A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of thiamine pyrophosphate from ATP and thiamine. EC 2.7.6.2.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

Dietary fish oils inhibit early events in the assembly of very low density lipoproteins and target apoB for degradation within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hamster hepatocytes. (1/731)

Dietary fish oils inhibited secretion and stimulated intracellular degradation of apolipoprotein (apo)B in hamster hepatocytes, while dietary sunflower oils stimulated secretion and had no effect on degradation of apoB. To investigate the intracellular site at which fish oils act, we have made use of our previous observations that inhibition of degradation by N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) results in accumulation of apoB in the trans -Golgi membrane and does not stimulate secretion, while inhibition of degradation by o-phenanthroline results in accumulation of apoB in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane and stimulates secretion. Thus, ALLN protects apoB which has been diverted from secretion and o -phenanthroline protects apoB which is targetted for secretion. Addition of o -phenantholine to the incubation medium of hepatocytes from fish oil-fed hamsters inhibited degradation of apoB and stimulated its secretion in particles of the density of VLDL, while addition of ALLN had no effect. These observations suggest that dietary fish oils reversibly inhibit early steps in the assembly of very low density lipoprotein precursors and target apoB for degradation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (2/731)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

Characterization of a new form of inherited hypercholesterolemia: familial recessive hypercholesterolemia. (3/731)

We previously described a Sardinian family in which the probands had a severe form of hypercholesterolemia, suggestive of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in fibroblasts from these subjects and LDL binding ability were normal. The characteristics of the pedigree were consistent with an autosomal recessive trait. Sitosterolemia and pseudohomozygous hyperlipidemia were ruled out. A second Sardinian kindred with similar characteristics was identified. Probands showed severe hypercholesterolemia, whereas their parents and grandparents were normolipidemic. FH, familial defective apoprotein (apo) B, sitosterolemia, and cholesteryl ester storage disease were excluded by in vitro studies. We addressed the metabolic basis of this inherited disorder by studying the in vivo metabolism of LDL in 3 probands from these 2 families. 125I-LDL turnover studies disclosed a marked reduction in the fractional catabolic rate (0.19+/-0.01 versus 0.36+/-0.03 pools per day, respectively; P<0.001) and a significant increase in the production rate [20.7+/-4.4 versus 14. 0+/-2.4 mg. kg-1. d-1, respectively; P<0.01] of LDL apoB in the probands compared with normolipidemic controls. We then studied the in vivo biodistribution and tissue uptake of 99mtechnetium-labeled LDL in the probands and compared them with those in normal controls and 1 FH homozygote. The probands showed a significant reduction in hepatic LDL uptake, similar to that observed in the FH homozygote. A reduced uptake of LDL by the kidney and spleen was also observed in all patients. Our findings suggest that this recessive form of hypercholesterolemia is due to a marked reduction of in vivo LDL catabolism. This appears to be caused by a selective reduction in hepatic LDL uptake. We propose that in this new lipid disorder, a recessive defect causes a selective impairment of LDL receptor function in the liver.  (+info)

Selective modification of apoB-100 in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins by myeloperoxidase in vitro. (4/731)

Oxidative modification of LDL may be important in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanisms through which low density lipoprotein (LDL) is oxidized are unknown. Recently, evidence for the existence of HOCl-oxidized LDL in human atherosclerotic lesions has been reported, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is thought to act through production of HOCl, has been identified in human atherosclerotic lesions. In the present report we describe the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-reactive modifications in the apolipoprotein (apo) by exposure of LDL to myeloperoxidase in vitro. In contrast with the complex mixture of peptides from oxidation of LDL with reagent HOCl, oxidation with MPO in vitro produced a major tryptic peptide showing absorbance at 365 nm. This peptide was isolated and characterized as VELEVPQL(*C)SFILK..., corresponding to amino acid residues 53-66...on apoB-100. Mass spectrometric analyses of two tryptic peptides from oxidation of LDL by HOCl indicated formation of the corresponding methionine sulfoxide (M=O), cysteinyl azo (*C), RS -N= N-DNP, derivatives of EEL(*C)T(M=O)FIR and LNDLNS VLV(M=O)PTFHVPFTDLQVPS(*C)K, which suggest oxidation to the corresponding sulfinic acids (RSO2H) by HOCl. The present results demonstrate that DNPH-reactive modifications other than aldehydes and ketones can be formed in the oxidation of proteins and illustrate how characterization of specific products of protein oxidation can be useful in assessing the relative contributions of different and unexpected mechanisms to the oxidation of LDL and other target substrates. The data also suggest a direct interaction of the LDL particle with the active site on myeloperoxidase and indicate that effects of the protein microenvironment can greatly influence product formation and stability.  (+info)

ApoB100 secretion from HepG2 cells is decreased by the ACAT inhibitor CI-1011: an effect associated with enhanced intracellular degradation of ApoB. (5/731)

The concept that hepatic cholesteryl ester (CE) mass and the rate of cholesterol esterification regulate hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to correlate the rate of cholesterol esterification and CE mass with apoB secretion by CI-1011, an acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor that is known to decrease apoB secretion, in vivo, in miniature pigs. HepG2 cells were incubated with CI-1011 (10 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L) for 24 hours. ApoB secretion into media was decreased by 25%, 27%, and 43%, respectively (P<0.0012). CI-1011 (10 micromol/L) inhibited HepG2 cell ACAT activity by 79% (P<0.002) and cellular CE mass by 32% (P<0.05). In contrast, another ACAT inhibitor, DuP 128 (10 micromol/L), decreased cellular ACAT activity and CE mass by 85% (P<0.002) and 42% (P=0.01), respectively, but had no effect on apoB secretion into media. To characterize the reduction in apoB secretion by CI-1011, pulse-chase experiments were performed and analyzed by multicompartmental modelling using SAAM II. CI-1011 did not affect the synthesis of apoB or albumin. However, apoB secretion into the media was decreased by 42% (P=0.019). Intracellular apoB degradation increased proportionately (P=0.019). The secretion of albumin and cellular reuptake of labeled lipoproteins were unchanged. CI-1011 and DuP 128 did not affect apoB mRNA concentrations. These results show that CI-1011 decreases apoB secretion by a mechanism that involves an enhanced intracellular degradation of apoB. This study demonstrates that ACAT inhibitors can exert differential effects on apoB secretion from HepG2 cells that do not reflect their efficacy in inhibiting cholesterol esterification.  (+info)

Secondary radicals derived from chloramines of apolipoprotein B-100 contribute to HOCl-induced lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoproteins. (6/731)

Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is thought to contribute to atherogenesis. Although there is increasing evidence for a role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants such as hypochlorite (HOCl), the mechanism by which HOCl modifies LDL remains controversial. Some studies report the protein component to be the major site of attack, whereas others describe extensive lipid peroxidation. The present study addresses this controversy. The results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that radical-induced oxidation of LDL's lipids by HOCl is a secondary reaction, with most HOCl consumed via rapid, non-radical reaction with apolipoprotein B-100. Subsequent incubation of HOCl-treated LDL gives rise to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant consumption in a time-dependent manner. Similarly, with myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl- (the source of HOCl in vivo), protein oxidation is rapid and followed by an extended period of lipid peroxidation during which further protein oxidation does not occur. The secondary lipid peroxidation process involves EPR-detectable radicals, is attenuated by a radical trap or treatment of HOCl-oxidized LDL with methionine, and occurs less rapidly when the lipoprotein was depleted of alpha-tocopherol. The initial reaction of low concentrations of HOCl (400-fold or 800-fold molar excess) with LDL therefore seems to occur primarily by two-electron reactions with side-chain sites on apolipoprotein B-100. Some of the initial reaction products, identified as lysine-residue-derived chloramines, subsequently undergo homolytic (one-electron) reactions to give radicals that initiate antioxidant consumption and lipid oxidation via tocopherol-mediated peroxidation. The identification of these chloramines, and the radicals derived from them, as initiating agents in LDL lipid peroxidation offers potential new targets for antioxidative therapy in atherogenesis.  (+info)

Molecular bases of low production rates of apolipoprotein B-100 and truncated apoB-82 in a mutant HepG2 cell line generated by targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B gene. (7/731)

In subjects with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia heterozygous for truncated forms of apolipoprotein B, both apoB-100 and the truncated forms are produced at lower than expected rates. We studied the mechanism of low levels of apoB in a cell model produced by targeted modification of the apob gene of HepG2 cells. One of the three alleles of apob was found to be targeted. The targeted cells expressed apoB-100 and B-82. The media of mutant cells contained 56% of the levels of apoB-100 present in the media of wild-type (WT) HepG2 cells. ApoB-82 was present at 11% of the apoB-100 levels in mutant cell media. An 85-kD protein (apoB-15) representing the N-terminal fragment of apoB was also secreted, but only in the mutant cell media. We examined the mechanism of low levels of apoB-82. Cellular apoB-82 mRNA was 11% of apoB-100 mRNA, lower than the 33% expected, but consistent with relative levels of apoB-82 in the media. ApoB mRNA transcription in WT and the mutant cells did not differ, while the levels of apoB-82 mRNA in nuclei and polysomes were 46% and 12% of the levels of apoB-100 mRNA, respectively, suggesting that the lower levels of apoB-82 mRNA were due to altered message stability. In a pulse/chase experiment with [35S] methionine, at zero time of chase, the amounts of apoB-100 in mutant cells was 66% that of WT levels, consistent with the modification of one allele. The fractions of newly synthesized apoB-100 secreted into the media at 2 h were 10% in the mutant cells and 19% in the WT cells, suggesting greater presecretory degradation of apoB-100 in the mutant cells. Thus, low levels of mutant apoB-82 mRNA gave rise to the low levels of apoB-82, while low levels of apoB-100 were due to low rates of secretion.  (+info)

Truncated apo B-70.5-containing lipoproteins bind to megalin but not the LDL receptor. (8/731)

