecular variant ...
Apo-lipoprotein B100 (Apo B-100).. This hepatic protein is the protein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other ... Unfortunately, molecules that large do not readily get into living cells, at least not during the 24-48 hours of a typical ... comparison of in vivo PK/PD relationships for second-generation antisense oligonucleotides targeting apolipoprotein B-100. ... The comparison of RNA samples from resting and 48-hour activated cells showed a dramatic activation-dependent preference for ...
1999) The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is a high-affinity apolipoprotein A-I receptor facilitating ... A375 cells were plated on six-well plates and infected with virus containing various CDCP1 cDNAs and imaged 48 h later. (Scale ... 48) and activate anoikis-resistance pathways (49), among other mechanisms. These effects are all consistent with the effects of ...
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, ...
Radcliffe science award for research on link between apolipoprotein E2 homozygosity and retinitis pigmentosa, University of ...
Reduced hippocampal insulin-degrading enzyme in late-onset Alzheimers disease is associated with the apolipoprotein E-epsilon ... 48] Luchsinger JA , Tang MX , Stern Y , Shea S , Mayeux R (2001) Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimers disease and dementia ... Luchsinger et al., 2001 [48]. 2001. Longitudinal cohort study. Study of Black and Hispanic cohort for average of 4.3 years ...
S. D. Proctor, D. F. Vine, and J. C. L. Mamo, "Arterial retention of apolipoprotein B48- and B100-containing lipoproteins in ... "Oxidation of chylomicron remnant-like particles inhibits their uptake by THP-1 macrophages by apolipoprotein E-dependent ... 48]. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility that the effects observed in the present work are specifically due ...
Natural killer T cells are required for lipopolysaccharide-mediated enhancement of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E- ... Tsutsui, H., Kinugawa, S., Matsushima, S. & Yokota, T., Jan 1 2011, In : Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 48, 1 ... 48-52 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins * Clinical studies * Proteins and protein fractions * Carbohydrates * Popular about ... The histological response is recorded in 70-72% of patients with HBe-positive and HBe-negative chronic hepatitis B after 48 ... In patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B, against the background of lamivudine treatment for 48-52 weeks, a ... Entecavir most efficiently and quickly suppresses HBV replication within 48 weeks of treatment (67 and 90% efficacy with HBe- ...
... apolipoproteins of HDL (Gene C. Ness et. al. Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 56: pp. 121-129 (1998); G. J. Grover et. al. ... 0043]Compound 48 was synthesized following a series of reactions outlined in scheme 13. The starting material, 1,2,3-trichloro- ... The reaction was then treated with 3,6-dichloro-4-isopropyl pyridazine (7) (9.2 g, 48 mmol) followed by a rinse with N,N- ... Compound 46 was converted to compound 48 in two steps which were previously described. The 3,5-dibromophenyl analog of 48, the ...
Several apolipoproteins (APOA1, A4, B100, and C2) were also over-expressed in resistant heifers. Transcripts for alpha- ... 48.. Saban MR, ODonnell MA, Hurst RE, Wu XR, Simpson C, Dozmorov I, Davis C, Saban R: Molecular networks discriminating mouse ... 48]. The importance of RXR in cattle during C. oncophora infection has also recently been recognized [17]. Our future work will ...
Aged garlic extract suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(10). ...
... as well as apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a) in certain cases.The treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia is based on weight ...
... n polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) gene. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163(4), 393 - 394.*Google Scholar ... Influence of adiponectin and of a polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) gene. Hemodialysis International, 16(4), 481 - 490.* ...
Alfadda, Assim A., Al-Daghri, Nasser M., and Malabu, Usman H. (2008) Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in relation to ... Influence of apolipoprotein E, age and aortic site on calcium phosphate induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice. ... Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with serum C-reactive protein but not abdominal aortic aneurysm. Atherosclerosis, 209 ( ... Flavonols reduce aortic atherosclerosis lesion area in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ...
Ϊ???? ɽ????֬ B(APOB)ELISA kit,FLDB, LDLCQ4, apoB-100,apoB-48,apolipoprotein B,apolipoprotein B48 ???? ?? ...
Nutritional intervention study with argan oil in man: effects on lipids and apolipoproteins. Ann Nutr Metab 2005; 49: 196-201. ... 48.. ↵. Argan oil and postmenopausal Moroccan women: impact on the vitamin E profile. Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Jan;8(1):55-7. ... Argan oil does not contain essential omega-3, but the two main fatty acids found in argan oil are oleic acid (46-48 percent) ... Vitamin E serum level was increased 48). In another study carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 ...
ebook le singolarità della specie of the autotransfusion taste of Human apolipoprotein A-I sometimes is minimally the apoA-1 ... Offene Stellen 48 Mallat Z, Taleb S, Ait-Oufella H, Tedgui A. The ebook le singolarità of dry example total blood in ...
