The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
Relating to the size of solids.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutations of APOLIPOPROTEINS B, main components of CHYLOMICRONS and BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include abnormally low LDL, normal triglyceride level, and dietary fat malabsorption.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Abstaining from all food.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.

Vitamin A is linked to the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in familial combined hyperlipidemia. (1/471)

There is growing evidence of the capacity of vitamin A to regulate the expression of the genetic region that encodes apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, C-III, and A-IV. This region in turn has been proposed to modulate the expression of hyperlipidemia in the commonest genetic form of dyslipidemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). The hypothesis tested here was whether vitamin A (retinol), by controlling the expression of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, plays a role in modulating the hyperlipidemic phenotype in FCHL. We approached the subject by studying three genetic variants of this region: a C1100-T transition in exon 3 of the apoC-III gene, a G3206-T transversion in exon 4 of the apoC-III gene, and a G-75-A substitution in the promoter region of the apoA-I gene. The association between plasma vitamin A concentrations and differences in the plasma concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III based on the different genotypes was assessed in 48 FCHL patients and 74 of their normolipidemic relatives. The results indicated that the subjects carrying genetic variants associated with increased concentrations of apoA-I and C-III (C1100-T and G-75-A) also presented increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A. This was only observed among the FCHL patients, which suggested that certain characteristics of these patients contributed to this association. The G3206-T was not associated with changes in either apolipoprotein concentrations or in vitamin A. In summary, we report a relationship between genetically determined elevations of proteins of the AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and vitamin A in FCHL patients. More studies will be needed to confirm that vitamin A plays a role in FCHL which might also be important for its potential application to therapeutical approaches.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-I charge and conformation regulate the clearance of reconstituted high density lipoprotein in vivo. (2/471)

While low apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels are primarily associated with increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractional catabolic rate (FCR), the factors that regulate the clearance of HDL from the plasma are unclear. In this study, the effect of lipid composition of reconstituted HDL particles (LpA-I) on their rate of clearance from rabbit plasma has been investigated. Sonicated LpA-I containing 1 to 2 molecules of purified human apoA-I and 5 to 120 molecules of palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) exhibit similar charge and plasma FCR to that for lipid free apoA-I, 2.8 pools/day. Inclusion of 1 molecule of apoA-II to an LpA-I complex increases the FCR to 3.5 pools/day, a value similar to that observed for exchanged-labeled HDL3. In contrast, addition of 40 molecules of triglyceride, diglyceride, or cholesteryl ester to a sonicated LpA-I containing 120 moles of POPC and 2 molecules of apoA-I increases the negative charge of the particle and reduces the FCR to 1.8 pools/day. Discoidal LpA-I are the most positively charged lipoprotein particles and also have the fastest clearance rates, 4.5 pools/day. Immunochemical characterization of the different LpA-I particles shows that the exposure of an epitope at residues 98 to 121 of the apoA-I molecule is associated with an increased negative particle charge and a slower clearance from the plasma. We conclude that the charge and conformation of apoA-I are sensitive to the lipid composition of LpA-I and play a central role in regulating the clearance of these lipoproteins from plasma. conformation regulate the clearance of reconstituted high density lipoprotein in vivo.  (+info)

Dietary restriction of saturated fat and cholesterol decreases HDL ApoA-I secretion. (3/471)

We examined the mechanisms responsible for the decrease in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels after the consumption of a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Twenty-one subjects with a mean age of 58+/-12 years were placed on a baseline isocaloric diet (15% protein, 49% carbohydrate, 36% fat, and 150 mg/1000 kcals of cholesterol) and then switched to an NCEP Step 2 diet (15% protein, 60% carbohydrate, 25% fat, and 45 mg/1000 kcals of cholesterol). After 6 or 24 weeks on each diet, subjects received a 15-hour primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-2H3]-L-leucine. HDL apoA-I and apoA-II tracer curves were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fitted to a monoexponential equation. Compared with the baseline diet, consumption of the Step 2 diet lowered HDL-C mean levels by 15% (1.03+/-0.23 to 0.88+/-0.16 mmol/L, P<0.001), apoA-I by 12% (1.25+/-0.15 to 1.10+/-0.13 g/L, P<0. 001) and the TC/HDL-C ratio by 5% (0.145+/-0.04 to 0.137+/-0.03). No significant changes were observed in apoA-II levels and HDL particle size with diet. HDL apoA-I fractional catabolic rate did not change (0.219+/-0.052 to 0.220+/-0.043 pools/day, P=0.91) but HDL apoA-I secretion rate decreased by 8% (12.26+/-3.07 to 10.84+/-2.11 mg. kg-1. day-1, P=0.03) during consumption of the Step 2 diet. There was no effect of diet on apoA-II fractional catabolic rate or secretion rate. Our results indicate that the decrease in HDL-C and apoA-I levels during the isocaloric consumption of a Step 2 diet paralleled the reductions in apoA-I secretion rate.  (+info)

Acute effects of intravenous infusion of ApoA1/phosphatidylcholine discs on plasma lipoproteins in humans. (4/471)

To investigate the metabolism of nascent HDLs, apoA1/phosphatidylcholine (apoA1/PC) discs were infused IV over 4 hours into 7 healthy men. Plasma total apoA1 and phospholipid (PL) concentrations increased during the infusions. The rise in plasma apoA1 was greatest in small prebeta-migrating particles not present in the infusate. Total HDL unesterified cholesterol (UC) also increased simultaneously. After stopping the infusion, the concentrations of apoA1, PL, HDL UC, and small prebeta HDLs decreased, whereas those of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE) and large alpha-migrating apoA1 containing HDLs increased. ApoB-containing lipoproteins became enriched in CEs. Addition of apoA1/PC discs to whole blood at 37 degrees C in vitro also generated small prebeta HDLs, but did not augment the transfer of UC from erythrocytes to plasma. We conclude that the disc infusions increased the intravascular production of small prebeta HDLs in vivo, and that this was associated with an increase in the efflux and esterification of UC derived from fixed tissues. The extent to which the increase in tissue cholesterol efflux was dependent on that in prebeta HDL production could not be determined. Infusion of discs also reduced the plasma apoB and apoA2 concentrations, and increased plasma triglycerides and apoC3. Thus, nascent HDL secretion may have a significant impact on prebeta HDL production, reverse cholesterol transport and lipoprotein metabolism in humans.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in renal failure: the relation to mode of dialysis. (5/471)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a differential effect of mode of dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the dyslipidemia of renal failure. METHODS: The lipoprotein profile was determined in 61 non-diabetic patients on chronic HD (N = 30) and CAPD treatment (N = 31), and in a control group of 27 healthy subjects. The analysis included the measurement of individual apolipoprotein (apo) A- and apo B-containing lipoproteins (LPs) separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography. Apo A-containing lipoproteins include lipoprotein A-I with apo A-I and lipoprotein A-I:A-II with apo A-I and apo A-II as the main protein constituents, whereas apo B-containing lipoproteins comprise simple cholesterol-rich lipoprotein B (LP-B), with apo B as the only protein moiety and complex triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein B complex (LP-Bc) particles with apo B, apo A-II, apo C, and/or apo E as the protein constituents. RESULTS: CAPD patients had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol (6.8 vs. 5.1 mmol/liter), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4.6 vs. 3.2 mmol/liter), TG (2.3 vs. 1.5 mmol/liter), apo B (155.3 vs. 105.7 mg/dl), LP-B (136.0 vs. 91.9 mg/dl), and LP-Bc (19.3 vs. 13.8 mg/dl) than HD patients. Both HD and CAPD patients had significantly higher TG, VLDL cholesterol, apo C-III, and apo E and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A-II, and lipoprotein A-I:A-II levels than control subjects. The distribution of apo C-III in high-density lipoprotein and VLDL-LDL was altered in CAPD patients in comparison with control subjects. This suggests that the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins is less efficient in patients on CAPD. Normotriglyceridemic (NTG; TG < or = 1.7 mmol/liter, 150 mg/dl) CAPD patients had significantly higher levels of TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B than NTG-HD patients. There was little difference in the LP-Bc levels between NTG-CAPD, NTG-HD, and controls. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) CAPD patients had significantly higher TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B levels than HTG-HD patients. The LP-Bc levels were significantly increased in HTG-HD and HTG-CAPD patients compared with controls, but the slightly higher levels in the CAPD patients did not differ significantly from the HD group. CONCLUSION: CAPD and HD patients have a lipoprotein profile characteristic of renal failure. Patients on long-term CAPD have higher levels of cholesterol-rich apo B-containing lipoproteins unrelated to TG levels. Many patients on CAPD also have a substantial elevation of the plasma concentrations of TG-rich LPs. The clinical significance of increased levels of potentially atherogenic LP-B during CAPD remains to be investigated.  (+info)

Overexpression of human apolipoprotein A-II in mice induces hypertriglyceridemia due to defective very low density lipoprotein hydrolysis. (6/471)

Two lines of transgenic mice, hAIItg-delta and hAIItg-lambda, expressing human apolipoprotein (apo)A-II at 2 and 4 times the normal concentration, respectively, displayed on standard chow postprandial chylomicronemia, large quantities of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) but greatly reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL). Hypertriglyceridemia may result from increased VLDL production, decreased VLDL catabolism, or both. Post-Triton VLDL production was comparable in transgenic and control mice. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase activities decreased at most by 30% in transgenic mice, whereas adipose tissue and muscle LPL activities were unaffected, indicating normal LPL synthesis. However, VLDL-triglyceride hydrolysis by exogenous LPL was considerably slower in transgenic compared with control mice, with the apparent Vmax of the reaction decreasing proportionately to human apoA-II expression. Human apoA-II was present in appreciable amounts in the VLDL of transgenic mice, which also carried apoC-II. The addition of purified apoA-II in postheparin plasma from control mice induced a dose-dependent decrease in LPL and hepatic lipase activities. In conclusion, overexpression of human apoA-II in transgenic mice induced the proatherogenic lipoprotein profile of low plasma HDL and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia because of decreased VLDL catabolism by LPL.  (+info)

