The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
Relating to the size of solids.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutations of APOLIPOPROTEINS B, main components of CHYLOMICRONS and BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include abnormally low LDL, normal triglyceride level, and dietary fat malabsorption.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Abstaining from all food.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.

Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (1/2713)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges. (2/2713)

The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-I of hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail: cDNA sequence and tissue expression. (3/2713)

Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) has an important role in the transport of cholesterol. This study describes the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for apo A-I of LAP quail. A full length apo A-I cDNA clone for hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail was isolated from a lambda gt10 liver cDNA library. The DNA sequence of LAP apo A-I cDNA was similar to that of normal Japanese quail. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAP apo A-I was hence identical to that of normal Japanese quail. LAP apo A-I mRNA is about 1.4 kilobases in length and expressed in a variety of tissues including small intestine, liver, lung, breast muscle, testis, and heart. Although the tissue distribution of apo A-I was similar between strains, LAP quail expressed more apo A-I mRNA than normal Japanese quail in all tissues examined. This tendency was pronounced with the small intestine. Although the concentration of serum apo A-I did not correlate with the tissue expression of mRNA, the observation may suggest that the increased apo A-I expression in LAP strain had some relevance to the susceptibility of this strain to the experimental atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Multiple dysfunctions of two apolipoprotein A-I variants, apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(P165R), that are associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia in heterozygous carriers. (4/2713)

ApoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(P165R) are naturally occurring apolipoprotein (apo) A-I variants that are associated with low HDL-cholesterol in heterozygous carriers. We characterized the capacity of these variants to bind lipid, to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and to promote efflux of biosynthetic cholesterol from porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or exogenous cholesterol from lipid-loaded mouse peritoneal macrophages. During cholate dialysis, normal apoA-I and both variants associated completely with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and formed rLpA-I of identical size. However, both apoA-I(P165R) and apoA-I(R160L)Oslo showed a reduced capacity to clear a turbid emulsion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Compared to normal apoA-I, the LCAT-cofactor activity of apoA-I(P165R) and apoA-I(R160L)Oslo as defined by the ratio of Vmax to appKm was reduced significantly by 62% and 29%, respectively (here and throughout the text, the apparent Km is given as Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not take particle binding into account and therefore would result in errors with an interfacial enzyme such as LCAT; Vmax estimates are not affected by this error). ApoA-I/DPPC complexes induced biphasic cholesterol efflux from SMCs with a fast and a slow efflux component. Compared to rLpA-I reconstituted with wild type apoA-I, rLpA-I with apoA-I(P165R) or apoA-I(R160L)Oslo were significantly less effective in promoting cholesterol efflux from SMCs in incubations of 10 min duration but equally effective in incubations of 6 h duration. Lipid-free apoA-I did not induce efflux of biosynthetic cholesterol from SMCs but induced hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and cholesterol efflux from acetyl-LDL-loaded mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the lipid-free form, both apoA-I variants promoted normal cholesterol efflux from murine peritoneal macrophages. We conclude that amino acid residues arginine 160 and proline 165 of apoA-I contribute to the formation of a domain that is very important for initial lipid binding and contributes to LCAT-activation and promotion of initial cholesterol efflux but not to the stabilization of preformed rLpA-I.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein A-I charge and conformation regulate the clearance of reconstituted high density lipoprotein in vivo. (5/2713)

While low apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels are primarily associated with increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractional catabolic rate (FCR), the factors that regulate the clearance of HDL from the plasma are unclear. In this study, the effect of lipid composition of reconstituted HDL particles (LpA-I) on their rate of clearance from rabbit plasma has been investigated. Sonicated LpA-I containing 1 to 2 molecules of purified human apoA-I and 5 to 120 molecules of palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) exhibit similar charge and plasma FCR to that for lipid free apoA-I, 2.8 pools/day. Inclusion of 1 molecule of apoA-II to an LpA-I complex increases the FCR to 3.5 pools/day, a value similar to that observed for exchanged-labeled HDL3. In contrast, addition of 40 molecules of triglyceride, diglyceride, or cholesteryl ester to a sonicated LpA-I containing 120 moles of POPC and 2 molecules of apoA-I increases the negative charge of the particle and reduces the FCR to 1.8 pools/day. Discoidal LpA-I are the most positively charged lipoprotein particles and also have the fastest clearance rates, 4.5 pools/day. Immunochemical characterization of the different LpA-I particles shows that the exposure of an epitope at residues 98 to 121 of the apoA-I molecule is associated with an increased negative particle charge and a slower clearance from the plasma. We conclude that the charge and conformation of apoA-I are sensitive to the lipid composition of LpA-I and play a central role in regulating the clearance of these lipoproteins from plasma. conformation regulate the clearance of reconstituted high density lipoprotein in vivo.  (+info)

ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. (6/2713)

Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Targeted mutation of plasma phospholipid transfer protein gene markedly reduces high-density lipoprotein levels. (7/2713)

It has been proposed that the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitates the transfer of phospholipids and cholesterol from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To evaluate the in vivo role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and produced mice with no PLTP gene expression. Analysis of plasma of F2 homozygous PLTP-/- mice showed complete loss of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and partial loss of free cholesterol transfer activities. Moreover, the in vivo transfer of [3H]phosphatidylcholine ether from very-low-density proteins (VLDL) to HDL was abolished in PLTP-/- mice. On a chow diet, PLTP-/- mice showed marked decreases in HDL phospholipid (60%), cholesterol (65%), and apo AI (85%), but no significant change in non-HDL lipid or apo B levels, compared with wild-type littermates. On a high-fat diet, HDL levels were similarly decreased, but there was also an increase in VLDL and LDL phospholipids (210%), free cholesterol (60%), and cholesteryl ester (40%) without change in apo B levels, suggesting accumulation of surface components of TRL. Vesicular lipoproteins were shown by negative-stain electron microscopy of the free cholesterol- and phospholipid-enriched IDL/LDL fraction. Thus, PLTP is the major factor facilitating transfer of VLDL phospholipid into HDL. Reduced plasma PLTP activity causes markedly decreased HDL lipid and apoprotein, demonstrating the importance of transfer of surface components of TRL in the maintenance of HDL levels. Vesicular lipoproteins accumulating in PLTP-/- mice on a high-fat diet could influence the development of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. (8/2713)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of clinically obtainable improvements in metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes on biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood and 24-h urinary samples were obtained from 49 patients with type 1 diabetes before and after a run-in period and after 3 months of intervention, with frequent adjustment of insulin dosage according to measured blood glucose concentrations. RESULTS: The intervention caused a mean insulin dosage increment of 10%, a 20% decrease in fasting plasma glucose concentration, a 10% decrease in albumin corrected serum fructosamine, and a somewhat lesser decrease in HbAlc.A 14% decrease in the renal excretion of magnesium (Mg) was observed, but without a change in average serum Mg concentration. Serum HDL cholesterol increased 4%, and serum triglycerides decreased 10% as an average. Looking at individual patients, the decrease in serum triglycerides correlated with both the change in serum total Mg concentration and with the increase in insulin dosage. Using the change in serum total Mg concentration and in insulin dosage as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis, the coefficient of correlation with the decrease in serum triglycerides was 0.52. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate but clinically obtainable improvement of metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes seems to reduce the loss of Mg, increase serum HDL cholesterol, and decrease serum triglycerides. The decrease in serum triglycerides was associated with the change in serum total Mg concentration. These reductions in Mg loss and serum triglycerides might reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiologic mechanisms for reduced apolipoprotein A-I concentrations associated with low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with normal plasma lipids. AU - Gylling, H.. AU - Vega, Gloria L. AU - Grundy, Scott M. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Low plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Low HDL levels are common in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, but they also occur in those with normal plasma lipids; the latter include obese patients and cigarette smokers, though other patients with low HDL levels are neither obese nor smokers. The present study was designed to define metabolic causes of low apoA-I levels in normal- weight, normolipidemic patients. ApoA-I tracer studies were carried out in two groups of normolipidemic patients having low HDL levels to determine input rates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I distribution among HDL subclasses. AU - Rainwater, David L.. AU - Blangero, John. AU - Moore, Perry H.. AU - Shelledy, Wendy R.. AU - Dyer, Thomas D.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We conducted genetic analyses to determine the components of variation for size distributions of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I among human plasma lipoproteins resolved on the basis of size. Analyses used data for 717 individuals in 26 pedigrees. Apo A-I distributions among lipoprotein size classes were measured by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) and immunoblotting procedures. Curves were fitted to apo A-I absorbance profiles to estimate fractional absorbance in each of five high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. Multivariate regression analyses revealed several covariates (sex, age, diabetes, and apo A-I concentrations) that were significantly associated with variation in one or more HDL subclasses. Female gender and elevated apo A-I concentrations ...
