Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
An autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutations of APOLIPOPROTEINS B, main components of CHYLOMICRONS and BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include abnormally low LDL, normal triglyceride level, and dietary fat malabsorption.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A quinazoline derivative with hypnotic and sedative properties. It has been withdrawn from the market in many countries because of problems with abuse. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Relating to the size of solids.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Abstaining from all food.
Proteins found in eggs which are consumed as a food.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Assembly of very low density lipoprotein: a two-step process of apolipoprotein B core lipidation. (1/248)

The liver plays a primary role in lipid metabolism. Important functions include the synthesis and incorporation of hydrophobic lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters into the core of water-miscible particles called lipoproteins and the secretion of these particles into the circulation for transport to distant tissues. In this article, we present a brief overview of one aspect of the assembly process of very low density lipoproteins, namely, possible mechanisms for combining core lipids with apolipoprotein B. This is a complex process in which apolipoprotein B interacts with core lipids to form very low density lipoproteins by a two-step process that can be dissociated biochemically.  (+info)

Perfluorooctanoic acid, a peroxisome-proliferating hypolipidemic agent, dissociates apolipoprotein B48 from lipoprotein particles and decreases secretion of very low density lipoproteins by cultured rat hepatocytes. (2/248)

The hypolipidemic effect is evoked by various peroxisome proliferators. Modulation of gene transcription via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is generally responsible for this effect. In addition, we have found a PPAR-independent mechanism in which fibrates, known peroxisome proliferators, decrease hepatic secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) through inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (T. Nishimaki-Mogami et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1304 (1996) 21-31). In the present study, we show a novel mechanism by which perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a potent peroxisome proliferator and inhibitor of PE methylation, exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PFOA (100 microM) added to the medium rapidly decreased the secretion of triglyceride by cultured rat hepatocytes, which was independent of the activity of cellular PE methylation. Analysis of the density of apoB secreted into the medium showed that PFOA decreased apoB48 in VLDL, but increased apoB48 in the bottom d>1.21 fraction. This lipid-poor apoB48 was also generated by incubating medium that had been harvested from control cells with PFOA, indicating that PFOA has the ability to dissociate apoB48 from lipoprotein particles. Exposure of cells to PFOA for 2 h prior to the experiment was sufficient to generate lipid-poor apoB48, indicating that PFOA exerted its effect intracellularly. Taken together, the data suggest that a strong interaction of PFOA with apoB48 disturbs the association of apoB48 with lipids in the process of intracellular VLDL assembly, thereby inhibiting VLDL secretion. This study shows that the mechanisms of hypolipidemic effect caused by various classes of peroxisome proliferators are diverse.  (+info)

Antipeptide antibodies reveal interrelationships of MBP 200 and MBP 235: unique apoB-specific receptors for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins on human monocyte-macrophages. (3/248)

Two human monocyte-macrophage (HMM) membrane binding proteins, (MBP) 200 and 235, are receptor candidates that bind to the apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 domain in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins for uptake independent of apoE. Microsequence analysis of the purified reduced MBP 200R characterized tryptic peptides of MBP 200R. A synthetic peptide mimicking a unique, unambiguous 10-residue sequence (AEGLMVTGGR) induced antipeptide antibodies that specifically recognized MBP 200, 235 and 200R, in 1- and 2-dimensional analyses, indicating 1) the ligand binding protein was sequenced and 2) MBP 200 and 235 yielded MBP 200R upon reduction. These antibodies identified the MBPs in human blood-borne, THP-1, U937 MMs, and endothelial cells (EC) but not in human fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis located the MBPs on the MM surface as necessary for receptor function. The 10-residue, unambiguous MBP 200-derived sequence is unique, with no matches in extant protein databases. Antipeptide antibodies bind to the MBPs in reticuloendothelial cells that have this receptor activity, but not to proteins in cells that lack this receptor activity. These studies provide the first direct protein sequence and immunochemical data that a new, unique apoB receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exists in human monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells.  (+info)

Isolated rabbit enterocytes as a model cell system for investigations of chylomicron assembly and secretion. (4/248)

A method is described for the isolation of viable enterocytes from rabbit small intestine. The procedure can also be used to isolate populations of epithelial cells from the crypt/villus gradient. The isolated enterocytes synthesized and secreted apoB-48 and triacylglycerol in particles of the density of chylomicrons. Secretion was stimulated by addition of bile salt/lipid micelles. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that newly synthesized apoB-48 is degraded intracellularly and that degradation is inhibited by provision of lipid micelles, suggesting that regulation of chylomicron assembly and secretion is broadly similar to that of very low density lipoprotein assembly in hepatocytes. This procedure for preparation of isolated enterocytes will provide a useful model system for investigation of the molecular details of chylomicron assembly.  (+info)

Impaired postprandial clearance of squalene and apolipoprotein B-48 in post-menopausal women with coronary artery disease. (5/248)

It is not known in detail whether postprandial lipaemia is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. To investigate this, we administered an oral vitamin A/squalene/fat meal to 24 post-menopausal women with angiographically proven CAD who were not taking hormone replacement therapy, and to 30 healthy controls (18 without and 12 with hormone replacement therapy) to evaluate the effects of CAD on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. This was done by assessing squalene, triacylglycerols, retinyl palmitate and apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) during the subsequent 24 h. The subjects with CAD had significantly higher fasting concentrations of squalene and apoB-48 in triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) compared with the controls. The postprandial areas under the incremental curve of TGRL apoB-48, chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and TGRL squalene, and of retinyl palmitate in VLDL only, were significantly higher in women with CAD than in controls. Adjustment for fasting values did not eliminate the differences in postprandial squalene and apoB-48 between CAD and controls. The postprandial responses of control subjects were not influenced by hormone replacement therapy. The peaks of squalene and retinyl palmitate of the controls, but not of the women with CAD, occurred significantly earlier (P<0.01 for both) in chylomicrons than in VLDL. The findings suggest that lipoproteins that accumulate postprandially are labelled by dietary squalene, and that these lipoproteins may be atherogenic in post-menopausal women.  (+info)

Alimentary lipemia, postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and common carotid intima-media thickness in healthy, middle-aged men. (6/248)

BACKGROUND: Alimentary lipemia has been associated with coronary heart disease and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). This study was designed to investigate the relations of subclasses of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) with IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-six healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein (apo) E3/E3 genotype underwent an oral fat tolerance test and B-mode carotid ultrasound examination. The apo B-48 and apo B-100 contents of each fraction of TRLs were determined as a measure of chylomicron remnant and VLDL particle concentrations. In the fasting state, LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) and basal proinsulin (P<0. 05) were significantly related to IMT, whereas HDL cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, and insulin were not. In the postprandial state, plasma triglycerides at 1 to 4 hours (P<0.01 at 2 hours), total triglyceride area under the curve (AUC) (P<0.05), incremental triglyceride AUC (P<0.01), and the large VLDL (Sf 60 to 400 apo B-100) concentration at 3 hours (P<0.05) were significantly related to IMT. Multivariate analyses showed that plasma triglycerides at 2 hours, LDL cholesterol, and basal proinsulin were consistently and independently related to IMT when cumulative tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and systolic blood pressure were included as confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence for postprandial triglyceridemia as an independent risk factor for early atherosclerosis and also suggest that the postprandial triglyceridemia is a better predictor of IMT than particle concentrations of individual TRLs.  (+info)