Protective effect of apolipoprotein A I, A II, C I and C II on endothelial cells injury induced by low density lipoprotein. (7/471)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of apo-lipoprotein (apo) A I, A II, C I and C II, the main proteins in high density lipoprotein (HDL), on the morphology and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells injured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. METHODS: Cultured human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins were exposed to LDL, HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II. The morphology of endothelial cells was examined with phase contrast and transmission electron microscope. The released amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) was also measured. RESULTS: Endothelial cells after being injured by LDL showed cell contraction, increased release of LDH and decreased secrection of prostacyclin (PGI2). However, the addition of HDL, and apoA I, A II, C I and C II before incubation with LDL inhibited the cellular injury induced by LDL as demonstrated by lowered LDH release, increased level of PGF1 alpha and prevention of morphological changes. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that apoA I, A II, C I and C II, as well as HDL, may play an important role in combating atherogenesis by protecting endothelial cells from damages induced by LDL.  (+info)

ApoA-II maintains HDL levels in part by inhibition of hepatic lipase. Studies In apoA-II and hepatic lipase double knockout mice. (8/471)

High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are inversely related to the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-II is the second most abundant HDL apolipoprotein and apoA-II knockout mice show a 70% reduction in HDL cholesterol levels. There is also evidence, using human apoA-II transgenic mice, that apoA-II can prevent hepatic lipase-mediated HDL triglyceride hydrolysis and reduction in HDL size. These observations suggest the hypothesis that apoA-II maintains HDL levels, at least in part, by inhibiting hepatic lipase. To evaluate this, apoA-II knockout mice were crossbred with hepatic lipase knockout mice. Compared to apoA-II-deficient mice, in double knockout mice there were increased HDL cholesterol levels (57% in males and 60% in females), increased HDL size, and decreased HDL cholesteryl ester fractional catabolic rate. In vitro incubation studies of plasma from apoA-II knockout mice, which contains largely apoA-I HDL particles, showed active lipolysis of HDL triglyceride, whereas similar studies of plasma from apoA-I knockout mice, which contains largely apoA-II particles, did not. In summary, these results strongly suggest that apoA-II is a physiological inhibitor of hepatic lipase and that this is at least part of the mechanism whereby apoA-II maintains HDL cholesterol levels.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Apolipoprotein A-II/ApoA2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Host Species: Sheep Concentration: 1 mg/ml (OD 1.35 / 280 nm) Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein AII Purification: Affinity purified Buffer: 75 mM Sodium Phosphate, 75 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.02% NaN3, pH 7.2 Specificity Specifically binds to human apo AII. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range: 1,000 to 80,000. Use: The
Host Species: Sheep Concentration: 1 mg/ml (OD 1.35 / 280 nm) Antigen: Human Apolipoprotein AII Purification: Affinity purified Form: Freeze dried powder Buffer: 75 mM Sodium Phosphate, 75 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.02% NaN3, pH 7.2 Specificity Specifically binds to human apo AII. Dilution for immunoblot and ELISA range:
Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Tsao YK, Wei CF, Robberson DL, Gotto AM, Chan L (Dec 1985). Isolation and characterization of the human apolipoprotein A-II gene. Electron microscopic analysis of RNA:DNA hybrids, nucleotide sequence, identification of a polymorphic MspI site, and general structural organization of apolipoprotein genes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 260 (28): 15222-31. PMID 2415515 ...
We hypothesized that impaired protection of HDL against apoB-containing lipoprotein oxidation in the 11.1 transgenic mouse model could play a role in its enhanced atherosclerosis susceptibility. This line of human apoA-II in transgenic mice presented a relative increase in the area stained with antibodies that recognize LDL oxidation epitopes compared with control or 25.3 mice. However, a concomitant increase in plasma markers of oxidative stress was not found, which suggests that the level of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins was similar in the three mouse lines studied. Thus, the main difference in oxidation susceptibility may occur in the subendothelial space. In this milieu, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may confer vital protection.38. Lipoproteins that undergo oxidation are known to increase their electrophoretic mobility. This property can be used to establish the degree of LDL oxidation and has been used previously to assess HDL protectivity.39 Using this ...
All reagents should be stored refrigerated (2-8°C). Return all reagents to 2-8°C promptly after use. Unopened reagents can be used for one year from the date of manufacture, as indicated by the expiration date on the package and bottle labels. Opened reagents can be used for one month if stored at 2-8°C ...
Anti-Apolipoprotein A-II Goat pAb Anti-Apolipoprotein A-II, goat polyclonal, recognizes human apolipoprotein A-II. Does not cross-react with other apolipoproteins. It is validated for immunoelectrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Women have significantly higher plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I than men. Human HDL consists of two major species of apoA-I-containing lipoproteins: LpA-I (lipoprotein containing apoA-I but not apoA-II) and LpA-I:A-II (lipoprotein containing both apoA-I and apoA-II). LpA-I is itself heterogeneous and contains several subclasses of different size and composition. We analyzed LpA-I subclasses in 12 male and 12 female healthy normolipidemic adults. LpA-I concentrations were significantly higher in women (72.4 +/- 5.6 mg/dL) than in men (50.2 +/- 2.2 mg/dL) (P , .05). LpA-I was preparatively isolated from fasting plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography was then used to isolate LpA-I subclasses based on size. Three major subclasses were eluted: large, medium, and small LpA-I. No differences between men and women in the size or composition of individual LpA-I subclasses were observed. In contrast, the distribution and ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Mouse Apolipoprotein E SimpleStep ELISA® Kit is a highly sensitive (130 pg/ml), single-wash 90 min immunoassay suitable for Serum, Heparin Plasma, EDTA Plasma, Citrate Plasma samples.
This course complies with the amended STCW 1978 convention and amendments to STCW Code in 2010 which provides in Regulation Reg.II/1,II/2 & II/3, Sec. A-II/1, A-II/2 & A-II/3,Table A-II/1,A-II/2 & A-II/3.The trainees who successfully complete this course will have gained experience in handling a ship under various conditions and will make a more effective contribution to a bridge team during ship maneuvering in normal and emergency situations.The course is a requirement for specific ship manning companies. ...
The systemic amyloidoses are a number of disorders of varying etiology characterized by extracellular protein deposition. The most common form is an acquired amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) in which the amyloid is composed of immunoglobulin light chains. In addition to light chain amyloidosis, there are a number of acquired amyloidoses caused by the misfolding and precipitation of a wide variety of proteins. There are also hereditary forms of amyloidosis.. The hereditary amyloidoses comprise a group of autosomal dominant, late-onset diseases that show variable penetrance. A number of genes have been associated with hereditary forms of amyloidosis, including those that encode transthyretin, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AII, fibrinogen alpha chain, gelsolin, cystatin C and lysozyme. Apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AII, lysozyme, and fibrinogen amyloidosis present as non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis, with renal dysfunction ...
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Objectives- Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have reduced HDL concentration and altered metabolism of HDL Lipoprotein (Lp) A-I and LpA-I:A-II particles. In MetS, fenofibrate and atorvastatin may have differential effects on HDL particle kinetics.. Research Design and Methods- Eleven men with MetS were studied in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 5-week intervention periods with placebo, fenofibrate (200mg/day) and atorvastatin (40mg/day). LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II kinetics were examined using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modelling.. Results- Compared with placebo, fenofibrate significantly increased the production of both LpA-I:A-II (+30%, P,0.001) and apoA-II (+43%, P , 0.001), accounting for significant increases of their corresponding plasma concentrations (+10% and +23% respectively), but it did not alter LpA-I kinetics or concentration. Atorvastatin did not significantly alter HDL-cholesterol concentration or the kinetics of HDL particles.. Conclusions- In ...
Apolipoprotein A2 antibody (HRP) (apolipoprotein A-II) for ELISA. Anti-Apolipoprotein A2 pAb (GTX40825) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
I am having a new barrel spun up on a rifle. I am going with .260AI. Standard reamers for both .260 Rem and .260AI both use a .060 FB. I am more that...
Henrik, would you mind reviewing and testing the attached patch ? It should correct many vulnerabilities when opening corrupted BLX datasets. The most important changes are in decode_celldata(). Ive also changed datasize and compdatasize to be unsigned values, as Ive encountered datasize slightly above 32768 when trying to compress files where some tiles had big dynamics in values. With signed short, it turned to be a negative value when reading back the dataset. Theres also a small improvement with the progress callback being used by CreateCopy?() code. ...
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including the subendothelial space of the arterial wall, to the liver for disposal, is a current model of HDL atheroprotection. The final RCT step, selective hepatic HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, is mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The net receptor reaction of SR-BI vs. HDL is distinct from that of LDL vs. the LDL receptor. LDL holo particle uptake is succeeded by steps that breakdown apo B-100 and hydrolyze and recycle the CE. In contrast, HDL-CE uptake is selective, occurring without a concomitant net uptake of the major HDL protein, apo A-I and even though apo E and apo A-I bind equally well to SR-BI, apoA-I-containing particles mediate 2-fold more selective CE uptake. The reaction of HDL with SR-BI is similar to the activity of a streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against HDL_both reactions selectively remove CE from HDL leaving remnants. In addition, SOF catalyzes the ...
We have shown previously that apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are formed by the conjugation of lipid-free apoA-I with lipids derived from other lipoprotein fractions in a process dependent on non-esterified fatty acids, generated by the lipolysis of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) or provided exogenously. In the present study, we show that this process is also able to generate HDL particles containing apoA-II (A-II HDL) and both apoA-I and apoA-II (A-I/A-II HDL). When lipid-free apoA-II was incubated with either VLDLs and lipoprotein lipase or LDLs and sodium oleate, a significant proportion of the apoA-II was recovered in the HDL density fraction. This was associated with the formation of several populations of HDL-sized particles with pre-β2 electrophoretic mobility, which contained phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol as their main lipid constituents. When both lipid-free apoA-I and lipid-free apoA-II were incubated with LDL and sodium ...