Carballo-Jane, Ester ; Chen, Zhu ; Oneill, Edward ; Wang, Jun ; Burton, Charlotte ; Chang, Ching H ; Chen, Xun ; Eveland, Suzanne ; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy ; Gagen, Karen ; Hubbard, Brian ; Ichetovkin, Marina ; Luell, Silvi ; Meurer, Roger ; Song, Xuelei ; Strack, Alison ; Langella, Annunziata ; Cianetti, Simona ; Rech, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mass spectrometric determination of apolipoprotein molecular stoichiometry in reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles. AU - Massey, John B.. AU - Pownall, Henry J.. AU - Macha, Stephen. AU - Morris, Jamie. AU - Tubb, Matthew R.. AU - Silva, R. A.Gangani D.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Plasma HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels are strongly inversely associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the structure and protein composition of HDL particles is complex, as native and synthetic discoidal and spherical HDL particles can have from two to five apoA-I molecules per particle. To fully understand structure-function relationships of HDL, a method is required that is capable of directly determining the number of apolipoprotein molecules in heterogeneous HDL particles. Chemical cross-linking followed by SDS polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis has been previously used to determine apolipoprotein stoichiometry in HDL particles. However, this ...
The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) gene was investigated in the myelinating sciatic nerve. Hybridization analysis with an apo A-I cDNA probe obtained from a cDNA library of mRNA isolated from rapidly myelinating chick sciatic nerve indicated that apo A-I coding transcripts increase during development in the chick sciatic nerve in parallel with the increase of myelin lamellae. Substantial apo A-I-like immunoreactivity in chick sciatic nerve homogenates was detected by Western blotting. The amount of antigen increased from the 15-d embryonic stage to 1 d posthatch and then decreased. Two subcellular fractions corresponding to the cytoplasmic compartments were particularly enriched in apo A-I. apo A-I immunoreactivity was also found in highly purified myelin preparations. Immunohistochemical staining provided further evidence for the presence of apo A-I in the endoneurial compartment of the sciatic nerve. Electron microscopic examination of these fractions after negative staining ...
Because of the inverse relationship between HDL and apo A-I levels and the risk of coronary heart disease in the general population, factors that regulate and, in particular, increase plasma levels of these parameters are of great interest for their potential health benefits. It has been projected that for each 0.026-mmol/L increase in HDL cholesterol levels, the risk of coronary heart disease decreases by 2% to 3%.32 Estrogen has clearly been shown to fall in the category of HDL cholesterol-raising drugs. However, clinical studies have shown that the route of administration of estrogen influences its effects on HDL cholesterol levels. It has been shown that transdermal administration of estrogen does not significantly increase HDL cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women, even though serum estradiol levels in these women are raised to premenopausal levels.13 Oral administration of estrogen results in a 15% to 36% increase in HDL cholesterol levels.12 13 This suggests that exposure of hepatic ...
Endothelial lipase (EL) is a recently discovered member of the lipoprotein lipase gene family that hydrolyzes HDL phospholipids ex vivo and reduces HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels when overexpressed in vivo in mice. To gain further insight into the physiological role of EL in the metabolism of HDL in vivo, studies were performed in which EL was inhibited in wild-type, hepatic lipase knockout (HL-/-), and human apoA-I transgenic mice by intravenous infusion of a polyclonal antibody inhibitory to murine EL. As compared with infusion of a control antibody, infusion of the inhibitory antibody resulted in a 25-60% increase in HDL-C levels in the three mouse models, with the peak HDL-C levels occurring at 48 hours after injection. Inhibition of EL also generated larger HDL particles in the HL-/- mice. The clearance of HDL phospholipid was significantly slower in human apoA-I transgenic mice injected with an antibody against murine EL (mEL) than in mice injected with a control antibody. We conclude that ...
RVX-208 (CAS: 1044870-39-4) is a small molecule that increases apolipoprotein A-I and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in vitro and in vivo; is a BET bromodomain antagonist. RVX-208 may be a promising new approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Objective: D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide, exerts a variety of atheroprotective functions similar to apoA-I, the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), including acting as an antioxidant, mediating cholesterol efflux from foam cells and direct anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes macrophage-derived foam cell formation by upregulating CD36 expression and mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage apoptosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the protective effect of D-4F on ox-LDL-induced macrophage cytotoxicity and specifically the ER stress-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) pathway-mediated apoptosis.. Methods and Results: Treatment with D-4F (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/L) attenuated ox-LDL (100 mg/L)-induced cholesterol accumulation in RAW264.7 macrophages and foam cell formation in a dose-dependent manner. Similar to tunicamycin (TM), a classical ER ...
Low-density lipoprotein is recognized as a primary vascular risk factor. However, recent data favor apolipoprotein (apo)B and apoA-I as risk factors with higher predictive values than conventional lipids. We investigated how leisure-time physical activity relates to the serum apoB/apoA-I ratio in...
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and it plays an important role in HDL metabolism. Both apo A-I and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Segregation analyses suggest apo A-I levels are under the control of one or more major loci. Since HDL particles are heterogeneous in their composition and size, genetic influence on its subfractions (i.e., HDL2 and HDL3) could vary. A previous report showed evidence of a major locus controlling HDL3-C levels in a subset of the current study population. Because quantitative trait loci involved in complex diseases are likely to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits, it is possible to have a common major gene involved in regulating apo A-I and HDL3-C levels. We performed a bivariate segregation analysis of apo A-I and HDL3-C levels in 1,006 individuals from 137 families ascertained through probands undergoing elective, diagnostic
Considerable attention has focused on the development of new therapeutic agents that substantially elevate levels of HDL-C. However, development of pharmacological therapies that raise HDL-C levels has been challenging, in part because the underlying biology is substantially more complex than other lipoprotein-directed therapies. HDL circulates in many forms, including both lipid-rich and lipid-poor subfractions (12). It appears that lipid-poor preβ1-HDL fractions acquire cholesterol from macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. These particles increase in size as they accumulate cholesterol. Cholesterol is ultimately taken up by the liver from these larger, lipid-rich α1-HDL particles or transferred to apoB-containing particles, a process known as RCT (13). Preβ1-HDL represents the most efficient substrate for enhancing RCT, which is considered a pivotal mechanism underlying the potential benefits of HDL-C-raising therapies (14). Because apoA-I has the capacity to generate more lipid-poor ...
Human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is secreted as a proprotein of 249 amino acids and is processed extracellularly to the mature form (243 amino acids) by removal of a six-residue propeptide segment. We have examined the role of the apoA-I propeptide in intracellular transport and secretion using transfected baby hamster kidney cells that secreted either proapoA-I (from the wild-type cDNA, A-Iwt) or mature-form apoA-I (from A-I delta pro, a cDNA in which the propeptide sequence was deleted). Deletion of the propeptide from the apoA-I sequence did not affect the rate of apoA-I synthesis, nor did it affect the fidelity of proteolytic removal of the prepeptide. However, the propeptide deletion caused mature-form apoA-I to accumulate within the cells as determined by pulse-chase experiments; the intracellular retention times for the mature-form apoA-I in which the propeptide was prematurely removed was three times longer than that of proapoA-I (t1/2 , 3 h compared with approximately 50 min). There was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apolipoprotein A-I increases insulin secretion and production from pancreatic β-cells via a G-protein-cAMPPKA-FoxO1-dependent mechanism. AU - Cochran, Blake J.. AU - Bisoendial, Radjesh J.. AU - Hou, Liming. AU - Glaros, Elias N.. AU - Rossy, Jérémie. AU - Thomas, Shane R.. AU - Barter, Philip J.. AU - Rye, Kerry Anne. PY - 2014/10. Y1 - 2014/10. N2 - Objective - Therapeutic interventions that increase plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) A-I, the major high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein, improve glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. High-density lipoproteins and apoA-I also enhance insulin synthesis and secretion in isolated pancreatic islets and clonal β-cell lines. This study identifies the signaling pathways that mediate these effects.Approach and Results - Incubation with apoA-I increased cAMP accumulation in Ins-1E cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The increase in cAMP levels was inhibited by ...