Delayed clearance of postprandial large TG-rich particles in normolipidemic carriers of LPL Asn291Ser gene variant. (7/248)

The carrier frequency of Asn291Ser polymorphism of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is 4;-6% in the Western population. Heterozygotes are prone to fasting hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations especially when secondary factors are superimposed on the genetic defect. We studied the LPL Asn291Ser gene variant as a modulator of postprandial lipemia in heterozygote carriers. Ten normolipidemic carriers were compared to ten control subjects, who were selected to have similar age, sex, BMI, and apolipoprotein (apo)E-phenotype. The subjects were given a lipid-rich mixed meal and their insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. The two groups had comparable fasting triglycerides and glucose utilization rate during insulin infusion, but fasting HDL cholesterol was lower in carriers (1.25 +/- 0.05 mmol/L) than in the control subjects (1. 53 +/- 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.005). In the postprandial state the most pronounced differences were found in the very low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) fraction, where the carriers displayed higher responses of apoB-48 area under the curve (AUC), apoB-100 AUC, triglyceride AUC, and retinyl ester AUC than the control subjects. The most marked differences in apoB-48 and apoB-100 concentrations were observed late in the postprandial period (9 and 12 h), demonstrating delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich particles of both hepatic and intestinal origin. Postprandially, the carriers exhibited enrichment of triglycerides in HDL fraction. Thus, in normolipidemic carriers the LPL Asn291Ser gene variant delays postprandial triglyceride, apoB-48, apoB-100, and retinyl ester metabolism in VLDL1 fraction and alters postprandial HDL composition compared to matched non-carriers.  (+info)

Human apolipoprotein A-I kinetics within triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. (8/248)

Stable isotope methodology was used to determine the kinetic behavior of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction and to compare TRL apoA-I kinetics with that of apoA-I in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and TRL apoB-48. Eight subjects (5 males and 3 females) over the age of 40 were placed on a baseline average American diet and after 6 weeks received a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]-l-leucine for 15 h while consuming small hourly meals of identical composition. HDL and TRL apoA-I and TRL apoB-48 tracer/tracee enrichment curves were obtained by gas chromatography;-mass spectrometry. Data were fitted to a compartmental model to determine the fractional secretion rates of apoA-I and apoB-48 within each lipoprotein fraction. Mean plasma apoA-I levels in TRL and HDL fractions were 0. 204 +/- 0.057 and 134 +/- 15 mg/dl, respectively. The mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of TRL apoA-I was 0.250 +/- 0.069 and HDL apoA-I was 0.239 +/- 0.054 pools/day, with mean estimated residence times (RT) of 4.27 and 4.37 days, respectively. The mean TRL apoB-48 FCR was 5.2 +/- 2.0 pools/day and the estimated mean RT was 5.1 +/- 1.8 h. Our results indicate that apoA-I is catabolized at a slower rate than apoB-48 within TRL, and that apoA-I within TRL and HDL fractions are catabolized at similar rates.  (+info)