Apo B-100 of LDL can bind to both the LDL receptor and megalin, but the molecular interactions of apo B-100 with these 2 receptors are not completely understood. Naturally occurring mutant forms of apo B may be a source of valuable information on these interactions. Apo B-70.5 is uniquely useful because it contains the NH2-terminal portion of apo B-100, that includes only one of the two putative LDL receptor-binding sites (site A). The lipoprotein containing apo B-70. 5 (Lp B-70.5) was purified from apo B-100/apo B-70.5 heterozygotes by sequential ultracentrifugation combined with immunoaffinity chromatography. Cell culture experiments, ligand blot analysis, and in vivo studies all consistently showed that Lp B-70.5 is not recognized by the LDL receptor. The kidney was identified as a major organ in catabolism of Lp B-70.5 in New Zealand white rabbits. Autoradiographic analysis revealed that renal proximal tubular cells selectively removed Lp B-70.5. On ligand blotting of renal cortical membranes, Lp B-70.5 bound only to megalin. The ability of megalin to mediate cellular endocytosis of Lp B-70.5 was confirmed using retinoic acid/dibutyryl cAMP-treated F9 cells. This study suggests that the putative LDL receptor-binding site A on apo B-100 might not by itself be a functional binding domain and that the apo B-binding sites recognized by the LDL receptor and by megalin may be different. Moreover, megalin may play an important role in renal catabolism of apo B truncations, including apo B-70.5.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 particles to race/ethnicity, apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, and cardiovascular risk factors results from the dallas heart study. AU - Tsimikas, Sotirios. AU - Clopton, Paul. AU - Brilakis, Emmanouil S. AU - Marcovina, Santica M.. AU - Khera, Amit. AU - Miller, Elizabeth R.. AU - de Lemos, James A. AU - Witztum, Joseph L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/4/7. Y1 - 2009/4/7. N2 - Background-Elevated levels of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) on apolipoprotein B-100 particles (OxPL/apoB) are associated with cardiovascular disease and predict new cardiovascular events. Elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in whites and also in blacks if they carry small apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] isoforms. The relationship of OxPL/apoB levels to race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and apo(a) isoforms is not established. Methods and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese men: A new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state. AU - Wong, A.T.Y.. AU - Chan, Dick. AU - Pang, Jing. AU - Watts, Gerald. AU - Barrett, Hugh. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Context: The mechanisms responsible for impaired chylomicron metabolism have not been adequately investigated in obese subjects. Objective: We aimed to compare apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese and lean men by developing a new model to describe the kinetics of apoB-48 particles in the postprandial state. Design, Setting, and Patients: Seven obese and 13 age-matched lean men were given an oral fat load. apoB-48 tracer to tracee ratios were measured after intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Outcomes Measures: Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. ...
American College of Cardiology Foundation - Clinical Research , October 2012. Objectives This study sought to assess the long-term predictive value and net reclassification for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) of biomarkers reflecting oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs).. Background OSEs are immunogenic, proinflammatory, and proatherogenic. The long-term predictive value and net reclassification of OSEs for risk of CVD events are not known.. Methods Oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL/apoB) and immunoglobulin (Ig)-G (IgG) and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified, low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and copper-oxidized LDL (Cu-OxLDL) were measured in 765 subjects in 1995 and 656 subjects in 2000 in the Bruneck study, representing 45- to 84-year-old men and women from the general community. Read more. ...
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor.
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
Apolipoproteins are carrier proteins that bind lipids to form water-soluble lipoprotein particles that can be carried through blood and lymph. Several different classes and subclasses of apolipoproteins are known. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the primary apolipoprotein in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that contain triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is also known as FLDB and LDLCQ4. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques that cause atherosclerosis, and ApoB levels can be a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL. The APOB transcript is subject to tissue-specific RNA editing, resulting in two major isoforms, ApoB-100 and ApoB-48.. ...
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the accumulation of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) in the macula is toxic to the retina unless neutralized by a variety of mechanisms, including binding by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], which is composed of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). METHODS: Human maculas and eyes from two Lp(a) transgenic murine models were subjected to morphologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical analysis. Wild-type Lp(a) mice, which express human apoB-100 and apo(a) that contains oxidized phospholipid, and mutant LBS(-) Lp(a) mice with a defective apo(a) lysine binding site (LBS) for oxidized phospholipid binding, were fed a chow or high-fat diet for 2 to 12 months ...
B-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza (EC 2.4.1.38, UDP-galaktoza---glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein 4-beta-galaktozil-transferaza, beta-N-acetil-beta1-4-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, glikoprotein beta-galaktoziltransferaza, tiroid galaktoziltransferaza, uridin difosfogalaktoza-glikoprotein galaktoziltransferaza, beta-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, GalT, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid beta-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza, UDP-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom UDP-alfa-D-galaktoza:N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid 4-beta-galaktoziltransferaza.[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Barley geneticists are currently using association genetics to identify and fine map traits directly in elite plant breeding material. This has been made possible by the development of a highly parallel SNP assay platform that provides sufficient marker density for genome-wide scans and linkage dise …
In individuals with low Lp[a] levels, there is a corresponding low level of OxPL/apoB, suggesting that in the absence of Lp[a], these OxPLs do not accumulate on plasma apoB-containing lipoproteins other than to a minor degree. A similar situation exists with most animals that we have studied (32, 33). For example, in mice with marked hypercholesterolemia, a situation in which OxPLs recognized by E06 are abundant in the arterial tissues (and probably elsewhere as well), the levels of OxPL/apoB in plasma are very low, and often just at the level of detection of our assay (33). In contrast, Lp[a]-transgenic mice have very high OxPL/apoB levels, even in a C57BL/6 background without obvious atherosclerosis (34). Presumably, this reflects the generation of such OxPLs as a component of normal physiological processes. Lp[a]-transgenic mice express both human apoB-100 and apo[a] and thus can form a true covalent Lp[a] similar to that found in humans (34). Mice expressing high levels of human apoB-100 ...
Background & aim: This study aimed to determine the relationship between lipid and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) levels in maternal and umbilical cord sera as well as the effects of these components on anthropometric measurements of newborn infants. Methods:This correlational study was performed on 85 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns and their mothers. For analysis, 5 ml of maternal blood and 5 ml of umbilical venous cord blood were obtained during labor and immediately after delivery, respectively. Sera were separated by centrifugation and analyzed on the same day for estimation of lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B-100. Also, anthropometric indices of newborn infants were measured and recorded. Pearsons correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between variables. Results: There was a positive correlation between
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The significant role of adaptive immunity in atherosclerosis is well established and makes it likely that antigen-presenting DCs are of importance for disease development. This was recently supported by studies that showed that transfer of LDL-loaded DCs into hypercholesterolemic mice accelerated atherosclerosis,31 and that an extended lifespan of DCs affected plaque inflammation and cholesterol metabolism.37 One may surmise that manipulation of DC activity could be used to reduce the autoimmune response to LDL components and ameliorate atherosclerosis.. We now show that DCs can be made tolerogenic to LDL autoimmunity by treating them with IL-10 while loading them with ApoB100. Such ApoB100-loaded tolerogenic DCs inhibited the proliferative and proinflammatory T-cell response to ApoB100 and promoted the development of regulatory T cells. When injected into atherosclerosis-prone huB100tg×Ldlr−/− mice, they induced antiinflammatory activity, reduced immune cell infiltration into lesions, and ...
Stable isotope infusion protocol. Following a 14-h overnight fast, an IV will be inserted into a superficial vein in each forearm, one for infusion and one for sampling. At 7 am, a fasting blood sample will be drawn and the subject will begin to ingest the first of 15 identical small hourly meals, each equivalent to 1/15th of their daily food intake. This will be achieved by giving the patient the drink BOOST (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Ottawa, On) and, using the Harris Benedict Equation (HBE) to determine the number of total energy requirements. This is based on height, weight, age and activity factors. The subject will have nothing else to eat until the end of the study. At the same time an IV infusion with either heparin plus intralipid or saline or glycerol as indicated above will be started. At 10 am (3 hours after starting the ingestion of hourly feeds), a primed-constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine ([D3]L-leucine 98%, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, MA) will be started, as ...
Folding of the amino-terminal domain of apolipoprotein B initiates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-dependent lipid transfer to nascent very low density
Phillips, M. L., Pullinger, C., Kroes, I., Kroes, J., Hardman, D. A., Chen, G., Curtiss, L. K., Gutierrez, M. M., Kane, J. P., Schumaker, V. N. A single copy of apolipoprotein b-48 is present on the human chylomicron remnant Journal of Lipid Research 1997 38:1170-1177 PMID:9215545 ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to determine apolipoprotein B, the major protein in low-density lipids (LDLs) and present in large amounts (approximately 4%) in both very-low-density lipids (VLDLs) and chylomicrons. Apolipoprotein B is found in at least two forms: B-100 (Apo B-100) synthesized in the liver, and B-48 (Apo B-48), probably synthesized in the intestines. Levels of apolipoproteins in plasma are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases.. Entry Terms : Apolipoprotein B Determination Reagents , Reagents, Immunoassay, Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B. UMDC code : 19817 ...