Objective: Classical phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by high Phenylalanine (Phe) levels in blood and treated with a special low Phe diet which can be defined as nonatherogenic. Since coronary heart disease (CHD) was reported to be a disease of zinc and copper imbalance, we aimed indirectly to evaluate the effect of the special diet on the size of LDL particles and to investigate whether some minerals and trace elements are involved in their lipoprotein metabolism. Methods: Eighty-six (N=86) PKU patients were divided into two groups. Group A (N=44) on a strict diet and group B (N=42) who did not adhere to their treatment. Healthy children (N=98) were the controls. Serum total cholesterol (t-Chol), triacylglycerol, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and t-Chol in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured with enzymatic methods, whereas Apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI), Apolipoprotein AII (Apo AII) and Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) ...
Changes in circulating lipoproteins, which may be related to the risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease, were studied in a control group and in two groups of 24 or 26 women using different preparations of low-dose oral contraceptives for 3 months. One preparation contained 150 μg levo-norgestrel and 30 μg ethinylestradiol (Stediril-d 150/30); the other contained 750 μg lynestrenol and 37.5 μg ethinylestradiol (Ministat). No significant changes were found with either of the preparations in serum cholesterol or high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Apolipoprotein A-II levels increased during Ministat treatment from 50.4 to 61.4 mg/dL and during Stediril-d 150/30 treatment from 52.7 to 58.9 mg/dL (both P , 0.001). These changes differed significantly from each other (P , 0.01). Apolipoprotein A-I levels increased significantly during use of Ministat only. Apoliprotein B in low density lipoprotein increased by about 20% (P , 0.001) in both groups. Post-heparin lipoprotein ...
Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is a 35 kDa protein encoded by a cDNA cloned from the murine lacrimal gland. In the present paper, the murine apoF has been expressed as a recombinant histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified from expressing cultures. We report here the unique distinctions of apoF including comparisons of apoF with other apolipoproteins (apoD, apoE, and apoN), as well as why this protein was produced. The data presented here provide evidence that isolated recombinant apoF purified in the experimental conditions described here can be used for functional studies ...
Sudo K, Takahashi E, Nakamura Y (Jan 1996). Isolation and mapping of the human EIF4A2 gene homologous to the murine protein synthesis initiation factor 4A-II gene Eif4a2. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 71 (4): 385-8. doi:10.1159/000134145. PMID 8521730 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mass spectrometric determination of apolipoprotein molecular stoichiometry in reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles. AU - Massey, John B.. AU - Pownall, Henry J.. AU - Macha, Stephen. AU - Morris, Jamie. AU - Tubb, Matthew R.. AU - Silva, R. A.Gangani D.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Plasma HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels are strongly inversely associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the structure and protein composition of HDL particles is complex, as native and synthetic discoidal and spherical HDL particles can have from two to five apoA-I molecules per particle. To fully understand structure-function relationships of HDL, a method is required that is capable of directly determining the number of apolipoprotein molecules in heterogeneous HDL particles. Chemical cross-linking followed by SDS polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis has been previously used to determine apolipoprotein stoichiometry in HDL particles. However, this ...
Each download New Developments in Semiconductor Physics: Proceedings of the Third Summer School Held means around a nervous energy of apolipoprotein B-48( Phillips et al. 15 monomers of apolipoprotein A-IV, and conditions of apolipoprotein A-II( Bhattacharya and Redgrave 1981). annealing pathogens involve infants of kinases C and E and through phase with societal molecules include a cytosolic dimethylation of their period. This step and majority computing is public trials and occurs the fringe of dual tetrakisphosphate replication( wholesome such synthesis( HL). The normal homodimers of LDLR precursor, and of the activating proteins of external ubiquitin, are sought from those of the Cdk2 domain of putative cleavage cell( LDL) strand( Redgrave 2004). It recruits in Therefore purine-specific studies Human as download II analysis in family. L-Pyr is known from two houses and a p40, LKNL plus a further tract, had directly in converted classes( Bailey et al. essential actin mediators can clearly ...
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High - resolution two - dimension electrophoresis technique for protein with silver staining was used to characterise urinary high density lipoprotein (HDL) - apolipoproteins. Sequential ultracentrufugation method was used to isolate urinary lipoprotein particles of the same density as serum HDL. Immunostaining of electroblotted proteins further confirmed the presence of HDL-Apos in urine. HDL - Apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and C were identified in urine of normal subjects, diabetic patients and patients with biopsy proven glomerular proteinuria. An in-house ELISA method was used to quantify urinary HDL - Apo A - I. Selectivity indices were also determined.
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used formeasuring apolipoproteins A-I and B in the urine. ApoB is absentin urine of healthy subjects, and apoA-I is determined in tracequantity. In patients with chronic glomerulonephritis quantity ofapoA-I in urine was 117 times as much as in control group. ApoBis present in urine of patients in considerable quantity(1528*315 *g/l).) The ELISA method for determining apoA-I andapoB in urine makes it possible to evaluate the gravity ofpathological process in kidney ...
Plasma triglyceride levels have been correlated with insulin levels in both normal populations and in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia (1). As a result of this reproducible significant association, it has been suggested that hyperinsulinism might be causally related to endogenous hypertriglyceridemia (2).. It has now been established that endogenous hypertriglyceridemia describes a heterogenous group of primary familial and sporadic disorders. Recently two common forms of monogenic hypertriglyceridemia have been described: pure monogenic familial hypertriglyceridemia, in which the hypertriglyceridemic propositus comes from a family in which all affected relatives have isolated hypertriglyceridemia; and familial combined hyperlipidemia, in which the hypertriglyceridemic propositus ...
Kailemia MJ, Wei W, Nguyen K, Beals E, Sawrey-Kubicek L, Rhodes C, Zhu C, Sacchi R, Zivkovic AM, Lebrilla CB. Targeted Measurements of O- and N-Glycopeptides Show That Proteins in High Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Enriched with Specific Glycosylation Compared to Plasma. J Proteome Res. 2018 02 02; 17(2):834-845 ...
The role of HDL and its main protein component the apolipoprotein A-I as being antiatherogenic is well established. Experimental data give support for the involvement of at least three different types of mechanism: (1) the reverse cholesterol transport, (2) anti-inflammatory mechanisms and (3) antit …
Cardiology news, research and treatment articles offering cardiology healthcare professionals cardiology information and resources to keep them informed.
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シクロデキストリン加アガロースゲル等電点電気泳動法によるヒト血清中のアポリポ蛋白AI, AIIの分画 (1995 ...
Lipoprotein, illustration. This is a high density lipoprotein (HDL), or good cholesterol, molecule. It consists of a core of esterified cholesterol molecules surrounded by a shell of unesterified cholesterol (orange with violet cap) and phospholipids (orange with blue cap). The complex structure includes carrier proteins (green) known as apolipoproteins, which assist transport in the blood. HDL cholesterol plays a role in fat metabolism and contributes to cardiovascular health. - Stock Image F012/8897
Apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes, and ligands for cell-surface receptors. Most of the apoliporoteins exhibit proteoforms, arising from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, oxidation, and sequence truncations. Reviewed here are recent studies correlating apolipoproteins proteoforms with the specific clinical measures of lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic risk. Targeted mass spectrometric immunoassays toward apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III were applied on large cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical cohorts. Several correlations were observed, including greater apolipoprotein A-I and A-II oxidation in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and a divergent apoC-III proteoforms association with plasma triglycerides, indicating significant differences in the metabolism of the individual apoC-III proteoforms. These are the first studies of their kind, correlating
Apolipoproteins have multiple roles. One role is to increase the overall solubility of the lipid particle, helping it to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the blood (apolipoproteins are amphipathic, or detergent-like proteins). Apolipoproteins can also function as enzyme co-factors (receptor ligands), facilitating the transfer of their lipid cargo to specific cells. Thus, the apoliproteins are the smart or working-end of the lipoprotein particle. The apolipoproteins dictate where the particles will dock and where they can bind, and in so doing the apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism in the body. So although the particles are composed of phospholipids and have lipid cargo, the few proteins on their surface are what give them their collective name of lipoproteins ...
Silver-staining of immunoprecipitates extends the sensitivity of the radial immunodiffusion assay by tenfold. This modification permits the quantification of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, C, and E at levels of 0.2-1.0 mg/dl in plasma samples at a sensitivity threshold of 10 ng. The silver-enhanced radial immunodiffusion method is readily adapted from the standard method, simple and inexpensive to perform, and does not require costly instrumentation. These advantages make the modified RID assay an attractive alternative to other forms of immunoassay.
Apolipoproteins have important structural and functional roles in several lipoprotein particles. Apolipoproteins regulate lipid metabolism, adipose tissue, and energy production and serve major...
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ABCA1 expression and co-localization with [1-93]ApoA-I and ApoA-I. (A) Western blot analysis with anti-ABCA1 antibodies of cell lysates prepared from HepG2 ce
There is no way to know for certain, by some experts estimate that the feral cat population in North America may equal or even exceed that of the owned cat population. Feral cats are not socialized to humans and avoid contact with people whenever possible. In contrast, stray cats are often those cats that have left a home or have been abandoned by their owners. These strays may have been socialized to humans at one time and will often approach people and may even allow petting. All cats, feral, stray and owned cats that simply roam the neighborhood are all members of the domestic species, Felis catus.. Traditionally, feral and stray cats are trapped whenever possible and then are taken to local animal shelters. Once at a shelter, if they are socialized to humans and have a calm disposition, some cats may be adopted out. However, the vast majority of these feral cats may be harboring diseases, such as Feline Leukemia, or they are totally wild and cannot be adopted out. These cats will often ...