Stable isotope infusion protocol. Following a 14-h overnight fast, an IV will be inserted into a superficial vein in each forearm, one for infusion and one for sampling. At 7 am, a fasting blood sample will be drawn and the subject will begin to ingest the first of 15 identical small hourly meals, each equivalent to 1/15th of their daily food intake. This will be achieved by giving the patient the drink BOOST (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Ottawa, On) and, using the Harris Benedict Equation (HBE) to determine the number of total energy requirements. This is based on height, weight, age and activity factors. The subject will have nothing else to eat until the end of the study. At the same time an IV infusion with either heparin plus intralipid or saline or glycerol as indicated above will be started. At 10 am (3 hours after starting the ingestion of hourly feeds), a primed-constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine ([D3]L-leucine 98%, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, MA) will be started, as ...
Zucchini: 1/sqft Source: Shalagram Das at Kalachandji Community Garden, Dallas. Copyright © 1997-2011 CyberParent, LLC. All rights reserved.. Note: The opinions expressedherein are exclusively those of the writers or other participants and do not necessarily reflect theposition of CyberParent, LLC. They are not intended to take the place of, or the advice of, ahealth, legal, or other professional whose expertise you might need to seek.. ...
Uric acid is produced from the food you eat and the natural breakdown of your bodys cells. Most of this uric are filtered out by the kidneys then passed out of your body through urine. Yet, the level of uric acid in the blood gets too high when the kidney cant remove it by themselves or when the body is producing too much uric acid.. This high levels of uric acid can cause a painful and common condition called gout. This happens when crystals form within the joints. Additionally, high levels of uric acid can also cause kidney failure or kidney stones. In order to help the body excrete uric acid effectively through urine or produce less of it, a number of natural ways are available.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese men: A new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state. AU - Wong, A.T.Y.. AU - Chan, Dick. AU - Pang, Jing. AU - Watts, Gerald. AU - Barrett, Hugh. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Context: The mechanisms responsible for impaired chylomicron metabolism have not been adequately investigated in obese subjects. Objective: We aimed to compare apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese and lean men by developing a new model to describe the kinetics of apoB-48 particles in the postprandial state. Design, Setting, and Patients: Seven obese and 13 age-matched lean men were given an oral fat load. apoB-48 tracer to tracee ratios were measured after intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Outcomes Measures: Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein secreted from the pancreas into the digestive tract and from the lactating mammary gland into human milk. The physiological role of this protein is in cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamin ester hydrolysis and absorption. This encoded protein promotes large chylomicron production in the intestine. Also its presence in plasma suggests its interactions with cholesterol and oxidized lipoproteins to modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. In pancreatic tumoral cells, this encoded protein is thought to be sequestrated within the Golgi compartment and is probably not secreted. This gene contains a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the coding region that may influence the function of the encoded protein ...
1) Lipid intake, absorption and intestinal lipoprotein formation. By: Dr. Tso, Dr. Hui, Dr. Jandack, Dr. Sun, Dr. Howles, Dr Heubi, Dr. Woollett. ...
In agreement with a range of previous studies we report that a single session of moderate intensity exercise decreases fasting triacylglycerol concentration on the subsequent day. There was a trend towards a significant decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol concentration following the moderate fat mixed meal; however when postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were corrected for their corresponding fasting concentration, no decrease was observed. Despite the improvement in triacylglycerol concentration there was no reduction in fasting or postprandial chylomicron particle number. Insulin sensitivity, measured by HOMA score, and NEFA levels in either the fasting or postprandial states were also not altered in this group of subjects.. The extent of the reduction in fasting triacylglycerol concentration observed in the present study was 16% which is comparable to that reported in other studies [9-12]. In the fasting state the majority of circulating triacylglycerol resides associated with ...
Background: We previously demonstrated the presence and localization of hepatic apoB100 and intestinal apoB48 in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence (IF), immunoelectron microscopy, and western blot; however, co-localization of apoB48 and apoB100 with macrophages has not been shown.. Methods: In 3 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA), plaques were stained for apoB100/CD68 and apoB48/CD68 dual stain (DS)-IF. CD68 was used to localize macrophages. Slides were processed for antigen retrieval and incubated with primary antibodies(ApoB100: ab50069-100 rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing the C-terminal; apoB48:Shibayagi AKHB48E goat monoclonal antibody recognizing the C-terminal; CD68: Santa Cruz Biotechnologies SC-20060 mouse monoclonal antibody) and species-specific secondary antibodies (Invitrogen;A21447,A21235,A21244, or A11010).Confocal microscopy was used to visualize DS-IF.. Results: There is intense CD68 staining throughout the plaques, ...
Define intestinally. intestinally synonyms, intestinally pronunciation, intestinally translation, English dictionary definition of intestinally. adj. Of, relating to, or constituting the intestine: the intestinal wall; intestinal bacteria. in·tes′ti·nal·ly adv. American Heritage® Dictionary of the...
Da) and in size (diameter 30-80 nm), have a plasma density of 0.93-1.006 g/mL, and migrate in the prebeta region on lipoprotein electrophoresis. These particles are rich in triglyceride (about 60% by weight in the core of the particle) and contain about 10% cholesteryl ester. On their surface these particles contain about 8% protein, 7% free cholesterol, and 15% phospholipids. Although they resemble chylomicrons, the major protein of these particles is apoB-100, compared to apoB-48 in chylomicrons. Other surface proteins include apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III. In the fed state, the average daily production of VLDL apoB-100 in humans is about 20 mg/kg/day.3 When VLDLs enter the bloodstream, the particles pick up apoE and other apolipoproteins from HDL. Most of the triglycerides in VLDLs are rapidly removed via the action of LPL, similar to intestinal chylomicron particles. In the fat, the free fatty acids are converted back into triglyceride for long-term energy storage. As with chylomicrons, ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein secreted from the pancreas into the digestive tract and from the lactating mammary gland into human milk. The physiological role of this protein is in cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamin ester hydrolysis and absorption. This encoded protein promotes large chylomicron production in the intestine. Also its presence in plasma suggests its interactions with cholesterol and oxidized lipoproteins to modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. In pancreatic tumoral cells, this encoded protein is thought to be sequestrated within the Golgi compartment and is probably not secreted. This gene contains a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the coding region that may influence the function of the encoded protein ...
Elisha Cuthbert @ TRL Canuck cutie Elisha Cuthbert shows off her hockey skills on TRL from its Times Square studios in NYC on Thursday (taped on Monday). The actress has been promoting…
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Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor.
Phillips, M. L., Pullinger, C., Kroes, I., Kroes, J., Hardman, D. A., Chen, G., Curtiss, L. K., Gutierrez, M. M., Kane, J. P., Schumaker, V. N. A single copy of apolipoprotein b-48 is present on the human chylomicron remnant Journal of Lipid Research 1997 38:1170-1177 PMID:9215545 ...
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Metabolic syndrome the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include high triglycerides, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess abdominal fat, and low HDL is rampant throughout America, with one in four adults now showing established degrees of this condition.15 The more features of metabolic syndrome present, the more likely postprandial lipoproteins are elevated even if fasting triglycerides are normal. In the presence of metabolic syndrome, postprandial lipoproteins are not only present at higher levels, but may persist longer in the bloodstream.16 Full-blown metabolic syndrome is not required for a person to exhibit excessive postprandial lipoproteins. Having hypertension alone, for example, suggests the presence of greater postprandial lipoprotein levels.16,17 People with metabolic syndrome exhibit higher blood sugar after meals (usually 140 mg/dL or more), since sugar is unable to enter into the body s tissues. Now deprived of sugar, these tissues (particularly muscle) turn to ...