[55 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) - Pipeline...
Chymase preferentially cleaved apoA-I at different domains in the lipid-free and lipid-bound forms. The lipid-free form was mainly digested at the C-terminus rather than the N-terminus, especially at Phe229 and Tyr192. In contrast, the lipid-bound form (HDL3), with a relatively higher resistance to cleavage, was digested in the N-terminus, especially at Phe33. Considering the three-dimensional structure of lipid-free apoA-I [14], both CCL/MS (chemical cross-linking/MS) [15] and X-ray analysis [16] essentially provide similar insight: lipid-free apoA-I consists of four N-terminal (amino acids 1-187) and 2 C-terminal (amino acids 188-243) α-helix bundles. However, the in-solution conformation obtained by CCL/MS seems to be less organized and more flexible than the crystal structure obtained from the X-ray analysis. The N-terminal domain constructs a stable antiparallel helix-bundle though the formation of a hydrophobic core by all four N-terminal helices. Because aromatic amino acid residues, ...
Apo-A1 is a 29.0 kDa protein produced in the liver and intestine, and secreted as the predominant constituent of nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle. Apo-A1, which is found exclusively in HDL, has a unique ability to capture and solubilize free cholesterol. This Apo- 1 ability enables HDL to remove excess peripheral cholesterol and return it to the liver for recycling and excretion. This process, called reverse cholesterol transport, is though to inhibit atherogenesis. For this reason HDL is also known as the good cholesterol. The therapeutic potential of Apo-A1 has been recently assessed in patients with acute coronary syndromes, using a recombinant form of a naturally occurring variant of Apo-A1 (called Apo-A1 Milano). The availability of recombinant normal Apo-A1 should facilitate further investigation into the potential usefulness of apoA-I in preventing atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Recombinant human Apo-A1 is a 28.2 kDa protein of 244 amino acid residues ...
Apolipoprotein A1 antibody [5F4F5] (apolipoprotein A-I) for ELISA, WB. Anti-Apolipoprotein A1 mAb (GTX83043) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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The HDLs are responsible for the removal of free cholesterol from the blood. Low plasma levels of HDL are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low levels of HDL are frequently seen in patients with insulin resistance, from the metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes mellitus. Badimon et al. (59,60) elegantly demonstrated the antiatherogenic properties of HDL, reducing the number of fatty streaks and inducing disease regression in the rabbit experimental model. More recently, Rong et al. (61) evaluated the effects of HDL in advanced experimental atherosclerosis. Diseased thoracic aortic segments from hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were transplanted in the abdominal aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice not expressing (plasma HDL cholesterol approximately 26 mg/dl) or expressing (HDL approximately 64 mg/dl) a human apolipoprotein AI transgene. Mice with high plasma HDL showed significant changes in plaque composition, with macrophage area reductions ,80% and ...
Anti-Apolipoprotein E4 antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA, RIA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length…
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Diabetic (DM) patients have exacerbated atherosclerosis and high CVD burden. Changes in lipid metabolism, lipoprotein structure, and dysfunctional HDL are characteristics of diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether serum ApoA-I, the main protein in HDL, was biochemically modified in DM patients. By using proteomic technologies, we have identified a 26 kDa ApoA-I form in serum. MS analysis revealed this 26 kDa form as a novel truncated variant lacking amino acids 1-38, ApoA-IΔ(1-38). DM patients show a 2-fold increase in ApoA-IΔ(1-38) over nondiabetic individuals. ApoA-IΔ(1-38) is found in LDL, but not in VLDL or HDL, with an increase in LDL3 and LDL4 subfractions. To identify candidate mechanisms of ApoA-I truncation, we investigated potentially involved enzymes by in silico data mining, and tested the most probable molecule in an established animal model of diabetes. We have found increased hepatic cathepsin D activity as one of the potential proteases involved in ApoA-I truncation. ...
Carballo-Jane, Ester ; Chen, Zhu ; Oneill, Edward ; Wang, Jun ; Burton, Charlotte ; Chang, Ching H ; Chen, Xun ; Eveland, Suzanne ; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy ; Gagen, Karen ; Hubbard, Brian ; Ichetovkin, Marina ; Luell, Silvi ; Meurer, Roger ; Song, Xuelei ; Strack, Alison ; Langella, Annunziata ; Cianetti, Simona ; Rech, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Increased cholesterol efflux in apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI)-producing macrophages as a mechanism for reduced atherosclerosis in ApoAI,sup,(-/-),/sup, mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The common C-480T transition in the hepatic lipase (HL) promoter has been shown to be associated with lower HL activity and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. We examined the frequency and lipid associations of this HL polymorphism in 385 healthy, young (18- to 28-year-old) men whose fathers had had a premature myocardial infarction (designated cases) and 405 age-matched controls. These individuals were participants in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study II postprandial trial, who had been recruited from 11 European countries in 4 regions (the Baltic; United Kingdom; and central and southern Europe). Overall, the frequency of the T allele was 0.207 in controls and 0.244 in cases (P=0.08). The T allele was associated with higher fasting plasma total cholesterol (P,0.01), triglycerides (P,0.01), and HDL cholesterol (P,0.01). The strongest association was found with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I concentration, which was 10% higher in individuals homozygous for the T allele ...
FITC偶联Apolipoprotein E 抗体(ab27613)可与人样本反应并经ICC/IF实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务和专属技术支持,中国75%以上现货。
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ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab7613 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IP,ELISA…Apolipoprotein A I抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab20376 交差種: Ms,Rat 適用: RID…Apolipoprotein A I抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
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Apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein) je bílkovinná složka lipoproteinů. Apolipoproteinů existuje více druhů a jednotlivé typy se vyskytují v konkrétních lipoproteinech. Apolipoproteiny mají více funkcí, jsou strukturálně důležité, pomáhají transportu lipoproteinových částic, a dokonce mohou fungovat jako koenzymy některých enzymů ...
Its been six years since I titled a post Remember Apo-A1 Milano? If you go back even further, I wrote about the topic on this blog back in 2003 (!); scroll
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ABCA1 expression and co-localization with [1-93]ApoA-I and ApoA-I. (A) Western blot analysis with anti-ABCA1 antibodies of cell lysates prepared from HepG2 ce
Introduction: Niacin is one of the most potent drugs available to increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. However the mechanism responsible for the HDL-C increase in response to niacin is not fully understood. We examined the effect of niacin on HDL-C using a humanized mouse model of HDL metabolism, human apoA-I transgenic mice expressing CETP.. Methods and Results: Human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic (hA-I tg) mice (n=18) were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV2/8; 1.0 x 1010 gene copies) containing CETP with a liver-specific thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) promoter or control virus. Two weeks following transduction, mice were fed either a chow or chow containing 3% niacin for 2 weeks. Niacin treatment significantly increased HDL-C (34%; p,0.01) in hA-I tg mice expressing CETP. We did not see HDL-C increase in mice injected with control virus following treatment with niacin. Niacin reduced CETP protein mass 78% (p,0.01) and mRNA by 97% (p,0.01) compared to chow ...
We have shown previously that apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are formed by the conjugation of lipid-free apoA-I with lipids derived from other lipoprotein fractions in a process dependent on non-esterified fatty acids, generated by the lipolysis of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) or provided exogenously. In the present study, we show that this process is also able to generate HDL particles containing apoA-II (A-II HDL) and both apoA-I and apoA-II (A-I/A-II HDL). When lipid-free apoA-II was incubated with either VLDLs and lipoprotein lipase or LDLs and sodium oleate, a significant proportion of the apoA-II was recovered in the HDL density fraction. This was associated with the formation of several populations of HDL-sized particles with pre-β2 electrophoretic mobility, which contained phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol as their main lipid constituents. When both lipid-free apoA-I and lipid-free apoA-II were incubated with LDL and sodium ...