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Understanding the determinants of HDL function is widely considered a critical priority in HDL research. Given the heterogeneity of HDL species in the circulation, understanding the transporters essential for cholesterol efflux and the HDL species, which are the major contributors to this process may direct contemporary strategies to optimize HDL function or deliver novel HDL analogues in vivo. The present study, which represents the most detailed evaluation of HDL particle size and cellular cholesterol efflux via ABCA1 and ABCG1 to date, has identified HDL size as a key determinant of the efflux capacity of HDL. We further demonstrate that ABCA1 is a quantitatively critical mediator of cholesterol efflux to HDL3, and that HDL3b, HDL3c and lipid-free apoA-I are all suitable therapeutic targets for optimizing cellular cholesterol efflux.. It is a widely held view that ABCA1 is an important mediator of cholesterol export and that it specifically requires apolipoproteins (such as apoA-I) that ...
Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E and compare these results with recently developed computer methods for analysis of the location and properties of amphipathic helixes. This comparison suggests that there are at least three distinct classes of amphipathic helixes (classes A, Y, and G*) in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison further suggests that lipid affinity resides largely in class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., et al. 1990. Proteins. 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid affinities from high to low. The positions of the four a ...
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and it plays an important role in HDL metabolism. Both apo A-I and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Segregation analyses suggest apo A-I levels are under the control of one or more major loci. Since HDL particles are heterogeneous in their composition and size, genetic influence on its subfractions (i.e., HDL2 and HDL3) could vary. A previous report showed evidence of a major locus controlling HDL3-C levels in a subset of the current study population. Because quantitative trait loci involved in complex diseases are likely to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits, it is possible to have a common major gene involved in regulating apo A-I and HDL3-C levels. We performed a bivariate segregation analysis of apo A-I and HDL3-C levels in 1,006 individuals from 137 families ascertained through probands undergoing elective, diagnostic
|strong|Sheep anti Human Apolipoprotein A1 antibody|/strong| reacts with human apolipoprotein A1 and does not react with other human plasma proteins. In ELISA the following reactivities are observed:|…
A lipid metabolism disorder characterized by elevated triglyceride levels as a result of excess hepatic production of VLDL or heterozygous LPL deficiency.
Apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein) je bílkovinná složka lipoproteinů. Apolipoproteinů existuje více druhů a jednotlivé typy se vyskytují v konkrétních lipoproteinech. Apolipoproteiny mají více funkcí, jsou strukturálně důležité, pomáhají transportu lipoproteinových částic, a dokonce mohou fungovat jako koenzymy některých enzymů ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
ProSpecs Apolipoproteins include: Clusterin Human Recombinant, Clusterin Rat Recombinant, Apolipoprotein-D Human Recombinant, Human Apolipoprotein-J, Apolipoprotein-J Canine Recombinant
0.5mg/ml if reconstituted with 0.2ml sterile DI water. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4A2 gene. …
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For US: For Research Use Only. This kit is optimized for being used with the HEMOCLOT LA-S and HEMOCLOT LA-C assays. See product page for more information.
... (Apo-CII, or Apoc-II), or apolipoprotein C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. The ... 1989). "A deletion mutation in the ApoC-II gene (ApoC-II Nijmegen) of a patient with a deficiency of apolipoprotein C-II". J. ... 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II ... 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. APOA2 encodes apolipoprotein A-II, (ApoA-II) ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... Lackner KJ, Law SW, Brewer HB (Sep 1984). "Human apolipoprotein A-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preproapo A-II". FEBS ... Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. ApoA-II has been shown to interact ...
... even if they have two ApoE4 alleles, thus reducing the risk from nine or ten times the odds of getting AD down to just two ... The gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and the apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2). The ... "Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. X. The effect of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on quantitative levels of ... Yet those with two ε4 alleles have up to 20 times the risk of developing AD. There is also evidence that the APOE2 allele may ...
... (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene. Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein ... Su Q, Tsai J, Xu E, Qiu W, Bereczki E, Santha M, Adeli K (2009). "Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Apolipoprotein B100 Cromwell WC, Otvos JD, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Sullivan L, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, ... Overproduction of apolipoprotein B can result in lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver ...
"Plasma apolipoprotein concentrations in familial apolipoprotein A-I and A-II deficiency (Tangier disease)". Metabolism: ... Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I". The Journal of Biological ... Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a component of HDL that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high ... "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". Muffat J, Walker DW (January 2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging ...
These two activities can be differentiated by the binding to Apo-H domains, whereas binding to the 5th domain promotes that ... 2000). "HLA class II alleles associations of anticardiolipin and anti-beta2GPI antibodies in a large series of European ... In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ... 70 (2): 342-5. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1649577. PMID 8236146. Schousboe I, Rasmussen MS (1995). "Synchronized inhibition of the ...
Zannis VI, Cole FS, Jackson CL, Kurnit DM, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1985). "Distribution of apolipoprotein A-I, C-II, C-III, and E ... Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII, and apolipoprotein C3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. ... Karathanasis SK (Oct 1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV ... "Two initiator-like elements are required for the combined activation of the human apolipoprotein C-III promoter by upstream ...
... C (ApoC-I, apo ApoC-II, apo ApoC-III, and ApoC-IV) Apolipoprotein D Apolipoprotein E Apolipoprotein F ... Apolipoprotein H - a misnomer Apolipoprotein L Apolipoprotein M Apolipoprotein(a) Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC, and ... apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase).[citation ... "Human apolipoprotein A-IV binds to apolipoprotein A-I/A-II receptor sites and promotes cholesterol efflux from adipose cells". ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... G2 is an in-frame deletion of the two amino acid residues, N388 and Y389.[citation needed] Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor ... Recently, two coding sequence variants in APOL1 have been shown to associate with kidney disease in a recessive fashion while ... APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which ...
Retinyl esters (present in meats) and beta-carotene (present in plants) are the two main sources of retinoids in the diet. ... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ... In the event that two species names have identical designations, they are discriminated from one another by adding one or more ... share only one or two of these. Proteins known to belong to this family include alpha-1-microglobulin (protein HC); major ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Upon reelin binding, Dab1 is phosphorylated by two tyrosine kinases, Fyn and Src. The phosphorylated Dab1 then causes further ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ...
1996). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's Disease. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer's Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer ... "Maestre CV" (PDF). Maestre, Gladys Elena (1996). Apolipoproteins and Alzheimer's disease (Thesis). OCLC 36257436. Staff, M. D. ... "The apolipoprotein ?4 allele in patients with Alzheimer's disease". Annals of Neurology. 34 (5): 752-754. doi:10.1002/ana. ... "Apolipoprotein E and alzheimer's disease: Ethnic variation in genotypic risks". Annals of Neurology. 37 (2): 254-259. doi: ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. >sp,Q9BQE5,1-337 ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene, but only one of them has been fully ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ...
However, the two models do not have the same meaning and can be falsified based on data (that is, if observational data show an ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ... Where two models match on all relevant variables and data from one model is known to be unbiased, data from one population can ... The two effects have a common cause. There exists a (non-causal) spurious correlation between A {\displaystyle A} and C {\ ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... two mechanisms for repression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (1): 187-95. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.1.187-195.2000. PMC 85074. ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 indicate the presence of two isoforms in human ...
... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2; 602600), are also required. Both receptors bound Dab1 on their cytoplasmic tails and ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ... 19 (2): 239-49. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80936-8. PMID 9292716. S2CID 1273677. Long H, Bock HH, Lei T, Chai X, Yuan J, Herz J ... 47 (2): 165-74. doi:10.1002/gcc.20519. PMID 18008369. S2CID 24674687. Deguchi K, Inoue K, Avila WE, et al. (2003). "Reelin and ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (March 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes ... The name is a combination of the two. During Drosophila research, it was found that a mutation in the gene MAD in the mother ... MAD homolog 2 belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against ... 11 (1-2): 5-13. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(99)00024-6. PMID 10708948. Miyazono K (2000). "TGF-beta signaling by Smad proteins". ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and atherosclerosis". Current Opinion in ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2 ( ...
Ferrous ion is a common nomenclature used in the HMOX field for Iron(II) which appears in PubChem. The iron liberated from HMOX ... peptides such as adrenomedullin and apolipoprotein; and iii) hemin. NRF2 inducers with downstream HO-1 induction include: ... Endogenous inducers include i) lipids such as lipoxin and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; and ii) ... HO-2 is encoded by the HMOX2 gene. HO-2 is 36 kDa and shares 47% similarity with the HO-1 amino acid sequence; notably HO-2 has ...
"Two copies of the human apolipoprotein C-I gene are linked closely to the apolipoprotein E gene". The Journal of Biological ... Servillo L, Brewer HB, Osborne JC (February 1981). "Evaluation of the mixed interaction between apolipoproteins A-II and C-I ... Curry MD, McConathy WJ, Fesmire JD, Alaupovic P (April 1981). "Quantitative determination of apolipoproteins C-I and C-II in ... Rozek A, Buchko GW, Cushley RJ (June 1995). "Conformation of two peptides corresponding to human apolipoprotein C-I residues 7- ...
Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... "Farnesoid X receptor agonists suppress hepatic apolipoprotein CIII expression". Gastroenterology. 125 (2): 544-55. doi:10.1016/ ... Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... 290 (1-2): 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00557-7. PMID 12062799. Pineda Torra I, Claudel T, Duval C, Kosykh V, Fruchart JC, ...
Dance GS, Sowden MP, Cartegni L, Cooper E, Krainer AR, Smith HC (2002). "Two proteins essential for apolipoprotein B mRNA ... Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 also known as C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1 is a protein that in ... Like all APOBEC proteins, A1 coordinates a zinc atom with two cysteine and one histidine residues that serve as a Lewis acid. ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (April 2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec ...