Title:Misfolding of Apoprotein B-100, LDL Aggregation and 17-β -estradiol in Atherogenesis. VOLUME: 21 ISSUE: 20. Author(s):R. Brunelli, M. De Spirito, G. Mei, M. Papi, G. Perrone, C. Stefanutti and T. Parasassi. Affiliation:Unità di Tecniche Terapeutiche Extracorporee - Centro per lo Studio, Diagnosi, Terapia delle Dislipidemie e Prevenzione della Aterosclerosi- Immunoematologia e Medicina Trasfusionale Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare- Università di Roma Sapienza, Roma, Italy.. Keywords:Amyloid, electronegative low density lipoprotein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, phospholipase A2, subendothelial droplets, 17-β-estradiol.. Abstract:The long quest for a missing mechanistic rationale accounting for the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been focused on various possible modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL), turning this physiological cholesterol carrier into a damaging agent able to trigger atherogenesis and later the ...
Olive oil increases the number of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron particles compared with other oils: an effect retained when a second standard meal is fed.: T
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Catalytic component of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme complex which is responsible for the postranscriptional editing of a CAA codon for Gln to a UAA codon for stop in the APOB mRNA. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation.
PMID 20170916] Association of selected ABC gene family single nucleotide polymorphisms with postprandial lipoproteins: results from the population-based Hortega study. ...
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B-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza (EC, UDP-galaktoza---glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein 4-beta-galaktozil-transferaza, beta-N-acetil-beta1-4-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid galaktoziltransferaza, uridin difosfogalaktoza-glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, beta-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, GalT, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom UDP-alfa-D-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza.[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Epidemiological investigation showed that triglyceride is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, but it is difficult to distinguish the effects of different lipoproteins by an experimental system in vivo, the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in atheroscler...
Dive into the research topics of Effect of Simvastatin on markers of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Complete information for APOBEC3B gene (Protein Coding), Apolipoprotein B MRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 3B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:12:7977648:8016835:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035465 transcript:OTTMUST00000090769 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Apob description:apolipoprotein B ...
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Dr Allan Goldman trained as a doctor in South Africa before coming to London in 1990. He completed his paediatric intensive care specialisation in both London and Australia. He took up the post of consultant at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) in 1998. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 particles to race/ethnicity, apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, and cardiovascular risk factors results from the dallas heart study. AU - Tsimikas, Sotirios. AU - Clopton, Paul. AU - Brilakis, Emmanouil S. AU - Marcovina, Santica M.. AU - Khera, Amit. AU - Miller, Elizabeth R.. AU - de Lemos, James A. AU - Witztum, Joseph L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/4/7. Y1 - 2009/4/7. N2 - Background-Elevated levels of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) on apolipoprotein B-100 particles (OxPL/apoB) are associated with cardiovascular disease and predict new cardiovascular events. Elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in whites and also in blacks if they carry small apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] isoforms. The relationship of OxPL/apoB levels to race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and apo(a) isoforms is not established. Methods and ...
Lipins play important roles in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and gene regulation, and mutations in these genes cause lipodystrophy, myoglobinuria, and inflammatory disorders. While all lipins (lipin 1, 2, and 3) act as phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes, which are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate, lipin 1 has been the focus of most of the lipin-related research. In the current issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. show that while lipin 2 and 3 are expendable for the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into triglycerides, lipin 2/3 PAP activity has a critical role in phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron assembly in enterocytes.. ...
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
HIRATA, Mario Hiroyuki; BORELLI, Primavera; MARANHÃO, Raul Cavalcante. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich emulsions in rats with protein mal nutrition. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, New York, v. 12, n. 1 , p. 47-57, 1993. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.1993.10718282 ...
Homo sapiens apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D (putative) (APOBEC3D), mRNA. (H00140564-R01) - Products - Abnova
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Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
oxLDL particles contain MDA-modified peptide fragments derived from degradation of apoB-100.2 Autoantibodies against several such MDA-modified apoB-100 peptides have been found in humans.11 The present studies show that human IgG1 generated against one of these MDA peptide sequences reduces atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and that this is associated with reduced accumulation of the corresponding oxLDL-associated epitope and of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.. These observations are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating that immunization with oxLDL inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in mice and rabbits.9,10 Activation of this protective immunity is associated with a marked increase in oxLDL-specific IgG. We have recently identified a large number of MDA-modified sequences in apoB-100 that are recognized by antibodies present in human plasma.11 Immunization of apoE−/− mice with some of these peptide sequences resulted in inhibition of atherosclerosis to a similar ...
Define chylomicron. chylomicron synonyms, chylomicron pronunciation, chylomicron translation, English dictionary definition of chylomicron. n. A lipoprotein formed in the small intestine that transports dietary fats and cholesterol through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream. Chylomicrons...
Folding of the amino-terminal domain of apolipoprotein B initiates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-dependent lipid transfer to nascent very low density
LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. Apo B may regulate cholesterol synthesis through its interaction with specific cell membrane receptors and by inhibition of HMG Co A reductase. This enzyme has been identified as the rate controlling enzyme in cholest
APOLB : Collection Container/Tube: Preferred: Serum gel Acceptable: Red top Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 1 mL Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot 1 mL of serum.
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Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a component of HDL that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high ... "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". Muffat J, Walker DW (January 2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging ... Apolipoproteins+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Applied Research on Apolipoproteins ...
Apolipoprotein+H at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoprotein H and Applied Research ... The first four domains found in Apolipoprotein H resemble each other, however the fifth one appears to be different. This ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Apolipoprotein H (B2G1) (Articles ... β2-glycoprotein 1, also known as beta-2 glycoprotein 1 and Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), is a 38 kDa multifunctional plasma protein ...
... (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene. Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein ... Su Q, Tsai J, Xu E, Qiu W, Bereczki E, Santha M, Adeli K (2009). "Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Apolipoprotein B100 Cromwell WC, Otvos JD, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Sullivan L, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, ... Overproduction of apolipoprotein B can result in lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver ...
Myklebost O, Rogne S (August 1986). "The gene for human apolipoprotein CI is located 4.3 kilobases away from the apolipoprotein ... "Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I". Puppione DL, Ryan CM, Bassilian S, Souda P, Xiao X, Ryder OA, Whitelegge JP (March 2010 ...
Lin CC, Tsai P, Sun HY, Hsu MC, Lee JC, Wu IC, Tsao CW, Chang TT, Young KC (Nov 2014). "Apolipoprotein J, a glucose-upregulated ... Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75-80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular ... Trougakos IP, Gonos ES (Nov 2002). "Clusterin/apolipoprotein J in human aging and cancer". The International Journal of ... Clusterin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoproteins and Applied Research (Articles ...
HDL particles donate apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent VLDL particle. Once loaded with apolipoproteins C- ... and apolipoproteins. Plasma lipoproteins are divided into seven classes based on size, lipid composition, and apolipoproteins. ... resulting in HDL donation of apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent chylomicron. The chylomicron at this stage ... LDL contains apolipoprotein B (apoB), which allows LDL to bind to different tissues, such as the artery wall if the glycocalyx ...