Page contains details about BODIPY-labeled (PFS-b-PtBA|)-b-(PFS20-b-PMVSOH120)-b-(PFS-b-PtBA)/PFS-b-P2VP/PFS-b-PtBA supermicelles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-specific monoclonal antibody MB47 has been widely used in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis research. When bound to apoB-100 on low density lipoproteins (LDL), antibody MB47 completely blocks the binding of LDL to the LDL receptor. The epitope for antibody MB47 has previously been mapped to the vicinity of apoB-100 amino acid (aa) residue 3500. To map the epitope for antibody MB47 more precisely, we used recombinant bacterial fusion proteins. Antibody MB47 bound strongly to a fusion protein containing apoB-100 aa 3214-3728, but no specific binding was observed to fusion proteins containing aa 3214-3351, 3214-3506, 3351-3506, or a fusion protein containing aa 3214-3351 and 3506-3728. Although antibody MB47 did not bind to aa 3214-3506, it did bind to aa 3214-3510. Further fusion protein studies revealed that antibody MB47 bound to aa 3429-3510, but bound only very weakly to aa 3453-3510, indicating that aa 3429-3453 constitute an important part of the MB47 ...
Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) appears in three forms in the endoplasmic reticulum of Hep G2 cells: (1) tightly bound to the membrane, ie, not extractable by sodium carbonate. This form is glycosylated but protease sensitive when present in intact microsomes, suggesting that it is only partially translocated to the microsomal lumen; (2) extractable by sodium carbonate and present on low-density lipoprotein-very-low-density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL)-like particles. This form is glycosylated and secreted into the medium; and (3) extractable by sodium carbonate but having a higher density than the LDL-VLDL-like particles. This form, referred to as Fraction I, is glycosylated and protected against proteases when present in intact microsomal vesicles, indicating that it is completely translocated to the luminal side of the microsomal membrane. Fraction I is not secreted into the medium, but it disappears with time from the cell, suggesting that it is degraded. Oleic acid induced a 2.7-fold increase in ...
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Apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein) je bílkovinná složka lipoproteinů. Apolipoproteinů existuje více druhů a jednotlivé typy se vyskytují v konkrétních lipoproteinech. Apolipoproteiny mají více funkcí, jsou strukturálně důležité, pomáhají transportu lipoproteinových částic, a dokonce mohou fungovat jako koenzymy některých enzymů ...
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Representative light micrographs of H&E- (A-D), PAM- (E-H), and Oil RedO-stained (I, J) kidney sections from 36-week-old human apoB Tg.SHR-cp/cp (A, E, I),
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:12:7977648:8016835:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035465 transcript:OTTMUST00000090769 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Apob description:apolipoprotein B ...
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C5b-9小鼠单克隆抗体[aE11](ab66768)可与马, 人, 猪, 猴, 狒狒样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
อนึ่ง ครั้งแรกในการเขียนบล๊อค - *คนเขียน* บล๊อคนี้มีคนเขียนอยู่คนเดียวนะครับ นานๆเข้ามาเล่นที เอาประสบการณ์ที่เจอในชีวิต มาเล่าเป็นเรื่องราว ย้อนให้คิด ให้เตือนใจ เป็นแนวทาง มีอะไรก็มาแชร... ...
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Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene. MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia. Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File: [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] ,px,alt=Statin Pathway edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene.[1][2] MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia.[2] Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of a six-month exercise program on very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B secretion in type 2 diabetes. AU - Alam, S.. AU - Stolinski, M.. AU - Pentecost, C.. AU - Boroujerdi, Massoud. AU - Jones, R. H.. AU - Sonksen, P. H.. AU - Umpleby, A. M.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - The dyslipidemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes can be improved by aerobic exercise. The effect of 6 months supervised exercise on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B metabolism was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes. Moderately obese patients (n = 18) were randomized into supervised (n = 9) and unsupervised (n = 9) exercise groups. All patients were given a training session and a personal exercise program and asked to exercise four times per week at 70% maximal oxygen uptake for 6 months. Patients in the supervised group had a weekly session with an exercise trainer. VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B metabolism was measured with an infusion of 1-C-13 leucine ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and cellular secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) -containing lipoproteins from the liver and intestine. The secretion pattern of apoB-containing lipoproteins is likely to influence the VLDL and LDL levels in plasma. By initial opportunistic screening for polymorphic sites in the regulatory region of the MTP gene by gene sequencing in 20 healthy male subjects, a common functional G/T polymorphism was detected 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point. There was differential binding of unique nuclear proteins at this site, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The G variant seemed to bind two or three nuclear proteins that do not bind to the T variant. Expression studies with minimal promoter constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter and transfected into HepG2 cells revealed marked enhancement of transcriptional activity with the T variant. The prevalence of the MTP promoter
oxLDL particles contain MDA-modified peptide fragments derived from degradation of apoB-100.2 Autoantibodies against several such MDA-modified apoB-100 peptides have been found in humans.11 The present studies show that human IgG1 generated against one of these MDA peptide sequences reduces atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and that this is associated with reduced accumulation of the corresponding oxLDL-associated epitope and of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.. These observations are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating that immunization with oxLDL inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in mice and rabbits.9,10 Activation of this protective immunity is associated with a marked increase in oxLDL-specific IgG. We have recently identified a large number of MDA-modified sequences in apoB-100 that are recognized by antibodies present in human plasma.11 Immunization of apoE−/− mice with some of these peptide sequences resulted in inhibition of atherosclerosis to a similar ...
The atheroprotective effect paralleled an induction of Treg suppression of apoB-100-specific effector T cells and an increase in IL-10+ CD4+ T cells. Therefore, our data suggest that nasal immunization with p210-CTB protects against atherosclerosis by inducing antigen-specific, IL-10+ regulatory Tr1 cells. It is unlikely that atheroprotection involved the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-β because nasal immunization with p210-CTB also reduced atherosclerosis in mice lacking a functional TGF-β receptor on T cells.. Antigen-specific as well as antigen-independent effects have been reported in studies of Treg.25 Several studies of autoimmune diseases support the regulation model according to which Treg suppresses conventional effector T cells with the same antigen specificity. Other investigators report that Treg exerts major effects on antigen-presenting cells in an antigen-independent manner. Our data clearly show that antigen-specific atheroprotection was paralleled by inhibition of ...
Patton, J G.; Alley, M C.; and Mao, S J., Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low density lipoproteins. A requirement for lipids to maintain antigenic structure. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 75 ...
LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. Apo B may regulate cholesterol synthesis through its interaction with specific cell membrane receptors and by inhibition of HMG Co A reductase. This enzyme has been identified as the rate controlling enzyme in cholest
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The 2-hydroxy-nevirapine metabolite as a candidate for boosting apolipoprotein A1 and for modulating anti-HDL antibodies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Apolipoprotein F山羊多克隆抗体(ab81908)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab20376 交差種: Ms,Rat 適用: RID…Apolipoprotein A I抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab7613 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA…Apolipoprotein A I抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
El detergente alcalino espumante DETIAL B-300 es un limpiador alcalino y muy espumante formulado para limpiar y desengrasar en la industria alimentaria.
MP1026B 眼圖分析儀, 掌上型、堅固耐用的解決方案,能夠對數據傳輸率為0.1到12.5Gbps的數據執行眼圖量測
Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both genes were expressed in placenta and microsomal extracts from human placenta contained triglyceride transfer activity, indicating expression of bioactive MTP. To detect lipoprotein secretion, biopsies from term placentas were placed in medium with [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine for 3-24 h. Upon sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of the labeled medium, fractions were analyzed by ...
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by defective assembly and secretion of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). We se …
Clinical Significance: Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased ApoA1 concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol and other lipid particles. Like LDL cholesterol, increased ApoB concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio correlates with risk of cardiovascular disease.. Limitations: In very rare cases gammopathy, particularly of the monoclonal IgM type (e.g., Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia), may cause unreliable results.. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.. ...
Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, the major carriers of cholesterol in the human circulation, have a key role in cholesterol physiology and in the development of atherosclerosis. The most prominent structural components in LDL are the core-forming cholesteryl esters (CE) and the particle-encircling single copy of a huge, non-exchangeable protein, the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). The shape of native LDL particles and the conformation of native apoB-100 on the particles remain incompletely characterized at the physiological human body temperature (37°C). Methodology/Principal Findings To study native LDL particles, we applied cryo-electron microscopy to calculate 3D reconstructions of LDL particles in their hydrated state. Images of the particles vitrified at 6°C and 37°C resulted in reconstructions at ∼16 Å resolution at both temperatures. 3D variance map analysis revealed rigid and flexible domains of lipids and apoB-100 at both temperatures. The reconstructions ...
This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. It occurs in plasma as two main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100: the former is synthesized exclusively in the gut and the latter in the liver. The intestinal and the hepatic forms of apoB are encoded by a single gene from a single, very long mRNA. The two isoforms share a common N-terminal sequence. The shorter apoB-48 protein is produced after RNA editing of the apoB-100 transcript at residue 2180 (CAA->UAA), resulting in the creation of a stop codon, and early translation termination. Mutations in this gene or its regulatory region cause hypobetalipoproteinemia, normotriglyceridemic hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypercholesterolemia due to ligand-defective apoB, diseases affecting plasma cholesterol and apoB levels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
In previous studies, we developed and characterised multicompartmental microcapsules as a platform for the targeted oral delivery of lipophilic drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We also designed a new...