Two transcription initiation sites and two polyadenylation sites are identified in the gene structure. The reelin protein ... All members of this family are receptors for Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Therefore, they are often synonymously referred to as ' ... Moreover, the two main receptors of reelin are able to form clusters that most probably play a major role in the signaling, ... The two main reelin receptors seem to have slightly different roles: VLDLR conducts the stop signal, while ApoER2 is essential ...
2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ... Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. APOC4 is a ... in the apolipoprotein E, C-I, and C-II gene locus". Genomics. 28 (2): 291-300. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1144. PMID 8530039. Human ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV". Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and characterization ...
Kim SY, Park SM, Lee ST (January 2006). "Apolipoprotein C-II is a novel substrate for matrix metalloproteinases". Biochem. ... Two molecules of ApoC-II can attach to each LPL dimer.> It is estimated that up to forty LPL dimers may act simultaneously on a ... In the Golgi apparatus, the oligosaccharides are further altered to result in either two complex chains, or two complex and one ... "Activation of lipoprotein lipase by native and synthetic fragments of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Dance GS, Sowden MP, Cartegni L, Cooper E, Krainer AR, Smith HC (April 2002). "Two proteins essential for apolipoprotein B mRNA ... Mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA undergoes site-specific C to U deamination, which is mediated by a multi-component enzyme ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (April 2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec ... Lau PP, Chang BH, Chan L (2001). "Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec-1 ...
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Apolipoprotein C-II Deficency - 207750 Yamamura T, Sudo H, Ishikawa K, Yamamoto A ( ... "Familial type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". Atherosclerosis. 34 (1): 53-65. doi:10.1016/ ... Hyperlipoproteinemia type II is further classified into types IIa and IIb, depending mainly on whether elevation in the ... The lipoprotein density and type of apolipoproteins it contains determines the fate of the particle and its influence on ...
Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, ... Gordon DA (1997). "Recent advances in elucidating the role of the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein in apolipoprotein B ... 1999). "A common binding site on the microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein for apolipoprotein B and protein disulfide ... The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ...
apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 and ε4 are associated with increased risk of getting cerebral amyloid antipathy. The use of ... Thal, Dietmar Rudolph; Ghebremidhin, Estifanos; Rüb, Udo; Haruyasu, Yamaguchi; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko (2002). "Two ... In type 2 CAA pathology, amyloid deposits are present in leptomeningeal and cortical arteries and arterioles, but not in ... 49 (2): 491-497. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.016990. PMC 5892842. PMID 29335334. Verbeek, M. M.; Waal, R. M. de; Vinters, Harry V ...
The receptor also recognizes apolipoprotein E (ApoE) which is found in chylomicron remnants and IDL. In humans, the LDL ... Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely ... It is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), which is embedded in the outer phospholipid layer ... novel insights from recent kinetic studies of apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism". Atherosclerosis. Supplements. 2 (3): 1-4. doi: ...
Probable DLB can be diagnosed when dementia and at least two core features are present, or when one core feature and at least ... Berge G, Sando SB, Rongve A, Aarsland D, White LR (November 2014). "Apolipoprotein E ε2 genotype delays onset of dementia with ... Together with Parkinson's disease dementia, DLB is one of the two Lewy body dementias. It is a common form of dementia, but the ... Two 1997 discoveries highlighted the importance of Lewy body inclusions in neurodegenerative processes: a mutation in the SNCA ...
These family members lack the catalytic lysine in subdomain II, and instead have a conserved lysine in subdomain I. This family ... 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. ... 74 (2): 134-44. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01028.x. PMID 18498374. S2CID 22008997. Wilson FH, Disse-Nicodème S, Choate KA, et ... 318 (2): 263-72. PMID 7757816. Kahle KT, Ring AM, Lifton RP (2008). "Molecular physiology of the WNK kinases". Annu. Rev. ...
... angiotensin II - angiotensin receptor - ankyrin - annexin II - antibiotic - antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis ... interferon type II - interferon-alpha - interferon-beta - interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - interleukin-2 ... Articles related to biochemistry include: Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2-amino-5- ... photosystem II - phototransduction - phylogenetics - phylogeny - physical chemistry - physiology - phytohaemagglutinin - ...
... of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins ... 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi:10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3. "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. ... Proper harvesting of the coconut (the age of a coconut can be 2 to 20 months when picked) makes a significant difference in the ... 16 (2): 87-94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488. "Smoke points of oils" (PDF). "Olive oil, salad or ...
Yao XM, Wang CH, Song BL, Yang XY, Wang ZZ, Qi W, Lin ZX, Chang CC, Chang TY, Li BL (Dec 2005). "Two human ACAT2 mRNA variants ... polymorphisms on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects". Biochimica et ... Matsumoto K, Fujiwara Y, Nagai R, Yoshida M, Ueda S (Feb 2008). "Expression of two isozymes of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol ... Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T, Figeys D ( ...
Monocytes can be induced to differentiate into dendritic cells by a self-peptide Ep1.B derived from apolipoprotein E. These are ... This precursor, termed pre-DC, lacks MHC class II surface expression, and is distinct from monocytes, which primarily give rise ... are probably of mesenchymal rather than hematopoietic origin and do not express MHC class II, but are so named because they are ... "Dendritic cell differentiation induced by a self-peptide derived from apolipoprotein E." (PDF). J Immunol. 181 (10): 6859-71. ...
Luciani MF, Denizot F, Savary S, Mattei MG, Chimini G (May 1994). "Cloning of two novel ABC transporters mapping on human ... ABCA1 mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins (apoA1 and apoE) (reverse cholesterol ... Oram JF, Vaughan AM (June 2000). "ABCA1-mediated transport of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to HDL apolipoproteins". ... October 1999). "The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway". The ...
... heterodimer MHC class II, DR (6p21.3) Mold / Biotoxin Susceptibility HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 forms HLA-DP, MHC class II, DP ( ... encoding protein Apolipoprotein M (6p21.33) ATXN1: encoding protein Ataxin 1 (6p16.3-p16.76) TSBP1: encoding protein TSBP1 ( ... People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 6 spans more than 170 million base pairs (the building material ... 6p21.3) HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 form HLA-DQ heterodimer MHC class II, DQ: Celiac1, IDDM (6p21.3) HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA ...
Lee SK, Jung SY, Kim YS, Na SY, Lee YC, Lee JW (February 2001). "Two distinct nuclear receptor-interaction domains and CREB- ... and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1). Polymorphism may affect ERβ function and lead to altered responses in postmenopausal women ... January 2020). "Optimized immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptor beta using two validated monoclonal antibodies ... is one of two main types of estrogen receptor-a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen. In humans ERβ ...
The two ways of inhibition are distinct from each other, but they can replace each other in vivo. It was first identified by ... APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic subunit 3G) is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene that ... Only the latter two mechanisms have been extensively supported. The amount that is incorporated into virions is dependent on ... However, unlike the typical cytidine deaminases, APOBEC3G contains a unique alpha helix between two beta sheets in the ...
"Shape Up Somerville two-year results: A community-based environmental change intervention sustains weight reduction in children ... and Apolipoproteins". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 68 (1): 17-21. doi:10.1210/jcem-68-1-17. PMID 2491859. ... November 2, 2015. Retrieved 2020-12-21. "The Social Network Diet: Why You Really Are The Company You Keep". HuffPost. February ... 18 (2): 201-18. doi:10.1123/japa.18.2.201. PMC 4308058. PMID 20440031.[non-primary source needed] Gustin, Georgina (April 18, ...
These tests must be carried out on a minimum of two occasions at least 6 weeks apart and be positive on each occasion, ... apolipoprotein H) complex. The use of testing for antibodies specific for individual targets of aPL such as β2 glycoprotein 1 ... This is tested for by using a minimum of two coagulation tests that are phospholipid-sensitive, due to the heterogeneous nature ... The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) and two positive blood test ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... Ban HJ, Heo JY, Oh KS, Park KJ (2010). "Identification of type 2 diabetes-associated combination of SNPs using support vector ...
What is known is that ten years later, Monroe went on to publish the results of a meta-analysis of two controlled clinical ... and apolipoproteins A and B. It was first reported to exacerbate hepatic porphyria in 1975. In 1981, it was shown that ... In the three adults who are reported to have succumbed, the doses were 20-30 g. However, two adult survivors ingested 30 g 25 g ... Primidone is a congener of phenobarbital where the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety is replaced by two hydrogen atoms. The ...
Low density lipoproteins are made up of cholesterol, TG, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins. LDL-C molecules bind to the ... Physicians and basic researchers classify dyslipidemias in two distinct ways. One way is its presentation in the body ( ... 80 (2): 179-181. doi:10.1111/bcp.12612. PMC 4541964. PMID 25702706. \ (CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67667-2. PMID 16310551. S2CID 40744740. Sabatine, Marc S. (March 2019). "PCSK9 inhibitors: clinical ...
Strobl W, Gorder N, Lin-Lee YC, Gotto AM Jr, Patsch W. Role of thyroid hormones in apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rat ... apolipoproteins A-I and B, and HDL density subfractions: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation 2001 ... Thyroid hormone influences the maturation of apolipoprotein A-I messenger RNA in rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:3996-4004. ... Other genetic factors with relevance for obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome also were studied in collaboration ...
Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ... 2001). "A novel low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating cellular uptake of apolipoprotein E-enriched beta- ...
2007). "Distinct roles of haptoglobin-related protein and apolipoprotein L-I in trypanolysis by human serum". Proc. Natl. Acad ... 119 (2): 291-4. doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(01)00420-0. PMID 11814582. Vanhollebeke B, Nielsen MJ, Watanabe Y, et al. ( ...
... and apolipoprotein B (apo B), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in adults with primary ... whereas their effect on HDL metabolism is associated with changes in HDL apolipoprotein expression." Fenofibrate is a fibrate ... 2 (4): 370-380. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4828. PMC 5470410. PMID 28030716. Kim NH, Han KH, Choi J, Lee J, Kim SG (September ... 129 (25 Suppl 2): S1-45. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000437738.63853.7a. PMID 24222016. "AbbVie Inc. et al; Withdrawal of Approval of ...
Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: ... 2007; 33(2):53-70. Brain JD, Curran MA, Donaghey T, Molina R. Responses of the lungs to nanomaterials depend on exposure, ... Repeated mouse lung exposures to Stachybotrys chartarum shift immune response from type 1 to type 2. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ...
This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have ... "Identification of a non-canonical E-box motif as a regulatory element in the proximal promoter region of the apolipoprotein E ... Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T, Figeys D ( ... 365 (Pt 2): 481-8. doi:10.1042/BJ20020223. PMC 1222691. PMID 11945176. Villavicencio EH, Yoon JW, Frank DJ, Füchtbauer EM, ...
"Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 85 (5 ... 37 (2): 1663-9. doi:10.1007/s13277-015-3919-8. PMID 26307393. S2CID 54485581. v t e This article incorporates text from the ...
Kynamro targets the mRNA product of the APOB gene, which codes for the Apolipoprotein B-100 protein, a component of low-density ... LNAs, 2'-OMe, or 2'-F modified bases are chemical analogs of natural RNA nucleic acids. These modifications allow for an ... The mimics are typically composed of locked nucleic acids (LNA), 2'-OMe, or 2'-F modified bases. LNA sequences are RNA ... 34 (2): 310-320. doi:10.1007/s11095-016-2063-5. ISSN 1573-904X. PMID 27896589. S2CID 7147120. Mipomersen [package insert]. ...
The two main types of human skin are: glabrous skin, the hairless skin on the palms and soles (also referred to as the " ... Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (broad beta disease, remnant removal disease) Familial ... The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface-one superficial and one deep plexus-which are ... In normal skin, the rate of production equals the rate of loss; about two weeks are needed for a cell to migrate from the basal ...
Class I and II HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A, vorinostat, and sodium butyrate, and Class III HDACis, such as ... and familial inheritance of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4. In addition to these common factors, there are a number of other ... There exists two variations of myasthenia gravis with respect to age and gender demographics: early-onset myasthenia gravis, ... Sodium butyrate Sodium butyrate is a class I and II HDACi and has been shown to recover learning and memory after 4 weeks, ...
In a secondary analysis, a subgroup of individuals with the apolipoprotein E4 genotype showed sustained benefits with donepezil ... January 2015). "Donepezil improves gait performance in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease: a phase II clinical trial". ... 2 (8000): 1403. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(76)91936-x. PMID 63862. S2CID 43250282. Kása P, Rakonczay Z, Gulya K (August 1997). "The ... 124 (2): 195-206. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.07.001. PMC 2785038. PMID 19619582. McCarthy AD, Owens IJ, Bansal AT, McTighe ...
Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients ... The aim of this study was to determine the effects of purified omega-3 fatty acids on serum lipoproteins, apolipoprotein B-100 ... Apo B-100), apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), malondialdehyde (MDA) (as index for lipid peroxidation), and glycaemic control in ... apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients Section menu. You are here. *Eastern Mediterranean Health ...
T1 - Apolipoprotein A-II and adiponectin as determinants of very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism in ... Apolipoprotein A-II and adiponectin as determinants of very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism in nonobese ... Apolipoprotein A-II and adiponectin as determinants of very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism in nonobese ... title = "Apolipoprotein A-II and adiponectin as determinants of very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 metabolism in ...
apolipoprotein cardiovascular diseases chylomicrons evolocumab kinetics TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS PCSK9 INHIBITOR ... APPROACH AND RESULTS: Triglyceride transport and the metabolism of apos (apolipoproteins) B48, B100, C-III, and E after a fat- ... Effects of Evolocumab on the Postprandial Kinetics of Apo (Apolipoprotein) B100-and B48-Containing Lipoproteins in Subjects ... Effects of Evolocumab on the Postprandial Kinetics of Apo (Apolipoprotein) B100-and B48-Containing Lipoproteins in Subjects ...
Nevertheless, the issue about whether Lp-PLA2 is associated with apolipoprotein particles in individuals who have been ... while apolipoprotein particles were measured by the department of laboratory. ,i,Results,/i,. The plasma concentration of Lp- ... levels and apolipoprotein particles are regarded as the risk maker for cardiovascular heart disease. ... denoting the communication between Lp-PLA2 and apolipoprotein particles in the state of CAD. ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
The role of human apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) in the remodeling of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) was investigated ... The role of human apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) in the remodeling of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) was investigated ... Human apolipoprotein A-II inhibits the formation of pre-beta high density lipoproteins. L. Calabresi. Primo. ;A. Lucchini;G. ... Human apolipoprotein A-II inhibits the formation of pre-beta high density lipoproteins / L. Calabresi, A. Lucchini, G. Vecchio ...
Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]. Expression. ... apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3Bprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17352 See related. Ensembl ... APOBEC3B apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 9582, updated on 4-Dec- ... Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. ...
Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... Saura, J., Petegnief, V., Wu, X., Liang, Y. and Paul, S.M. (2003) Microglial Apolipoprotein E and Astroglial Apolipoprotein J ... Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apo E) and amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with the peripheral clearance of Aβ and are ... LPS Regulates Apolipoprotein E and Aβ Interactionswith Effects on Acute Phase Proteins and Amyloidosis () ...
Characterization of Apolipoprotein A-I Pathways in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis ... Levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been found to be reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF, while administration of ... clinical phenotyping and genotyping protocol that will assess whether holo-apoA-I and apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides, can ... Not sure for Males and females over the age of 18 with a diagnosis of IPF inclusion criteria 2 ...
491 polymorphism in the promoter region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been suggested to be associated with increased ... The -491 A/T polymorphism in the regulatory region of the apolipoprotein E gene and early-onset Alzheimers disease Neurosci ... The -491 polymorphism in the promoter region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been suggested to be associated with ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein A I antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF, sELISA and tested in Human. Cited in 8 publication(s). ... Anti-Apolipoprotein A I antibody. See all Apolipoprotein A I primary antibodies. ... to Apolipoprotein A I (ab20918) at 1ug/ml and Detector Antibody Rabbit polyclonal to Apolipoprotein A I (ab64308) at 0.5ug/ml ... Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A I (ab50239) can be used as a positive control in WB. This antibody gave a positive signal in ...
MRM Proteomics Inc. was established in 2010 as a spin-out company to commercialize the cutting-edge proteomics technologies, tools and know-how developed at the University of Victoria-Genome BC Proteomics Centre.. ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
Venkatramana P, Reddy Chengal, Ferrell R E. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism In Two Populations Of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal ... No significant difference was observed between these two populations for apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism. The genotypic ... Apolipoprotein (apo) E genotypes were determined on 182 subjects of Kshatriya and 38 subjects of the Mala populations of Andhra ... Five genotypes (2/3, 2/4, 3/3, 3/4, 4/4) in the Kshatriya and three genotypes (2/3, 3/3, 3/4) in the Mala, representing three ...
Evidence for two separate gene defects: one associated with an abnormal apoB species, apolipoprotein B-37; and a second ... Beta apolipoproteins. Beta apolipoproteins are the largest of the apolipoproteins. They are critically important for the ... Apolipoprotein B-100 deficiency. Intestinal steatosis despite apolipoprotein B-48 synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug. 76(2):403 ... CMs, VLDL, and LDL carry apolipoproteins on their surface; these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta ...
Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ... Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases ...
Confirmation of the ϵ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene as a risk factor for late‐onset Alzheimers disease. T. Brousseau, S ... We compared apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution between patients with sporadic late-onset AD (n = 36) and controls of ... In this study, we investigated the possible association of a genetic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene with late-onset ... Confirmation of the ϵ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene as a risk factor for late‐onset Alzheimers disease ...
Tissue and/or cellular expressions of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), amyloid β (Aβ) precursor protein ( ... 2; P = 0.01). 3) Aβ plaques were noted at early ages in our epilepsy patients, regardless of APOE genotype (APOE ε4,4 age 10; ... Apolipoprotein epsilon 3 alleles are associated with indicators of neuronal resilience. Access & Citations. * 5421 Article ...
... and conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. We compared our genetic findings to observational associations of ... Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease: A Mendelian randomization study. Atherosclerosis. 2020 ... Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease : A Mendelian randomization study. In: Atherosclerosis. ... Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease : A Mendelian randomization study. / Karjalainen, Minna K ...
PAF-acetylhydrolase II, Type II platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase, PAF-AH (II), plasma lipoprotein-associated ... platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II, PAF-AH II, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase, lipoprotein-associated ... PAF acetylhydrolase II, platelet-activating-factor acetylhydrolase, platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase, platelet- ... 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. + H2O. = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. + acetate. ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by glucose clearance abnormalities and ... apolipoprotein E; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; MetSy, metabolic syndrome; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; IVSth, ... Two countries that may particularly benefit from foods that mediate the risks for and assist with management of T2DM are China ... used in two studies were found to be effective at lowering serum leptin levels and restoring them to physiological levels [40, ...
ApoAI: Apolipoprotein AI; ApoB: Apolipoprotein B; BUN: Blood urea nitrogen; Cr: Creatinine; GLU: Glucose; HDL-C: High-density ... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB), clopidogrel, aspirin, and statins (Tables ... 2]. Bairey Merz CN, Alberts MJ, Balady GJ, et al. ACCF/AHA/ACP 2009 competence and training statement: a curriculum on ... Figure 2.: Cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to the first adjudicated occurrence of primary endpoint and secondary ...
Gene: [08p21/CLU] clusterin (complement lysis inhibitor, SP-40,40, apolipoprotein J); sulfated glycoprotein 2 (testosterone- ... CLI SGP-2]. REL. GEM:11q233/APOA1. REF. LOC "Jenne DE &: Trends Biochem Sci, 17, 154-159, 1992. LOC,EAG "Purrello M &: Genomics ...
Expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of unknown function, in transgenic mice produced ... Expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of unknown function, in transgenic mice produced ... Expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of unknown function, in transgenic mice produced ... Expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of unknown function, in transgenic mice produced ...
Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B ... Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B ...
Screening of serum by using a surface plasmon resonance analysis assay identified beta2-glycoprotein-I/apolipoprotein H as a ... apolipoprotein H) and beta(2)-glycoprotein-1-phospholipid complex harbor a recognition site for the endocytic receptor megalin ... apolipoprotein H) and beta(2)-glycoprotein-1-phospholipid complex harbor a recognition site for the endocytic receptor megalin ... beta 2-Glycoprotein I, Biosensing Techniques, Blood Proteins, Calcium, Cardiolipins, Cultured Tumor Cells, Endocytosis, ...
Reconstituted APOA5 Human can be stored at 4°C for a limited period of time; it does not show any change after two weeks at 4°C ... Apolipoprotein A-V, Apo-AV, ApoA-V, Apolipoprotein A5, Regeneration-associated protein 3, APOA5, RAP3, APOAV. ... but at much lower concentration than other apolipoproteins. ...
Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit from Gentaur Elisa Kits. Cat Number: G-EC-05817. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Rat ApoB (Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05817. Rating * Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars ... Rat ApoB (Apolipoprotein B) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05817 , Gentaur Elisa Kits ... Storage: An unopened kit can be stored at 2-8℃ for 1 month. If the kit is not supposed to be used within 1 month, store the ...
... and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein ... Methods: A diverse population (N=1,752) underwent Type 2 in-home polysomnography, which included measurement of % sleep time 5 ...
  • The -491 polymorphism in the promoter region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been suggested to be associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) independent of APOE status. (
  • The genotypic distribution of apoE was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in these two populations. (
  • Objective: Investigate associations between indicators of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein epsilon-4 (APOE-epsilon4) allele. (
  • We conclude that apoE-deficient mice over-expressing human apoA-II constitute useful animal models with which to study the mechanisms leading to overproduction of VLDL, and that apoA-II may function to regulate VLDL production. (
  • Late-onset and sporadic Alzheimer's disease are associated with the apolipoprotein E (apoE) type 4 allele expressing the protein isoform apoE4. (
  • Dissociable effects of the apolipoprotein-E (APOE) gene on short- and long-term memories. (
  • Short- and long-term memory performance as a function of apolipoprotein-E (APOE) genotype was examined in older, healthy individuals using sensitive and comparable tasks to provide a more detailed description of influences of the ε4 allele (highest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease) on memory. (
  • COG1410, a mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor binding region, exerts positive effect on neurological deficits in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (
  • One of the biggest risk factors for Alzheimer's disease is the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 gene. (
  • According to the Alzheimer's Association, adults who possess one copy of the APOE e4 gene are three times more likely to develop the disease than those without the gene, while those with two copies are 8-12 times more likely to develop Alzheimer's. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes is linked to elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants. (
  • The role of human apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) in the remodeling of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) was investigated during incubation of native and reduced-carboxamidomethylated (RCM) HDL3 with a lipoprotein-depleted plasma fraction (LPDP) in the presence of triglyceride-rich particles (TGRP) isolated from Intralipid. (
  • Human apolipoprotein A-II inhibits the formation of pre-beta high density lipoproteins / L. Calabresi, A. Lucchini, G. Vecchio, C. Sirtori, G. Franceschini. (
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (
  • Other apolipoproteins (A, C, D, E, and their subtypes) are soluble and are exchanged between lipoproteins during metabolism. (
  • Expression of apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of unknown function, in transgenic mice produced increased concentration of apoB-containing lipoproteins and decreased HDL. (
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine the variability in cholesterol carrying capacity of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and other apolipoprotein B (apo B)-containing lipoproteins in normolipidemic men. (
  • Grundy, Scott M. / Variability in cholesterol content and physical properties of lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B-100 . (
  • Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. (
  • The small products are protein-rich and cholesterol-poor, and consist of two different particles: a component with pre-β mobility, containing only apoA-I, and a component with α mobility, containing both apoA-I and apoA-II. (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (
  • In this study, we explored the activation of autophagy during EBI by measuring the Beclin-1 and LC3B-II protein levels. (
  • Novel biomarkers of risk, such as apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB (2), and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and homocysteine (3-5), have been proposed. (
  • Docking, protein - protein interaction, and immunoprecipitation studies with antiautophagy-related gene (ATG)14L, anti- UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), or Rubicon antibodies suggested the formation of ATG14L complex I and UVRAG complex II in G0- podocytes and the formation of Rubicon complex III in G1- and G2- podocytes . (
  • To examine plasma protein differences in bGH mice relative to controls, samples at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 months of age were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification using mass spectrometry. (
  • We found several differences in plasma proteins of bGH mice compared to controls, including increased apolipoprotein E (five isoforms), haptoglobin (four isoforms) and mannose-binding protein-C (one out of three isoforms), and decreased transthyretin (six isoforms). (
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors as apolipoprotein B, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio and C-reactive protein, in adolescents with and without obesity: cross-sectional study in middle class suburban children. (
  • CusabioMouse Apolipoprotein A-I-binding protein (APOA1BP) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest. (
  • If serotransferrin & APOH is typed in, since the two terms are in the PROTEIN category, the resulting list includes all protein entries matching either serotransferrin OR APOH . (
  • If serotransferrin & human is typed in, since the two terms are in the PROTEIN category and TAXONOMY category respectively, the resulting list includes all protein entries matching both serotransferrin AND human . (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (
  • Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. (
  • Inhibition of AKT or MEK1/2 increased total and nuclear PR protein in OSIS. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sst 5 and D 2 R mRNA expression or in sst 2 , sst 5 , and D 2 R protein expression between both groups of corticotroph adenomas. (
  • After achieving normocortisolism induced by medical therapy, cortisol-mediated sst 2 downregulation on corticotroph adenomas appears to be a reversible process at the mRNA but not at the protein level. (
  • Whether sustained normocortisolism induced by medical therapy induces re-expression of functional sst 2 protein in corticotroph adenomas and whether this increases the ACTH-lowering potency of octreotide remains to be established. (
  • The strongest genetic risk factor is the presence of the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, which encodes a protein that has a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. (
  • The dissociable effects of the gene on short- and long-term memory suggest that the effect of genotype on these two types of memories, and their neural underpinnings, might not be co-extensive. (
  • This research shows that exercise can mitigate the risk of dementia for people without the variant of the apolipoprotein genotype," he adds. (
  • In a secondary analysis, a subgroup of individuals with the Apolipoprotein E4 genotype showed sustained benefits with donepezil throughout the study. (
  • The plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 provide positively a key link with apoB, apoB/apoA-1 among stable CAD, denoting the communication between Lp-PLA2 and apolipoprotein particles in the state of CAD. (
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (
  • FHBL is caused by an autosomal, codominant mutation in the gene for apoB ( APOB ), which is carried on chromosome 2. (
  • These particles consist of a core of cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by a monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins (apolipoproteins). (
  • Over the last two decades, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has been widely used to identify differentially expressed proteins between young and aged populations [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Earlier studies that employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) usually identified several hundreds of proteins that only covered a small portion of the proteome, and their quantification was largely based on label-free methods [ 11 ]. (
  • We also showed that proteins that bind to S1P, such as the HDL-bound apolipoprotein M (ApoM), direct specific biological functions of S1P by activating S1P receptors in unique ways. (
  • Apolipoprotein E associates with beta amyloid peptide of Alzheimer's disease to form novel monofibrils. (
  • Apolipoprotein E binds avidly to beta amyloid (A beta) peptide, a major component of senile plaque of Alzheimer's disease, in an isoform-specific manner. (
  • To compare the general clinical conditions and oral alterations, and also evaluate the prosthesis, in subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD), attended at two geriatric centers in the city of Fortaleza - Ceará. (
  • The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease (AD) accounting for 60% to 70% of cases, followed by vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia 1-2 . (
  • 2. The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood. (
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (
  • An isoform of apolipoprotein E, whose gene maps in this region, is more frequent in AD. (
  • In this study, we investigated the possible association of a genetic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene with late-onset AD. (
  • This result indicates an association between late-onset AD and the 19q13.2 region containing the apolipoprotein E gene locus. (
  • However, FCHL patients do not have plasma concentrations of human apoA-II as high as those of apo.E-deficient mice overexpressing human apoA-II, and the apoA-II gene has not been linked to FCHL in genome-wide scans. (
  • Therefore, the apoA-II gene could be a 'modifier' FCHL gene influencing the phenotype of the disease in some individuals through unkown mechanisms including an action on a 'major' FCHL gene. (
  • Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B levels. (
  • Gene-environment interaction of body mass index and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele on cognitive decline. (
  • Gene-behavior interaction of depressive symptoms and the apolipoprotein E {varepsilon}4 allele on cognitive decline. (
  • Studies have identified a gene on chromosome 22 encoding for apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) which has been associated with a variety of nephropathies. (
  • 2017. A null variant in the apolipoprotein L3 gene is associated with non-diabetic nephropathy. . (
  • APPROACH AND RESULTS: Triglyceride transport and the metabolism of apos (apolipoproteins) B48, B100, C-III, and E after a fat-rich meal were investigated before and on evolocumab treatment in 13 subjects with type 2 diabetes. (
  • these apolipoproteins have lipid-soluble segments, the beta apolipoproteins, which remain part of the lipoprotein throughout its metabolism. (