An elevated apolipoprotein B/A ratio is independently associated with microalbuminuria in male subjects with impaired fasting ... Apolipoprotein B/A-1 and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in ... Apolipoprotein B attenuates albuminuria-associated cardiovascular disease in prevention of renal and vascular endstage disease ... 44, n. 1, p. 45-48, Feb. 2000. CHANG, Y et al. Abdominal obesity, systolic blood pressure, and microalbuminuria in normotensive ...
Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice maintained on a Western-type diet were administered PBS (control), low-dose digoxin (1?mg/kg ... Digoxin reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.. Shi H1, Mao X1, Zhong Y1, Liu Y1, Zhao X1, Yu K1, Zhu R1, ... February 13, 2016 at 9:48 pm. Hi David,. Im afraid I was being a little casual in my associations (stomach problems being the ... February 17, 2016 at 7:48 pm. My input now might be considered a bit off topic since it relates to cancer but might still ...
Apolipoprotein A1, Alfa-2 macroglobulin, Haptoglobin) had been measured within a centralized lab. All the lab tests had been ... The reported incidence of mutations ranges widely between 2 and 48% [17C25] However, most large cohorts have reported the ...
... apolipoprotein E and ribosomal proteins S3 and P10 that each promote target cell survival6, 9. However, not all EVs released in ... 48.. Fu, L. et al. Multiple microRNAs regulate human FOXP2 gene expression by targeting sequences in its 3 untranslated region ... 1a-g). Peak trophic effects were observed 48 h following exposure with a minimum effective dose of 15 ADEVs per neuron (Fig. 1a ... After 48 h neurons were fixed, stained for MAP2, imaged and their dendritic branching parameters were quantified using ...
  • Low levels of IgG autoantibodies against the apolipoprotein B antigen p210 increases the risk of cardiovascular death after carotid endarterectomy. (lu.se)
  • Previous studies showed an association between autoantibodies against the apolipoprotein B (apoB) p210 antigen and a lower risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. (lu.se)
  • type III hyperlipoproteïnemie volgens Frederickson) wordt gekenmerkt door een verhoogd plasmacholesterol- en triglyceridegehalte ten gevolge van een gestoorde opneming door de lever van de atherogene chylomicron- en V.L.D.L.-remnants. (tudelft.nl)
  • ApoB-48 is an apolipoprotein specific to a lipoprotein, chylomicron (CM) which is formed in intestine and carries exogenous lipids derived from foods to the liver and peripheral tissues. (biovendor.com)
  • Outcomes Measures: Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. (edu.au)
  • In addition, deficiency of MMP-9 or MMP-12 protected apolipoprotein E-deficient mice against atherosclerotic media destruction and ectasia, mechanisms that implicate the involvement of these MMPs in aneurysm formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of RVX-208, the first oral agent designed to enhance apolipoprotein (apo) A-I synthesis. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo) E, which in the brain is secreted primarily from astrocytes, is the principal lipid carrier within the central nervous system (CNS) and, in humans, exists as three isoforms, namely APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4 ( Lane-Donovan and Herz, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms are key determinants of susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rather, the suppressed production of apo B-48 by n-3 fatty acids was associated with intracellular proteasome-mediated posttranslational downregulation in insulin-resistant and diabetic animals. (ovid.com)
  • As assessed in cultured jejunal explants incubated with either [14C]-oleic acid or [35S]-methionine, fish oil feeding resulted in diminished triglyceride-rich lipoprotein assembly and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 biogenesis, respectively. (ovid.com)
  • Intracerebroventricular exendin-4 reduced triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-triglyceride and -apolipoprotein B48 accumulation relative to vehicle-treated controls. (nih.gov)
  • 05 for all) higher secretion rates of apoB-48 in the fasted state (+145%)as well as at 3 hours (+70%), 4 hours (+82%), 5 hours (+82%), 6 hours (+76%), and 8 hours (+61%) in response to the fat load. (edu.au)
  • The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E levels and the use of such compounds in therapy, including cardiovascular and neurological disease states. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies (Anti β2 glycoprotein I antibodies) strongly associate with thrombotic forms of lupus and sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (bmj.com)
  • Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (bmj.com)
  • The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (bmj.com)