Man 55 years or older OR woman 65 years or older; Man younger than 55 years OR woman younger than 65 years; Apolipoprotein B:A1 ratio: Q1 (less than 0.633); Apolipoprotein B:A1 ratio: Q2 (0.633-0.792); Apolipoprotein B:A1 ratio: Q3 (0.792-0.983); Apolipoprotein B:A1 ratio: Q4 (>=0.984); Never smoked; Former smoker (last smoked more than 12 months ago); Current or former smoker
Order an Apolipoprotein B Blood Test to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and monitor treatment for high cholesterol.
APOLB : Collection Container/Tube: Preferred: Serum gel Acceptable: Red top Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 1 mL Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot 1 mL of serum.
First Databank™(FDB) Therapeutic Classification provides a means of classifying drugs and drug products for formulary maintenance and reporting.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Compo- Compo- Compo- Compo- Compo- nent nent nent nent nent (A) (B) (C) (F) (D) Comparative (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 -- (D)-1 Example 1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [0.6] Example 1 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 2 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 3 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 4 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-1 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [10.0] [0.6] Example 5 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 6 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 7 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 8 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-2 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [10.0] [0.6] Example 9 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [1.0] [0.6] Example 10 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [2.0] [0.6] Example 11 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] [5.0] [0.6] Example 12 (A)-1 (B-1) (C)-1 (F)-3 (D)-1 [100] [3.7] [5.8] ...
Human plasmas, at a defined DDimer concentration (about 0.6 microgram/ml), as measured with commercially available methods and eespecially the VIDAS-DDimer (Biom�rieux) and the ZYMUTEST DDimer assays, for the quality control of DDimer ELISA assay. Reactive with most of the DDimer assays.
Olofsson SO, Borèn J (November 2005). "Apolipoprotein B: a clinically important apolipoprotein which assembles atherogenic ... Apolipoprotein B-100 has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. APOB (see native LDL-ApoB structure at 37°C on ... Apolipoprotein B can exist in two forms: B-100 and B-48. Apolipoprotein B-100 is present on several lipoproteins, including ... Vitellogenin precursors are multi-domain apolipoproteins (proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoproteins), that are cleaved ...
April 1987). "Association of an apolipoprotein CII allele with familial dementia of the Alzheimer type". Journal of ... 23 (1): 100-13. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1464. hdl:2027.42/31345. PMID 7829057. Schellenberg GD, Deeb SS, Boehnke M, et al. ( ...
Cholesterol is imported into the neuron by apolipoprotein E (apoE) via LRP1 receptors on the cell surface. It has been ... Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor (A2MR), apolipoprotein ... "Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific effects on lipoprotein receptor processing". Neuromolecular Medicine. 16 (4): 686-696. doi: ... "Interaction of cytosolic adaptor proteins with neuronal apolipoprotein E receptors and the amyloid precursor protein". The ...
... binds to the messenger RNA coding for apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100), a protein that is the main component of low- ... It accumulates in the liver,[citation needed] which is convenient since apolipoprotein B predominantly acts there. Protein ... a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 54 (2): 133-146. doi: ... and ApoB-100 is not translated. After subcutaneous injection, mipomersen reaches highest blood levels after 3 to 4 hours. ...
"Reduced hippocampal insulin-degrading enzyme in late-onset Alzheimer's disease is associated with the apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 ... 100 (7): 4162-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0230450100. PMC 153065. PMID 12634421. Cook DG, Leverenz JB, McMillan PJ, Kulstad JJ, ...
He and his associates were the first to achieve complete synthesis of a plasma apolipoprotein (apo C-I); they also determined ... the complete cDNA and amino acid sequence of apo B-100, one of the largest proteins ever sequenced and a key protein in ...
... namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III. Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, ... novel insights from recent kinetic studies of apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism". Atherosclerosis. Supplements. 2 (3): 1-4. doi: ...
"Genetic Study of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene and Apolipoprotein B-100 Gene among Malaysian Patients with Familial ... Mutations in the donor and acceptor splice sites in different genes causing inherited disorders More than 100 immune system ...
Nascent VLDL released from the liver contains apolipoprotein B100, apolipoprotein C1 (apoC1), apolipoprotein E (apoE), ... As it circulates in blood, it picks up apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) and additional apoE donated from high-density lipoprotein ... VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1529 (1-3): 287-298. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00155-4. PMID 11111096. ...
HDL particles donate apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent VLDL particle. Once loaded with apolipoproteins C- ... and apolipoproteins. Plasma lipoproteins are divided into seven classes based on size, lipid composition, and apolipoproteins. ... resulting in HDL donation of apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent chylomicron. The chylomicron at this stage ... LDL contains apolipoprotein B (apoB), which allows LDL to bind to different tissues, such as the artery wall if the glycocalyx ...
Advanced the 4955 into drug development, which is a compound that targets Apolipoprotein B and could decrease and manage high ... Received the Red Herring Top 100 Europe Award. 2011: Obtained license from Mass General Hospital for intellectual property ...
... enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, ...
... the apolipoprotein A1 remnant ratio (Apo A1/ [VLDL₃+IDL]). Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Apr 26;12:55.. ... The ADA-ACC consensus statement establishes measurement and treatment guidelines for Apolipoprotein B,apoB in addition to LDL ... Also, estimated LDL-C is falsely low when directly measured LDL-C is < 100 mg/dL or when triglycerides are elevated. The VAP ...
Mice deficient in apolipoprotein B are more susceptible to invasive bacterial infection. LDL can be grouped based on its size: ... Each particle contains a single apolipoprotein B-100 molecule (Apo B-100, a protein that has 4536 amino acid residues and a ... The mechanism of antagonism entails binding apolipoprotein B to a S. aureus autoinducer pheromone, preventing signaling through ... organized by a single apolipoprotein B for LDL and the larger particles). A single LDL particle is about 220-275 angstroms in ...
"Entrez Gene: APOE apolipoprotein E".. *↑ Liu CC, Liu CC, Kanekiyo T, Xu H, Bu G (Feb 2013). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer ... "Alzheimer Research Forum: Meta-Analyses of apolipoprotein E AD Association Studies".. *↑ Weisgraber KH, Innerarity TL, Mahley ... Mahley RW, Rall SC (2002). "Apolipoprotein E: far more than a lipid transport protein". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... Apolipoproteins E Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ...
... although nonglycosylated and immature forms of apolipoprotein[a] are competent to associate with apolipoprotein B-100 in vitro ... The structure of apolipoprotein(a) is similar to plasminogen and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and it competes with ... Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] consists of an LDL-like particle and the specific apolipoprotein(a), which is bound covalently to the ... 50 mg/dL (>125 nmol/L) Lp(a) appears with different isoforms (per kringle repeats) of apolipoprotein; 40% of the variation in ...
Apolipoprotein E4 allele in a population based study of early onset Alzheimer's disease. Nat Genet. 1994;7:74-9. Hendriks L, et ... Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein and prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 1997;349:151-4 ... 1988;318:1093-100. Hofman A, Hazebroek A, Valkenburg HA. A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn ...
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (broad beta disease, remnant removal disease) Familial ... 100 (1): 111S-115S. doi:10.1038/jid.1993.33. PMID 8423379. Lynch, Peter J (1994). Dermatology. Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0- ...
Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein particle. Its gene is ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... In January 2013, The US FDA also approved mipomersen, which inhibits the action of the gene apolipoprotein B, for the treatment ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ...
... sickness Deep vein thrombosis Dabbing Syndrome Defect in synthesis of adenosylcobalamin Defective apolipoprotein B-100 ...
In 1979 researchers discovered that people in Limone possess a mutant form of apolipoprotein (called ApoA-1 Milano) in their ... "Cardiovascular status of carriers of the apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) mutant: the Limone sul Garda study" (PDF). Circulation. 103 ... a dozen of those living here are over the age of 100 (for c. 1,000 total inhabitants).[citation needed] The origin of the ...
These molecules contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shells, and can be degraded by lipoprotein lipase on ... Chylomicrons, the least dense cholesterol transport molecules, contain apolipoprotein B-48, apolipoprotein C, and ... adjusted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on the ... Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors concentrate in clathrin-coated pits. Both LDL and its receptor form ...
apolipoprotein B deficiency, a related condition, is associated with deficiencies of apolipoprotein B.) The MTTP gene provides ... It is caused by a mutation in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein resulting in deficiencies in the apolipoproteins B-48 ... Low levels of plasma chylomicron are also characteristic.[citation needed] There is an absence of apolipoprotein B. On ... The disease is extremely rare with approximately 100 reported cases worldwide since it was first identified by doctors Bassen ...
"Homozygous disruption of Pctp modulates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice". J. Lipid Res. 47 (11): 2400-7. doi ... 274 (1): 100-11. doi:10.1006/excr.2001.5460. hdl:1874/14384. PMID 11855861. Roderick SL, Chan WW, Agate DS, Olsen LR, Vetting ...
Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I". The Journal of Biological ... "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". Muffat J, Walker DW (January 2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging ... Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein ... Apolipoproteins+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Applied Research on Apolipoproteins ...
"Entrez Gene: APOE apolipoprotein E". Liu CC, Liu CC, Kanekiyo T, Xu H, Bu G (February 2013). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer ... The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). The ... "Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. X. The effect of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on quantitative levels of ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of fats in the body of mammals. A subtype is implicated in ...