  • Effects of short-term energy restriction on liver lipid content and inflammatory status in severely obese adults: Results of a randomized controlled trial using 2 dietary approaches Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. (
  • Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. (
  • Mouse Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (
  • CusabioHuman Apolipoprotein M (APOM) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible. (
  • G0-, G1-, and G2- podocytes showed enhanced expression of light chain (LC) 3-II and beclin-1 , but a disparate expression of p62 (low in wild-type but high in risk alleles ). (
  • [ 2 ] persons with a profound reduction of LDL cholesterol may have a decreased risk for heart disease. (
  • Apolipoproteins may also offer advantages over risk because of low apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels, com- lipoprotein cholesterol measurements because they are pared with 35% of men. (
  • The sample of 483 men and women from a cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Table 2). (
  • Atherosclerosis , 104 (1-2), 159-171. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism In Two Populations Of Andhra Pradesh. (
  • Venkatramana P, Reddy Chengal, Ferrell R E. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism In Two Populations Of Andhra Pradesh. (
  • No significant difference was observed between these two populations for apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism. (
  • We compared apolipoprotein E polymorphism distribution between patients with sporadic late-onset AD (n = 36) and controls of the same age (n = 38). (
  • abstract = "BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) infusions represent a potential novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). (
  • The intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the concentration of Apolipoprotein B in the sample. (
  • Reduction-carboxamidomethylation of HDL3 entirely converts the disulfide-linked apoA-II dimers into monomers, without affecting the structure, composition and particle size distribution of HDL3. (
  • Kinetic studies suggest that a two-step process is involved in the formation of small, preβ-HDL3, by which changes in lipid composition cause alterations in lipoprotein structure/stability, favoring the dissociation of apolipoproteins and reduction of particle size. (
  • La asociación de Apo C-II con los QUILOMICRONES del plasma, VLDL y LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDAD es reversible y cambia rápidamente en función del metabolismo de los triglicéridos. (
  • Using data from the UK Biobank, we investigated the relationship between severity of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome-related serum biomarkers measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown. (
  • Each lipoprotein is characterized by its lipid composition and by the type and number of apolipoproteins it possesses. (
  • This association and the ability to measure apolipoprotein in nonfasting blood samples had led to recommendations that the apo B-apo A-I ratio be used in routine clinical care, [ 3 ] despite the fact that it was not known whether this ratio is better than traditional lipid values for risk assessment and prediction and whether it adds predictive value to the Framingham risk score. (
  • [ 4 ] They also evaluated the relationship for apoA-I. This post-hoc analysis used data from the EPIC-Norfolk study as well as the large Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) trial (n = 8,888), which compared the efficacy of high-dose to usual-dose statin treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events (Figure 2). (
  • Trends in apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein for adults 60 years and older by use of lipid-lowering medications: United States, 2005-2006 to 2013-2014 [Research Letter]. (
  • 41.9% ± 3.1%) with respect to inhibition of ACTH secretion by adenomas from group 2. (
  • The results concerning Lp-PLA2 levels were calculated by Elisa Kit, while apolipoprotein particles were measured by the department of laboratory. (
  • In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. (
  • Nous avons réalisé un essai en double aveugle contre placebo sur 50 patients atteints de diabète de type 2 randomisés pour recevoir 2 g/jour d'acides gras oméga 3 purifiés ou un placebo pendant 10 semaines. (
  • Levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been found to be reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF, while administration of human apoA-I has been shown to reduce bleomycin-induced collagen deposition in a murine model. (
  • [ 1 , 2 ] Cases of elderly patients with progressive language deterioration have been described since Arnold Pick's landmark case report of 1892. (
  • [ 112 ] These results had been called into question because of a dearth of clinical and neuroimaging data, but a 2012 prospective study of 2134 patients with severe traumatic brain injury found improved 2-week survival in patients who underwent ICP monitoring compared to those who were not monitored. (
  • Exposure to patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19, length of exposure, and community exposure were similar between the two groups. (
  • Our objective was to compare sst and D 2 R expression levels between adenomas from patients with elevated and normalized preoperative urinary free cortisol excretion. (
  • In a preliminary study of 28 patients treated with EDAS, Gonzalez and his team found that three -- just under 11% -- had another stroke in the next two years. (
  • Increasing evidence states that the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and apolipoprotein particles are regarded as the risk maker for cardiovascular heart disease. (
  • and 2) to evaluate prevention and treatment programs targeting cardiovascular disease in the U.S. (
  • Our aim was to describe the apolipoprotein was 18%, compared with 8% in Canadians of European profile with respect to cardiovascular risk in a Canadian descent (1). (
  • associated with cardiovascular risk (2). (
  • A few months after the 2007 JACC study was published, many of the same investigators - this time led by Wim A. van der Steeg, MD - published a paper looking at the role of the apo B-apolipoprotein A-I (apo B-apo A-I) ratio in cardiovascular risk assessment. (
  • Disrupted apolipoprotein L1-miR193a axis dedifferentiates podocytes through autophagy blockade in an APOL1 risk milieu. (
  • We hypothesized that a functional apolipoprotein LI (APOL1)-miR193a axis (inverse relationship) preserves, but disruption alters, the podocyte molecular phenotype through the modulation of autophagy flux. (
  • Individuals with features of metabolic syndrome are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus associated with the severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (
  • Am J Physiol Cell Physiol;317(2): C209-C225, 2019 08 01. (
  • This is a specimen procurement, clinical phenotyping and genotyping protocol that will assess whether holo-apoA-I and apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides, can attenuate key pathogenic manifestations of IPF, such as proliferation and extracellular matrix generation by pulmonary fibroblasts, which may serve as evidence to support future human clinical trials of apoA-I for the treatment of IPF. (
  • Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic Peptide COG1410 Promotes Autophagy by Phosphorylating GSK-3β in Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (
  • Many descriptors for apolipoproteins , interleukin receptors, and many specific keratins were added. (
  • Subsequently, the PPA syndrome was defined as a disorder limited to progressive aphasia, without general cognitive impairment or dementia, over a 2-year period. (
  • Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra 2017 9 7 (2): 240-248. (
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH derived from within residues 200 to the C-terminus of Human Apolipoprotein A I. (
  • Negative stain electron microscopy revealed that the A beta peptide alone self-assembled into twisted ribbons containing two or three strands but occasionally into multistranded sheets. (
  • Screening of serum by using a surface plasmon resonance analysis assay identified beta2-glycoprotein-I/apolipoprotein H as a plasma component binding to the renal epithelial endocytic receptor megalin. (
  • In the 1990s, we cloned the inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and the first S1P receptor. (
  • Corticotroph pituitary adenomas often highly express the dopamine 2 receptor (D 2 R) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst 5 ). (
  • This may explain why the sst 2 -preferring somatostatin analog octreotide, compared with the multi-receptor-targeting somatostatin analog pasireotide, is generally ineffective in Cushing's disease. (
  • In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (
  • Lately, it was established that ApoA5 is present in the human serum and it can be detected by polyclonal antibodies against both the HN2 and COOH termini, but at much lower concentration than other apolipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) comprises nearly 70% of the apolipoproteins on the HDL particles, allowing an effective calculation of HDL concentration. (
  • Consequently, understanding the relation between Lp-PLA2 and apolipoprotein may suggest several potential determinants with regard to the risk of CAD. (
  • Factors such as inactivity and immobility may place people with MS at increased risk of developing disabilities, and they may be disproportionately affected by chronic diseases (1,2). (
  • Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. (
  • Lp-PLA2 is a member of the PLA2 superfamily, characterized by the specific ability to hydrolyze the sn-2 position of phospholipids [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • In addition, clusterin (two out of six isoforms) and haptoglobin (four isoforms) were up-regulated in bGH mice as a function of age. (
  • The localization patterns of human apolipoproteins in atherosclerotic arteries were determined using immunohistochemical examination. (
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Apolipoprotein E Levels in Delirium. (
  • The sst 2 expression is relatively low, likely resulting from downregulating effects of high cortisol levels. (
  • The Hemoglobin A1C Test measures an individual's average blood sugar levels over a span of 2 to 3 months. (
  • Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency ( HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I ) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB. (
  • 5 × 10-8) in 20,370 Finnish participants, and meta-analyzed our data with a previous GWAS of apoA-I. We obtained genetic estimates of CAD from UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (totaling 122,733 CAD cases) and conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. (
  • Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A I ( ab50239 ) can be used as a positive control in WB. (
  • The solution structure of the 16th CCP module from human complement factor H has been determined by a combination of 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and restrained simulated annealing. (
  • 2. Healy G, Ristic M. Human babesiosis. (
  • So, LDL-P may play a useful role in patient management by helping judge the adequacy of LDL-lowering therapy, particularly among those with elevated triglycerides and reduced HDL-C. Such a role also has been proposed for apolipoprotein B (apo B). Indeed, both non-HDL-C and apo B have been proposed as secondary treatment targets after LDL-C goals have been achieved. (
  • Our work defined how the COX-2 pathway regulated angiogenesis, cancer and inflammatory disease. (
  • As follow-up care, the patient will receive repeat lumbar punctures every 3 months for 2 years to exclude occult invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased greatly in the past few years, and an even greater increase is foreseen in the next few years [1]. (
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by glucose clearance abnormalities and insufficient insulin response. (
  • His research focuses on models of inflammation in disease states including neuro-inflammation and metabolic dysfunction/type II diabetes. (
  • Some ACE inhibitors have been found to slow the process that leads to kidney damage in many people with type 2 diabetes. (
  • When two mutated beta hematohiston fractional monetary units bind to two wild type alpha sub units, formation of a an deviant hemoglobin called HbS takes topographic point. (
  • Nevertheless, the issue about whether Lp-PLA2 is associated with apolipoprotein particles in individuals who have been diagnosed as stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains largely unexplored. (
  • Furthermore, because each LDL particle contains one molecule of apolipoprotein B-100, the majority of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) would indirectly test the number of LDL particles. (
  • [ 2 ] Prior to this analysis, recent studies had shown that the apo B apoA-I ratio was strongly associated with future CAD. (