33-43 Amrine-Madsen, H.; Koepfli, K. P.; Wayne, R. K.; Springer, M. S. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, ... pp.31-48) Xue Lv, Jingyang Hu, Yiwen Hu, Yitian Li, Dongming Xu, Oliver A. Ryder, David M. Irwin, Li Yu (2021.) "Diverse ...
Olofsson SO, Borèn J (November 2005). "Apolipoprotein B: a clinically important apolipoprotein which assembles atherogenic ... Apolipoprotein B can exist in two forms: B-100 and B-48. Apolipoprotein B-100 is present on several lipoproteins, including ... Apolipoprotein B-100 has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. ApoB is ancestrally universal to all animals, as ... Huebbe P, Rimbach G (August 2017). "Evolution of human apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoforms: Gene structure, protein function and ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ...
Kim SY, Park SM, Lee ST (January 2006). "Apolipoprotein C-II is a novel substrate for matrix metalloproteinases". Biochem. ... "Activation of lipoprotein lipase by native and synthetic fragments of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... "Identification of a lipoprotein lipase cofactor-binding site by chemical cross-linking and transfer of apolipoprotein C-II- ... 39 (7): 1335-48. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)32514-1. PMID 9684736. Ma Y, Henderson HE, Liu MS, Zhang H, Forsythe IJ, Clarke- ...
2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Tosti E, Waldbaum L, Warshaw G, et al. (2004). "The stress ...
The apolipoprotein E (ApoE), that allows the transport and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol, has an interaction with ... "Epidermal expression of apolipoprotein E gene during fin and scale development and fin regeneration in zebrafish". ... 48 (2-3): 233-247. doi:10.1387/ijdb.15272389. PMID 15272389. Monnot, M.J.; Babin, P.J.; Poleo, G.; Andre, M.; Laforest, L.; ... 48 (2-3): 217-231. doi:10.1387/ijdb.15272388. PMID 15272388. Sire, J.Y. (2001). "Teeth outside the mouth in teleost fishes: how ...
"Hyperlipidemia in patients with apolipoprotein E 2/2 phenotype: apolipoprotein A5 S19W mutation as a cofactor". Clinical ... Apolipoprotein A-V is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA5 gene on chromosome 11. It is significantly expressed in ... Yin YW, Sun QQ, Wang PJ, Qiao L, Hu AM, Liu HL, Wang Q, Hou ZZ (2014-01-01). "Genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein A5 gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOA5 apolipoprotein A-V". "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". Retrieved 2016-10-11. Nilsson SK, ...
"Apolipoprotein CIII Induces Expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells and Increases ... 48 (1): 8-13. doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.1.8. PMC 2916155. PMID 20717506. Kawakami, Akio; Aikawa, Masanori; Alcaide, Pilar; ...
2007). "The relationship of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activation protein and apolipoprotein E gene ... 283 (48): 33772-83. doi:10.1074/jbc.M806108200. PMC 2586246. PMID 18835813. Nieminen T, Matinheikki J, Nenonen A, et al. ( ...
These molecules contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shells, and can be degraded by lipoprotein lipase on ... adjusted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on the ... apolipoprotein C, and apolipoprotein E (the principal cholesterol carrier in the brain) in their shells. Chylomicrons carry ... Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors concentrate in clathrin-coated pits. Both LDL and its receptor form ...
... and apolipoproteins. In 2001, the fossil limbs of a Pakicetus (amphibioid cetacean the size of a wolf) and Ichthyolestes (an ... apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (2): 225 ... 48 (3): 964-85. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.046. PMID 18590827. Gatesy, John; Milinkovitch, Michel; Waddell, Victor; Stanhope, ... 48 (1): 6-20. doi:10.1080/106351599260409. PMID 12078645. Madsen, Ole; Willemsen, Diederik; Ursing, Björn M.; Arnason, Ulfur; ...
... polymorphisms on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects". Biochimica et ... 400 (1-2): 48-55. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.10.009. PMID 18996102. Jiang ZY, Jiang CY, Wang L, Wang JC, Zhang SD, Einarsson C, ...
apolipoprotein B deficiency, a related condition, is associated with deficiencies of apolipoprotein B.) The MTTP gene provides ... It is caused by a mutation in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein resulting in deficiencies in the apolipoproteins B-48 ... Low levels of plasma chylomicron are also characteristic.[citation needed] There is an absence of apolipoprotein B. On ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... 55 (10): 639-48. doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.96. PMID 20739942. Borck G, Rainshtein L, Hellman-Aharony S, Volk AE, Friedrich K, Taub E ...
... key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and apolipoprotein E." J. Lipid Res. 40 (1): 1-16. doi: ... Marynen P, Zhang J, Cassiman JJ, Van den Berghe H, David G (1989). "Partial primary structure of the 48- and 90-kilodalton core ...
2002). "Codon 311 (Cys --> Ser) polymorphism of paraoxonase-2 gene is associated with apolipoprotein E4 allele in both ... 276 (48): 44444-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105660200. PMID 11579088. Hong SH, Song J, Min WK, Kim JQ (2002). "Genetic variations of ... 48 (9): 469-75. doi:10.1007/s10038-003-0063-x. PMID 12955589. Shi J, Zhang S, Tang M, et al. (2004). "Possible association ...
... and by apolipoprotein C, located on the surface of the particle. Using zonal ultracentrifugation, lipoprotein-X can be divided ... 48 (7): 1211-23. doi:10.1172/JCI106085. PMC 322342. PMID 4978447. Seidel D, Alaupovic P, Furman RH, McConathy WJ (December 1970 ... into three distinct populations: Lp-X1, Lp-X2, and Lp-X3, differing in density and apolipoprotein composition. The pathogenesis ...
November 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". ... 48 (3): 177-82. doi:10.1136/jmg.2010.084608. PMID 21147908. S2CID 8699153. IntAct. "TMEM70 interactions". ...
"Ectopic beta-chain of ATP synthase is an apolipoprotein A-I receptor in hepatic HDL endocytosis". Nature. 421 (6918): 75-9. ... J. 383 (Pt 2): 237-48. doi:10.1042/BJ20040647. PMC 1134064. PMID 15242332. Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, ...
Becher, J-C (9 September 2005). "The distribution of apolipoprotein E alleles in Scottish perinatal deaths". Journal of Medical ... 48 (14): 1710. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2011.06.360. Modi, Neena; McIntosh, Neil (June 2011). "The effect of the neonatal ...
... of 5-HT2 Receptors Reduces Inflammation in Vascular Tissue and Cholesterol Levels in High-Fat Diet-Fed Apolipoprotein E ... 48 (1): 104-112. doi:10.1038/s41386-022-01389-z. ISSN 1740-634X. PMC 9700802. PMID 36123427. S2CID 252381170. Nau, F.; Miller, ...
During the acute-phase response, elevated levels of SAA1 in the plasma displaces ApoA-I and becomes a major apolipoprotein of ... When released into blood circulation, SAA1 is present as an apolipoprotein associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). SAA1 ... "Deficiency of endogenous acute phase serum amyloid A does not affect atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice ... 48 (4): 410-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3083.1998.00394.x. PMID 9790312. S2CID 44779960. Cheng N, He R, Tian J, Ye PP, Ye RD (Jul ...
R. Puri, Y. Kataoka, K. Wolski, A. Gordon, J. Johansson, N.C. Wong, S. Nissen, S. Nicholls, Effects of an apolipoprotein A-1 ... J. Johansson, A. Gordon, C. Halliday, N.C. Wong, Effects of RVX-208 on major adverse cardiac events (MACE), apolipoprotein A-I ... E. McNeill, RVX-208, a stimulator of apolipoprotein AI gene expression for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Current ... and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) levels, as well as decreases in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Reduction ...
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A, also known as APOBEC3A, or A3A is a gene of the APOBEC3 ... "Entrez Gene: APOBEC3A apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A". Narvaiza I, Linfesty DC, Greener BN ... 48 (3): 1353-1371. doi:10.1093/nar/gkz1164. PMC 7026630. PMID 31943071. Bohn MF, Shandilya SM, Silvas TV, Nalivaika EA, Kouno T ...
Berge G, Sando SB, Rongve A, Aarsland D, White LR (November 2014). "Apolipoprotein E ε2 genotype delays onset of dementia with ... November 2018). "Non-pharmacological interventions for Lewy body dementia: a systematic review". Psychol Med (Review). 48 (11 ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... The milk can also be fermented for 36-48 hours, the oil removed, and the cream heated to remove any remaining oil. A third ...
... and apolipoproteins A and B. It was first reported to exacerbate hepatic porphyria in 1975. In 1981, it was shown that ... 48 (1): 61-79. doi:10.1093/jn/48.1.61. PMID 13000492. Garland, Hugh (August 1957). "Drugs used in the management of epilepsy". ...
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (broad beta disease, remnant removal disease) Familial ... 48 (12): 1275-82, quiz 1282. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04167.x. PMID 20415668. S2CID 1235300. Skin Disorders at Curlie All ... 36 (3): 130-48. doi:10.3322/canjclin.36.3.130. PMID 3011224. S2CID 30429984. Tunzi M, Gray GR (2007). "Common skin conditions ... 76 (3): 239-48. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.62962. PMID 20445293. Nosrati N, Harting MS, Yang DJ, et al. (2008). "Dermatology ...