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups [22 in ginger group and 19 in control group] , received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, ...
Understanding the determinants of HDL function is widely considered a critical priority in HDL research. Given the heterogeneity of HDL species in the circulation, understanding the transporters essential for cholesterol efflux and the HDL species, which are the major contributors to this process may direct contemporary strategies to optimize HDL function or deliver novel HDL analogues in vivo. The present study, which represents the most detailed evaluation of HDL particle size and cellular cholesterol efflux via ABCA1 and ABCG1 to date, has identified HDL size as a key determinant of the efflux capacity of HDL. We further demonstrate that ABCA1 is a quantitatively critical mediator of cholesterol efflux to HDL3, and that HDL3b, HDL3c and lipid-free apoA-I are all suitable therapeutic targets for optimizing cellular cholesterol efflux.. It is a widely held view that ABCA1 is an important mediator of cholesterol export and that it specifically requires apolipoproteins (such as apoA-I) that ...
Background: Type 2 diabetes is a common disease with increased mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This thesis is based on three studies that evaluated traditionally used and emerging risk markers to identify individuals with high-risk of developing CVD in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. One study was conducted to compare the equivalence between two different ultrasound techniques to measure intima-media thickness since IMT was used to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis as a surrogate endpoint.. Methods: Data from the cohort study, cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes - a prospective study in primary care (CARDIPP) was used in paper I, III and IV. In paper I, baseline data from the first 247 subjects was analysed. Associations between traditionally measured lipids, apolipoproteins, glycaemic control and low-grade inflammation and IMT were analysed.. In paper III, the full baseline cohort, with data from 761 subjects from the CARDIPP study was ...
Effects of Red Grape Juice Consumption on High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein AI, Apolipoprotein B and Homocysteine in Healthy Human Volunteers
Treatment of male rats with hydrocortisone provoked a dose- and time-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol concentration without a change in plasma triglyceride levels. In contrast, administration of triamcinolone and dexamethasone at equipotent glucocorticoid doses increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, respectively. Small effects on apolipoprotein E (apo E) and apo B mRNA levels were observed, but all corticosteroids increased apo A-I and apo A-IV mRNA and decreased apo A-II mRNA levels in the liver. Triamcinolone and dexamethasone, however, were three times more potent in stimulating hepatic apo A-IV gene expression than was hydrocortisone, whereas liver apo A-I and apo A-II mRNA levels were altered to a similar extent by all corticosteroids. Plasma apo A-I and apo B concentrations always varied in a similar fashion with their respective liver mRNA levels after administration of the distinct corticoids. For apo A-IV and apo E, discrepancies between plasma and liver mRNA levels after
Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology-based techniques are now available for probing the amphipathic alpha-helix structural motif in the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Here we survey the published literature on lipid-binding and functional domains in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E and compare these results with recently developed computer methods for analysis of the location and properties of amphipathic helixes. This comparison suggests that there are at least three distinct classes of amphipathic helixes (classes A, Y, and G*) in the exchangeable apolipoproteins whose distribution varies within and between the seven apolipoproteins. This comparison further suggests that lipid affinity resides largely in class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., et al. 1990. Proteins. 8: 103) and that variations in structure and/or numbers of class A domains in individual apolipoproteins allow a range of lipid affinities from high to low. The positions of the four a ...
Clinical Significance: Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased ApoA1 concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol and other lipid particles. Like LDL cholesterol, increased ApoB concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio correlates with risk of cardiovascular disease.. Limitations: In very rare cases gammopathy, particularly of the monoclonal IgM type (e.g., Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia), may cause unreliable results.. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.. ...
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Background: We evaluated the effects of intravenously administered rAAV8 encoding Apo A-I Milano on aortic and innominate artery atherosclerosis, plaque composition and phenotype of circulating mononuclear cells in Apo E−/− Apo A1−/− mice.. Methods: Mice received one intravenous injection of 1.2x1012 vector genome copies of rAAV8 - Milano or empty vector (12 mice per group). Four weeks after injection mice were placed on high fat diet. Twenty weeks later mice were euthanized and the extend of atherosclerosis in the aorta, aortic sinuses, and innominate artery was measured. Oil-red o staining and Moma-2 staining were used to measure lipid content and macrophage content of the plaques respectively. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze phenotype of macrophages.. Results: Compared to vector control, the Milano recipients had less atherosclerosis in whole aorta (13.4 ± 1.1 % vs. 7.7 ± 0.06%, p= 0.001), in aortic sinuses (77.1 ±9.6 vs 44.8 ±2.3,p=0.01 ) and in the innominate artery ...
In general, transendothelial transport of proteins occurs by paracellular and transcellular pathways. We have previously demonstrated that aortic ECs bind, internalize, and resecrete apoA-I in a competed and temperature-dependent manner.9,10 Furthermore, we demonstrated that ABCA1 but not SR-BI modulates this process.9 In the present study, we extend these findings by showing that ECs also bind, internalize, and transport mature HDL, however, by characteristics that are distinct from those of transendothelial apoA-I transport. Most importantly, SR-BI and ABCG1 but not ABCA1 are rate-limiting for HDL transport.. The presence of different pathways for the transendothelial transport of apoA-I and HDL parallels the need of at least 2 distinct molecules interacting with cells of the arterial wall and other extravascular compartments. Lipid-free apoA-I dissociates from mature HDL as a result of HDL remodeling by lipid transfer proteins and lipases.12-14 Lipid-free apoA-I is important to mediate lipid ...
Apolipoprotein F山羊多克隆抗体(ab81908)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
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Because the apparent reduction in cardiovascular risk noted in nondiabetic populations that ingest diets rich in marine lipids containing ω-3 fatty acids is believed to result in part from their capacity to modify the composition and physicochemical behavior of lipoproteins, we sought to determine whether dietary supplementation with marine lipids might favorably affect lipoprotein composition in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Eight normolipidemic IDDM women (mean ± SD age 29.8 ± 4.7 yr) were studied before and 3 mo after receiving a marine-lipid concentrate (Super-EPA) containing 6 g ω-3 fatty acids and a total of 12 mg of cholesterol daily. Weight, insulin requirements, and glycosylated hemoglobin remained stable. After treatment, mean ± SD plasma triglyceride (TG) levels fell (before, 81.7 ± 22 mg/dl; after, 69.19 ± 17; P , 0.025). High-density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (before, 10.98 ± 5.45 mg/dl; after, 18.43 ± 7.93; P , 0.01), its major apolipoprotein A-I ...
The effects of the plasma pattern of GH on serum and lipoprotein levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apolipoprotein B 48/100 (apo B), and apolipoprotein E (apo E) were studied in hypophysectomized female Sprague-
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting millions of patients worldwide. The consequences of initial exposure to SARS-CoV-2 go beyond pulmonary damage, with a particular impact on lipid metabolism. Decreased levels in HDL-C were reported in COVID-19 patients. Since HDL particles display antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential anti-infectious properties, we aimed at characterizing HDL proteome and functionality during COVID-19 relative to healthy subjects. HDLs were isolated from plasma of 8 severe COVID-19 patients sampled at admission to intensive care unit (Day 1, D1) at D3 and D7, and from 16 sex-and age-matched healthy subjects. Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. The relative amounts of proteins identified in HDLs were compared between COVID-19 and controls. apolipoprotein A-I and paraoxonase 1 were confirmed by Westernblot analysis to be less abundant in COVID-19 versus controls, whereas serum amyloid A and alpha-1 antitrypsin were higher. HDLs from patients were
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Epicatechin and cocoa metabolites caused an increase in ApoAI expression in HepG2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the involvement of Sites A and B of the ApoAI promoter in the induction of ApoAI mRNA upon incubation with cocoa metabolites. Using supershift assays, we demonstrated the binding of HNF-3β, HNF-4, ER-α, and RXR-α to Site A and the binding of HNF-3β, NFY, and Sp1 to Site B. Luciferase assays performed with a construct containing Site B confirmed its role in the upregulation of ApoAI by cocoa metabolites. Incubation with 3-methyl-epicatechin led to an increase in HNF-3β mRNA, HNF-3β, ER-α, Sp1, and NFY protein levels and the activation of ApoAI transcription mediated by NFY, Sp1, and ER-α. ...
LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. Apo B may regulate cholesterol synthesis through its interaction with specific cell membrane receptors and by inhibition of HMG Co A reductase. This enzyme has been identified as the rate controlling enzyme in cholest
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
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A clinical trial has shown the potential for an antisense drug to reduce levels of apolipoprotein A. This may be a new way to reduce cardiovascular risk
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
Alyssa Milano demanded an immediate nationwide shutdown and urged the government to print cash and provide universal basic income for all.
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pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:12:7977648:8016835:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035465 transcript:OTTMUST00000090769 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Apob description:apolipoprotein B ...
If an abscess is found, Dr. B C Shah can use a CT scan to guide a needle to the site of the abscess and remove a sample of pus for further testing. This is known as CT-guided aspiration. The sample of pus should indicate the type of germ causing the abscess.. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics will usually begin as soon as possible, even before a CT-guided aspiration is carried out, because it can be dangerous to wait for the results.. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can be used against a wide range of bacteria. They will be used before a specific diagnosis is made because there is a high chance they will be effective if the infection is caused by bacteria.. If the test reveals the abscess is caused by a fungus, the treatment plan can be changed and antifungal medication given.. ...
... or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
... apolipoprotein D; beta-lactoglobulin; complement component C8 gamma chain; crustacyanin; epididymal-retinoic acid binding ...
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 ... Weisgraber KH, Rall SC, Bersot TP, Mahley RW, Franceschini G, Sirtori CR (25 February 1983). "Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. ...
Apolipoprotein BEdit. Apolipoprotein B, in its ApoB100 form, is the main apolipoprotein, or protein part of the lipoprotein ... Class III: LDLR does not properly bind LDL on the cell surface because of a defect in either apolipoprotein B100 (R3500Q) or in ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... or apolipoprotein B (ApoB), which is the part of LDL that binds with the receptor; mutations in other genes are rare.[1] People ...
Kim DH, Iijima H, Goto K, Sakai J, Ishii H, Kim HJ, Suzuki H, Kondo H, Saeki S, Yamamoto T (Jun 1996). "Human apolipoprotein E ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in phospholipid and cholesterol homeostasis. After binding ApoER2, ApoE is ... Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ... Herz J (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein E receptors in the nervous system". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 20 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/MOL. ...
Apolipoprotein M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOM gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein ... "Entrez Gene: APOM apolipoprotein M". Albertella MR, Jones H, Thomson W, et al. (1997). "Localization of eight additional genes ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O95445 (Human Apolipoprotein M) at the PDBe-KB. v ... 2004). "Regulation of apolipoprotein M gene expression by MODY3 gene hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha: haploinsufficiency is ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis.[87] Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein,[88] while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway.[89][90] The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triglycerides that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver. The synthesis of ...
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene. This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, ... "Entrez Gene: APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (Jan 1998 ... Brewer HB, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM (May 1972). "Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein ... The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result ...
Apolipoprotein L3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL3 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL3 apolipoprotein L, 3". Human APOL3 genome location and APOL3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 2001). "Apolipoprotein L gene family: tissue-specific expression, splicing, promoter regions; discovery of a new gene". J. ... Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H, Horrevoets AJ (2002). "The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution ...
Gain of toxic Apolipoprotein E4 effects in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons Is Ameliorated by a Small-Molecule Structure Corrector. ... Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). Uncovered the molecular pathways that link apoE and Alzheimer's disease, and ... In 2018 published an article in Nature Medicine about apolipoprotein E(apoE) gene expression-pluripotent stem cell cultures ...
Apolipoprotein L2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL2 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Liao W, Goh FY, Betts RJ, ... "Nextprot Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Human APOL2 genome location and APOL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... "The Human Protein atlas Gene: APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2". Rao SK, Pavicevic Z, Du Z, Kim JG, Fan M, Jiao Y, Rosebush M, Samant ...
Apolipoprotein L6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL6 gene. This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene ... "Entrez Gene: APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6". Human APOL6 genome location and APOL6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Liu Z, Lu H, Jiang Z, Pastuszyn A, Hu CA (Jan 2005). "Apolipoprotein l6, a novel proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein, ... Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K, Lowry PJ (May 2001). "The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: identification, ...
2003). "[Apolipoprotein E and bleomycin hydrolase. Polymorphisms: association with neurodegenerative diseases]". Ann. Biol. ...
Its most abundant apolipoproteins are apo A-I and apo A-II.[citation needed] A rare genetic variant, ApoA-1 Milano, has been ... In the stress response, serum amyloid A, which is one of the acute-phase proteins and an apolipoprotein, is under the ... Sacks FM, Zheng C, Cohn JS (2011). "Complexities of plasma apolipoprotein C-III metabolism". Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (6 ... HDL lipoprotein particles that bear apolipoprotein C3 are associated with increased, rather than decreased, risk for coronary ...
Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Hauser, Paul S.; Ryan, Robert O. (October 2013). "Impact of Apolipoprotein E on Alzheimer's Disease". Current Alzheimer ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". Marino D, Perković M, Hain A, Jaguva Vasudevan AA, Hofmann H, Hanschmann KM ... C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein ...
Zannis VI, Kan HY, Kritis A, Zanni E, Kardassis D (Mar 2001). "Transcriptional regulation of the human apolipoprotein genes". ... Ginsburg GS, Ozer J, Karathanasis SK (Jul 1995). "Intestinal apolipoprotein AI gene transcription is regulated by multiple ... "CREB-binding protein is a transcriptional coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and enhances apolipoprotein gene ...
Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the APOLD1 gene. It is located on Chromosome 12 ... "Entrez Gene: Apolipoprotein L domain containing 1". Retrieved 2012-11-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) APOLD1 ... apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] on NCBI Human APOLD1 genome location and APOLD1 gene details page ...
1999) showed that 2 cell surface receptors, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR; 192977) and apolipoprotein E receptor ... "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing: An Update". Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Baylor ...
The presence of the Apolipoprotein c4 allele. ARD is treated with abstinence from further alcohol consumption. Multiple ...
The basics of MR were invented by Martijn B. Katan in 1986, when he suggested the use of apolipoprotein E alleles, that had ... Katan MB (March 1986). "Apolipoprotein E isoforms, serum cholesterol, and cancer". Lancet. 1 (8479): 507-8. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
This inability to bind LDL is due to VLDLR's incapability to bind apolipoprotein B (apoB), which is present in LDL. Receptor- ... VLDLR binds compounds containing apolipoprotein E (apoE). These ligands attach to the cysteine binding repeats in the N- ... This receptor has an important role in cholesterol uptake, metabolism of apolipoprotein E-containing triacylglycerol-rich ... and apolipoprotein E receptor-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1529 (1-3): 287-98. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00155-4. PMID 11111096 ...
Thus one extra sialyl residue on apolipoprotein C3 impairs its action on lipoprotein lipase. This can affect expression of the ... doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(79)92068-3. Galton, DJ (August 2017). "Clarifying complex inheritance: apolipoprotein C3 and ... "An abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein containing excess sialylated apolipoprotein". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 69 ( ... "Hypertriglyceridaemia associated with an abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein carrying excess apolipoprotein". Lancet. 2: 667 ...
"Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme". OhAinle M, Kerns JA, Malik HS, Emerman M (April 2006). "Adaptive evolution ... DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3H, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3H or APOBEC ... This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) family of proteins. The ...
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Apolipoprotein E-associated. Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart ...
Lin CC, Tsai P, Sun HY, Hsu MC, Lee JC, Wu IC, Tsao CW, Chang TT, Young KC (Nov 2014). "Apolipoprotein J, a glucose-upregulated ... Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular ... Trougakos IP, Gonos ES (Nov 2002). "Clusterin/apolipoprotein J in human aging and cancer". The International Journal of ... Clusterin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoproteins and Applied Research. ...