... (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene. Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein ... Su Q, Tsai J, Xu E, Qiu W, Bereczki E, Santha M, Adeli K (2009). "Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Apolipoprotein B100 Cromwell WC, Otvos JD, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Sullivan L, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, ... Overproduction of apolipoprotein B can result in lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene. As the major component of HDL particles, it has a ... Apolipoprotein A1 is the major protein component of HDL particles in plasma. Chylomicrons secreted from the intestinal ... Apolipoprotein A1 and APOE interact epistatically to modulate triglyceride levels in coronary heart disease patients. ... Described in 1980, it was the first known molecular abnormality of apolipoproteins. Paradoxically, carriers of this mutation ...
Myklebost O, Rogne S (August 1986). "The gene for human apolipoprotein CI is located 4.3 kilobases away from the apolipoprotein ... "Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I". Puppione DL, Ryan CM, Bassilian S, Souda P, Xiao X, Ryder OA, Whitelegge JP (March 2010 ...
... is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from a missense mutation which reduces the affinity of ... apoB-100 for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL Receptor). This causes impairments in LDL catabolism, resulting in ...
Aktivin i inhibin • ADAM • Alfa 1-antihimotripsin • Apolipoprotein H • CD70 • Asijaloglikoprotein • Avidin • B-ćelijski ... 51-100. CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a ...
載脂蛋白B缺乏症(英语:Apolipoprotein B deficiency) ... 隨著社會變得越來越依賴熱量密度高
... adjusted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on the ... By serving as ligands for specific receptors on cell membranes, the apolipoproteins that reside on the surface of a given ... van der Steeg WA (2008). "High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoprotein A-I ... The desirable LDL level is considered to be less than 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)[28], although a newer target of , 70 mg/dL can be ...
... a subgroup of individuals with the apolipoprotein E4 genotype showed sustained benefits with donepezil throughout the study.[34 ... 70 hours[3] Around 100 hours in elderly patients.[1]. Duration of action. With daily dosing, steady-state concentration is ...
They are a very specific marker for the disease, with some studies quoting nearly 100%.[7] Data on sensitivity ranges from 25 ... PM/Scl-100 (70-80%), PM/Scl-75 (46-80%), hRrp4 (50%), hRrp42 (21%), hRrp46 (18%), hCs14 (14%), hRrp41 (10%) and hRrp40 (7%).[47 ...
An example in humans is the apolipoprotein B mRNA, which is edited in some tissues, but not others. The editing creates an ... The primary RNA transcript of a gene is cleaved at the poly-A addition site, and 100-200 A's are added to the 3' end of the RNA ...
Aktivin i inhibin • ADAM • Alfa 1-antihimotripsin • Apolipoprotein H • CD70 • Asijaloglikoprotein • Avidin • B-ćelijski ... 51-100. CD51 • CD52 • CD53 • CD54 • CD55 • CD56 • CD57 • CD58 • CD59 • CD61 • CD62 (E, L, P) • CD63 • CD64 (A, B, C) • CD66 (a ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... 8.95 g/100 g (0 °C). 60.5 g/100 g (20 °C). 1590 g/100 g (40 °C)[4] ... 12.7 g/100 g (0 °C). 120 g/100 g (20 °C). 2250 g/100 g (40 °C)[4] ... 9.4 g/100 g (0 °C). 52 g/100 g (20°C). 1250 g/100 g (40°C)[4] ... 83 mg/L (100 °C)[4] Solubility Soluble in alcohols, (C2H5)2O, ...
Specifically too, the apolipoprotein *e4 allele is linked to Alzheimer's disease as well. Also, there is increased coronary ... research has been put on concerning apolipoprotein E genotypes; this polymorphism has three alleles (*e2, *e3, and *e4)and was ... 100-meter backstroke), and Ford Konno (1500-meter freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics. Konno ...
Apolipoproteins. *Growth factors. *Chemokines. The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier ... irregularly shaped layer extending approximately 50-100 nm into the lumen of a blood vessel. Another study used cryo ...
100] and their realization that this protein is the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones.[101 ... 30 (1): 93-100. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2005.06.019. PMC 1317265 . PMID 16150486.. ...
Apolipoprotein E, Dementia, and Cortical Deposition of Beta-amyloid Protein. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;333(19): ... a b Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings ... Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial ... allellen tilhørende apolipoprotein E (APOE).[42][43] Mellem 40 og 80% af patienterne med AD har mindst én APOEε4-allel.[43] ...
... and apolipoproteins A and B.[24] ... have had a serum level of 44.4 mg/100 mL instead of 8.5 mg/100 ... The patient reported by Morley and Wynne would have had serum barbiturate levels of 50 mg/100 mL, which would have been fatal.[ ... Work done twelve years later found that the serum phenobarbital 0.111 mg/100 mL for every mg/kg of primidone ingested. Authors ...
"Lack of macrophage fatty-acid-binding protein aP2 protects mice deficient in apolipoprotein E against atherosclerosis". Nature ... Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ...
74.0 74.1 Mahley RW, Weisgraber KH, Huang Y (Aprili 2006). "Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in ... Polvikoski T, Sulkava R, Haltia M, et al. (Novemba 1995). "Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid ... Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D, et al. (Machi 1993). "Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and ... na 100%.[90] Inapotumika na mbinu zilizopo za upigaji picha za ubongo, madaktari wanaweza kutambua wagonjwa wa kupoteza ...
... polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice". ... J Appl Physiol 100 (4): 1164-70. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00626.2005. PMID 16339348. ... Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100 (3): 178-184. doi:10.2307/2484630. JSTOR 2484630. ...
apolipoprotein A-I-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... Use of B100 (100% biodiesel) is possible only in temperate climates, as the gel point is approximately 10 °C (50 °F). The oil ... Half of the saturated fat content of coconut oil is lauric acid (41.8 grams per 100 grams of total composition), while other ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". ...
Recent research indicates that these apolipoproteins interact with scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1). SR-B1 is able to remove ... the virus is thought to be able to associate with apolipoproteins. It could surround itself with lipoproteins, partially ...
"Protective effect of apolipoprotein E type 2 allele for late onset Alzheimer disease". Nature Genetics. 7 (2): 180-4. doi: ... The basic intuition of the twin study is that monozygotic twins share 100% of their genome and dizygotic twins share, on ...
... a specific isoform of apolipoprotein, APOE4, is a major genetic risk factor for AD. While apolipoproteins enhance the breakdown ... The best known genetic risk factor is the inheritance of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE).[44][45] Between 40 and ... "Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid protein". The New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (19): ... "Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease". Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 6: 121. doi:10.3389/ ...
Xu H, Finkelstein DI, Adlard PA (12 de junho de 2014). «Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease». ... Strittmatter WJ, Saunders AM, Schmechel D, Pericak-Vance M, Enghild J, Salvesen GS, Roses AD (1993). «Apolipoprotein E: high- ... Mahley RW, Weisgraber KH, Huang Y (2006). «Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, ... Apolipoprotein E, Dementia, and Cortical Deposition of Beta-amyloid Protein». The New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (19): ...
Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ... The cost of genetic testing can range from under $100 to more than $2,000. This depends on the complexity of the test. The cost ...
100] A large number of studies have shown positive health benefits associated with consumption of omega-3 fatty acids on infant ...
... has been shown to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells.[23] High concentrations of ... "Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells". Lipids in Health and Disease. 7: 38. doi ... serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (essential structural component of VLDL and LDL) are major risk factors of atherosclerosis ... Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ...
Aktivin i inhibin • ADAM • Alfa 1-antihimotripsin • Apolipoprotein H • CD70 • Asijaloglikoprotein • Avidin • B-ćelijski ... Teorija antitumorog responsa imunskog sistema in vivo je bila oformljena pre više od 100 godine od strane lekara Wilijam B. ...
16] Independent pathways for secretion of cholesterol and apolipoprotein E by macrophages. Science. 1983 Feb 18;219(4586):871-3 ... 2000 Feb 18;100(4):391-8. [54] Regulated step in cholesterol feedback localized to budding of SCAP from ER membranes. Cell. ...
Apolipoprotein E)會導致類澱粉蛋白質斑塊在大腦中累積[83],因此推測Aβ是導致阿茲海默症的原因,進一步的證據則是來自於轉殖基因老鼠實驗,研究人員在實驗老鼠身上表現突變型人類APP基因,結果發現實驗老鼠的大腦會產生纖維狀的類澱粉蛋白質斑塊 ... Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 ... Apolipoprotein B-48Add BLAST. 2151. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 ... sp,E9Q414,APOB_MOUSE Apolipoprotein B-100 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Apob PE=1 SV=1 ...
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 ... Apolipoprotein B-48Add BLAST. 2119. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Apolipoprotein B-100Add BLAST. 4716. ,p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a polypeptide ... "Identification of circulating apolipoproteins synthesized by rat small intestine in vivo.". Wu A.L., Windmueller H.G.. J. Biol ...
Developmental and age-related changes in apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in mice. J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 1753-1764. ... Recombinant Human Antibodies Against Aldehyde-Modified Apolipoprotein B-100 Peptide Sequences Inhibit Atherosclerosis. ... Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. ... Recombinant Human Antibodies Against Aldehyde-Modified Apolipoprotein B-100 Peptide Sequences Inhibit Atherosclerosis ...
... familial hypercholesterolemia in Indians and familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. [David Chaim Rubinsztein] ... Apolipoproteins B a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Apolipoproteins B"@en ;. . ... schema:about apolipoproteins_b> ; # Apolipoproteins B schema: ... familial hypercholesterolemia in Indians and familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. Author:. David Chaim Rubinsztein. ...
Immunotherapy With Tolerogenic Apolipoprotein B-100-Loaded Dendritic Cells Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic ... Immunotherapy With Tolerogenic Apolipoprotein B-100-Loaded Dendritic Cells Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic ... Immunotherapy With Tolerogenic Apolipoprotein B-100-Loaded Dendritic Cells Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic ... Immunotherapy With Tolerogenic Apolipoprotein B-100-Loaded Dendritic Cells Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic ...
... ... Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Sekretion von Apolipoprotein B 100 (ApoB) - enthaltenden Lipoproteinen an der basalen Seite ... Zusätzlich wurde die plazentare Lokalisation von Apolipoprotein-Rezeptoren (LRP2, LDLR, LRP1) untersucht, um zelluläre Ziele ...
Use: The antibody can be used for detection of apo B-100 in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays, immunoblots, enzyme ... Human Apolipoprotein B100 Specificity Specifically binds to human apo B-100. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to ... Human Apolipoprotein B100. Specificity. Specifically binds to human apo B-100. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 ... "Apolipoprotein B-48 Is the Product of a Messenger RNA with an Organ-specific In-frame Stop Codon." Science 238 (1987): 363- 66. ...
Buy high purity human plasma Apolipoprotein B (APO B-100) antigen for research, life science and diagnostic manufacturing uses ... 125-25 - Apolipoprotein B from human plasma - >80% (SDS-PAGE). 125-26 - Goat anti-Human Apolipoprotein B Polyclonal Antibody. ... Buy Human Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) from Lee Biosolutions. Custom preparations, technical support, bulk quantities and ...
The terms "Defective Apolipoprotein B-100" returned 27 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results ... Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 is a genetic disorder of apolipoprotein B-100 that causes moderate to severe ... A single amino acid mutation in apolipoprotein B diminishes the ability of low density lipoproteins to bind to the low density ... Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery calcification in ...
Apolipoproteins C-III and A-V as Predictors of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics. ... Apolipoproteins C-III and A-V as Predictors of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics ... Apolipoproteins C-III and A-V as Predictors of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics ... Apolipoproteins C-III and A-V as Predictors of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B-100 Kinetics ...
Tenger C, Zhou X. Apolipoprotein e modulates immune activation by acting on the antigen-presenting cell. Immunology. 2003; 109 ... A peptide sequence from apolipoprotein B-100 of low-density lipoprotein was fused with the B subunit of cholera toxin and used ... Intranasal Immunization With an Apolipoprotein B-100 Fusion Protein Induces Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Reduces ... Intranasal Immunization With an Apolipoprotein B-100 Fusion Protein Induces Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Reduces ...
Cholesterol Substrate Availability as a Regulator of the Hepatic Secretion Rate of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein ... Cholesterol Substrate Availability as a Regulator of the Hepatic Secretion Rate of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein ... Cholesterol Substrate Availability as a Regulator of the Hepatic Secretion Rate of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein ... Cholesterol Substrate Availability as a Regulator of the Hepatic Secretion Rate of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein ...
Defective apolipoprotein B-100) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, ... and treatment information for Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 ( ... Apolipoprotein B *Familial *Familial disorder *Defective *Apolipoprotein Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 as a Disease. ... OMIM - APOLIPOPROTEIN B; APOB Source: Diseases Database Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases ...
Recombinant Sus scrofa (pig) Apolipoprotein M (ApoM), Transfected HEK293 Cell Lysate. Catalog Number. Pack Size. List Price*. ...
LDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B levels. The study elucidates that ApoB gene polymorphisms are associated with CAD in north ... The aim of this study was to investigate the association between apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and coronary artery ... The aim of this study was to investigate the association between apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and coronary artery ... Association of DNA Polymorphism at the Apolipoprotein B-100 Gene Locus with Plasma Lipid Concentration and Coronary Artery ...
... Geisel J, Schleifenbaum T, Oette K, Weisshaar B (1992 ... Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in 12 subjects and their kindred. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical ... "Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in 12 subjects and their kindred". European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical ... Familial ligand-defective apolipoprotein B. Identification of a new mutation that decreases LDL receptor binding affinity.. ...
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 homozygote with premature coronary atherosclerosis. A case report.. Horinek A, Ceska R ... Improved detection of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 by restriction-site-introducing polymerase chain reaction. Geisel ... Geisel J, Schleifenbaum T, Weisshaar B, Oette K. Improved detection of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 by restriction- ... Geisel, J., Schleifenbaum, T., Weisshaar, B., and Oette, K. (1993). Improved detection of familial defective apolipoprotein B- ...
ApoB100, Apolipoprotein B, ApoB, Apolipoprotein (B). What is this test?. This test measures the amount of a certain type of ... Apolipoprotein B-100. Does this test have other names?. ... cholesterol called apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in your blood. ... Results are given in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Normal levels of Apo B-100 in adults are less than 100 mg/dL. Your risk ...
Forskning , Publikationer , Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins Human placenta secretes ... In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality ... 35)S-labeled apoB-100 was recovered in d approximately 1.02-1.04 g/ml particles (i.e. similar to the density of plasma low ... These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100- ...
... polyclonal anti-apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) (1:2000 dilution), and anti-apolipoprotein B-48 (apo B-48) (1:2000 dilution) ... d Apolipoprotein A-I abundance. e Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity. f PLTP abundance. Experimental data were ... Serum apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) levels were measured using Mouse Apolipoprotein B (APOB) ELISA (Cusabio Biotech Co. Ltd ... b HDL apolipoprotein D abundance. c Antioxidant HDL capacity. Experimental data were collected from four independent animal ...
"Entrez Gene: APOE apolipoprotein E". Liu CC, Liu CC, Kanekiyo T, Xu H, Bu G (February 2013). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer ... The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). The ... "Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. X. The effect of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on quantitative levels of ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of fats in the body of mammals. A subtype is implicated in ...
Myklebost O, Rogne S (August 1986). "The gene for human apolipoprotein CI is located 4.3 kilobases away from the apolipoprotein ... "Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I". Puppione DL, Ryan CM, Bassilian S, Souda P, Xiao X, Ryder OA, Whitelegge JP (March 2010 ...
2014;37:79-100. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-071013-014300. Epub 2014 Apr 21. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimers disease: an update.. Yu JT1, Tan L, Hardy J. ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been irrefutably recognized as the major genetic risk factor, with semidominant inheritance, for ... Annu Rev Neurosci. 2014;37:79-100. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-071013-014300. Epub 2014 Apr 21. ...
Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimers disease: strength of association is related to age at onset. Dementia 1996;7(5):251-5. ... Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and the risk of dementia with stroke. A population-based investigation. JAMA 1997;277(10):818-21. ... Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis: insight from a study in octogenarians. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 1987;99: ... Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia: data from the Canadian Study of Health and ...
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in a group of hypercholesterolaemic patients in Poland. Identification of a new ... Identification of a new mutation Thr,sub,3492,/sub,Ile in the apolipoprotein B gene . Opens in a new window. ... Rights & permissionsfor article Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in a group of hypercholesterolaemic patients in Poland ... mutation Thr3492Ile in the apolipoprotein B gene *Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk ...
Apolipoprotein B synthesis in humans: Liver synthesizes only apolipoprotein B-100. Stephen B. Edge, Jeffrey M. Hoeg, Philip D ... Apolipoprotein B synthesis in humans : Liver synthesizes only apolipoprotein B-100. In: Metabolism. 1985 ; Vol. 34, No. 8. pp. ... Apolipoprotein B synthesis in humans : Liver synthesizes only apolipoprotein B-100. / Edge, Stephen B.; Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Apolipoprotein B synthesis in humans: Liver synthesizes only apolipoprotein B-100 ...
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
Assays for Transthyretin and Apolipoprotein A1. To quantitatively measure and compare apolipoprotein A1 and posttranslationally ... For apolipoprotein A1, IMAC ProteinChip Arrays were precharged with 50 μL of 50 mmol/L CuSO4 for 10 minutes, washed four times ... Time-lag focus mass was set at 14,000 Da for transthyretin and 28,000 Da for apolipoprotein A1. Sampling rate was set at 800 ... Jungner I, Marcovina SM, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-1 values in 147,576 Swedish males and ...
... amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ... review Genetically modified mice for the study of apolipoprotein B by Edward Kim, Stephen G. Young ... Since the P1 phage head can package approximately 110-115 kb of DNA (=-=Sternberg, 1990-=-), fragments as large as 100 kb could ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ...
  • The antibody can be used for detection of apo B-100 in plasma and lipoproteins, immunoassays, immunoblots, enzyme conjugation, or biotinylation. (academybiomed.com)
  • Structure of Apolipoprotein B-100 of Human Low Density Lipoproteins. (academybiomed.com)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo)C-III, a glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and intestine, plays a central role in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) including VLDL and their remnants in plasma. (ahajournals.org)
  • In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. (ku.dk)
  • 35)S-labeled apoB-100 was recovered in d approximately 1.02-1.04 g/ml particles (i.e. similar to the density of plasma low density lipoproteins). (ku.dk)
  • These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. (ku.dk)
  • Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein C-I has a length of 57 amino acids normally found in plasma and responsible for the activation of esterified lecithin cholesterol with an important role in the exchange of esterified cholesterol between lipoproteins and in removal of cholesterol from tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • During fasting (like other apolipoprotein C), it is found primarily within HDL, while after a meal it is found on the surface of other lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Inhibition of VLDL secretion reduces plasma levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins but can also cause hepatic steatosis. (jci.org)
  • Human liver was minced and incubated in 15 mL methionine-free RPMI-1640 medium with 10% dialyzed fetal calf serum plus 250 μCi 35 S-methionine for eight hours at 37 °C. Lipoproteins secreted by the liver were isolated by ultracentrifugation and the content of newly synthesized apo B determined by quantitation of radioactivity in the apoB-100 and apoB-48 bands after separation by 3% NaDodSO 4 gel electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein synthesized mainly in the liver and the brain and is a component of most lipoproteins with the exception of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). (abcam.com)
  • Watts, G , Chan, D & Barrett, H 2007, Metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins in dyslipidaemias . (edu.au)
  • When bound to apoB-100 on low density lipoproteins (LDL), antibody MB47 completely blocks the binding of LDL to the LDL receptor. (scripps.edu)
  • Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (abcam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a constituent of the lipoproteins, may be relevant in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS), since HSV-1 binds to human serum ApoE lipoproteins. (asm.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a constituent of very-low-density lipoprotein synthesized by the liver ( 29 ) and of members of a subclass of high-density lipoproteins involved in cholesterol transport among cells ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Missense mutations in APOB within the betaalpha1 domain of human APOB-100 result in impaired secretion of ApoB and ApoB-containing lipoproteins in familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. (medscape.com)
  • Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. (medscape.com)
  • HL also modulates the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins (LpBs). (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins (LDL), and is the ligand for the LDL receptor. (genecards.org)
  • The amino acid sequence of human Apoa-I, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins. (academybiomed.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To evaluate the role of non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo)B, markers of all potentially atherogenic lipoproteins, as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in comparison with LDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Decreased bone mineral density in subjects carrying familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery calcification in the old order amish. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 homozygote with premature coronary atherosclerosis. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: a cause of hypercholesterolemia and early coronary heart disease. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (medical condition): A rare inherited condition where defective apolipoprotein B-100 impairs. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Twelve unrelated subjects with heterozygous familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 were identified in a group of 252 patients with type IIa hypercholesterolaemia. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 is therefore the most common known mutation causing primary hypercholesterolaemia. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Geisel J, Schleifenbaum T, Oette K, Weisshaar B. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in 12 subjects and their kindred. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in 12 subjects and their kindred", European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry , vol. 30, 1992, pp. 729-736. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Familial ligand-defective apolipoprotein B. Identification of a new mutation that decreases LDL receptor binding affinity. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Phenotypic expression and frequency of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in Belgian hypercholesterolemics. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Geisel J, Schleifenbaum T, Weisshaar B, Oette K. Improved detection of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 by restriction-site-introducing polymerase chain reaction. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in a group of hypercholesterolaemic patients in Poland. (nature.com)
  • To evaluate this, we compared bone mineral density (BMD) between subjects with and without the R3500Q APOB mutation, the cause of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100, which has been previously shown to markedly increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We hypothesized that R3500Q carriers would have lower BMD due to lifetime, elevated LDL-C. (cdc.gov)
  • Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia caused by a mutation in the apolipoprotein B gene that results in a truncated species of apolipoprotein B (B-31). (medscape.com)
  • Persistent transaminase elevation due to heterozygous (familial) apolipoprotein B deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), the second major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein, has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Following organizations serve the condition "Defective Apolipoprotein B-100" for support, advocacy or research. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Finding the right clinical trial for Defective Apolipoprotein B-100 can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • The terms "Defective Apolipoprotein B-100" returned 27 free, full-text research articles on human participants. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Mutation of lysine residues in apolipoprotein B-100 causes defective lipoprotein[a] formation. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Another name for Defective apolipoprotein B-100 (or close medical condition association). (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • To further study the role of these IgG antibodies in the atheroprotective response and to test whether specific MDA-apoB-100 antibodies could be used for direct inhibition of atherosclerosis in apoE −/− mice, we produced recombinant human IgG1 that specifically recognizes 2 MDA-modified sequences in human apoB-100. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of fats in the body of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOE belongs to a family of fat-binding proteins called apolipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been irrefutably recognized as the major genetic risk factor, with semidominant inheritance, for LOAD. (nih.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (cmaj.ca)
  • In recent years, rapid progress in molecular genetics has fostered the discovery of at least 4 genes associated with AD: the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the presenilin-1 gene (PS-1), the presenilin-2 gene (PS-2) and the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE). (cmaj.ca)
  • ApoE may play an important modulatory function in the central nervous system (CNS), because while in the peripheral nervous system several other apolipoproteins are involved in lipid transport, in the CNS there is less redundancy of such molecules ( 19 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system. (dovepress.com)
  • The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is located on chromosome 19 and encodes a glycoprotein that is 299 amino acids long. (dovepress.com)
  • The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of the E4 polymorphism of apolipoprotein E4 ( APOE 4) has long been known to be the most potent risk factor for sporadic AD, second only to age. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this question, in this study, we examine for the first time the renoprotective actions of alagebrium in diabetic RAGE apolipoprotein E ( apoE ) double-knockout (KO) mice, with a particular emphasis on glomerular fibrosis and inflammation, comparing its effects with those of the ACE inhibitor, quinapril. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E antibody LS-C458337 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Apolipoprotein E (APOE) from human, chimpanzee, gibbon and other species. (lsbio.com)
  • Methods and Results- Human IgG1 antibodies against 2 malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified apoB-100 peptide sequences were produced through screening of a single-chain antibody-fragment library and subsequent cloning into a pcDNA3 vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • The apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-specific monoclonal antibody MB47 has been widely used in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis research. (scripps.edu)
  • The epitope for antibody MB47 has previously been mapped to the vicinity of apoB-100 amino acid (aa) residue 3500. (scripps.edu)
  • Antibody MB47 bound strongly to a fusion protein containing apoB-100 aa 3214-3728, but no specific binding was observed to fusion proteins containing aa 3214-3351, 3214-3506, 3351-3506, or a fusion protein containing aa 3214-3351 and 3506-3728. (scripps.edu)
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 Antibody Interaction With Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation and Repair Processes. (lu.se)
  • Each Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • 5. Add 100 l of Biotin-antibody (1x) to each well. (ranggs.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human apoLipoprotein J and has negligible cross-reactivity with Type A-I, A-II, B, C-I, C-II, C-III and E apoLipoproteins. (rockland-inc.com)
  • 100 ug c-Mpl Antibody (Monoclonal, 1H2) 1 mg/ml from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of recombinant protein using Apolipoprotein C1 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B antibody LS-C202381 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Apolipoprotein B (APOB). (lsbio.com)
  • This antibody carries the LSBio 100% Guarantee. (lsbio.com)
  • Methods and Results- To dampen the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis, we injected hypercholesterolemic huB100 tg × Ldlr −/− mice (mice transgenic for human apolipoprotein B100 [ApoB100] and deficient for the low-density lipoprotein receptor) intravenously with dendritic cells (DCs) that had been pulsed with the low-density lipoprotein protein ApoB100 in combination with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- Nasal administration of an apoB-100 peptide fused to CTB attenuates atherosclerosis and induces regulatory Tr1 cells that inhibit T effector responses to apoB-100. (ahajournals.org)
  • Through adoptive cell transfers and cross-breeding to hypercholesterolemic mice expressing the antigenic human LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100, we evaluate the effects on atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery set analysis revealed 100 differentially expressed proteins between cases and controls, 39 of which were verified (≥ twofold change) in the test set. (springer.com)
  • These included proteins already studied in the context of CVD (such as apolipoprotein B, alpha-2-macroglobulin), as well as novel findings (such as low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 2 [LRP2], protein SZT2) for which a mechanism of action is suggested. (springer.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (rockland-inc.com)
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 secretion was 30%-36% decreased when using 10-1000 nmol/l and no change was observed for the secretion of apolipoprotein A-1 and albumin which were measured as control proteins. (tudelft.nl)
  • Objective- We investigated the associations between plasma very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apolipoprotein (apo)C-III and apoA-V concentrations and the kinetics of VLDL-apoB-100 and VLDL triglycerides in 15 men. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 The metabolism of VLDL involves regulatory processes governing the turnover of triglycerides and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). (ahajournals.org)
  • A significant association (p = 0.03) was also observed between the higher repeats HVE39-49 alleles and higher levels of Apo B. RFLP haplotype E+/X- also depicted significant differences for total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B levels. (thescipub.com)
  • Each VLDL particle contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is retained as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the more cholesterol-rich LDL. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The PA1-26900 immunogen is purified, full length, native apoLipoprotein type A-II isolated from human plasma by density gradient centrifugation followed by HPLC purification. (fishersci.com)