... and familial inheritance of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4. In addition to these common factors, there are a number of other ... 104 (48): 19114-9. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10419114K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706167104. PMC 2141917. PMID 18025470. Zhang W, Tian Z, Sha S ...
November 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". ... 48 (3-4): 129-30. PMID 11934214. Fullerton JM, Tiwari Y, Agahi G, Heath A, Berk M, Mitchell PB, Schofield PR (August 2010). " ...
Although they all contain lipids (fats), cholesterol, and proteins called apolipoproteins, some types are spherical while ... 48 (9): 1782-1790. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.06.066. PMID 17084250. Keene, D; Price, C; Shun-Shin, MJ; Francis, DP (Jul 18, 2014 ... 48 (9): 1774-1781. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.06.067. PMID 17084249. Archived from the original on 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2006-12- ...
"Derepression of microRNA-mediated protein translation inhibition by apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide- ... 81 (3): 839-48. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.09.048. PMC 3056910. PMID 21093163. Fu Y, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Wei X, Zhang B, ...
2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ... 136 (2): 235-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.018. PMC 2638021. PMID 19135240. Portal: Biology This article incorporates text ...
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been shown to be an important and common factor in CNS responses. ApoE controls the redistribution ... However, by 48 hours post-irradiation, ROS levels fell below controls and coincided with minor reductions in mitochondrial ...
"Reduced hippocampal insulin-degrading enzyme in late-onset Alzheimer's disease is associated with the apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 ... 285 (48): 37405-14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.149468. PMC 2988346. PMID 20876579. Amata O, Marino T, Russo N, Toscano M (October ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ... 48 In 1986 Baron and Kenny introduced principles for detecting and evaluating mediation in a system of linear equations. As of ...
With oral estradiol, there are increases in circulating triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein ... 360 (1): 48-58. doi:10.1124/jpet.116.237412. PMC 5193073. PMID 27789681. Alfred S. Wolf; H.P.G. Schneider (12 March 2013). ... 48 (1): 4-14. doi:10.3109/21681805.2013.861508. PMID 24256023. S2CID 34563641. Phillips I, Shah SI, Duong T, Abel P, Langley RE ... 54 (s51): 48-61. doi:10.3109/00016347509156433. ISSN 0001-6349. Kopera H (1991). "Hormone der Gonaden". Hormonelle Therapie für ...
... lanosterol cyclase inhibits very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) production and enhances low-density ... Ro 48-8071): comparison to simvastatin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 56 (4): 439-49. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00083-5. PMID ...
"Antisense Inhibition of Apolipoprotein C-III in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 ( ... John M, McKinnon EJ, James IR, Nolan DA, Herrmann SE, Moore CB, White AJ, Mallal SA (May 2003). "Randomized, controlled, 48- ...
In anti-cardiolipin-mediated autoimmune disease, there is a dependency on the apolipoprotein H for recognition. Bartonellosis ... apolipoprotein H)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (11): 4120-4. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4120M. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.11.4120. ... 48 (7): 1559-1570. doi:10.1194/jlr.M600551-JLR200. PMID 17426348. Oram J. F. (2000). "Tangier disease and ABCA1". Biochim. ...
FibroSure uses quantitative results of five serum biochemical markers, α2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, ... Apolipoprotein A1, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), Total bilirubin, and Alanine transaminase (ALT). ALT is used in a ... 48 (5): 765-73. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2008.01.025. PMID 18314219. Thabut; et al. (2006). "Hepatitis C in 6,865 patients 65 yr or ...
Basu SK, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Feb 1983). "Independent pathways for secretion of cholesterol and apolipoprotein E by ... 48 (5): 827-35. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90079-1. PMID 3815525. S2CID 35887205. Südhof TC, Russell DW, Brown MS, Goldstein JL ( ... 48 (6): 1061-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90713-6. PMID 3030558. S2CID 42788737. Davis CG, Goldstein JL, Südhof TC, Anderson RG ...
High levels of lipoprotein(a), a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as apolipoprotein(a). ... 48. doi:10.1007/s11883-017-0685-7. PMID 29038899. S2CID 4630668. Wang HX, Leineweber C, Kirkeeide R, Svane B, Schenck- ...
... a number of key technical barriers in delivering the mRNA molecule into the host cell as distributed through apolipoprotein E ( ... 103 (48): 18054-9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605389103. PMC 1838705. PMID 17110445. Le LQ, Lorenz Y, Scheurer S, Fötisch K, Enrique E, ... 48 (7): 1773-1790. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.04.017. PMID 20399824. Berkhout B (April 2004). "RNA interference as an antiviral ...
... of calponin 2 in macrophages also significantly attenuated the development of atherosclerosis lesions in apolipoprotein E ... 271 (48): 30336-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.48.30336. PMID 8939993. North AJ, Gimona M, Cross RA, Small JV (1994). "Calponin is ...
... apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), peroxiredoxin (PRDX2) and annexin A (ANXA)". Comparative proteomic analyses of 11 cell lines ... 14 (1): 35-48. doi:10.1038/nrg3356. PMID 23207911. S2CID 10248311. Wilhelm, Mathias; Schlegl, Judith; Hahne, Hannes; Gholami, ...
Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... Saura, J., Petegnief, V., Wu, X., Liang, Y. and Paul, S.M. (2003) Microglial Apolipoprotein E and Astroglial Apolipoprotein J ... Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... LPS Regulates Apolipoprotein E and Aβ Interactionswith Effects on Acute Phase Proteins and Amyloidosis () ...
Beta apolipoproteins. Beta apolipoproteins are the largest of the apolipoproteins. They are critically important for the ... Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... CMs, VLDL, and LDL carry apolipoproteins on their surface; these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta ... The 2 beta apolipoproteins are B-100 and B-48. ApoB-100 is carried on VLDL and the lipoproteins derived from its metabolism, ...
Mouse Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit from Cusabio. Cat#: CSB-EL001947MO. US, UK & Europe Distribution. Online Order or ... Mouse Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit , CSB-EL001947MO Cusabio Elisa Mouse Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit , CSB-EL001947MO ... Rat Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit , CSB-EL001947RA , CusabioRat Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur ... Human Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit , CSB-EL001947HU , CusabioHuman Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at ...
Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit from Gentaur Elisa Kits. Cat Number: G-EC-05817. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Rat ApoB (Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05817. Rating * Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars ... Rat ApoB (Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05817 , Gentaur Elisa Kits ...
Bu G. Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimers disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10: ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Apolipoprotein Interactions and Immune Evasion and Their Impact on HCV Vaccine Design. Front Immunol. ... Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in ... Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in ...
Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients ... The aim of this study was to determine the effects of purified omega-3 fatty acids on serum lipoproteins, apolipoprotein B-100 ... Apo B-100), apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), malondialdehyde (MDA) (as index for lipid peroxidation), and glycaemic control in ... Diabetologia, 2005, 48(1):13-22.. *Zamaria N. Alteration of polyunsaturated fatty acid status and metabolism in health and ...
Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan. 95 (1):9-16 ... Evidence for two separate gene defects: one associated with an abnormal apoB species, apolipoprotein B-37; and a second ... Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia caused by a mutation in the apolipoprotein B gene that results in a truncated species of ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Apolipoprotein B antibody. Validated in ICC/IF. Tested in Human, Rat. ... There are currently no references for Apolipoprotein B antibody (GTX64377). Be the first to share your publications with this ... There are currently no reviews for Apolipoprotein B antibody (GTX64377). Be the first to share your experience with this ... This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. It occurs in plasma as two main ...
On-column trypsin digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS for quantification of apolipoproteinsExternal. Toth CA, Kuklenyik Z, Jones JI ...
Name: apolipoprotein B. Synonyms: apob-100, apob-48. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ...
... and by the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) isoform of apoE, the major apolipoprotein in the nervous system (Nathan et al., 1994; ... 1994) Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimers disease. Trends Neurosci 17:525-530. ... 2000) Apolipoprotein E and neuromuscular disease: a critical review of the literature. Arch Neurol 57:1561-1565. ... 1993) Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial ...