These molecules contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shells, and can be degraded by lipoprotein lipase on ... Chylomicrons, the least dense cholesterol transport molecules, contain apolipoprotein B-48, apolipoprotein C, and ... adjusted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on the ... Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors concentrate in clathrin-coated pits. Both LDL and its receptor form ...
... apolipoprotein D apolipoprotein E apolipoprotein F apolipoprotein H apolipoprotein L apolipoprotein M apolipoprotein(a) ... apolipoprotein A (apoA1, apoA2, apoA4, and apolipoprotein A-V (apoA5)) apolipoprotein B (apo B48 and apo B100) apolipoprotein C ... Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to ... Apolipoprotein synthesis in the intestine is regulated principally by the fat content of the diet. Apolipoprotein synthesis in ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted ... "Entrez Gene: apolipoprotein C-IV".. *^ Allan CM, Walker D, Segrest JP, Taylor JM (July 1995). "Identification and ... 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. A critical ...
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene. secreted in plasma where it ... "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". J. Clin. Invest. ... Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency associated with premature vascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 80 (6): 1597-606. doi: ... "Structure of apolipoprotein C-IIToronto, a nonfunctional human apolipoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (1): 270-3. ...
Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. Two transcript variants encoding two different ... APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which ... Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol which is ... particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). The APOL1 ...
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ...
Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ... ApoCII; Apoprotein CII; ApoC2; Lipoprotein lipase deficiency - apolipoprotein CII; Chylomicronemia syndrome - apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. It is also found ...
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ... encoded search term (What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?) and What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)? What to ... What is apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * Author: Robert O Holmes, Jr, DO; Chief Editor: Herbert ... Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. Usually ...
The apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids. The apo B test may be used, along with other ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (also called apolipoprotein B or apo B) is a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is ... Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity ... The apolipoprotein B (apo B) test is used, along with other lipid tests, to help determine an individuals risk of developing ...
... (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low ... Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond ... Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In: Ballantyne CM, ed. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion ...
... a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at ... 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. In: Descovich G., Gaddi A., Magri G., Lenzi S. (eds) Atherosclerosis and ... McConathy, W.J., Lane, D.M., (1980) "Studies on the apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of cord serum", Pediatr. Res., 14, 757-61. ... In conclusion lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Sicilian newborns are not different from that of other population and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that ... ApoA1, ApoA4 and Apo5 are part of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on chromosome 11 [PMID: 15108119]. Apolipoproteins function ... Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.. Science 252 1817-22 1991 ... Contributions of domain structure and lipid interaction to the functionality of exchangeable human apolipoproteins.. Prog. ...
Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE41. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimers ... Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. *Robert D. Bell1,2. , ... Bell, R., Winkler, E., Singh, I. et al. Apolipoprotein E controls cerebrovascular integrity via cyclophilin A. Nature 485, 512- ...
... and ProteinsProteinsApoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and ProteinsProteinsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... and Drugs CategoryLipidsLipoproteinsApolipoproteinsApolipoproteins CApolipoprotein C-IApolipoprotein C-IIApolipoprotein C-III ... Apolipoproteins C. A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; ...
APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens] APOA1 apolipoprotein A1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:335 ... Title: Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and mortality among incident peritoneal dialysis patients. ... apolipoprotein A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:600 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000118137 MIM:107680; Vega: ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Pourmousa M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ...
APOLIPOPROTEIN E. A. 165. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: APOE. ... Crystal Structure of the 22K Domain of Human Apolipoprotein E4. Verderame, J.R., Kantardjieff, K., Segelke, B., Weisgraber, K. ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_G) Data File: ApoB_G.xpt First Published: January 2014. Last Revised: NA ... Apolipoprotein B is the main protein component of LDL and accounts for approximately 95% of the total protein content of LDL. ...
LBXAPB - Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXAPB. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (mg/dL). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... LBDAPBSI - Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). Variable Name: LBDAPBSI. SAS Label: Apolipoprotein (B) (g/L). English Text: Apolipoprotein ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2007-2008 Apolipoprotein B data to the 2005-2006 Apolipoprotein B data. The Dade ... Apolipoprotein B (ApoB_E) Data File: ApoB_E.xpt First Published: July 2010. Last Revised: NA Note: See Analytic Note on ...
HDL3species containing both apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II, and HDL3(AI w/o AII), HDL3species containing ... initially with three apolipoprotein A-I, to larger particles with four apolipoprotein A-I per particle. © 1989. ... Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density lipoprotein populations during incubation of human plasma. *Nichols A ... Nichols, A. V., Blanche, P. J., Shore, V. G., & Gong, E. L. (1989). Conversion of apolipoprotein-specific high-density ...
ApoC-I ist ein Apolipoprotein der triglyzeridreichen Lipoproteine und High Density Lipoproteine (HDL; s. High Density ... Lackner K.J., Peetz D. (2019) Apolipoprotein C-I. In: Gressner A.M., Arndt T. (eds) Lexikon der Medizinischen ...
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the ... Keywords: ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1); ApoE; Apolipoprotein; Atherosclerosis; Cell-based Gene Therapy; ...
Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human apolipoprotein B-100. *José A. Fernández-Higuero1,2. na1, ... Structural changes induced by acidic pH in human Apolipoprotein B-100. Sci. Rep. 6, 36324; doi: 10.1038/srep36324 (2016). ... Law, A. & Scott, J. A cross-species comparison of the apolipoprotein B domain that binds to the LDL receptor. Journal of lipid ... Segrest, J. P., Jones, M. K., De Loof, H. & Dashti, N. Structure of apolipoprotein B-100 in low density lipoproteins. Journal ...
Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. This test determines a persons genetic ... SpectraCell Laboratories Offers Apolipoprotein E Genetic Testing. Thursday, April 22, 2010 General News ... HOUSTON, April 21 /PRNewswire/ -- Effective immediately, SpectraCell Laboratories now offers apolipoprotein E genotyping. ...
Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. ... Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... of this unique and specialized field but also updates on the current state of research and development of apolipoprotein ... Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors: Anantharamaiah, G M, Goldberg, Dennis (Eds.) ... Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. Editors. * G M Anantharamaiah ...
The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E ... Rubinsztein, "Apolipoprotein E-a review of its roles in lipoprotein metabolism, neuronal growth and repair and as a risk factor ... Poirier, "Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimers disease," Trends in Neurosciences 17:525-530, 1994 ... Apolipoprotein E was expressed as % change from mean control value. Cholesterol was measured with a commercially available ...
We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the ...
Apolipoprotein. DOWNLOAD Grade 10, 11, 30-60 mins. Help Trevor, 51, understand his high-cholesterol diagnosis in this case ... Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimers disease. Students take on the ...
Anti-Apolipoprotein E antibody conjugated to FITC validated for ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to full ...
Anti-Apolipoprotein CII antibody conjugated to Biotin validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... At least 9 distinct polymorphic forms of apolipoproteins are known. The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact ... In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to ... Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract ...