  • This test measures the amount of a certain type of cholesterol called apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in your blood. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The apolipoprotein B (ApoB) blood test measures apolipoprotein B100, the ApoB protein that is associated with three different forms of potentially dangerous cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). (lifeextension.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids and is the main protein constituent of all non-HDL cholesterol in your blood. (lifeextension.com)
  • These studies reveal an additive effect of HL and EL on HDL metabolism but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice and an unexpected redundant role of HL and EL in apolipoprotein B lipoprotein metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heterozygous FHBL - Patients with heterozygous FHBL may have total cholesterol levels that are below the fifth percentile (and may be less than 100 mg/dL). (medscape.com)
  • Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Thus, apoB-100 inhibition is a promising target for the development of new treatment options to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I binding protein (AIBP) is a protein involved in regulation of lipid rafts and cholesterol efflux. (asm.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein(B) [apo(B)] reflects the total mass of atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, and LDL), and its increase is associated with cardiovascular disease independently of LDL cholesterol (LDLc) levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because there is one apolipoprotein (apo)B molecule per particle of LDL, IDL, and VLDL, total apoB levels highly correlate with non-HDL cholesterol levels ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apo B-100 is synthesized in the liver and is required for the assembly of VLDL. (academybiomed.com)
  • In the liver, the body repackages these dietary lipids and combines them with apo B-100 to form triglyceride-rich VLDL. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and B-48 are prominent apolipoprotein in VLDL, IDL, and chylomicrons. (elsevier.com)
  • In the eight-hour period, 2.5% to 3.2% of added 35 S-methionine was secreted in TCA-precipitable protein of which 0.34% was apo B. Ninety-nine percent of the apo B in VLDL, IDL, and LDL was in the apo B-100 electrophoretic band. (elsevier.com)
  • Eighty-nine percent of the total radioactivity of apo B-100 was in VLDL with 3% and 8% in IDL and LDL, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). (genecards.org)
  • Using a library of malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified polypeptides covering the complete amino acid sequence of human apoB-100, we have recently identified a large number of epitopes recognized by antibodies present in human plasma. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • We offer Apolipoprotein E3/ApoE3 Antibodies for use in common research applications: Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry, Simple Western, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E in vitro SimpleStep ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Apolipoprotein E protein in mouse serum and plasma. (abcam.com)
  • The Human Apolipoprotein (Apo) Panel requires a high dilution factor for serum (1:4,000) and plasma (1:8,000) samples. (biolegend.com)
  • Do Apolipoprotein E Polymorphisms Influence Risk of Cognitive Decline by Modulating Omega-3 Fatty Acid Metabolism? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Apolipoprotein H has been implicated in a variety of physiologic pathways including lipoprotein metabolism, coagulation, and the production of antiphospholipid autoantibodies. (genetex.com)
  • Specifically binds to human apo B-100. (academybiomed.com)
  • Molecular Cloning and Expression of Partial cDNAs and Deduced Amino Acid Sequence of a Carboxyl-terminal Fragment of Human Apolipoprotein B-100. (academybiomed.com)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Sulfhydryl and Disulfide Peptides of Human Apolipoprotein B-100. (academybiomed.com)
  • Structure and Functional Domains of Human Apolipoprotein B-100: A Strategy to Elucidate the Structure Information of a Large Protein. (academybiomed.com)
  • Sequence, Structure, Receptor-binding Domains and Internal Repeats of Human Apolipoprotein B-100. (academybiomed.com)
  • Buy Human Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) from Lee Biosolutions. (leebio.com)
  • One of the duplicates encodes a basic protein designated apoC-IB that is orthologous to human apolipoprotein C-I. The other encodes an acidic protein, apoC-IA, that is orthologous to the virtual protein encoded by the pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results establish that adult human liver in organ culture synthesizes apo B-100 but not apo B-48. (elsevier.com)
  • Human and rat Apolipoprotein E are 71% and 92% identical to mouse Apolipoprotein E, respectively. (abcam.com)
  • Xu, Dahlbäck: A novel human apolipoprotein (apoM). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of recombinant human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) in an animal model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We previously reported the antiangiogenic effect of recombinant human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics of a 2′- O -(2-methoxyethyl)-modified oligonucleotide, ISIS 301012 [targeting human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100)], was characterized in mouse, rat, monkey, and human. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ISIS 301012 binds to the coding region of the human apoB-100 mRNA (position 3249-3269 base pair) by Watson and Crick base pairing. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (pnas.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Apolipoprotein H. The exact sequence is proprietary. (genetex.com)
  • PA1-26900 detects Apolipoprotein A II from human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Native human apoLipoprotein type A-II. (fishersci.com)
  • Structural Models of Human Apolipoprotein A-I: A Critical Analysis and Review. (academybiomed.com)
  • Typically less than 1% cross reactivity against other types of apoLipoprotein was detected by ELISA against purified standards. (rockland-inc.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, it has been attempted to identify the specific genetic determinants of plasma TG levels, and a novel member of the apolipoprotein family, apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), was identified by the comparative sequencing of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster region [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, immunization with immunodominant peptide sequences derived from apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) should be an attractive alternative to immunization with LDL particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
  • The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (abcam.com)
  • Background-Elevated levels of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) on apolipoprotein B-100 particles (OxPL/apoB) are associated with cardiovascular disease and predict new cardiovascular events. (elsevier.com)
  • Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the fusion protein data indicated that two nonlinear domains of apoB-100 separated by approximately 53 aa (the 25 residues from aa 3429 to 3453 and the 17 residues from aa 3507 to 3523) form key parts of the MB47 epitope. (scripps.edu)
  • Twenty-three of the 25 cysteine residues in apolipoprotein B-100 have been isolated directly from tryptic or peptic peptide mixtures. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Thus, passive immunization against MDA-modified apoB-100 peptide sequences may represent a novel therapeutic approach for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Estrogen-enhanced apical and basolateral secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by polarized trophoblast-derived BeWo cells. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • secretion of fluorogenic steroid was reduced 7- to greater than 100-fold relative to Y1 parent cells. (pnas.org)
  • Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the biochemical background of these changes, we studied the effect of insulin on apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) synthesis and mRNA levels in primary cultures of cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes. (tudelft.nl)
  • Steady state apolipoprotein(a) mRNA concentrations paralleled the decrease in apolipoprotein(a) synthesis (-29% after incubating the cells for 48 h with 100 nmol/l insulin) indicating that the decreased synthesis is regulated at the (post)-transcriptional level. (tudelft.nl)
  • We conclude that high concentrations of insulin suppress apolipoprotein(a) synthesis in monkey hepatocytes at the (post)-transcriptional level. (tudelft.nl)
  • Your search returned 60 Apolipoprotein A-IV ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • We propose a linear model of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoprotein that wraps around the low density lipoprotein molecule. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • A unique mutation that helps to define the portion of the apolipoprotein B molecule required for the format. (medscape.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Yang, Chao-Yuh, and Pownall, H.J. "In Structure and Function of Plasma Apolipoproteins. (academybiomed.com)
  • In addition, we observed in a previous small study decreased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in preoperative patients with kidney cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and a second associated with low plasma concentrations of apoB-100. (medscape.com)
  • It occurs in plasma as two main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100: the former is synthesized exclusively in the gut and the latter in the liver. (genecards.org)
  • The objectives of this study were first to characterize renal injury in diabetic apolipoprotein E knockout (apo E-KO) mice and second to explore the role of AGE in the development and progression of renal disease in this model. (asnjournals.org)
  • Experimental studies with various animal models of hyperlipidemia, including apolipoprotein E knockout (apo E-KO) mice ( 4 ) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats ( 5 ), have shown that hyperlipidemia per se is associated with development of early renal lesions. (asnjournals.org)
  • It comprises approximately half of the N-terminal region of ApoB-100 and is the result of posttranscriptional mRNA editing by a stop codon in the intestine not found in the liver. (academybiomed.com)
  • The hybridization of ISIS 301012 to apoB-100 mRNA results in RNase H-mediated degradation of the cognate mRNA, thereby inhibiting the translation of the apoB protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Concentrations of apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA were not changed after incubation with insulin. (tudelft.nl)
  • Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream from the apoC-I gene in the same orientation on chromosome 19, where both reside within an apolipoprotein gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein gene cluster on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. (genetex.com)
  • APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Recombinant Sus scrofa (pig) Apolipoprotein M (ApoM), Transfected HEK293 Cell Lysate by RayBiotech, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Additionally, it can serve as a ligand for the LDL (Apolipoprotein B/E) receptor and for the specific Apolipoprotein E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of hepatic tissues. (abcam.com)
  • Apolipoprotein E is a fat-binding protein ( apolipoprotein ) that is part of the chylomicron and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) . (wikidoc.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the MedDiet, in the absence of weight change, on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetics in men with MetS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apolipoprotein(B) identifies dyslipidemic phenotypes associated with cardiovascular risk in normocholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apo B-100 is the major physiological ligand for the LDL receptor. (academybiomed.com)
  • Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region. (curehunter.com)
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Attenuates Palmitate-Mediated NF-κB Activation by Reducing Toll-Like Receptor-4 Recruitment into Lipid Rafts. (academybiomed.com)
  • 12 This effect was associated with increased formation of IgG against the respective apoB-100 peptides. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study investigated associations between autoantibodies against the apolipoprotein B-100 peptides p45 and p210, respectively, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in a large population-based cohort. (lu.se)
  • Subjects that suffered an acute coronary event during follow-up (n=382) had lower levels at baseline of IgM autoantibodies recognizing the native and malondialdehyde-modified apolipoprotein B-100 peptides p45 and p210 and also lower IgG levels recognizing native p210, whereas no association was found with risk for stroke (n=317). (lu.se)
  • The objective of this study was to develop an atheroprotective vaccine by targeting a peptide of the LDL protein constituent apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) to the nasal mucosa to induce a protective mucosal immune response. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association between apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease and lipid levels in north Indians. (thescipub.com)