Book Apolipoprotein B @Home at Best Prices at the slot of your choice. View details of test: When to take, What is the normal ... What is Apolipoprotein B?. Apolipoprotein B or Apo B is a protein present in the body. It is the main protein component of low- ... Apolipoprotein B Blood Test measures the amount Apolipoprotein B in the blood. This test helps to determine the risk for heart ... Apolipoprotein B. .. You may ask to fast (without eating anything) for a whole night or for up to 9 to 12 hours. Usually, the ...
Dive into the research topics of One-Carbon Metabolites, B Vitamin Intake, Apolipoprotein E Genotype, and Their Interactive ... One-Carbon Metabolites, B Vitamin Intake, Apolipoprotein E Genotype, and Their Interactive Effects on Cognitive Performance: ...
Dive into the research topics of Inter-ring rotation of apolipoprotein A-I protein monomers for the double-belt model using ... Inter-ring rotation of apolipoprotein A-I protein monomers for the double-belt model using biased molecular dynamics. ...
... a short version called apolipoprotein B-48 and a longer version known as apolipoprotein B-100. Learn about this gene and ... The APOB gene provides instructions for making two versions of the apolipoprotein B protein, ... Olofsson SO, Boren J. Apolipoprotein B: a clinically important apolipoprotein which assembles atherogenic lipoproteins and ... in a critical region of apolipoprotein B-100. (Apolipoprotein B-48 is normal.) The altered protein prevents LDLs from ...
apolipoprotein E. AUC. area under the curve. CI. confidence interval. E3L. ApoE*3Leiden. FDA. US Food and Drug Administration. ... 1998) Apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice as a test model for hypolipidaemic drugs. Arzneimittelforschung 48:396-402. ... The apolipoprotein E (ApoE)*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mouse model is a well-established humanized model for (familial) ... 2002) Anti-atherosclerotic effect of simvastatin depends on the presence of apolipoprotein E. Atherosclerosis 162:23-31. ...
Lovastatin is indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels in adolescent boys and girls ... Lovastatin significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (see Table V). ... Lovastatin significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (see Table VI). ... Apolipoprotein B also falls during treatment with lovastatin. ... In a 48-week controlled study in adolescent boys with heFH (n= ...
Effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms on disease progression in preclinical ... Differences in the Abeta40/Abeta42 ratio associated with cerebrospinal fluid lipoproteins as a function of apolipoprotein E ... Effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms on disease progression in preclinical ... Differences in the Abeta40/Abeta42 ratio associated with cerebrospinal fluid lipoproteins as a function of apolipoprotein E ...
Studies on the assembly of apolipoprotein B-100- and B-48-containing very low density lipoproteins in McA-RH7777 cells ... we measured the mRNA levels of apolipoprotein B(apob) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mttp). Levels of apob were ... Noticeably, an abrupt decline in intracellular lipids was seen in the F1 GCs at 48 h of culture. The results of Oil red O ... Adipose triglyceride lipase (atgl), lipolysis-related genes, the mRNA level was highest at 48 and 72 h. As for lipid transport ...
However, alcohol raises HDL-C (by stimulating the hepatic production of apolipoprotein [apo] A-I and A-II), [38, 39, 40] ... Non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B100, standard lipid measures, lipid ratios, and CRP as risk factors for ... RVX-208, the first oral agent designed to enhance apolipoprotein (apo) A-I synthesis, has been shown to increase apoA-I, HDL-C ... Efficacy and safety of a novel oral inducer of apolipoprotein a-I synthesis in statin-treated patients with stable coronary ...
Payne, R. A. & Webb, D. J., 14 Aug 2006, In: Hypertension. 48, 3, p. 366-367. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review ...
Apolipoprotein E in VLDL and LDL with apolipoprotein C-III is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease. J Am ... Apolipoprotein C-III and High-Density Lipoprotein Subspecies Defined by Apolipoprotein C-III in Relation to Diabetes Risk. Am J ... and carbohydrate intakes on plasma apolipoprotein B and VLDL and LDL containing apolipoprotein C-III: results from the ... Apolipoproteins E and CIII interact to regulate HDL metabolism and coronary heart disease risk. JCI Insight. 2018 02 22; 3(4). ...
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, plasma ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, plasma ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, ...
Apolipoproteins as markers and managers of coronary risk. QJM 2006;99:277-87.. [CROSSREF] [PUBMED] [PDF] ... Apolipoprotein B, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and blood pressure in abdominally obese white and black American women. ... Apolipoprotein B Levels Predict Future Development of Hypertension Independent of Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity ... High plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels have been shown to be associated with hypertension, central obesity, and insulin ...
Apolipoproteins and HDL cholesterol do not associate with the risk of future dementia and Alzheimers disease: the National ... Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(10):1178-89. ... and Apolipoprotein E genotype. The lack of information on the level of hemoglobin A1c could be a significant limitation, which ... These distinctive differences may also be driven by different apolipoprotein profiles in men and women. Further studies are ...
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a strong suppressor for AS [8-10]. ApoE-knockout [ApoE (-/-)] mice develop chronic inflammation in ... 21. Zheng F, Xing S, Gong Z, Mu W, Xing Q. Silence of NLRP3 suppresses atherosclerosis and stabilizes plaques in apolipoprotein ... 27. Piedrahita JA, Zhang SH, Hagaman JR, Oliver PM, Maeda N. Generation of mice carrying a mutant apolipoprotein E gene ... 13. Cavigiolio G, Jayaraman S. Proteolysis of apolipoprotein a-I by secretory phospholipase A2: a new link between inflammation ...
VLDL is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver from triglycerides, cholesterols, and apolipoproteins. Within the bloodstream, ... α agonists on the intracellular turnover and secretion of apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 and ApoB-48," Journal of Biological ... 48]. Although most of the prostaglandin GPCRs are localised at the plasma membrane of platelets, vascular smooth muscle cells, ...
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and apolipoproteins. in. type. II. diabetic patients. Diabetes ... and 48%, respectively, compared with the meal con- ... represented the major source of dietary fiber (48). This ... diet could not be reproduced (48,49). This apparent ...
  • We injected AAV-PHP.eB into the bloodstream of wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as mouse strains carrying genetic mutation in apolipoprotein E gene ( Apoe ) or low-density lipoprotein receptor gene ( Ldlr ), or lacking various components of the immune system. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a key transporter of the cholesterol and phospholipids required for membrane synthesis and nerve growth. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a strong suppressor for AS [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • Determining the specific apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes in patients with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. (
  • The alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) A allele was recently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the ACT AA genotype was reported to be more frequent in AD subjects with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele. (
  • Double-blind crossover study of the cognitive effects of lorazepam in healthy apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 carriers. (
  • Simple lipid profiles do not provide adequate information for detailed diagnosis and additional assays such as apolipoprotein (apo)B 100 , apoE genotype and next-generation sequencing may be useful. (
  • We have previously shown that the APOE gene product apolipoprotein E (apoE) negatively affects amyloid-β uptake in cultures of primary human glial cells (Nielsen et al 2010, Mulder et al 2014) as well as rodent cells (Fu et al 2016). (
  • Apolipoprotein Gene Polymorphisms (APOB, APOC111, APOE) in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease in Ethnic Groups of Kazakhstan. (
  • Each lipoprotein is characterized by its lipid composition and by the type and number of apolipoproteins it possesses. (
  • these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta apolipoproteins, which remain part of the lipoprotein throughout its metabolism. (
  • Xie BS, Wang X, Pan YH, Jiang G, Feng JF, Lin Y. Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in mice. (
  • Apolipoprotein B is the major protein for the low-density lipoprotein and helps in its transport. (
  • Assessing the levels of Apolipoprotein B directly reflects the low-density lipoprotein levels. (
  • Apolipoprotein B-48 is produced in the intestine, where it is a building block of a type of lipoprotein called a chylomicron. (
  • Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and by reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 [ 7 ]. (
  • The combined effects of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cognitive performance in young adults. (
  • The long standing objectives of my research are to provide the detailed structural and dynamic description of the plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins that is crucial to understanding the molecular mechanisms of such physiological processes as lipoprotein formation, receptor interactions, lipoprotein inter-conversions, and apoprotein exchange together with the changes in these characteristics that underlie the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. (
  • Enterocytes secrete chylomicron (CM) particles containing a short form (48%) of apolipoprotein (apo) B (apoB 48 ), while hepatocytes secrete very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) with full length apoB (apoB 100 ). (
  • Apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms interaction on the atherogenic combined expression of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia phenotypes. (
  • Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a nonexchangeable lipoprotein that exists in two forms in humans, apoB-100 and apoB-48. (
  • Lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) contains the LDL apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B100), which is covalently linked via a disulfide bridge to an apolipoprotein (a) molecule (which is highly homologous to plasminogen). (
  • Apolipoproteins combine with lipid to form lipoproteins and help in the transport of lipids throughout the bloodstream. (
  • Plasma proteoforms of apolipoproteins C-I and C-II are associated with plasma lipids in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. (
  • Lipids 2013 Jan 48 (1): 51-61. (
  • The apolipoproteins have a primary responsibility for the transport of lipids and cholesterol. (
  • We report two patients (47-year-old lady and 48-year-old man) who had asymptomatic transaminase elevation, fatty liver, anti-HCV positive with high viral load (genotype 3). (
  • In a secondary analysis, a subgroup of individuals with the Apolipoprotein E4 genotype showed sustained benefits with donepezil throughout the study. (
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 allows LDLs to attach to specific receptors on the surface of cells, particularly in the liver. (
  • Other apolipoproteins (A, C, D, E, and their subtypes) are soluble and are exchanged between lipoproteins during metabolism. (
  • This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein B-100, which is produced in the liver, is a component of several other types of lipoproteins. (
  • The normal-length apolipoprotein B-48 can form chylomicrons normally, but the abnormally short apolipoprotein B-100 produced in the liver is less able to produce lipoproteins. (
  • Building on initial training in diffraction methods and biophysics, I have maintained and expanded my expertise in state-of-the-art methods of molecular biophysics and structural biology including crystallography, electron microscopy/image processing, calorimetry and thermodynamics, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling/mechanics to probe the structure-function relationships of the lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. (
  • Our previous work over more than three decades has focused on the structural and thermodynamic properties of specific lipoproteins (HDL and LDL), and apolipoproteins, particularly apoA-1, together with studies of the LDL receptor. (
  • These particles consist of a core of cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by a monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins (apolipoproteins). (
  • All of these protein changes lead to a reduction of functional apolipoprotein B. As a result, the transportation of dietary fats and cholesterol is decreased or absent. (
  • The strongest genetic risk factor is the presence of the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, which encodes a protein that has a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. (
  • A PCR-based assay, which includes HhaI digestion of the amplified product, is utilized to identify the 3 most common apolipoprotein E alleles (e2, e3, e4). (
  • Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia caused by a mutation in the apolipoprotein B gene that results in a truncated species of apolipoprotein B (B-31). (
  • The APOB gene provides instructions for making two versions of the apolipoprotein B protein, a short version called apolipoprotein B-48 and a longer version known as apolipoprotein B-100. (
  • Most APOB gene mutations that cause FHBL lead to the production of apolipoprotein B that is abnormally short. (
  • The severity of the condition largely depends on the length of the abnormal apolipoprotein B. Some mutations in the APOB gene lead to the production of a protein that is shorter than apolipoprotein B-100, but longer than apolipoprotein B-48. (
  • Cognitive functions, lipid profile, and Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in postmenopausal women. (
  • Associations of the apolipoprotein A-I gene polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. (
  • 2017. A null variant in the apolipoprotein L3 gene is associated with non-diabetic nephropathy. . (
  • It occurs in plasma as two main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100: the former is synthesized exclusively in the gut and the latter in the liver. (
  • A truncated form of apoB-100, apoB-48, is synthesized in the small intestine and contains the amino-terminal 2,152 amino acids of the larger protein. (
  • Analysis of HuProt(TM) microarray containing more than 19,000 full-length human proteins using Apolipoprotein B antibody. (
  • Post-transcriptional editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA is regulated by APOBEC1 (also designated human (or rat) small intestinal apolipoprotein B mRNA editing protein, HEPR or REPR) in hepatic cells to achieve a steady state proportion of edited and unedited RNA molecules. (
  • This test is performed to determine whether you have normal or abnormal levels of Apolipoprotein B in the blood. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Quantitativecompetitive ELISA kit for measuring Human Apolipoprotein F (APOF) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. (
  • In this study, serum levels of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), apolipoprotein B-48, thyroid hormones, and homocysteine were examined in patients with AD to determine their diagnostic and predictive value for early diagnosis and prevention of AD. (
  • High serum apolipoprotein E determines hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias, coronary disease and apoA-I dysfunctionality. (
  • Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (A β ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of A β and are important to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • The mechanism of the LDL-lowering effect of lovastatin may involve both reduction of VLDL-C concentration, and induction of the LDL receptor, leading to reduced production and/or increased catabolism of LDL-C. Apolipoprotein B also falls during treatment with lovastatin. (
  • In these cases, no normal-length apolipoprotein B protein is produced. (
  • Metabolic disorder and polymorphism of the genes encoding for beta-2-adrenergic receptor and apolipoproteins B in chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases]. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Acquired apolipoprotein B deficiency with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Mouse Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (
  • CusabioMouse Apolipoprotein A-I-binding protein (APOA1BP) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest. (
  • CusabioHuman Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible. (
  • ICC/IF analysis of U2OS cells using GTX64377 Apolipoprotein B antibody. (
  • There are currently no references for Apolipoprotein B antibody (GTX64377) . (
  • IHC staining of FFPE human liver with Apolipoprotein B antibody. (
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of purified, BSA-free Apolipoprotein B antibody as confirmation of integrity and purity. (
  • This Apolipoprotein B antibody is available for research use only. (
  • Optimal dilution of the Apolipoprotein B antibody should be determined by the researcher. (
  • A portion of amino acids 592-689 from the human protein was used as the immunogen for the Apolipoprotein B antibody. (
  • Store the Apolipoprotein B antibody at 2-8oC (with azide) or aliquot and store at -20oC or colder (without azide). (
  • A unique mutation that helps to define the portion of the apolipoprotein B molecule required for the format. (
  • The increase in apo B secretion was attributed to a specific increase in apo B-48. (
  • In conclusion, unsaturated fatty acids were most potent in stimulating the secretion of apo B by specifically increasing apo B-48 secretion. (
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. (
  • Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) deficiency is one of the known causes of fatty liver and acquired ApoB deficiency has recently been reported with HCV infection. (
  • The genetic causes of hypertriglyceridaemia range from familial combined hyperlipidaemia through the autosomal recessive remnant hyperlipidaemia (related to apolipoprotein E variants) and familial chylomicronaemia syndromes. (
  • Apolipoprotein B genetic variants modify the response to fenofibrate: a GOLDN study. (
  • Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region. (
  • Other mutations result in a protein that is shorter than both apolipoprotein B-48 and apolipoprotein B-100. (
  • Generally, if both versions of the protein are shorter than apolipoprotein B-48, the signs and symptoms are more severe than if some normal length apolipoprotein B-48 is produced. (
  • Each mutation that causes this condition changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in a critical region of apolipoprotein B-100. (
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (
  • High plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels have been shown to be associated with hypertension, central obesity, and insulin resistance in cross-sectional research. (
  • Therefore high levels of Apolipoprotein B in the blood may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (heart diseases). (
  • Apolipoprotein B Blood Test measures the amount Apolipoprotein B in the blood. (
  • Refrigerate and send intact blood within 48 hours of collection. (