  • The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene on chromosome 19, which has been associated with many lateonset familial cases of Alzheimers disease as well as sporadic cases in the over-60 age group. (
  • Exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA, apoC and apoE) have the same genomic structure and are members of a multi-gene family that probably evolved from a common ancestral gene. (
  • Recent findings with apoA1 and apoE suggest that the tertiary structures of these two members of the human exchangeable apolipoprotein gene family are related [ PMID: 15234552 ]. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the transport and uptake of cholesterol by way of its high affinity interaction with lipoprotein receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (
  • Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) consists of a single polypeptide chain with 299 amino acids and is best known for its role in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids between peripheral tissues and the liver. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Apolipoprotein E ( ApoE ) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body. (
  • The gene, APOE , is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein C1 (APOC-I) and the apolipoprotein C2 . (
  • The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a component of plasma lipoproteins, has been suggested to bind and traffic Ags for NKT cell activation. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (apoE) 3 is a multifunctional component of plasma lipoproteins that is found on very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein, and chylomicron remnant lipoprotein complexes. (
  • Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. (
  • Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. (
  • APOE is primarily located in HDL and VLDL Apolipoproteins act as lipid transfer carrier enzymes, cofactors and receptor ligands which control lipoprotein metabolism. (
  • The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • VL - 483 IS - 1 N2 - The apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (e4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE e4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. (
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null mice that had knockout of a single allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) gene were compared with littermate Apoe null mice with intact insulin receptors. (
  • Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system. (
  • The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is located on chromosome 19 and encodes a glycoprotein that is 299 amino acids long. (
  • Apolipoprotein E, type epsilon 4 allele (ApoE epsilon 4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) in French patients. (
  • Regulation and clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center. (
  • Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. (
  • Different lipoproteins contain different classes of apolipoproteins, which influence their function. (
  • Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) is the major structural protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), although it is present in other lipoproteins in smaller amounts. (
  • Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA4) is present in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL. (
  • Apolipoprotein B plays a particularly important role in lipoprotein transport being the primary organizing protein of many lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC3) plays an important role in lipid metabolism specific in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (
  • Apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII) is in found in chylomicrons (large lipoprotein particles absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract) and VLDL (large lipoproteins that are broken down to eventually form LDL). (
  • Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals. (
  • The Apolipoproteins are the main form of protein found in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoproteins are composed from various lipoproteins such as exchangeable Apolipoprtoeins and non-exchangeable. (
  • Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). (
  • Apolipoprotein E or apo E is the most important protein found in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, or VLDL cholesterol. (
  • Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein M-containing lipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and ApoB48 are the full-length and C-terminally truncated versions of ApoB, an essential constituent of several classes of lipoproteins that are secreted by the liver and intestine [ 1 ]. (
  • Apolipoprotein C-IV , also known as apolipoprotein C4 , is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene . (
  • Apolipoprotein (apo)C4 gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C gene family. (
  • 2002). "Regulated expression of the apolipoprotein E/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages. (
  • 2009). "Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip" . (
  • Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene . (
  • 1986). "The structure of the human apolipoprotein C-II gene. (
  • 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (
  • 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (
  • Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (apoAI) is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis caused by point mutations in the apoAI gene. (
  • This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. (
  • This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. (
  • Two novel APOA1 gene mutations in a Japanese renal transplant recipient with recurrent apolipoprotein A-I related amyloidosis. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate whether apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (
  • Apolipoprotein L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOL1 gene. (
  • We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P (
  • Apolipoprotein All (ApoAII) amyloidosis, first reported in 2001 in a family with renal amyloidosis, is associated with mutations in the stop codon of the apolipoprotein AII gene resulting in a carboxyl terminal peptide extension of 21 amino acid residues in the protein. (
  • Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene . (
  • Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells. (
  • The data show that a single dose of the gene therapy carrying a short hairpin RNA to silence Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) resulted in a reduction of serum cholesterol of approximately 80% without any signs of toxicity. (
  • Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apo B) exists in two forms, each the product of a single gene. (
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 all. (
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative fact. (
  • The apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele is considered a negative factor for neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (
  • A research team from Department of Neurology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China pointed out a non-invasive and fast method to genotype large samples to help to elucidate the role of apolipoprotein E gene ε4 allele in neural regeneration in the cases with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (
  • APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (
  • The apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk of developing late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Page NM, Butlin DJ, Lomthaisong K and Lowry PJ: The human apolipoprotein L gene cluster: Identification, classification, and sites of distribution. (
  • Monajemi H, Fontijn RD, Pannekoek H and Horrevoets AJ: The apolipoprotein L gene cluster has emerged recently in evolution and is expressed in human vascular tissue. (
  • Case Report: recurrence of non-familial hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis in Japanese transplant recipient with two novel APOA1 mutations. (
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, ligands for cell-surface receptors and lipid transport proteins, and cofactors for enzymes (e.g. apolipoprotein C-II for lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). (
  • It forms a complex, known as a trypanosome lytic factor (TLF), with high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) particles that also contain apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and the hemoglobin-binding, haptoglobin-related protein (HPR). (
  • HDL begins to develop when two copies of the protein apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mediate the removal of excess lipids from peripheral cells and form a nanodisc. (
  • Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). (
  • AIM: To determine the association between apolipoprotein A1 ( APOA1 ) (−75 guanine [G] to adenine [A] and +83/84 M2 +/− , MspI ) and apolipoprotein C3 ( APOC3 ) ( SstI ) polymorphisms with gallstone disease. (
  • An example of non-exchangeable apolipoprotein is APOAB which is attached to the lipoprotein particle while examples of Lipoprotein exchangeable are APOM, APOD, APOJ, APOH and APOA1 which are transported between different lipoprotein molecules. (
  • Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Apolipoprotein A I (APOA1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1 in Human, Mouse samples. (
  • Apolipoprotein M (apoM) participates in the lipid metabolism and exhibit anti‑atherosclerotic functions and it is presented in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). (
  • Apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is a minor apoprotein component of HDL (High-density lipoprotein) or 'good cholesterol' which is synthesized in the liver and also in many other tissues, including pancreas, kidney, and brain. (
  • The Ratio of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I Predicts Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (
  • Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. (
  • Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study. (
  • In the presence of monensin (an inhibitor of protein secretion), the cells secrete cholesterol, but little apolipoprotein E. After secretion, apolipoprotein E and cholesterol associate with high-density lipoprotein to form a particle that can deliver cholesterol to the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Duchateau PN, Pullinger CR, Orellana RE, Kunitake ST, Naya-Vigne J, O'Connor PM, Malloy MJ and Kane JP: Apolipoprotein L, a new human high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein expressed by the pancreas. (
  • Apolipoprotein M (APOM) has been suggested as a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which plays a crucial role behind the mechanism of HDL-mediated anti-atherosclerosis. (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. (
  • Serum apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1), apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100) and lipoprotein-(a) (LPA) were measured in the Pathology Laboratories of Postgraduate Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar using turbiditrimetric kits of Roche Diagnostics, on chemistry auto analyzer, modular P-800 by Roche, Cobas (Japan). (
  • This could explain reduced capacity of the liver to synthesize apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100). (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B) molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, LDL). (
  • At the end of 12 weeks, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100) were significantly lower in the soy nut group compared with the control group. (
  • Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9. (
  • Birmingham, AL), developer of the VAP Cholesterol Test, announced it has received a patent on its method to derive and report apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) using the Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) technology. (
  • Is vitellogenin an ancestor of apolipoprotein B100 of human low-density lipoprotein and human lipoprotein lipase? (
  • Although apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) plays a key role in peripheral fat deposition, it is not considered a suitable therapeutic target in obesity. (
  • In addition to stabilizing lipoprotein structure and solubilizing the lipid component, apolipoproteins interact with lipoprotein receptors and lipid transport proteins, thereby participating in lipoprotein uptake and clearance. (
  • APOL1 is a member of a family of apolipoproteins which also includes six other proteins and it is a member of bcl2 genes which are involved in autophagic cell death. (
  • Using the models of two long anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory proteins (apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E with 243 and 299 amino acids, respectively) short mimetic peptides of 18 to 28 amino acid residues in length, which can be produced either synthetically or genetically in edible fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exert profound biological effects in a large number of animal models of diseases. (
  • 1995). "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion" . (
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein D Kits (32) and Apolipoprotein D Proteins (24) and many more products for this protein. (
  • Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. (
  • This product has been prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized antigens followed by extensive cross-adsorption against other apoLipoproteins and human serum proteins to remove any unwanted specificities. (
  • Non-specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with other human serum proteins is negligible. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Apolipoprotein C-II Kits (51) and Apolipoprotein C-II Proteins (28) and many more products for this protein. (
  • In this study a series of Sicilian neonates was studied in order to investigate about the distribution of serum lipid and apolipoprotein at birth and the differences with adults. (
  • In an immunochemical reaction, Apolipoprotein B in the human serum sample form immune complexes with specific antibodies. (
  • The proband, a 65-year-old woman, had greatly diminished concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol (0.19 mmol/L) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (21.9 mg/dL). (
  • Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. (
  • In the absence of serum, the cells secrete apolipoprotein E, but not cholesterol. (
  • Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies have been used for indirect trapping ELISA for quantitation of antigen in serum using a standard curve, for immunoprecipitation and for western blotting for highly sensitive qualitative analysis. (
  • The novel apolipoprotein A5 is present in human serum, is associated with VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins. (
  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system and apoD can also modulate the stability and oxidation status of these molecules. (
  • On are 116 Apolipoprotein D (APOD) Antibodies from 22 different suppliers available. (
  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a small glycoprotein responsible for the local transport of small hydrophobic ligands. (
  • The analyst should use the special sampling weights in this file to analyze Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). (
  • Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. (
  • Aldehyde-modified peptide sequences in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) are major targets for these immune responses. (
  • 2,3 The LDL protein apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded, and aldehydes bind to free amino groups on the peptide fragments. (
  • Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis. (
  • Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. (
  • Hyperinsulinemia does not change atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E null mice. (
  • Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. (
  • LDL-cholesterol (LDL- C), apolipoproteins (apo) B, CIII, and E, and by decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. (
  • Apolipoprotein levels and ratios are more significant than LDL cholesterol levels in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. (
  • Plasma apolipoprotein E phenotypes modulate lipoprotein concentrations, particularly that of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. (
  • Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. (
  • Although apolipoprotein A levels can be measured, it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk. (
  • Cholesterol-loaded macrophages secrete cholesterol and apolipoprotein E. The current studies show that this secretion occurs by two independent pathways. (
  • We conclude that apolipoprotein E does not function to remove cholesterol from macrophages but rather to participate in "reverse cholesterol transport. (
  • Xu, Nilsson-Ehle, Ahrén: Correlation of apolipoprotein M with leptin and cholesterol in normal and obese subjects. (
  • Despite the hyperinsulinemia, atherosclerotic lesion size was not different between the 2 groups at time points up to 52 weeks of age when measured as en face lesion area in the aorta, cross-sectional plaque area in the aortic sinus, and cholesterol abundance in the brachiocephalic artery. (
  • High-dose recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(milano) mobilizes tissue cholesterol and rapidly reduces plaque lipid and macrophage content in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice. (
  • In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Increased level of MSU crystal-bound protein apolipoprotein A-I in acute gouty arthritis. (
  • Apolipoprotein E is a fat-binding protein ( apolipoprotein ) that is part of the chylomicron and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) . (
  • To determine the association between the e4 allele of apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease in a randomly selected population sample. (
  • The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 2.9% in subjects with no e4 alleles, 7.6% in subjects with one e4 allele, and 21.4% in subjects with two e4 alleles of apolipoprotein E. (
  • Allele e4 of apolipoprotein is associated with Alzheimer's disease in a dose-response fashion in a randomly selected elderly population. (
  • The first evidence that e4 allele of apolipoprotein E could be associated with Alzheimer's disease was published by Pericak-Vance et al. (
  • The method developed for apolipoprotein E genotyping is accurate and reliable, and also suitable for genotyping large samples, which may help determine the role of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in neural regeneration in late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. (
  • Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid protein in the pathology of Alzheimers disease has been further fueled by the results of molecular genetics studies that have identified genes associated with familial (inherited) Alzheimers disease on chromosomes 21, 14, 1, and 19. (
  • Familial apolipoprotein CII deficiency is a very rare (rarer than LPL deficiency) autosomal recessive disorder in which apolipoprotein CII (apoC-II), a cofactor for LPL, is absent, the clearance of chylomicrons from the blood is greatly impaired and triglycerides (TG) accumulate in the plasma. (
  • All the studies that have investigated the relation between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease have included highly selected patients and corresponding controls. (
  • Apolipoprotein E genotyping is crucial to apolipoprotein E polymorphism analysis. (
  • Peripheral venous blood is the conventional tissue source for apolipoprotein E genotyping polymorphism analysis. (
  • Apolipoprotein F (apoF) is one of the minor apolipoprotein in blood plasma and it is a lipid transfer inhibit protein to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated transfers of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. (
  • Verghese, P. B., Castellano, J. M. & Holtzman, D. M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (
  • Elevated IgM against Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine-modified Apolipoprotein A1 peptide 141-147 in Taiwanese with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • RF 1-2* Evidence is accumulating that apolipoprotein E is important in late onset Alzheimer's disease. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Apolipoprotein epsilon4 and neuropsychological performance in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. (
  • Apolipoprotein CII (apoCII) is a protein found in large fat particles that the gastrointestinal tract absorbs. (
  • Apolipoproteins function in lipid transport as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (
  • The apolipoproteins act as stabilizers of the intact lipoprotein particles. (
  • In addition, quantitative immunological measurements of certain apolipoproteins (especially A-1 and B) have been suggested to be more accurate estimators of coronary heart disease than measurements of lipoprotein particles (especially HDL and LDL). (
  • It does not interchange between lipoprotein particles, as do the other apolipoproteins, and it is found in IDL and LDL after the removal of the Apo-A, E, and C. Apo-B48 is present in chylomicrons and their remnants. (
  • Antibodies directed against murine Apolipoprotein AI and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles specifically immunoprecipitated metabolically labelled radioactive apolipoproteins from the culture supernatant of 10.5 days post coitum (days p.c.) yolk sac visceral endoderm cultured in vitro. (
  • Global Structure and Dynamics of Human Apolipoprotein CII in Complex with Micelles: Evidence for Increased Mobility of the Helix Involved in the Activation of Lipoprotein Lipase. (
  • Duan, Dahlbäck, Villoutreix: Proposed lipocalin fold for apolipoprotein M based on bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis. (
  • OBJECTIVE To determine plasma apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) levels and phenotype distribution in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and to analyze the influence of apoA-IV phenotype on lipid profiles in NIDDM. (
  • In addition, we observed in a previous small study decreased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in preoperative patients with kidney cancer. (
  • Your search returned 1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (
  • Smoking cigarettes, taking diuretics, or taking medicines that contain androgens can also cause lower levels of apolipoprotein A. (
  • Hundreds of genetic polymorphisms of the apolipoproteins have been described, and many of them alter their structure and function. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes may be associated with alteration in lipid profile and susceptibility to gallstone disease. (
  • Deficiency of apoC-II can also be verified by gel electrophoresis of the apolipoproteins contained in VLDL and chylomicrons on 2D gels. (
  • Large deletion in APOC2 caused by Alu-Alu homologous recombination is associated with with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency. (
  • Minor apolipoprotein mainly associated with HDL and to a lesser extent with VLDL. (
  • Minor apolipoprotein that associates with LDL. (
  • Immunohistochemical staining at sectioned 10.5 days p.c. embryos with anti-Apolipoprotein AI antibodies revealed specific localization of immunoreactive material in the yolk sac visceral endoderm. (
  • Specific cross reaction of anti-apoLipoprotein antibodies with antigens from other species has not been determined. (
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Increases Insulin Secretion and Production From Pancreatic ß-Cells via a G-Protein-cAMP-PKA-FoxO1-Dependent Mechanism. (
  • Nonhereditary apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) amyloid is characterized by deposits of nonvariant protein in atherosclerotic arteries. (
  • Title: The relationship between apolipoprotein genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a meta-analysis. (
  • Our Apolipoprotein L2 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (
  • Our Apolipoprotein C1 ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research. (
  • 1990) Lipid and apolipoprotein in cord blood. (
  • 1990). "Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease" . (
  • The present invention relates to methods of use of phosphonate-phosphates and diphosphonates to modulate apolipoprotein E levels and the use of such compounds in therapy, including cardiovascular and neurological disease states. (
  • 2008). "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and correlates with liver steatosis" . (
  • Selenium has a positive effect on apolipoprotein B expression in hypercholesterolemia. (
  • Apolipoprotein expression was examined in the postimplantation mouse embryo. (
  • No evidence for apolipoprotein expression by other embryonic or extraembryonic tissues at this stage was obtained. (
  • Apolipoprotein D expression in human brain reactive astrocytes. (
  • Apolipoprotein E2 (apoE2)-associated hyperlipidemia is characterized by a disturbed clearance of apoE2-enriched VLDL remnants. (
  • Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor and apolipoprotein a-I in urine as biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: a proteomics study. (
  • encoded search term (How are specimens collected and prepared for apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) testing? (
  • Your search returned 60 Apolipoprotein A-IV ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (