A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
The act of BREATHING in.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
The position or attitude of the body.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The act of BREATHING out.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Surgical incision of the trachea.
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
Institutional night care of patients.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (1/582)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

Firing properties of single vasoconstrictor neurones in human subjects with high levels of muscle sympathetic activity. (2/582)

1. Single-unit recordings were made from 19 postganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor axons via tungsten microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects with many multi-unit sympathetic discharges at rest ('high group', 75 +/- 5 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats, mean +/- s.e.m.). The results were compared with previous data from 14 units in subjects with 21 +/- 2 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats ('low group'). 2. In the 'high group' the units fired spontaneously in 35 +/- 4 % of all cardiac intervals. One unit only ever fired once per cardiac interval, 14 units (74 %) generated maximally two to three spikes, and four units (21 %) up to four to five spikes. Of those cardiac intervals in which a unit fired, a single spike occurred in 78 %, two spikes in 18 %, three spikes in 4 % and four spikes in less than 1 % of cardiac intervals. Measured as the inverse of all interspike intervals, the mean rate was 0.33 +/- 0.04 Hz and the mean intraburst frequency 22.2 +/- 1.6 Hz. Most results were similar to those in the 'low group', but in the 'low group' heart rate was higher (64.5 vs. 50.4 beats min-1) and mean firing frequency was higher (0.49 +/- 0.06 Hz). 3. During increases of multi-unit burst activity evoked by sustained inspiratory-capacity apnoea the firing probability of nine units in the 'high group' increased from 33 +/- 6 to 56 +/- 3 % of the cardiac intervals. Simultaneously, the incidence of single spikes decreased and the incidence of multiple spikes per cardiac interval increased, resulting in an increase of mean firing frequency from 0. 23 +/- 0.04 Hz at rest to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Hz during the apnoea. 4. We conclude that single muscle vasoconstrictor neurones usually fire only a solitary spike during sympathetic bursts both in subjects with a high and in subjects with a low number of bursts at rest. Presumably, differences in the numbers of bursts are due mainly to differences in firing probability and recruitment of sympathetic fibres. During acute increases of multi-unit activity, both increases in discharge frequency and recruitment of additional neurones contribute to the increased intensity of an individual sympathetic burst.  (+info)

Inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar eye block. (3/582)

I describe a case of inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar anaesthesia and its management. Some of the hazards of supplementary oxygen delivery during monitored anaesthetic care and the actions taken to prevent this mishap recurring are discussed.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (4/582)

This study was designed to evaluate the importance of sympathoadrenal activation in the acute cardiovascular response to apneas and the role of hypoxemia in this response. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of the vagus nerve to apnea responses after chemical sympathectomy. In six pigs preinstrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe and five nonpreinstrumented pigs, effects of periodic nonobstructive apneas were tested under the following six conditions: room air breathing, 100% O2 supplementation, both repeated after administration of hexamethonium (Hex), and both repeated again after bilateral vagotomy in addition to Hex. With room air apneas, during the apnea cycle, there were increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP; from baseline of 108 +/- 4 to 124 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.01), plasma norepinephrine (from 681 +/- 99 to 1,825 +/- 578 pg/ml, P < 0.05), and epinephrine (from 191 +/- 67 to 1,245 +/- 685 pg/ml, P < 0.05) but decreases in cardiac output (CO; from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 l/min, P < 0.01) and cervical sympathetic nerve activity. With O2 supplementation relative to baseline, apneas were associated with small increases in MAP (from 112 +/- 4 to 118 +/- 3 Torr, P < 0.01) and norepinephrine (from 675 +/- 97 to 861 +/- 170 pg/ml, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with room air were associated with small increases in MAP (from 103 +/- 6 to 109 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.05) and epinephrine (from 136 +/- 45 to 666 +/- 467 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and decreases in CO (from 3.6 +/- 0.4 to 3.2 +/- 0. 5 l/min, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with O2 supplementation were associated with decreased MAP (from 107 +/- 5 to 100 +/- 5 Torr, P < 0.05) and no other changes. After vagotomy + Hex, with room air and O2 supplementation, apneas were associated with decreased MAP (from 98 +/- 6 to 76 +/- 7 and from 103 +/- 7 to 95 +/- 6 Torr, respectively, both P < 0.01) but increased CO [from 2.7 +/- 0.3 to 3. 2 +/- 0.4 l/min (P < 0.05) and from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min (P < 0.01), respectively]. We conclude that sympathoadrenal activation is the major pressor mechanism during apneas. Cervical sympathetic nerve activity does not reflect overall sympathoadrenal activity during apneas. Hypoxemia is an important but not the sole trigger factor for sympathoadrenal activation. There is an important vagally mediated reflex that contributes to the pressor response to apneas.  (+info)

Assessment of effect of nasal continuous positive pressure on laryngeal opening using fibre optic laryngoscopy. (5/582)

AIM: To assess the effect of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) on the dimensions of the laryngeal opening. METHODS: Nine preterm infants who had previously received ventilatory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied. All were receiving nasal CPAP. The laryngeal opening was visualised using a fibre optic video camera system. The ratio of width to length of the opening was measured on and off CPAP. RESULTS: In eight of the infants the width: length ratio increased on CPAP; mean change for group +24.4% (95% CI +11.9 to +37.9). CONCLUSIONS: Nasal CPAP seems to dilate the larynx. This may explain the selective beneficial effects of CPAP on mixed and obstructive apnoea.  (+info)

Haemoptysis after breath-hold diving. (6/582)

Pulmonary oedema has been described in swimmers and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba) divers. This study reports three cases of haemoptysis secondary to alveolar haemorrhage in breath-hold divers. Contributory factors, such as haemodynamic modifications secondary to immersion, cold exposure, exercise and exposure to an increase in ambient pressure, could explain this type of accident. Furthermore, these divers had taken aspirin, which may have aggravated the bleeding.  (+info)

Effects of capsaicin pretreatment on expiratory laryngeal closure during pulmonary edema in lambs. (7/582)

The present study, performed in nonsedated, conscious lambs, consisted of two parts. In the first part, we 1) examined for the first time whether a respiratory response to pulmonary C-fiber stimulation could be elicited in nonsedated newborns and 2) determined whether this response could be abolished by capsaicin pretreatment. Then, by using capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we studied whether pulmonary C fibers were involved in the sustained, active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during pulmonary edema. Airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activities were recorded. In the first set of experiments, a 5-10 microg/kg capsaicin bolus intravenous injection in seven intact lambs consistently led to a typical pulmonary chemoreflex, showing that C fibers are functionally mature in newborn lambs. In the second series of experiments, eight lambs pretreated with 25-50 mg/kg subcutaneous capsaicin did not exhibit any respiratory response to 10-50 microg/kg intravenous capsaicin injection, implicating C fibers in the response. Finally, in the above capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we observed that halothane-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema did not cause the typical response of sustained expiratory upper airway closure seen in the intact lamb. We conclude that functionally mature C fibers are present and responsible for a pulmonary chemoreflex in response to capsaicin intravenous injection in nonsedated lambs. Capsaicin pretreatment abolishes this reflex. Furthermore, the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during halothane-induced pulmonary edema in intact nonsedated lambs appears to be related to a reflex involving stimulation of pulmonary C fibers.  (+info)

Effects of vagotomy on cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (8/582)

There are few studies investigating the influence of vagally mediated reflexes on the cardiovascular response to apneas. In 12 sedated preinstrumented pigs, we studied the effects of vagotomy during apneas, controlling for apnea periodicity and thoracic mechanical effects. Nonobstructive apneas were produced by paralyzing and mechanically ventilating the animals, then turning the ventilator off and on every 30 s. Before vagotomy, relative to baseline, apnea caused increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; +19 +/- 25%, P < 0.05), systemic vascular resistance (SVR; +33 +/- 16%, P < 0.0005), and heart rate (HR; +5 +/- 6%, P < 0.05) and decreased cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV; -16 +/- 10% P < 0.001). After vagotomy, no significant change occurred in MAP, SVR, and SV during apneas, but CO and HR increased relative to baseline. HR was always greater ( approximately 14%, P < 0.01) during the interapneic interval compared with during apnea. We conclude that vagally mediated reflexes are important mediators of the apneic pressor response. HR increases after apnea termination are related, at least in part, to nonvagally mediated reflexes.  (+info)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder that occurs when the upper airway becomes partially or completely blocked during sleep, leading to pauses in breathing or shallow breaths. These episodes, known as apneas or hypopneas, can last for 10 seconds or longer and may occur multiple times throughout the night, disrupting normal sleep patterns and causing oxygen levels in the blood to drop.

The obstruction in OSA is typically caused by the relaxation of the muscles in the back of the throat during sleep, which allows the soft tissues to collapse and block the airway. This can result in snoring, choking, gasping for air, or awakening from sleep with a start.

Contributing factors to OSA may include obesity, large neck circumference, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of sedatives or muscle relaxants. Untreated OSA can lead to serious health consequences such as high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cognitive impairment. Treatment options for OSA include lifestyle changes, oral appliances, positive airway pressure therapy, and surgery.

Sleep apnea syndromes refer to a group of disorders characterized by abnormal breathing patterns during sleep. These patterns can result in repeated pauses in breathing (apneas) or shallow breaths (hypopneas), causing interruptions in sleep and decreased oxygen supply to the body. There are three main types of sleep apnea syndromes:

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common form, caused by the collapse or obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, often due to relaxation of the muscles in the throat and tongue.

2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): This type is less common and results from the brain's failure to send proper signals to the breathing muscles. It can be associated with conditions such as heart failure, stroke, or certain medications.

3. Complex/Mixed Sleep Apnea: In some cases, a person may experience both obstructive and central sleep apnea symptoms, known as complex or mixed sleep apnea.

Symptoms of sleep apnea syndromes can include loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, morning headaches, difficulty concentrating, and mood changes. Diagnosis typically involves a sleep study (polysomnography) to monitor breathing patterns, heart rate, brain activity, and other physiological factors during sleep. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, oral appliances, positive airway pressure therapy, or even surgery in severe cases.

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a type of sleep-disordered breathing characterized by repeated cessations in breathing during sleep due to the brain's failure to transmit signals to the respiratory muscles that control breathing. Unlike obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which results from airway obstruction, CSA occurs when the brain fails to send the necessary signals to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to initiate or maintain respiratory efforts during sleep.

Central sleep apneas are usually associated with decreased oxygen saturation levels and can lead to frequent arousals from sleep, causing excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and impaired cognitive function. CSA is often related to underlying medical conditions such as heart failure, stroke, or brainstem injury, and it may also be caused by the use of certain medications, including opioids.

There are several types of central sleep apnea, including:

1. Primary Central Sleep Apnea: This type occurs without any underlying medical condition or medication use.
2. Cheyne-Stokes Breathing: A pattern of central sleep apnea commonly seen in individuals with heart failure or stroke. It is characterized by a crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing, with periods of hyperventilation followed by hypoventilation and apnea.
3. High-Altitude Periodic Breathing: This type occurs at high altitudes due to the reduced oxygen levels and is usually reversible upon returning to lower altitudes.
4. Complex or Mixed Sleep Apnea: A combination of both central and obstructive sleep apneas, often observed in patients with OSA who are treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. In some cases, the central component may resolve over time with continued CPAP use.

Diagnosis of CSA typically involves a sleep study (polysomnography), which monitors various physiological parameters during sleep, such as brain waves, eye movements, muscle activity, heart rate, and breathing patterns. Treatment options for central sleep apnea depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, adjustments in medication dosages, or the use of devices that assist with breathing, such as adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy.

Polysomnography (PSG) is a comprehensive sleep study that monitors various body functions during sleep, including brain activity, eye movement, muscle tone, heart rate, respirations, and oxygen levels. It is typically conducted in a sleep laboratory under the supervision of a trained technologist. The data collected during PSG is used to diagnose and manage various sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), movement disorders (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder), parasomnias, and narcolepsy.

The study usually involves the attachment of electrodes to different parts of the body, such as the scalp, face, chest, and legs, to record electrical signals from the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, and heartbeats. Additionally, sensors may be placed on or near the nose and mouth to measure airflow, and a belt may be worn around the chest and abdomen to monitor breathing efforts. Oxygen levels are also monitored through a sensor attached to the finger or ear.

Polysomnography is often recommended when a sleep disorder is suspected based on symptoms or medical history, and other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive. The results of the study can help guide treatment decisions and improve overall sleep health.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a mode of non-invasive ventilation that delivers pressurized room air or oxygen to maintain airway patency and increase functional residual capacity in patients with respiratory disorders. A CPAP device, which typically includes a flow generator, tubing, and a mask, provides a constant positive pressure throughout the entire respiratory cycle, preventing the collapse of the upper airway during inspiration and expiration.

CPAP is commonly used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repetitive narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, and sleep fragmentation. By delivering positive pressure, CPAP helps to stent open the airway, ensuring unobstructed breathing and reducing the frequency and severity of apneic events.

Additionally, CPAP can be used in other clinical scenarios, such as managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, or postoperative respiratory insufficiency, to improve oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing. The specific pressure settings and device configurations are tailored to each patient's needs based on their underlying condition, severity of symptoms, and response to therapy.

Snoring is defined as the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. It occurs when the tissues at the back of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, partially blocking the airway. The airflow causes these tissues to vibrate, leading to the snoring sound. Snoring can be a sign of various conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea or other respiratory disorders. It can also be influenced by factors such as alcohol consumption, obesity, and sleeping position.

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is the rear portion of the roof of the mouth that is made up of muscle and mucous membrane. It extends from the hard palate (the bony front part of the roof of the mouth) to the uvula, which is the small piece of tissue that hangs down at the back of the throat.

The soft palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing. During swallowing, it moves upward and backward to block off the nasal cavity, preventing food and liquids from entering the nose. In speech, it helps to direct the flow of air from the mouth into the nose, which is necessary for producing certain sounds.

Anatomically, the soft palate consists of several muscles that allow it to change shape and move. These muscles include the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and palatoglossus. The soft palate also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide sensation and help regulate its function.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

The uvula is a small, conical piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the middle part of the back of the soft palate (the rear-most portion of the roof of the mouth). It contains muscle fibers and mucous glands, and its function is associated with swallowing, speaking, and protecting the airway. During swallowing, the uvula helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity by blocking the opening between the oral and nasal cavities (the nasopharynx). In speech, it plays a role in shaping certain sounds like "a" and "u."

Mandibular advancement is a treatment approach used in dentistry and sleep medicine, which involves the surgical or non-surgical forward movement of the mandible (lower jaw) to address certain medical conditions. The most common use of mandibular advancement is in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where the tongue and soft tissues at the back of the throat can collapse into the airway during sleep, causing obstruction and breathing difficulties.

Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are often used in non-surgical treatments. These custom-made oral appliances look similar to mouthguards or sports guards and are worn during sleep. They work by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, which helps to keep the airway open and prevents the tongue and soft tissues from collapsing into it.

Surgical mandibular advancement is another option for patients with severe OSA who cannot tolerate or do not respond well to MADs or other treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In this procedure, the jaw is surgically moved forward and stabilized in that position using plates, screws, or wires. This creates more space in the airway and reduces the risk of obstruction during sleep.

In summary, mandibular advancement refers to the movement of the lower jaw forward, either through non-surgical means like MADs or surgical interventions, with the primary goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea by maintaining a patent airway during sleep.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

Disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are a group of medical conditions characterized by an increased tendency to fall asleep or experience excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), despite having adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. These disorders are typically classified as central disorders of hypersomnolence according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3).

The most common DES is narcolepsy, a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. Other DES include idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and recurrent hypersomnia. These disorders can significantly impact an individual's daily functioning, quality of life, and overall health.

Narcolepsy is further divided into two types: narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). NT1 is characterized by the presence of cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions, while NT2 does not include cataplexy. Both types of narcolepsy involve excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

Idiopathic hypersomnia is a DES without the presence of REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Individuals with idiopathic hypersomnia experience excessive daytime sleepiness and prolonged nighttime sleep, often lasting 10 to 14 hours, but do not feel refreshed upon waking.

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare DES characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive sleepiness, often accompanied by cognitive impairment, altered perception, hyperphagia (excessive eating), and hypersexuality during the episodes. These episodes can last days to weeks and typically occur multiple times per year.

Recurrent hypersomnia is another rare DES with recurring episodes of excessive sleepiness lasting for several days, followed by a period of normal or reduced sleepiness. The episodes are not as predictable or consistent as those seen in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

Treatment for DES typically involves pharmacological interventions to manage symptoms and improve daytime alertness. Modafinil, armodafinil, and traditional stimulants like amphetamine salts are commonly used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, antidepressants may be prescribed to manage REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as scheduled napping and good sleep hygiene practices, can also help improve symptoms.

Adenoidectomy is a surgical procedure in which the adenoids are removed. The adenoids are a patch of tissue located behind the nasal cavity, near the roof of the mouth. They help to filter out germs that are breathed in through the nose. However, sometimes the adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as difficulty breathing through the nose, recurrent ear infections, and sleep apnea. In these cases, an adenoidectomy may be recommended to remove the adenoids and alleviate these symptoms.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis, which means that the patient can go home the same day as the surgery. The surgeon will use a special instrument to remove the adenoids through the mouth, without making any external incisions. After the surgery, the patient may experience some discomfort, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing for a few days. However, these symptoms usually resolve within a week or two.

It is important to note that an adenoidectomy is not the same as a tonsillectomy, which is the surgical removal of the tonsils. While the tonsils and adenoids are both part of the immune system and located in the same area of the mouth, they serve different functions and may be removed separately or together depending on the individual's medical needs.

A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils, two masses of lymphoid tissue located on both sides of the back of the throat, are removed. This procedure is typically performed to treat recurrent or severe cases of tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), sleep-disordered breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea, and other conditions where the tonsils are causing problems or complications. The surgery can be done under general anesthesia, and there are various methods for removing the tonsils, including traditional scalpel excision, electrocautery, and laser surgery. After a tonsillectomy, patients may experience pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing, but these symptoms typically improve within 1-2 weeks post-surgery.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2) and pulse rate. It uses a device called a pulse oximeter, which measures the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the blood compared to the amount of hemoglobin that is not carrying oxygen. This measurement is expressed as a percentage, known as oxygen saturation (SpO2). Normal oxygen saturation levels are generally 95% or above at sea level. Lower levels may indicate hypoxemia, a condition where there is not enough oxygen in the blood to meet the body's needs. Pulse oximetry is commonly used in hospitals and other healthcare settings to monitor patients during surgery, in intensive care units, and in sleep studies to detect conditions such as sleep apnea. It can also be used by individuals with certain medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to monitor their oxygen levels at home.

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a pattern of breathing characterized by cyclical changes in the depth and rate of respirations. It is often associated with various medical conditions that affect the brainstem, such as stroke, brain injury, or certain neurological disorders.

In Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the individual's breathing starts with a series of deeper and faster breaths (hyperventilation), which gradually become shallower and slower (hypoventilation). This cycle repeats every few minutes, resulting in a pattern of waxing and waning of the depth and rate of respirations.

The underlying mechanism for Cheyne-Stokes respiration is related to the regulation of breathing by the brainstem. When there are abnormalities in this area, it can lead to instability in the control of breathing, resulting in the cyclical pattern of hyperventilation and hypoventilation.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be a sign of serious underlying medical conditions, and it is important to seek medical attention if you or someone else experiences this type of breathing pattern. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as managing heart failure or reducing intracranial pressure in patients with brain injury or stroke.

Wakefulness is a state of consciousness in which an individual is alert and aware of their surroundings. It is characterized by the ability to perceive, process, and respond to stimuli in a purposeful manner. In a medical context, wakefulness is often assessed using measures such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate brain activity patterns associated with consciousness.

Wakefulness is regulated by several interconnected neural networks that promote arousal and attention. These networks include the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which consists of a group of neurons located in the brainstem that project to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as other regions involved in regulating arousal and attention, such as the basal forebrain and hypothalamus.

Disorders of wakefulness can result from various underlying conditions, including neurological disorders, sleep disorders, medication side effects, or other medical conditions that affect brain function. Examples of such disorders include narcolepsy, insomnia, hypersomnia, and various forms of encephalopathy or brain injury.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the musculature of the pharynx, are a group of skeletal muscles that make up the walls of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat located just above the esophagus and behind the nasal and oral cavities. These muscles play a crucial role in several vital functions, including:

1. Swallowing (deglutition): The pharyngeal muscles contract in a coordinated sequence to propel food or liquids from the mouth through the pharynx and into the esophagus during swallowing.
2. Speech: The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help shape the sounds produced by the vocal cords, contributing to the production of speech.
3. Respiration: The pharyngeal muscles assist in maintaining an open airway during breathing, especially during sleep and when the upper airways are obstructed.

The pharyngeal muscles consist of three layers: the outer circular muscle layer, the middle longitudinal muscle layer, and the inner inferior constrictor muscle layer. The specific muscles that make up these layers include:

1. Superior constrictor muscle (outer circular layer)
2. Middle constrictor muscle (middle longitudinal layer)
3. Inferior constrictor muscle (inner inferior constrictor layer)
4. Stylopharyngeus muscle
5. Salpingopharyngeus muscle
6. Palatopharyngeus muscle
7. Buccinator muscle (partially contributes to the middle longitudinal layer)

These muscles work together to perform their various functions, and any dysfunction in these muscles can lead to problems like swallowing difficulties (dysphagia), speech impairments, or respiratory issues.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Occlusal splints, also known as bite guards or night guards, are removable dental appliances that are used to provide protection and stabilization for the teeth and jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ). They are typically made of hard acrylic or soft materials and are custom-fit to a patient's mouth.

Occlusal splints work by covering and separating the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact with each other. This can help to reduce tooth grinding and clenching (bruxism), which can cause tooth wear, sensitivity, and TMJ disorders. They may also be used to help stabilize the jaw joint and muscles in patients with TMJ disorders or to provide protection for teeth that have undergone restorative dental work.

It is important to note that occlusal splints should only be worn under the guidance of a dentist, as improper use can lead to further dental problems.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Adenoids are a pair of masses of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the throat behind the nose. They are part of the immune system and help to protect against infection. Adenoids are largest in children and tend to shrink in size as people get older. In some cases, adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as breathing difficulties, ear infections, and sleep disorders. Treatment for enlarged or infected adenoids may include antibiotics, medications to reduce swelling, or surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy).

Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Nasal obstruction is a medical condition that refers to any blockage or restriction in the normal flow of air through the nasal passages. This can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, swelling, or physical abnormalities in the nasal cavity. Common causes of nasal obstruction include allergies, sinusitis, deviated septum, enlarged turbinates, and nasal polyps. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, and nasal discharge. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

The oropharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that is located immediately behind the mouth and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and is also an important area for the immune system due to the presence of tonsils.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Hypocapnia is a medical term that refers to a condition where there is an abnormally low level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is produced by the body's cells as they carry out their normal metabolic processes, and it is transported in the bloodstream to the lungs, where it is exhaled out of the body during breathing.

Hypocapnia can occur when a person breathes too quickly or too deeply, which can cause too much CO2 to be exhaled from the body. This condition can also result from certain medical conditions that affect breathing, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sleep apnea.

Mild hypocapnia may not cause any noticeable symptoms, but more severe cases can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, confusion, and rapid breathing. In extreme cases, it can lead to life-threatening conditions such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest.

Hypocapnia is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the level of CO2 in the blood. Treatment for hypocapnia may involve addressing any underlying medical conditions that are causing it, as well as providing supportive care to help the person breathe more effectively.

The supine position is a term used in medicine to describe a body posture where an individual is lying down on their back, with their face and torso facing upwards. This position is often adopted during various medical procedures, examinations, or when resting, as it allows for easy access to the front of the body. It is also the position automatically assumed by most people who are falling asleep.

It's important to note that in the supine position, the head can be flat on the surface or raised with the use of pillows or specialized medical equipment like a hospital bed. This can help to alleviate potential issues such as breathing difficulties or swelling in the face and head.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

Hypoventilation is a medical condition that refers to the decreased rate and depth of breathing, which leads to an inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. As a result, there is an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a decrease in the levels of oxygen (hypoxemia) in the blood. Hypoventilation can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory muscle weakness, sedative or narcotic overdose, chest wall deformities, neuromuscular disorders, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing. Prolonged hypoventilation can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Mouth breathing is a condition characterized by the regular habit of breathing through the mouth instead of the nose during awake states and sometimes during sleep. This can occur due to various reasons such as nasal congestion, deviated septum, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, or structural abnormalities in the jaw or airway. Prolonged mouth breathing can lead to several oral and general health issues, including dry mouth, bad breath, gum disease, and orthodontic problems. It can also affect sleep quality and cognitive function.

The hypopharynx is the lower part of the pharynx, which is the muscular tube that extends from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and trachea. The hypopharynx lies posterior to the larynx and is divided into three regions: the pyriform (or piriform) sinuses, the postcricoid area, and the posterior pharyngeal wall. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and any abnormalities or diseases in this region can lead to swallowing difficulties, aspiration, and other serious medical conditions.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Fluid shifts, in a medical context, refer to the movement or redistribution of fluids between different compartments within the body. The human body is composed of two main fluid compartments: the intracellular fluid (ICF), which is present inside the cells, and the extracellular fluid (ECF), which is outside the cells. The ECF is further divided into interstitial fluid (present in the spaces between cells) and intravascular fluid (present within the blood vessels).

Fluid shifts can occur due to various physiological and pathological conditions, such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, oncotic pressure, or permeability of the capillary membranes. These shifts can have significant impacts on various body systems, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems. For example, fluid shifting from the intravascular space to the interstitial space can lead to edema (swelling), while fluid shifts into the alveoli in the lungs can cause pulmonary edema and impair breathing.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals monitor and manage fluid shifts through various strategies, such as administering intravenous fluids, using diuretics, or implementing mechanical ventilation, depending on the underlying cause and the specific effects of the fluid shift on the patient's condition.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures are surgeries that are performed on the head and neck region, specifically involving the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) regions. This field is also known as otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. The procedures can range from relatively minor ones, such as removing a small nasal polyp or inserting ear tubes, to more complex surgeries like cochlear implantation, endoscopic sinus surgery, or removal of tumors in the head and neck region. These surgical procedures are typically performed by specialized physicians called otorhinolaryngologists (also known as ENT surgeons) who have completed extensive training in this area.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome, also known as Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), is a condition characterized by recurring involuntary jerking movements of the limbs during sleep, particularly the legs. These movements typically occur every 20-40 seconds and can last for an hour or more throughout the night. They often disrupt normal sleep patterns, causing insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness.

The movements are usually jerky, rapid, and rhythmic, involving extension of the big toe and flexion of the ankle, knee, or hip. In some cases, these movements can be so forceful that they cause the person to wake up, although often individuals with this condition may not be aware of their nighttime leg movements.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is different from another common sleep disorder called Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), as RLS primarily causes discomfort or an irresistible urge to move the legs while awake and still, whereas Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome involves involuntary movements during sleep. However, up to 80% of people with RLS also have PLMD.

The exact cause of Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is not fully understood, but it may be associated with abnormalities in the brain's regulation of muscle activity during sleep. Certain medications, neurological conditions, and iron deficiency anemia have been linked to an increased risk of developing this disorder. Treatment options include medication, lifestyle changes, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development or worsening of symptoms.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the eye and the changes in this potential that occur with eye movements. It involves placing electrodes near the eyes to detect the small electric fields generated by the movement of the eyeball within the surrounding socket. This technique is used in research and clinical settings to study eye movements and their control, as well as in certain diagnostic applications such as assessing the function of the oculomotor system in patients with neurological disorders.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

Oxygen inhalation therapy is a medical treatment that involves the administration of oxygen to a patient through a nasal tube or mask, with the purpose of increasing oxygen concentration in the body. This therapy is used to treat various medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, and other conditions that cause low levels of oxygen in the blood. The additional oxygen helps to improve tissue oxygenation, reduce work of breathing, and promote overall patient comfort and well-being. Oxygen therapy may be delivered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and medical condition.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) is a medical condition characterized by the presence of obesity (generally defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher) and chronic hypoventilation, which means that the person is not breathing adequately, resulting in low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

In OHS, the excess weight of the chest walls makes it difficult for the respiratory muscles to work effectively, leading to reduced lung volumes and impaired gas exchange. This results in chronic hypoxemia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels) during wakefulness and sleep.

OHS is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, which can further exacerbate hypoventilation. However, not all patients with OHS have OSA, and vice versa.

The diagnosis of OHS is typically made based on the presence of obesity, chronic hypoventilation (as evidenced by elevated arterial carbon dioxide levels), and the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. Treatment usually involves the use of non-invasive ventilation to support breathing and improve gas exchange, as well as weight loss interventions to address the underlying obesity.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

The Respiratory Center is a group of neurons located in the medulla oblongata and pons within the brainstem that are responsible for controlling and regulating breathing. It receives inputs from various sources, including chemoreceptors that detect changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood, as well as mechanoreceptors that provide information about the status of the lungs and airways. Based on these inputs, the respiratory center generates signals that are sent to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to control the rate and depth of breathing, ensuring adequate gas exchange in the lungs.

Damage to the respiratory center can result in abnormal breathing patterns or even respiratory failure, highlighting its critical role in maintaining proper respiratory function.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual fails to get sufficient quality sleep or the recommended amount of sleep, typically 7-9 hours for adults. This can lead to various physical and mental health issues. It can be acute, lasting for one night or a few days, or chronic, persisting over a longer period.

The consequences of sleep deprivation include:

1. Fatigue and lack of energy
2. Difficulty concentrating or remembering things
3. Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
4. Weakened immune system
5. Increased appetite and potential weight gain
6. Higher risk of accidents due to decreased reaction time
7. Health problems like high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease over time

Sleep deprivation can be caused by various factors, including stress, shift work, sleep disorders like insomnia or sleep apnea, poor sleep hygiene, and certain medications. It's essential to address the underlying causes of sleep deprivation to ensure proper rest and overall well-being.

Asphyxia is a medical condition that occurs when there is insufficient oxygen supply or excessive carbon dioxide buildup in the body, leading to impaired respiration and oxygenation of organs. This can result in unconsciousness, damage to internal organs, and potentially death if not treated promptly.

Asphyxia can be caused by various factors such as strangulation, choking, smoke inhalation, chemical exposure, or drowning. Symptoms of asphyxia may include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes), rapid heartbeat, confusion, and eventually loss of consciousness.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals experiencing symptoms of asphyxia. Treatment may involve providing supplemental oxygen, removing the source of obstruction or exposure to harmful substances, and supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation if necessary. Prevention measures include avoiding hazardous environments, using proper safety equipment, and seeking prompt medical attention in case of suspected asphyxiation.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics as "the sudden unexpected death of an infant

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Sleep disorders, intrinsic, refer to a group of sleep disorders that are caused by underlying medical conditions within an individual's body. These disorders originate from internal physiological or psychological factors and can significantly impact the quality, duration, and timing of sleep. The most common types of intrinsic sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders (such as sleep apnea), central hypersomnias (like narcolepsy), circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and parasomnias (including nightmares and sleepwalking).

Intrinsic sleep disorders can lead to various negative consequences, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of accidents or injuries. Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve addressing the underlying medical condition and implementing appropriate treatment strategies, which may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, or medical devices.

The palatine tonsils, also known as the "tonsils," are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx, at the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body from inhaled or ingested pathogens. Each tonsil has a surface covered with crypts and follicles that contain lymphocytes, which help to filter out bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth and nose.

The palatine tonsils are visible through the mouth and can be seen during a routine physical examination. They vary in size, but typically are about the size of a large olive or almond. Swelling or inflammation of the tonsils is called tonsillitis, which can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In some cases, enlarged tonsils may need to be removed through a surgical procedure called a tonsillectomy.

A tracheotomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening in the neck and through the front (anterior) wall of the trachea (windpipe). This is performed to provide a new airway for the patient, bypassing any obstruction or damage in the upper airways. A tube is then inserted into this opening to maintain it and allow breathing.

This procedure is often conducted in emergency situations when there is an upper airway obstruction that cannot be easily removed or in critically ill patients who require long-term ventilation support. Complications can include infection, bleeding, damage to surrounding structures, and difficulties with speaking, swallowing, or coughing.

Pulmonary stretch receptors are nerve endings (receptors) located in the smooth muscle of the airways, specifically within the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs. They are also known as irritant receptors or slowly adapting receptors. These receptors respond to mechanical deformation caused by lung inflation during breathing. When the lungs stretch, these receptors send signals to the brain via the vagus nerve, which helps regulate breathing patterns and depth. This reflex is known as the Hering-Breuer reflex, which can inhibit inspiration and promote expiration, preventing overinflation of the lungs and helping maintain lung volume within normal ranges.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Rhinomanometry is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the pressure and flow of air through the nasal passages. It is used to assess the nasal airway resistance and function, and can help diagnose and monitor conditions such as nasal congestion, deviated septum, sinusitis, and other disorders that affect nasal breathing.

During the procedure, a small catheter or mask is placed over the nose, and the patient is asked to breathe normally while the pressure and airflow are measured. The data is then analyzed to determine any abnormalities in nasal function, such as increased resistance or asymmetry between the two sides of the nose.

Rhinomanometry can be performed using either anterior or posterior methods, depending on whether the measurement is taken at the entrance or exit of the nasal passages. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as medications or surgery.

The glottis is a medical term that refers to the opening between the vocal cords (the ligaments in the larynx that produce sound when air passes through them during speech) in the human throat or larynx. It is an important structure for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds or speech. The glottis opens during inhalation to allow air into the lungs and closes during swallowing to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) and lungs.

A negative pressure ventilator, also known as an iron lung, is a type of mechanical ventilator that creates a negative pressure environment around the patient's chest and abdomen to assist with breathing. This technology was widely used during the polio epidemic in the mid-20th century to help patients with respiratory paralysis caused by the disease.

In a negative pressure ventilator, the patient is placed inside an airtight chamber that is connected to a pump. The pump changes the air pressure within the chamber, creating a vacuum effect that causes the chest and abdomen to expand and contract, which in turn facilitates breathing. As the pressure around the chest decreases, the chest wall expands, allowing the lungs to fill with air. When the pressure increases, the chest wall contracts, pushing air out of the lungs.

Negative pressure ventilators have largely been replaced by positive pressure ventilators, which are more commonly used today. Positive pressure ventilators work by actively pushing air into the lungs, rather than relying on negative pressure to create a vacuum effect. However, negative pressure ventilators may still be used in certain situations where positive pressure ventilation is not appropriate or feasible.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. It's characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), where people experience sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. These "sleep attacks" can occur at any time - while working, talking, eating, or even driving.

In addition to EDS, narcolepsy often includes cataplexy, a condition that causes loss of muscle tone, leading to weakness and sometimes collapse, often triggered by strong emotions like laughter or surprise. Other common symptoms are sleep paralysis (a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up), vivid hallucinations during the transitions between sleep and wakefulness, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

The exact cause of narcolepsy is not fully understood, but it's believed to involve genetic and environmental factors, as well as problems with certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as hypocretin/orexin, which regulate sleep-wake cycles. Narcolepsy can significantly impact a person's quality of life, making it essential to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and management.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Oxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin that is combined with oxygen in red blood cells. It's created when oxygen molecules bind to the iron-containing heme groups of the hemoglobin protein inside the lungs, allowing for the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is influenced by factors such as pH, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature, which can affect the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin in different parts of the body based on their specific needs.

The medical definition of 'Automobile Driving' is the act of operating a motor vehicle, typically a car, on public roads or highways. This requires a set of cognitive, physical, and sensory skills to safely control the vehicle, navigate through traffic, and respond to various situations that may arise while driving.

Cognitive skills include attention, memory, decision-making, problem-solving, and judgment. Physical abilities encompass fine motor coordination, reaction time, strength, and flexibility. Sensory functions such as vision, hearing, and touch are also essential for safe driving.

Various medical conditions or medications can impair these skills and affect a person's ability to drive safely. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals to consult with their healthcare providers about any potential risks associated with driving and follow any recommended restrictions or guidelines.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is a medical condition that affects the proper functioning of the velopharyngeal valve, which is responsible for closing off the nasal cavity from the mouth during speech. This valve is made up of the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the pharynx (the back of the throat), and the muscles that control their movement.

In VPI, the velopharyngeal valve does not close completely or properly during speech, causing air to escape through the nose and resulting in hypernasality, nasal emission, and/or articulation errors. This can lead to difficulties with speech clarity and understanding, as well as social and emotional challenges.

VPI can be present from birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to factors such as cleft palate, neurological disorders, trauma, or surgery. Treatment for VPI may include speech therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals, separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. It consists of two portions: the anterior hard palate, which is composed of bone, and the posterior soft palate, which is composed of muscle and connective tissue. The palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing, as it helps to direct food and air to their appropriate locations during these activities.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep-related problems such as snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, and unusual behaviors during sleep are among the conditions that sleep medicine physicians diagnose and treat.

Sleep medicine specialists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other healthcare professionals such as neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, and dentists to provide comprehensive care for patients with sleep disorders. They use various diagnostic tools, including polysomnography (sleep studies), actigraphy, and multiple sleep latency tests, to evaluate patients' sleep patterns and diagnose their conditions accurately. Based on the diagnosis, they develop individualized treatment plans that may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, medical devices, or surgery.

To become a sleep medicine specialist, physicians typically complete a residency in a related field such as neurology, pulmonology, psychiatry, or internal medicine and then pursue additional training and certification in sleep medicine. The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes sleep medicine as a subspecialty, and the American Board of Sleep Medicine offers certification to qualified physicians who pass a rigorous examination.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night. This category includes:

1. Insomnia disorder: A persistent difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, which causes clinically significant distress or impairment.
2. Narcolepsy: A chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions), hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid, dream-like experiences that occur while falling asleep) and sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
3. Breathing-related sleep disorders: A group of disorders that involve abnormal breathing patterns during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, which can lead to difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: A group of disorders that involve a misalignment between the individual's internal circadian rhythm and the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep at desired times.
5. Parasomnias: A group of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder, which can disrupt sleep initiation and maintenance.

These disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, daytime functioning, and overall health, and should be evaluated and managed by a healthcare professional with expertise in sleep medicine.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a condition in which the stomach contents, particularly acid, flow backward from the stomach into the larynx (voice box) and pharynx (throat). This is also known as extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD) or supraesophageal reflux disease (SERD). Unlike gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), where acid reflux causes symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation, LPR may not cause classic reflux symptoms, but rather symptoms related to the upper aerodigestive tract. These can include hoarseness, throat clearing, cough, difficulty swallowing, and a sensation of a lump in the throat.

A Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder (CRSD) is a condition in which a person's sleep-wake cycle is out of sync with the typical 24-hour day. This means that their internal "body clock" that regulates sleep and wakefulness does not align with the external environment, leading to difficulties sleeping, staying awake, or functioning at appropriate times.

CRSDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental influences, and medical conditions. Some common types of CRSDs include Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS), Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder, and Shift Work Disorder.

Symptoms of CRSDs may include difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep at the desired time, excessive sleepiness during the day, difficulty concentrating or functioning at work or school, and mood disturbances. Treatment for CRSDs may involve lifestyle changes, such as adjusting sleep schedules or exposure to light at certain times of day, as well as medications or other therapies.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the diagnostic process. It involves the use of advanced algorithms and data analysis techniques to analyze medical images, laboratory results, and other patient data to help healthcare professionals make more accurate and timely diagnoses. CAD systems can help identify patterns and anomalies that may be difficult for humans to detect, and they can provide second opinions and flag potential errors or uncertainties in the diagnostic process.

CAD systems are often used in conjunction with traditional diagnostic methods, such as physical examinations and patient interviews, to provide a more comprehensive assessment of a patient's health. They are commonly used in radiology, pathology, cardiology, and other medical specialties where imaging or laboratory tests play a key role in the diagnostic process.

While CAD systems can be very helpful in the diagnostic process, they are not infallible and should always be used as a tool to support, rather than replace, the expertise of trained healthcare professionals. It's important for medical professionals to use their clinical judgment and experience when interpreting CAD results and making final diagnoses.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Azabicyclo compounds are a type of organic compound that contain at least one nitrogen atom (azacycle) and two rings fused together (bicyclic). The nitrogen atom can be part of either a saturated or unsaturated ring, and the rings themselves can be composed of carbon atoms only or contain other heteroatoms such as oxygen or sulfur.

The term "azabicyclo" is often followed by a set of three numbers that specify the number of atoms in each of the three rings involved in the fusion. For example, azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane is a compound with two fused rings containing 3 and 2 carbon atoms, respectively, and one nitrogen atom forming the third ring of 1 carbon atom.

These compounds have a wide range of applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science due to their unique structures and properties. In particular, azabicyclo compounds are often used as building blocks for the synthesis of complex natural products and bioactive molecules.

Succinylcholine is a neuromuscular blocking agent, a type of muscle relaxant used in anesthesia during surgical procedures. It works by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction, leading to temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles. This facilitates endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during surgery. Succinylcholine has a rapid onset of action and is metabolized quickly, making it useful for short surgical procedures. However, its use may be associated with certain adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, muscle fasciculations, and potentially life-threatening hyperkalemia in susceptible individuals.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness and controls visceral functions. It is divided into two main subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations, often referred to as the "fight or flight" response. It increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolic rate, while also decreasing digestive activity. This response helps the body respond quickly to perceived threats.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS), on the other hand, promotes the "rest and digest" state, allowing the body to conserve energy and restore itself after the stress response has subsided. It decreases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while increasing digestive activity and promoting relaxation.

These two systems work together to maintain balance in the body by adjusting various functions based on internal and external demands. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, and cardiac arrhythmias, among others.

Orthodontic appliance design refers to the creation and development of medical devices used in orthodontics, which is a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and correction of dental and facial irregularities. The design process involves creating a customized treatment plan for each patient, based on their specific needs and goals.

Orthodontic appliances can be removable or fixed and are used to move teeth into proper alignment, improve jaw function, and enhance the overall appearance of the smile. Some common types of orthodontic appliances include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.

The design of an orthodontic appliance typically involves several factors, including:

1. The specific dental or facial problem being addressed
2. The patient's age, overall health, and oral hygiene habits
3. The patient's lifestyle and personal preferences
4. The estimated treatment time and cost
5. The potential risks and benefits of the appliance

Orthodontic appliance design is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of dental anatomy, biomechanics, and materials science. It is typically performed by an orthodontist or a dental technician with specialized training in this area. The goal of orthodontic appliance design is to create a device that is both effective and comfortable for the patient, while also ensuring that it is safe and easy to use.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs. The condition worsens during periods of rest, particularly when lying or sitting.

The symptoms typically include:

1. An uncontrollable need or urge to move the legs to relieve uncomfortable sensations such as crawling, creeping, tingling, pulling, or painful feelings.
2. Symptoms begin or intensify during rest or inactivity.
3. Symptoms are partially or totally relieved by movement, such as walking or stretching, at least as long as the activity continues.
4. Symptoms are worse in the evening or night, often leading to disturbed sleep.

The exact cause of RLS is unknown, but it may be related to abnormalities in the brain's dopamine pathways that control muscle movements. It can also be associated with certain medical conditions like iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and pregnancy. Treatment often involves addressing any underlying conditions and using medications to manage symptoms.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Earless seals, also known as true seals or Phocidae, are a family of marine mammals that lack external ears. They have a streamlined body adapted for fast swimming, and their hind limbs are modified into flippers, which they use to move through the water. Earless seals have small ear holes on the sides of their heads, but they do not have an outer ear flap like other mammals. Instead, their middle and inner ears are well-developed for hearing underwater. They are found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and there are 18 species of earless seals, including the harbor seal, gray seal, and leopard seal.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Bariatric surgery is a branch of medicine that involves the surgical alteration of the stomach, intestines, or both to induce weight loss in individuals with severe obesity. The primary goal of bariatric surgery is to reduce the size of the stomach, leading to decreased food intake and absorption, which ultimately results in significant weight loss.

There are several types of bariatric surgeries, including:

1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): This procedure involves creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach and connecting it directly to the middle portion of the small intestine, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy: In this procedure, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch that restricts food intake.
3. Adjustable gastric banding (AGB): This surgery involves placing an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach to create a small pouch and limit food intake.
4. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS): This is a more complex procedure that involves both restricting the size of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to reduce nutrient absorption.

Bariatric surgery can lead to significant weight loss, improvement in obesity-related health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and reduced risk of mortality. However, it is not without risks and complications, including infection, bleeding, nutrient deficiencies, and dumping syndrome. Therefore, careful consideration and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team are necessary before undergoing bariatric surgery.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Sleep arousal disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve the partial or complete awakening from sleep, often accompanied by confusion and disorientation. These disorders are characterized by an abnormal arousal process during sleep, which can result in brief periods of wakefulness or full awakenings. The most common types of sleep arousal disorders include sleepwalking (somnambulism), sleep talking (somniloquy), and night terrors (pavor nocturnus).

In sleepwalking, the individual may get out of bed and walk around while still asleep, often with a blank stare and without any memory of the event. Sleep talking can occur in various levels of sleep and may range from simple sounds to complex conversations. Night terrors are episodes of intense fear and agitation during sleep, often accompanied by screams or cries for help, rapid heart rate, and sweating.

These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, fever, certain medications, alcohol consumption, and underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome. They can also occur as a result of genetic predisposition. Sleep arousal disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, leading to fatigue, daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, and decreased overall well-being. Treatment options may include behavioral therapy, medication, or addressing any underlying medical conditions.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled forcefully after a normal tidal exhalation. It is the difference between the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the residual volume (RV). In other words, ERV is the extra volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after a normal breath out, when one tries to empty the lungs as much as possible. This volume is an important parameter in pulmonary function tests and helps assess lung health and disease. A decreased ERV may indicate restrictive lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders affecting respiratory muscles.

The epiglottis is a flap-like structure located at the base of the tongue, near the back of the throat (pharynx). It is made of elastic cartilage and covered with mucous membrane. The primary function of the epiglottis is to protect the trachea (windpipe) from food or liquids entering it during swallowing.

During normal swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the opening of the larynx (voice box), redirecting the food or liquid bolus into the esophagus. In this way, the epiglottis prevents aspiration, which is the entry of foreign materials into the trachea and lungs.

Inflammation or infection of the epiglottis can lead to a serious medical condition called epiglottitis, characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the epiglottis and surrounding tissues. Epiglottitis can cause difficulty breathing, speaking, and swallowing, and requires immediate medical attention.

A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). It is performed to provide an airway in cases where the upper airway is obstructed or access to the lower airway is required, such as in prolonged intubation, severe trauma, or chronic lung diseases. The procedure involves making an incision in the front of the neck and creating a direct opening into the trachea, through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to maintain the patency of the airway. This allows for direct ventilation of the lungs, suctioning of secretions, and prevention of complications associated with upper airway obstruction.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Whole-body plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in the volume of air in the lungs and chest during breathing. It is often utilized in the diagnosis and assessment of various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

During whole-body plethysmography, the patient enters a sealed, clear chamber, usually in a standing or sitting position. The patient is instructed to breathe normally while the machine measures changes in pressure within the chamber as the chest and abdomen move during respiration. These measurements are then used to calculate lung volume, airflow, and other respiratory parameters.

This technique provides valuable information about the functional status of the lungs and can help healthcare providers make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment planning, and disease monitoring.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Propofol is a short-acting medication that is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia during procedures such as surgery. It belongs to a class of drugs called hypnotics or sedatives, which work by depressing the central nervous system to produce a calming effect. Propofol can also be used for sedation in mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units and for procedural sedation in various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures outside the operating room.

The medical definition of Propofol is:
A rapid-onset, short-duration intravenous anesthetic agent that produces a hypnotic effect and is used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation in mechanically ventilated patients, and procedural sedation. It acts by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, leading to a decrease in neuronal activity and a reduction in consciousness. Propofol has a rapid clearance and distribution, allowing for quick recovery after discontinuation of its administration.

Nasal decongestants are medications that are used to relieve nasal congestion, or a "stuffy nose," by narrowing the blood vessels in the lining of the nose, which helps to reduce swelling and inflammation. This can help to make breathing easier and can also help to alleviate other symptoms associated with nasal congestion, such as sinus pressure and headache.

There are several different types of nasal decongestants available, including over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription options. Some common OTC nasal decongestants include pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) and phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine), which are available in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, and nasal sprays. Prescription nasal decongestants may be stronger than OTC options and may be prescribed for longer periods of time.

It is important to follow the instructions on the label when using nasal decongestants, as they can have side effects if not used properly. Some potential side effects of nasal decongestants include increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It is also important to note that nasal decongestants should not be used for longer than a few days at a time, as prolonged use can actually make nasal congestion worse (this is known as "rebound congestion"). If you have any questions about using nasal decongestants or if your symptoms persist, it is best to speak with a healthcare provider.

Breath holding is a physiological response where an individual holds their breath, intentionally or unintentionally, for a period of time. This can occur in various situations such as during swimming underwater, while lifting heavy weights, or in response to emotional stress or pain. In some cases, it can also be associated with certain medical conditions like seizures or syncope (fainting).

In the context of medical terminology, breath holding is often described as "voluntary" or "involuntary." Voluntary breath-holding is when an individual consciously chooses to hold their breath, while involuntary breath-holding occurs unconsciously, usually in response to a trigger such as a sudden increase in carbon dioxide levels or a decrease in oxygen levels.

It's important to note that prolonged breath-holding can be dangerous and may lead to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide), which can cause dizziness, loss of consciousness, or even more severe consequences such as brain damage or death. Therefore, it's essential not to hold one's breath for extended periods and seek medical attention if experiencing any symptoms related to breath-holding.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus, which can cause discomfort and symptoms. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach) relaxes inappropriately, allowing the acidic or non-acidic gastric contents to flow back into the esophagus.

Gastroesophageal reflux becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when it is more severe, persistent, and/or results in complications such as esophagitis, strictures, or Barrett's esophagus. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and chronic cough or hoarseness.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Laryngospasm, often mistakenly referred to as "laryngismus," is a medical condition characterized by an involuntary and sustained closure of the vocal cords (the structures that form the larynx or voice box). This spasm can occur in response to various stimuli, such as irritation, aspiration, or emotional distress, leading to difficulty breathing, coughing, and stridor (a high-pitched sound during inspiration).

The term "laryngismus" is not a widely accepted medical term; however, it may be used informally to refer to any condition affecting the larynx. The correct term for a prolonged or chronic issue with the larynx would be "laryngeal dyskinesia."

Inguinal hernia, also known as an inguinal rupture or groin hernia, is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is a passage in the lower abdominal wall that carries the spermatic cord in males and a round ligament in females. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women.

There are two types of inguinal hernias: direct and indirect. Direct inguinal hernias occur when the abdominal lining and/or fat push through a weakened area in the lower abdominal wall, while indirect inguinal hernias result from a congenital condition where the abdominal lining and/or fat protrude through the internal inguinal ring, a normal opening in the abdominal wall.

Inguinal hernias can cause discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities, coughing, sneezing, or straining. In some cases, incarceration or strangulation of the hernia may occur, leading to serious complications such as bowel obstruction or tissue necrosis, which require immediate medical attention.

Surgical repair is the standard treatment for inguinal hernias, and it can be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques. The goal of surgery is to return the protruding tissues to their proper position and strengthen the weakened abdominal wall with sutures or mesh reinforcement.

Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) is a type of mechanical ventilation in which positive pressure is intermittently applied to the airway and lungs, allowing for inflation and deflation of the lungs. This mode of ventilation is often used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs) to support patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to respiratory failure or other conditions that affect breathing.

During IPPV, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient at set intervals, with each breath consisting of a set volume or pressure. The patient may also be allowed to take spontaneous breaths between the mechanically delivered breaths. The settings for IPPV can be adjusted based on the patient's needs and condition, including factors such as their respiratory rate, tidal volume (the amount of air moved with each breath), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which helps to keep the alveoli open and prevent atelectasis.

IPPV can be used to provide short-term or long-term ventilatory support, depending on the patient's needs. It is an effective way to ensure that patients receive adequate oxygenation and ventilation while minimizing the risk of lung injury associated with high pressures or volumes. However, it is important to closely monitor patients receiving IPPV and adjust the settings as needed to avoid complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia or barotrauma.

'Night care' in a medical context typically refers to healthcare or support services provided to individuals during nighttime hours, usually between evening and early morning. This can include a range of services such as:

1. Monitoring vital signs and overall health status.
2. Administering medications.
3. Assisting with personal care needs like bathing, dressing, and using the bathroom.
4. Providing safety supervision to prevent falls or other accidents.
5. Offering comfort and companionship.

These services can be provided in various settings including hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and private homes. They are often essential for individuals who require around-the-clock care but do not need hospital-level services during the night.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Hyperoxia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally high concentration of oxygen in the body or in a specific organ or tissue. It is often defined as the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in arterial blood being greater than 100 mmHg.

This condition can occur due to various reasons such as exposure to high concentrations of oxygen during medical treatments, like mechanical ventilation, or due to certain diseases and conditions that cause the body to produce too much oxygen.

While oxygen is essential for human life, excessive levels can be harmful and lead to oxidative stress, which can damage cells and tissues. Hyperoxia has been linked to various complications, including lung injury, retinopathy of prematurity, and impaired wound healing.

Diagnostic techniques for the respiratory system are methods used to identify and diagnose various diseases and conditions affecting the lungs and breathing. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Physical Examination: A healthcare provider will listen to your chest with a stethoscope to check for abnormal breath sounds, such as wheezing or crackles. They may also observe your respiratory rate and effort.
2. Chest X-ray: This imaging test can help identify abnormalities in the lungs, such as tumors, fluid accumulation, or collapsed lung sections.
3. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: A CT scan uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the lungs and surrounding structures. It can help detect nodules, cysts, or other abnormalities that may not be visible on a chest X-ray.
4. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs): These tests measure how well your lungs are working by assessing your ability to inhale and exhale air. Common PFTs include spirometry, lung volume measurement, and diffusing capacity testing.
5. Bronchoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light is inserted through the nose or mouth into the airways to examine the lungs' interior and obtain tissue samples for biopsy.
6. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL): During a bronchoscopy, fluid is introduced into a specific area of the lung and then suctioned out to collect cells and other materials for analysis.
7. Sleep Studies: These tests monitor your breathing patterns during sleep to diagnose conditions like sleep apnea or other sleep-related breathing disorders.
8. Sputum Analysis: A sample of coughed-up mucus is examined under a microscope to identify any abnormal cells, bacteria, or other organisms that may be causing respiratory issues.
9. Blood Tests: Blood tests can help diagnose various respiratory conditions by measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, identifying specific antibodies or antigens, or detecting genetic markers associated with certain diseases.
10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: A PET scan uses a small amount of radioactive material to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions, helping identify areas of abnormal cell growth or metabolic activity in the lungs.

Interactive Ventilatory Support (IVS) is not a widely recognized or established medical term with a universally accepted definition. However, in the context of mechanical ventilation, it generally refers to a mode of support that allows for some level of interaction between the patient's own breathing efforts and the ventilator's assistance.

One example of IVS is called "Pressure Regulated Volume Control with Automatic Tube Compensation" (PRVC-ATC). In this mode, the ventilator delivers a preset volume while adjusting the pressure to maintain a constant flow, and it compensates for the resistance of the endotracheal tube. The patient's spontaneous breaths are assisted by a lower level of pressure, allowing for some interaction between the patient's efforts and the ventilator's support.

It is important to note that different manufacturers may use the term "Interactive Ventilatory Support" or similar terms to describe various modes or functions of their mechanical ventilators. Therefore, it is always recommended to refer to the specific definitions provided by the manufacturer's user manual or clinical literature.

The prone position is a body posture in which an individual lies on their stomach, with their face down and chest facing the floor or bed. This position is often used in medical settings for various purposes, such as during certain surgical procedures, respiratory support, or to alleviate pressure ulcers. It's also important to note that the prone position can have implications for patient safety, particularly in critically ill patients, and should be carefully monitored.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

"Gagging" is a reflexive response to an irritation or stimulation of the back of the throat, which involves involuntary contraction of the muscles at the back of the throat and sometimes accompanied by vomiting. It is a protective mechanism to prevent foreign objects from entering the lungs during swallowing. In a medical context, gagging may also refer to the use of a device or maneuver to temporarily block the upper airway as part of certain medical procedures.

Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring (TcBGM) is a non-invasive method to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the blood. This technique uses heated sensors placed on the skin, typically on the ear lobe or the soles of the feet, to estimate the gas tensions in the capillary blood.

The sensors contain a electrochemical or optical sensor that measures the pO2 and pCO2 levels in the tiny amount of gas that diffuses through the skin from the underlying capillaries. The measurements are then adjusted to reflect the actual blood gas values based on calibration curves and other factors, such as the patient's age, temperature, and skin perfusion.

TcBGM is commonly used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to monitor oxygenation and ventilation in premature infants, who may have immature lungs or other respiratory problems that make invasive blood gas sampling difficult or risky. It can also be used in adults with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea, or neuromuscular disorders, where frequent blood gas measurements are needed to guide therapy and monitor response to treatment.

Overall, TcBGM provides a safe, painless, and convenient way to monitor blood gases in real-time, without the need for repeated arterial punctures or other invasive procedures. However, it is important to note that TcBGM may not always provide accurate measurements in certain situations, such as when the skin perfusion is poor or when there are significant differences between the capillary and arterial blood gases. Therefore, clinical judgment and other diagnostic tests should be used in conjunction with TcBGM to ensure appropriate patient management.

The baroreflex is a physiological mechanism that helps regulate blood pressure and heart rate in response to changes in stretch of the arterial walls. It is mediated by baroreceptors, which are specialized sensory nerve endings located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These receptors detect changes in blood pressure and send signals to the brainstem via the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus nerves (cranial nerve X), respectively.

In response to an increase in arterial pressure, the baroreceptors are stimulated, leading to increased firing of afferent neurons that signal the brainstem. This results in a reflexive decrease in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels, which collectively work to reduce blood pressure back towards its normal level. Conversely, if arterial pressure decreases, the baroreceptors are less stimulated, leading to an increase in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps restore blood pressure.

Overall, the baroreflex is a crucial homeostatic mechanism that helps maintain stable blood pressure and ensure adequate perfusion of vital organs.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Respiratory physiological processes refer to the functions and mechanisms involved in respiration, which is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment. This process includes several steps:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, driven by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. External Respiration: The exchange of gases between the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
3. Transport of Gases: The circulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells to the body's tissues, while carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate ions in plasma or dissolved in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: The exchange of gases between the blood and the body's tissues. Oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the blood.
5. Cellular Respiration: The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into water, carbon dioxide, and energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

These processes are essential for maintaining life and are regulated to meet the body's changing metabolic needs.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

An implantable neurostimulator is a type of medical device that is surgically placed inside the body to deliver electrical stimulation to specific nerves or areas of the brain. This can be used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, such as chronic pain, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and essential tremor.

The device typically consists of one or more electrodes that are implanted near the target nerve or brain region, connected to a pulse generator that is implanted under the skin, usually in the chest or abdomen. The patient or healthcare provider can program the pulse generator to deliver electrical stimulation at specific times and intensities, which can help to modulate the activity of the targeted nerves and alleviate symptoms.

Implantable neurostimulators are typically considered when other treatments have failed or are not well-tolerated. While they are generally safe and effective, there are some risks associated with surgery and long-term use, such as infection, device malfunction, and discomfort at the implantation site. Therefore, careful consideration and discussion with a healthcare provider is necessary before deciding to proceed with this type of treatment.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Actigraphy is a non-invasive method used to estimate sleep-wake patterns and physical activity levels over extended periods, typically ranging from several days to weeks. It involves the use of a small device called an actigraph, which is usually worn on the wrist like a watch.

The actigraph contains an accelerometer that detects movement and records the intensity and duration of motion. This data is then analyzed using specialized software to provide information about sleep and wake times, as well as patterns of physical activity.

Actigraphy can be useful in assessing various sleep disorders, such as insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders. It can also help evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it is important to note that actigraphy is not a substitute for a formal sleep study (polysomnography) and should be used in conjunction with other assessment tools and clinical evaluations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motor Vehicles" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It is a general term used to describe vehicles that are powered by a motor or engine and are designed for land transportation. This would include cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and other similar types of vehicles.

However, in a legal context, a "motor vehicle" may have a specific definition that varies by jurisdiction. For example, in some places, the definition might only include vehicles that are intended for use on public roads, excluding things like golf carts or construction equipment.

If you're looking for a medical term related to motor vehicles, there are many that could apply, such as "motor vehicle accident," "whiplash injury," or "traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicle collision." But the term "motor vehicles" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive method used to measure changes in blood volume in the microvascular bed of tissue, typically the skin. It is based on the principle that light absorption and reflection by the skin change as the amount of blood in the capillaries changes due to the cardiac cycle.

A PPG sensor consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) that emits light at a specific wavelength, typically red or infrared, and a photodiode detector that measures the intensity of the transmitted or reflected light. The LED is placed in contact with the skin, and as the blood volume in the capillaries changes during the cardiac cycle, the amount of light absorbed or reflected by the skin also changes.

The PPG signal provides information about the cardiovascular system, including heart rate, blood pressure, and peripheral vascular tone. It is widely used in medical devices such as pulse oximeters, which measure oxygen saturation in the blood, and wearable devices for monitoring vital signs.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

The "chin" is the lower, prominent part of the front portion of the jaw in humans and other animals. In medical terms, it is often referred to as the mentum or the symphysis of the mandible. The chin helps in protecting the soft tissues of the mouth and throat during activities such as eating, speaking, and swallowing. It also plays a role in shaping the overall appearance of the face. Anatomically, the chin is formed by the fusion of the two halves of the mandible (lower jawbone) at the symphysis menti.

A pressure transducer is a device that converts a mechanical force or pressure exerted upon it into an electrical signal which can be measured and standardized. In medical terms, pressure transducers are often used to measure various bodily pressures such as blood pressure, intracranial pressure, or intraocular pressure. These transducers typically consist of a diaphragm that is deflected by the pressure being measured, which then generates an electrical signal proportional to the amount of deflection. This signal can be processed and displayed in various ways, such as on a monitor or within an electronic medical record system.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves are a graphical representation of the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled during a forced breath, measured at different lung volumes. It is a pulmonary function test used to assess obstructive lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

The MEFV curve is created by having the patient take a deep breath in and then exhale as forcefully and quickly as possible into a spirometer, which measures the volume and flow of air. The test is repeated multiple times to ensure accurate results.

The MEFV curve provides information on the degree of obstruction in the airways, the location of the obstruction (central or peripheral), and the severity of the disease. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and disease progression over time.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

The carotid body is a small chemoreceptor organ located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of respiration, blood pressure, and pH balance by detecting changes in the chemical composition of the blood, particularly oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and hydrogen ion concentration (pH).

The carotid body contains specialized nerve endings called glomus cells that are sensitive to changes in these chemical parameters. When there is a decrease in oxygen or an increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ions, the glomus cells release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine, which activate afferent nerve fibers leading to the brainstem's nucleus tractus solitarius. This information is then integrated with other physiological signals in the brainstem, resulting in appropriate adjustments in breathing rate, depth, and pattern, as well as changes in heart rate and blood vessel diameter to maintain homeostasis.

Dysfunction of the carotid body can lead to various disorders, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, and chronic lung disease. In some cases, overactivity of the carotid body may result in conditions like primary breathing pattern disorders or pseudohypoxia, where the body responds as if it is experiencing hypoxia despite normal oxygen levels.

Work of breathing (WOB) is a term used in respiratory physiology to describe the amount of energy expended by the respiratory muscles to overcome the elastic and resistive forces in the lungs and chest wall during breathing. It is usually measured in joules per liter (J/L) or in breaths per minute (BPM).

WOB can be increased in various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and interstitial lung disease, due to increased airway resistance or decreased lung compliance. Increased WOB can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced quality of life.

WOB can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as esophageal pressure monitoring or transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, or invasively through the use of indwelling catheters in the pleural space or within the airways. These measurements are often used in research settings to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for respiratory disorders.

Insufflation is a medical term that refers to the act of introducing a gas or vapor into a body cavity or passage, typically through a tube or surgical instrument. This procedure is often used in medical and surgical settings for various purposes, such as:

* To administer anesthesia during surgery (e.g., introducing nitrous oxide or other gases into the lungs)
* To introduce medication or other substances into the body (e.g., insufflating steroids into a joint)
* To perform diagnostic procedures (e.g., insufflating air or a contrast agent into the gastrointestinal tract to visualize it with X-rays)
* To clean out a body cavity (e.g., irrigating and insufflating the bladder during urological procedures).

It's important to note that insufflation should be performed under controlled conditions, as there are potential risks associated with introducing gases or vapors into the body, such as barotrauma (damage caused by changes in pressure) and infection.

Fatigue is a state of feeling very tired, weary, or exhausted, which can be physical, mental, or both. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors, including lack of sleep, poor nutrition, stress, medical conditions (such as anemia, diabetes, heart disease, or cancer), medications, and substance abuse. Fatigue can also be a symptom of depression or other mental health disorders. In medical terms, fatigue is often described as a subjective feeling of tiredness that is not proportional to recent activity levels and interferes with usual functioning. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or severe fatigue to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Acellular vaccines are a type of vaccine that contain one or more antigens but do not contain whole cell parts or components of the pathogen. They are designed to produce an immune response in the body that is specific to the antigen(s) contained within the vaccine, while minimizing the risk of adverse reactions associated with whole cell vaccines.

Acellular vaccines are often produced using recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene from the pathogen is inserted into a different organism (such as yeast or bacteria) that can produce large quantities of the antigen. The antigen is then purified and used to create the vaccine.

One example of an acellular vaccine is the DTaP vaccine, which is used to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). This vaccine contains only a small portion of the pertussis bacterium, along with purified versions of the toxins produced by the bacteria. By contrast, whole cell pertussis vaccines contain entire killed bacteria, which can cause more frequent and severe side effects.

Overall, acellular vaccines offer a safer and more targeted approach to immunization than whole cell vaccines, while still providing effective protection against infectious diseases.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Ambulatory electrocardiography, also known as ambulatory ECG or Holter monitoring, is a non-invasive method of recording the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period of time (typically 24 hours or more) while the patient goes about their daily activities. The device used to record the ECG is called a Holter monitor, which consists of a small, portable recorder that is attached to the patient's chest with electrodes.

The recorded data provides information on any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or electrical activity during different stages of activity and rest, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and evaluate various cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias, ischemia, and infarction. The ability to monitor the heart's activity over an extended period while the patient performs their normal activities provides valuable information that may not be captured during a standard ECG, which only records the heart's electrical activity for a few seconds.

In summary, ambulatory electrocardiography is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and manage various cardiac conditions.

Pulmonary wedge pressure, also known as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) or left heart filling pressure, is a measurement obtained during right heart catheterization. It reflects the pressure in the left atrium, which is an estimate of the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle. Normal PCWP ranges from 4 to 12 mmHg. Increased pulmonary wedge pressure can indicate heart failure or other cardiac disorders that affect the left side of the heart.

The Peroneal nerve, also known as the common fibular nerve, is a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies the muscles of the lower leg and provides sensation to the skin on the outer part of the lower leg and the top of the foot. It winds around the neck of the fibula (calf bone) and can be vulnerable to injury in this area, leading to symptoms such as weakness or numbness in the foot and leg.

Pulmonary medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions affecting the respiratory system, including the lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Pulmonologists are specialists who treat a wide range of respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung cancer, sleep-disordered breathing, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases. They use various diagnostic techniques including chest X-rays, CT scans, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, and sleep studies to evaluate and manage respiratory disorders. Pulmonologists also provide care for patients who require long-term mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.

Nose diseases, also known as rhinologic disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the nose and its surrounding structures. These may include:

1. Nasal Allergies (Allergic Rhinitis): An inflammation of the inner lining of the nose caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or mold.

2. Sinusitis: Inflammation or infection of the sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull that surround the nasal cavity.

3. Nasal Polyps: Soft, fleshy growths that develop on the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses.

4. Deviated Septum: A condition where the thin wall (septum) between the two nostrils is displaced to one side, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

5. Rhinitis Medicamentosa: Nasal congestion caused by overuse of decongestant nasal sprays.

6. Nosebleeds (Epistaxis): Bleeding from the nostrils, which can be caused by a variety of factors including dryness, trauma, or underlying medical conditions.

7. Nasal Fractures: Breaks in the bone structure of the nose, often caused by trauma.

8. Tumors: Abnormal growths that can occur in the nasal passages or sinuses. These can be benign or malignant.

9. Choanal Atresia: A congenital condition where the back of the nasal passage is blocked, often by a thin membrane or bony partition.

10. Nasal Valve Collapse: A condition where the side walls of the nose collapse inward during breathing, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can affect the nose.

Causality is the relationship between a cause and a result, where the cause directly or indirectly brings about the result. In the medical context, causality refers to determining whether an exposure (such as a drug, infection, or environmental factor) is the cause of a specific outcome (such as a disease or adverse event). Establishing causality often involves evaluating epidemiological data, laboratory studies, and clinical evidence using established criteria, such as those proposed by Bradford Hill. It's important to note that determining causality can be complex and challenging, particularly when there are multiple potential causes or confounding factors involved.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

The palatal muscles, also known as the musculus uvulae, levator veli palatini, tensor veli palatini, and palatoglossus, are a group of muscles in the back of the roof of the mouth (the soft palate). These muscles work together to help with swallowing, speaking, and breathing.

* The musculus uvulae helps to elevate the uvula during swallowing.
* The levator veli palatini elevates and retracts the soft palate, helping to close off the nasal cavity from the mouth during swallowing and speaking.
* The tensor veli palatini tenses the soft palate and helps to keep the Eustachian tubes open, which connect the middle ear to the back of the throat and help to regulate air pressure in the ears.
* The palatoglossus helps to form the anterior pillars of the fauces (the tonsillar fossae) and elevates the back of the tongue during swallowing.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Arnold-Chiari malformation is a structural abnormality of the brain and skull base, specifically the cerebellum and brainstem. It is characterized by the descent of the cerebellar tonsils and sometimes parts of the brainstem through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull) into the upper spinal canal. This can cause pressure on the brainstem and cerebellum, potentially leading to a range of symptoms such as headaches, neck pain, unsteady gait, swallowing difficulties, hearing or balance problems, and in severe cases, neurological deficits. There are four types of Arnold-Chiari malformations, with type I being the most common and least severe form. Types II, III, and IV are progressively more severe and involve varying degrees of hindbrain herniation and associated neural tissue damage. Surgical intervention is often required to alleviate symptoms and prevent further neurological deterioration.

An infant incubator is a specialized piece of medical equipment used in the care of premature or critically ill newborns. It provides a controlled environment for the baby, allowing healthcare professionals to regulate temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels to meet the specific needs of the infant. The incubator also helps to protect the vulnerable newborn from infection and injury.

The primary goal of using an infant incubator is to create a stable internal environment that supports the baby's growth and development while minimizing potential complications associated with prematurity or critical illness. This may include supporting cardiovascular function, promoting respiratory health, and aiding in thermal regulation.

Some key features of infant incubators include:

1. Temperature control: Incubators allow healthcare providers to maintain a stable temperature between 36°C and 37.5°C (96.8°F and 99.5°F) to help the baby conserve energy and focus on growth.
2. Humidity control: Adjustable humidity levels ensure that the infant's delicate skin remains moist, preventing dehydration and promoting healthy skin development.
3. Oxygen regulation: Incubators can be equipped with oxygen sensors and supplemental oxygen supplies to help babies with respiratory distress or immature lungs receive the appropriate amount of oxygen.
4. Monitoring capabilities: Modern incubators often include built-in monitors that track vital signs such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, allowing healthcare professionals to closely monitor the infant's progress and respond quickly to any changes in condition.
5. Isolation: The enclosed design of an incubator helps protect the baby from infection by limiting exposure to external pathogens and providing a barrier against accidental injury or disturbance.
6. Accessibility: Clear sides and top openings allow healthcare providers easy access to the infant for examinations, treatments, and procedures while minimizing disruptions to the baby's environment.
7. Portability: Some incubators are designed to be mobile, allowing for safe transport of the infant within the hospital or between healthcare facilities.

Incubator care is a critical component of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) services, and the use of advanced incubation technology has contributed significantly to improved outcomes for premature and critically ill newborns.

Respiratory aspiration is defined as the entry of foreign materials (such as food, liquids, or vomit) into the lower respiratory tract during swallowing, which includes the trachea and lungs. This can lead to respiratory complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or lung abscesses. Aspiration can occur in individuals with impaired swallowing function due to various conditions like neurological disorders, stroke, or anesthesia.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

The word apnea (or apnoea) uses combining forms of a- + -pnea, from Greek: ἄπνοια, from ἀ-, privative, πνέειν, to breathe. See ... Apnea, BrE: apnoea, is the temporary cessation of breathing. During apnea, there is no movement of the muscles of inhalation,[ ... Medicine portal Apnea of prematurity Apnea-hypopnea index Expiratory apnea Freediving Freediving blackout Hypopnea List of ... During sleep, people with severe sleep apnea can have over thirty episodes of intermittent apnea per hour every night. Apnea ...
"Apnea" ("Apnoea") is a song recorded and written by Guatemalan recording artist Ricardo Arjona, released on 4 March 2014. The ... List of Billboard number-one Latin songs of 2014 "Ricardo Arjona estrena "Apnea", primer sencillo de Viaje, su nuevo disco". " ... "Apnea" was the best word to fulfill his journey (Viaje). The music video was nominated for Video of the Year at the Lo Nuestro ...
Constantly breathing out without breathing in is also considered as expiratory apnea. Apnea v t e (Medical treatments, All stub ... Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination of the heart. By breathing out ...
... (STA) is a discipline in which a person holds their breath (apnea) underwater for as long as possible, and need ... Static apnea is defined by the International Association for Development of Apnea (AIDA International) and is distinguished ... There is a variation of the static apnea discipline where it's possible to breathe 100% oxygen for up to 30 minutes prior to ... Beta blockers (doping in sport of freediving; prolong every type of apnea by reducing heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac ...
There are three major categories of apnea known as central, obstructive, and mixed apnea. Central apnea is characterized by ... Infantile apnea occurs in children under the age of one and it is more common in premature infants. Symptoms of infantile apnea ... Cases of obstructive apnea are rarely found in infants that are healthy. Mixed apnea is a combination of both central and ... As children grow and develop, infantile apnea usually does not persist. Infantile apnea may be related to some cases of sudden ...
... is a discipline of competitive freediving, also known as competitive apnea. Dynamic apnea covers two of the eight ... The other categories recognized are: static apnea, no limit, variable weight, free immersion, constant weight, constant weight ... International Association for Development of Apnea): dynamic with fins (DYN) and dynamic without fins (DNF). Both disciplines ... Competitive apnea disciplines, All stub articles, Underwater diving stubs). ...
... is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep study. For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour ... "Sleep Apnea: Who Is At Risk for Sleep Apnea?". NHLBI: Health Information for the Public. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Sleep apnea may be either obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in which breathing is interrupted by a blockage of air flow, central ... Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder in which pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during ...
... due to a medication or substance and Treatment Emergent Central Apnea (also called Complex Sleep Apnea). ... which is also the proper machine for those who have central sleep apnea or mixed/complex apnea. Central sleep apnea is less ... The Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) is expressed as the number of apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep. As noted above, in central ... Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is ...
Free immersion (FIM) is an AIDA International freediving discipline in which the freediver dives under water without the use of propulsion equipment, but only by pulling on the rope during descent and ascent. Performances may be done head first or feet first during the descent, or a combination of the two. The current record holders are Petar Klovar (Croatia) with a depth of 132m (433ft), set on 6 Oct 2022 in Kaş, Antalya, Turkey, William Trubridge (New Zealand) with a depth of 124 meters (406 feet), set on 16 June 2016 in Dean's Blue Hole, Bahamas, Sayuri Kinoshita (Japan) with 97 meters (318 feet), set on 26 July 2018 in the Bahamas, and among female freedivers Fatima Korok (Hungary), set on 26 July 2023 in the Bahamas. Portal: Underwater diving McKie, N (2004). "Freediving in cyberspace". Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society. 34: 101-3. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-05.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) Staff (3 May 2016). ...
No-limit apnea is an AIDA International freediving discipline of competitive freediving, also known as competitive apnea, in ... Competitive apnea - Underwater diving without breathing apparatus McKie, N (2004). "Freediving in cyberspace". Journal of the ... This form of diving is considered extremely dangerous by diving professionals.No-limit apnea has claimed the lives of several ... Schagatay E (December 2011). "Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving. Part III: deep diving". Diving and Hyperbaric ...
... can be readily identified from other forms of infant apnea such as obstructive apnea, hypoventilation ... Apnea lasting more than 60 seconds may result in death or disability. The main treatment for apnea of prematurity has been ... Central apnea can be detected quickly since it results in absence of respiratory movements. Obstructive apnea can be detected ... Apnea of prematurity is often linked to earlier prematurity (younger gestational age). Apnea is traditionally classified as ...
Criteria defining an apnea or a hypopnea vary. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines an apnea as a reduction in ... To grade the severity of sleep apnea, the number of events per hour is reported as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). An AHI of ... Obstructive sleep apnea is differentiated from central sleep apnea (CSA), which is characterized by episodes of reduction or ... The terms obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) may be used to refer to ...
... static apnea (STA), dynamic apnea without fins (DNF), dynamic with fins (DYN), free immersion (FIM), and dynamic apnea bi-fins ... Constant weight (CWT) is a freediving discipline recognised by AIDA, the International Association for the Development of Apnea ...
The Apnea-Hypopnea Index or Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) is an index used to indicate the severity of sleep apnea. It is ... Apneas (pauses in breathing) must last for at least 10 seconds and be associated with a decrease in blood oxygenation to be ... Apnea is the complete absence of airflow through your nose and mouth. Hypoapnea is a partial collapse of your airway, limiting ... The AHI is calculated by dividing the number of apnea events by the number of hours of sleep. The AHI values for adults are ...
The European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA) (also referred to with spelling European Sleep Apnoea Database and European Sleep ... "Sleep Apnea Network / European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA) - A Brief Summary". ESRS Newsletter. European Sleep Research ... Grote, Ludger (May 2012). "Sleep Apnea Network / European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA) - An Update" (PDF). ESRS Newsletter. ... "Relationship between mild to moderate renal dysfunction and obstructive sleep apnea: Data from the European sleep apnea ...
Rolling, Alice (Aug 2020). "Sleep Apnea - American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA)". American Sleep Apnea Association. Archived ... The American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) is a non-profit organization founded in 1990 by persons with sleep apnea, health ... "American Sleep Apnea Association, IBM launch sleep-focused ResearchKit app". Mobi Health News. March 2, 2016. Retrieved October ... The association offers education and advocacy services to improve the lives of sleep apnea patients. In March 2016, the ...
The men's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2013 World Games took place on 27 July 2013 at the Hernando Botero ...
The men's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2001 World Games took place on 25 August 2001 at the Akita Prefectural ...
The men's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2005 World Games took place on 22 July 2005 at the Schwimmstadion in ...
The women's apnoea 50 m event in finswimming at the 2022 World Games took place on 8 July 2022 at the Birmingham CrossPlex in ...
The women's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2001 World Games took place on 24 August 2001 at the Akita ...
The women's apnoea 50 m event in finswimming at the 2017 World Games took place on 21 July 2017 at the Orbita Indoor Swimming ...
The men's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2009 World Games took place on 24 July 2009 at the Kaohsiung Swimming ...
The women's 50 m apnoea competition in finswimming at the 2009 World Games took place on 23 July 2009 at the Kaohsiung Swimming ...
The men's apnoea 50 m event in finswimming at the 2017 World Games took place on 22 July 2017 at the Orbita Indoor Swimming ...
"ANAE-731, by APNEA". APNEA. Retrieved 2018-04-07. "beatro.co.kr". beatro.co.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-04-08. "위너 출신 남태현, ...
For example, sleep apnea is a condition where there is partial, or complete, blockage of breathing during sleep. In addition, ... Retrieved October 4, 2014 from http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/understanding-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome. Pang ...
"Freediving and Apnea School , notanx". 10 February 2013. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2019 ... "Apnea Mania". 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2008. "AIDA International". 2010. ... He has personally held several UK records in depth apnea free-diving disciplines recognized by AIDA International. His Club ... Marcus Greatwood (1 February 2008), NoTanx UK Free Immersion Apnea Record -61m, archived from the original on 21 December 2021 ...
"How to Stop Snoring". Sleep Apnea. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Arnold, Ria; Issar, ... sleep apnea or idiopathic hypersomnia. Some persons with EDS, including those with hypersomnias like narcolepsy and idiopathic ... sleep apnea, idiopathic hypersomnia, or restless legs syndrome; disorders such as clinical depression or atypical depression; ...
DYNB = Dynamic Apnea with fins - Diving as far as possible with the use of fins. DNF = Dynamic Apnea without fins - Diving as ... Clarification: STA = Static Apnea - Holding the breath as long as possible. DYN = Dynamic Apnea with monofin - Diving as far as ... At the age of 13, Zecchini completed her first federal apnea course in A.s.d. "Apnea Blu Mare". In 2009 she changed clubs and ... "Apnea Records". www.cmas.org. CMAS. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021. "Apnea Championship ...
The word apnea (or apnoea) uses combining forms of a- + -pnea, from Greek: ἄπνοια, from ἀ-, privative, πνέειν, to breathe. See ... Apnea, BrE: apnoea, is the temporary cessation of breathing. During apnea, there is no movement of the muscles of inhalation,[ ... Medicine portal Apnea of prematurity Apnea-hypopnea index Expiratory apnea Freediving Freediving blackout Hypopnea List of ... During sleep, people with severe sleep apnea can have over thirty episodes of intermittent apnea per hour every night. Apnea ...
Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow while you sleep. Discover sleep apnea ... Obstructive sleep apnea - adults (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Pediatric sleep apnea (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Getting a Sleep Apnea Diagnosis (American Sleep Apnea Association) * Pulse Oximetry (National Library of Medicine) Also in ... Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Mayo Foundation ...
Primary care physicians play a pivotal role in identifying patients afflicted by obstructive sleep apnea. To effectively ... Sleep Apnea Diagnosis: Awareness and Tools * 2001/viewarticle/sleep-disturbance-may-predict-increased-risk-suicidal- ... "Sleep apnea is underdiagnosed because the most common symptoms, like excessive daytime sleepiness or snoring, are undervalued ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains a significantly underdiagnosed condition, despite its high prevalence. Primary care ...
Apnea is defined by the cessation of respiratory airflow. The length of time necessary to be qualified as a true apneic event ... Mixed apnea. Mixed apnea has characteristics of both central apnea and obstructive apnea. Examples can include a patient with a ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of obstructive apnea in children. Obstructive sleep apnea is on the sleep ... apnea of prematurity, BRUE, obstructive sleep apnea, and miscellaneous forms of apnea that are toxin mediated, secondary to ...
Sleep Apnea. Condition Basics. What is sleep apnea?. Sleep apnea means that breathing stops for short periods during sleep. ... Because sleep apnea disturbs your sleep, it can make you very tired during the day. So if you have sleep apnea, you may: *Be ... How is sleep apnea treated?. Sleep apnea is often treated with a CPAP machine or other machine that prevents your airways from ... Sleep apnea is more common in men. Menopause. Sleep apnea tends to occur more often in women who have been through menopause ...
The findings Suggest that quantification of an easily measured index of sleep apnea-related hypoxias may be useful for ... the hypoxic burden of sleep apnea was associated with incident HF after accounting for demographic factors, smoking, and co- ... Keywords: apnea-hypopnea index; heart failure; polysomnography; sleep apnea; sleep apnea-specific hypoxic burden. ... Research question: In comparison with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), how does sleep apnea-specific hypoxic burden predict incident ...
Holter ECG-Based Apnea Hypopnea Index to Screen Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A New Proposal and Evaluation of Feasibility (Articles ... A Case of Giant Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth That Caused Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (Articles) ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Implications on Health and Adherence to CPAP Treatment (Articles) ... A Very Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: In a Cause of Resistant Hypertension with One Sample Case (Articles) ...
Is positional therapy effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea? , Should patients be screened for scoliosis? ... Positional therapy for obstructive sleep apnea reduces scores on the apnea-hypopnea index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale compared ... Although continuous positive airway pressure improves apnea-hypopnea index scores more than positional therapy, patients seem ...
Sleep apnea is an issue that causes pauses in breathing throughout the s... ... Sleep apnea is an issue that causes pauses in breathing throughout the s... ... Sleep Apnea April 23rd, 2013 at 3:00 PM All these are true and one must not ignore sleep apnea symptoms or they might end up ... How Sleep Apnea Can Affect Mental Health How Sleep Apnea Can Affect Mental Health December 15, 2012 • Contributed by Zawn ...
This post will let you know sleep apnea mouth piece which could... ... Sleep Apnea Mouth PieceSleep ApneaMouthpiece For Sleep ApneaHow To Cure Sleep Apnea ... Sleep apnea is really a dysfunction which inturn disturbs a number of folks, but yet it may be controlled having a sleep apnea ... Sleep apnea is medical condition where there is cessation of the breathing or called apnea when one is sleeping. Generally it ...
Sleep apnea is professionally diagnosed by a sleep study where the patients oxygen level, respiratory effort, and air flow are ... How is sleep apnea diagnosed?. Sleep apnea is professionally diagnosed by a sleep study where the patients oxygen level, ... Sleep apnea is most commonly diagnosed by a bed partner, who essentially is listening to you snore and stop breathing. But ... And everything from your sleep quality can be gauged, as well as the severity of the sleep apnea. [MUSIC PLAYING] ...
Apnea is a pause in breathing that has one or more of the following characteristics. Lasts more than 15-20 seconds. Is ... Is All Apnea Due to Prematurity? No, apnea of prematurity is by far the most common cause of apnea in a premature infant. ... Once Apnea Goes Away, Will It Come Back?. Apnea of prematurity is a result of immaturity. Once a baby matures and the apnea ... How do you know if a baby has apnea? A babys respirations are monitored continuously if he or she is at risk for apnea. An ...
This approach was most accurate for children with severe apnea. ... from a diagnosis and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. ... This approach was most accurate for children with severe apnea. Share:. Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIN Email ... Simple, inexpensive test could help identify sleep apnea in children who snore. Date:. August 7, 2017. Source:. University of ... Pediatric sleep apnea is common, affecting three to five percent of all children. Persistent sleep disruption can affect a ...
Nemours Childrens sleep medicine specialists diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea and other types of sleep apnea in ... Sleep apnea in children happens when kids stop breathing during periods of sleep. Sleep apnea in kids can affect their daily ... Sleep apnea in children happens when kids stop breathing during periods of sleep. Sleep apnea in kids can affect their daily ... It can also have a long-term impact on their cognitive functioning (the way they think). Sleep apnea in kids has also been ...
Percentage of visits for patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea who were prescribed ... Sleep Apnea: Assessment of Adherence to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy. Percentage of visits for patients aged 18 years and ... ACP does not support MIPS measure ID# 279: "Sleep Apnea: Assessment of Adherence to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy." While ... Furthermore, while obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition, developers cite performance data that is based on ...
Effect of Sleep Apnea and Hypertension on Cognitive Decline *Print Special Issue Flyer ... Untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Hypertension has been ... sleep apnea; insomnia; dementia; autonomic activity; drowsy driving. ...
"Sleep apnea increases in women at the time of Click to closemenopauseA point in time 12 months after a womans last period. ... How to Tell If You Have Sleep Apnea A service member participates in a sleep study at Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base ... Sleep apnea can also be linked with other health problems, such as heart, kidney, and pulmonary diseases; high blood pressure; ... These could be symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, also known as OSA. Its one of several common sleep disorders affecting ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant morbidity and impact on quality of life that can ... Severe obstructive sleep apnea is associated with alterations in the nasal microbiome and increase in inflammation. American ... Identification of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this population that is at high risk for OSA due to traditional risk factors ... A comparison of CPAP and CPAPFLEX in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in World Trade Center responders: study protocol ...
Read our Sleep Apnea, CPAP, and Possible Solutions article on our blog page for personalized workouts and guidance. Achieve ... Sleep apnea can significantly impact ones health, as it is linked to conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, ... To mitigate sleep apnea, addressing its underlying causes can lead to better sleep quality and overall health. ... Surprisingly, almost anyone who snores is on the spectrum for sleep apnea, with snoring often serving as an early indicator of ...
Obstructive sleep apnea or OSA is a breathing disorder associated with sleep. It causes the breathing to stop and start at ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea Report Launched by Mergen Orthodontics. *Get The Best Obstructive Sleep Apnea CPAP Therapy Solutions In ... Browse Articles » Health & Medical » Obstructive Sleep Apnea - Causes and Cures. Obstructive Sleep Apnea - Causes and Cures. by ... Are You Avoiding Being Diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)?. *Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Health Effects and Diagnosis ...
Home » All Request Tuesday - Hows Your Sleep Apnea?. All Request Tuesday - Hows Your Sleep Apnea?. By Dennis Kennedy on ... As some of you know, I stepped up to the plate and got sleep-tested a few years ago, which confirmed the apnea problem. I lost ... If you are diagnosed with sleep apnea, work hard at following the program and find ways that you can use a CPAP machine and not ... Around the time that Reggie White died, possibly related to his sleep apnea condition, my nieces husbands father, a ...
Device simulates muscles and soft tissues of the throat that block the airways during a sleep apnea event. ... It sometimes includes snoring but obstructive sleep apnea, which causes the airways to become blocked, is the most serious. ... One recent study found that obstructive sleep apnea increases a persons risk of developing cardiovascular conditions including ... For 80-year-old retiree Dan Sheehan, dealing with sleep apnea has meant countless restless nights. ...
... therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, and patients with higher incomes are more likely to begin treatment. ... CPAP is the most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. It provides a steady stream of air through a mask that is worn ... Tags: Beer, Breathing, Choking, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy, Medicine, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxygen, ... According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, most people with obstructive sleep apnea snore loudly and frequently, with ...
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Frequency of sleep apnea in stroke and TIA patients: a meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6:131-7. ... Trials in sleep apnea and stroke: learning from the past to direct future approaches. Stroke 2021;52: 366-72. ... Relationship of sleep apnea to functional capacity and length of hospitalization following stroke. Sleep 2003;26:293-7. ... Obstructive sleep apnea often presents atypically after stroke, and many patients with OSA who have had a stroke do not have ...
... a company developing a device for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea ... Sleep Apnea Co Ninox Raises $5M. Apr 1, 2015 , Curated, Obstructive Sleep Apnea , 0 , ... PreviousEffect of Ultrafiltration on Sleep Apnea and Sleep Structure in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease ... Longer CPAP use for sleep apnea may normalize daily functioning. June 12, 2007 ...
11 with sleep apnea expert Dr. Mark Berger. Youll learn how sleep apnea affects your health and how it could impact your CDL. ... Sleep apnea is expected to be a key issue in the next set of health regulations from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety ... To learn more about how sleep apnea affects your health and how it could impact your CDL, register for our webinar at 8 p.m. ( ... Berger has worked as consultant to large trucking fleets to help them develop sleep apnea programs. He has overseen the ...
AAAHC Releases Ambulatory Surgery Considerations for Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Toolkit. ... presents its newly enhanced Ambulatory Surgery Considerations for Obesity and Obstructive Sleep ApneaToolkit. The much- ... updated knowledge on how to effectively identify and ensure the safety of patients with obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Can You Have Sleep Apnea Without Snoring: The Silent Truth About Sleep Disorders 3 min read ... Can You Have Sleep Apnea Without Snoring: The Silent Truth About Sleep Disorders ...
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Shalini Paruthi, sleep tracker. Read Full Article. ... Apnimed, Graham Goodrich, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), oral therapy, Ted Harding. Read Full Article. ... Diagnosis, GEM SLEEP, Gem Specialty Care, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), treatment. Read Full Article. ... The approval includes patients with Down syndrome who are at least 13 years old, with an apnea hypopnea index between 10 and 50 ...
  • Apnea of prematurity requires a specific assessment and treatment and is not discussed in full in this article. (medscape.com)
  • Is All Apnea Due to Prematurity? (rchsd.org)
  • No, apnea of prematurity is by far the most common cause of apnea in a premature infant. (rchsd.org)
  • Will Apnea of Prematurity Go Away? (rchsd.org)
  • Usually apnea of prematurity markedly improves or goes away by the time the baby nears his or her due date. (rchsd.org)
  • Apnea of prematurity is a result of immaturity. (rchsd.org)
  • If a baby has breathing pauses after apnea goes away, it is not apnea of prematurity. (rchsd.org)
  • Although methylxanthines are widely used to prevent and treat apnea associated with prematurity and to facilitate extubation, there is uncertainty about the benefits and harms of different types of methylxanthines. (lu.se)
  • Only the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) study (enrolling 2006 infants) reported on this outcome. (lu.se)
  • In this article, some of the major etiologies of apneic events that an ED physician will encounter are discussed, namely, apnea of prematurity, ALTE, obstructive sleep apnea, and miscellaneous forms of apnea that are toxin mediated, secondary to head trauma, or caused by infections. (medscape.com)
  • Sleeping on your back may make sleep apnea worse. (northshore.org)
  • Many of the problems associated with sleep apnea are interconnected, and stress during the day can make sleep apnea worse at night. (goodtherapy.org)
  • 7 things that make sleep apnea worse. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Positional therapy for obstructive sleep apnea reduces scores on the apnea-hypopnea index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale compared with no treatment. (aafp.org)
  • A study in the April 1 issue of the journal SLEEP demonstrates that low socioeconomic status independently predicts the poor acceptance of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, and patients with higher incomes are more likely to begin treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • Untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. (mdpi.com)
  • Snoring is the most common symptom associated with obstructive sleep apnea. (apsense.com)
  • During sleep, people with severe sleep apnea can have over thirty episodes of intermittent apnea per hour every night. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged apnea leads to severe lack of oxygen in the blood circulation, leading to dysfunction of organ systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, under special circumstances such as hypothermia, hyperbaric oxygenation, apneic oxygenation (see below), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, much longer periods of apnea may be tolerated without severe detrimental consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea can range from mild to severe, based on how often breathing stops during sleep. (northshore.org)
  • For adults, breathing may stop as few as 5 times an hour (mild apnea) to 30 or more times an hour (severe apnea). (northshore.org)
  • If apnea is severe, the baby may need a few breaths from the ventilator every minute. (rchsd.org)
  • This approach was most accurate for children with severe apnea. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It detected 82 percent of those with moderate disease and 90 percent of those with severe sleep apnea. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Four decades ago, the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine was introduced to address severe sleep apnea, a condition characterized by repetitive cessation of breathing during sleep. (xgym.com)
  • Surprisingly, almost anyone who snores is on the spectrum for sleep apnea, with snoring often serving as an early indicator of more severe sleep apnea down the road. (xgym.com)
  • LITTLETON, Colo. - Vivos Therapeutics has received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating severe obstructive sleep apnea in adults using its removable CARE (Complete Airway Repositioning and/or Expansion) oral appliances. (hmenews.com)
  • Plus, it helps prevent the potential dementia side effect of sleep apnea by increasing oxygen to the brain. (xgym.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of sleep apnea, the evidence that addresses the links between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, and research that has addressed the effect of sleep apnea treatment on cardiovascular disease and clinical endpoints. (medscape.com)
  • People with sleep apnea often snore loudly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even extremely supportive spouses might not want to listen to a person with sleep apnea snore all night, and some people with the condition end up sleeping in separate bedrooms. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Sleep apnea is most commonly diagnosed by a bed partner, who essentially is listening to you snore and stop breathing. (sharecare.com)
  • Computer analysis of oxygen levels in the blood during sleep could -- by itself -- provide an easy, relatively inexpensive and sufficiently reliable way to determine which children who snore habitually could benefit from a diagnosis and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. (sciencedaily.com)
  • According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, most people with obstructive sleep apnea snore loudly and frequently, with periods of silence when airflow is reduced or blocked. (news-medical.net)
  • Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sleep apnea is often treated with a CPAP machine or other machine that prevents your airways from closing during sleep. (northshore.org)
  • Furthermore, while obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition, developers cite performance data that is based on patient reports for CPAP use as opposed to citing objective data. (acponline.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant morbidity and impact on quality of life that can be improved by treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). (cdc.gov)
  • The present study contributes to understanding the relationship of nasal /upper airway mechanisms to the development of sleep apnea in this population and explores the possibility of improving comfort and adherence to CPAP treatment by modifying how CPAP is delivered. (cdc.gov)
  • Around the time that Reggie White died, possibly related to his sleep apnea condition, my niece's husband's father, a sweetheart of a guy, died in his sleep and he was using a CPAP machine at the time. (denniskennedy.com)
  • If you are diagnosed with sleep apnea, work hard at following the program and find ways that you can use a CPAP machine and not excuses why you can't. (denniskennedy.com)
  • CHICAGO - Supply chain issues coupled with a massive recall of CPAP devices by one of the world's largest manufacturers have left many people with sleep apnea looking for alternatives. (kpax.com)
  • Physicians should consider that patients with low socioeconomic status have an additional risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea and are poor candidates for CPAP treatment adherence. (news-medical.net)
  • The study involved 162 consecutive adult patients who were newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by overnight polysomnography and who required treatment with CPAP. (news-medical.net)
  • According to Tarasiuk, primary care physicians currently do not provide patients with sufficient information about obstructive sleep apnea and CPAP therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • Support protocols for patients and spouses, provision of information regarding risks involved with sleep apnea, and continuous corrective feedback during treatment may improve CPAP adherence. (news-medical.net)
  • The company's First Line Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment (FLOSAT) study looked at 136 patients to compare the effectiveness of precision OAT vs. CPAP therapy. (hmenews.com)
  • Diagnosis, management and pathophysiology of central sleep apnea in children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Apnea is defined by the cessation of respiratory airflow. (medscape.com)
  • Infant apnea is defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics as "an unexplained episode of cessation of breathing for 20 seconds or longer, or a shorter respiratory pause associated with bradycardia, cyanosis, pallor, and/or marked hypotonia. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep apnea is professionally diagnosed by a sleep study where the patient's oxygen level, respiratory effort, and air flow are all measured. (sharecare.com)
  • Our experts in sleep apnea in children may include pulmonologists (lung doctors), neurologists (brain and nervous system doctors), respiratory therapists (health care professionals who provide breathing therapy) and registered sleep technologists (who conduct sleep studies). (nemours.org)
  • in which airway obstruction restricts airflow, central sleep apnea (CSA) is caused by alterations in respiratory drive, which during sleep is highly dependent on carbon dioxide levels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sleep apnea is a respiratory sleep disorder that affects 1% to 4% of children and is associated with impairments in health and quality of life. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apnea refers to a cessation of respiratory airflow and has 3 major types. (medscape.com)
  • Central apnea occurs when there is a lack of respiratory effort due to either a cessation of output from the central respiratory centers or the inability of the efferent peripheral nerves and respiratory muscles required for oxygenation and ventilation to receive or process the signals from the brain. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with central apnea have no respiratory effort. (medscape.com)
  • Another cause of central apnea is head trauma, as it may interfere with the afferent and efferent signals of the central respiratory center. (medscape.com)
  • The preferred routine for diagnosing sleep apnea in the U.S. is polysomnography. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Central apnea is a result of inadequate medullary responsiveness and thus results in no or poor muscle coordination for breathing. (medscape.com)
  • Increased ventilatory drive during sleep leads to hypocapnia which causes a compensatory fall in ventilation that, if abnormally prolonged, leads to recurrent central apnea with arousals. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sleep apnea is underdiagnosed because the most common symptoms, like excessive daytime sleepiness or snoring, are undervalued by patients. (medscape.com)
  • The main symptoms of sleep apnea are feeling extremely sleepy during the day, not feeling rested after a night's sleep, or waking up with a headache. (northshore.org)
  • These could be symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, also known as OSA. (health.mil)
  • YARMOUTH, Maine - Adults with obstructive sleep apnea were more likely to experience long-term symptoms suggestive of long COVID (75%) than those without the sleep disorder, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (hmenews.com)
  • As interruption of regular breathing or obstruction of the airway during sleep can pose serious health complications, symptoms of sleep apnea should be taken seriously. (cdc.gov)
  • Percentage of visits for patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea who were prescribed positive airway pressure therapy who had documentation that adherence to positive airway pressure therapy was objectively measured. (acponline.org)
  • ACP does not support MIPS measure ID# 279: "Sleep Apnea: Assessment of Adherence to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy. (acponline.org)
  • Considering the damage caused by sleep apnea and the difficulty in adhering to treatment via PAP, the present study presents the findings of the specialized literature on the behavioral repercussions of sleep apnea in childhood and illustrates the contribution of sleep psychology in related health practices adherence to treatment with PAP equipment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea or OSA is a breathing disorder associated with sleep. (apsense.com)
  • For many people, the first sign that they have sleep apnea is a spouse's complaints about snoring. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Use of the sleep apnea mouthpiece is called Oral Product Therapy and it has been prosperous in sufferers who suffer from mild in order to moderate instances of obstructive anti snoring. (sooperarticles.com)
  • They analyzed more than 4,000 studies performed on children aged two to 18 years old, who were referred to one of 13 leading pediatric sleep laboratories around the world for frequent snoring or other signs of obstructive sleep apnea. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It sometimes includes snoring but obstructive sleep apnea, which causes the airways to become blocked, is the most serious. (kpax.com)
  • Sleep apnea isn't always accompanied by snoring, making it. (supsalv.org)
  • Snoring may be more than just an annoying habit - it may be a sign of sleep apnea. (cdc.gov)
  • Sleep apnea is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Among sleep disorders , obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to be a potentially interesting comorbidity , as it is highly prevalent in the middle- aged and elderly population , often associated with some cognitive impairment , associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia including AD, and indeed treatable. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although continuous positive airway pressure improves apnea-hypopnea index scores more than positional therapy, patients seem to better tolerate positional therapy. (aafp.org)
  • Sleep apnoea in patients with quadriplegia. (bmj.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea often presents atypically after stroke, and many patients with OSA who have had a stroke do not have the typical clinical features of OSA, such as obesity and daytime sleepiness. (cmaj.ca)
  • The much-anticipated toolkit emphasizes that health care providers must be equipped with updated knowledge on how to effectively identify and ensure the safety of patients with obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea throughout the surgical process. (aaahc.org)
  • In patients with CSA, compensatory mechanisms do not respond quickly enough, and the hypocapnia causes periods of hypoventilation and/or apnea resulting in hypercapnia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patients may cycle periodically between hyper- and hypoventilation, as in Cheyne-Stokes breathing, in which patients have brief periods of apnea followed by progressively faster and deeper breathing, which then becomes slower and shallower until they become apneic again and repeat the cycle. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Finally, we review the recent development in sleep apnea treatment options, with special consideration of treating patients with heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • A sleep apnea subtype, central sleep apnea (CSA) is rare in the general population, but is common in patients with HF, stroke, and AF. (medscape.com)
  • We hope to provide a catalyst for cardiologists to join with sleep physicians to conduct research, particularly clinical trials, that addresses the role of sleep apnea treatment in patients who are at high risk of or have existing CVD. (medscape.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains a significantly underdiagnosed condition, despite its high prevalence. (medscape.com)
  • In WTC responders we hypothesized that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) would be associated with increased prevalence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mediated by elevated total nasal resistance (TNR). (cdc.gov)
  • Even more concerning is the growing prevalence of sleep apnea among children. (xgym.com)
  • Prevalence and characteristics of central compared to obstructive sleep apnea: analyses from the sleep heart health study cohort. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which affects 34% of men and 17% of women and is largely undiagnosed, [ 2 ] is a modifiable CVD risk factor. (medscape.com)
  • Obstructive apnea is when there is an obstruction of the airway passages and therefore poor to no air exchange. (medscape.com)
  • Enlarged tissues in the nose, mouth, or throat can block your airway while you sleep, making sleep apnea more likely. (northshore.org)
  • Identification of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this population that is at high risk for OSA due to traditional risk factors and in addition due to upper airway inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by changes in ventilatory drive without airway obstruction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of multiple episodes of partial or complete closure of the upper airway that occur during sleep and lead to breathing cessation (defined as a period of. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Gentle air pressure administered during sleep (typically in the form of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure device) may also be effective in the treatment of sleep apnea. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 5 ] Apnea is more common in preterm infants. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylxanthines on the incidence of apnea, death, neurodevelopmental disability, and other longer-term outcomes in preterm infants (1) at risk for or with apnea, or (2) undergoing extubation. (lu.se)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized trials in preterm infants, in which methylxanthines (aminophylline, caffeine, or theophylline) were compared to placebo or no treatment for any indication (i.e. prevention of apnea, treatment of apnea, or prevention of re-intubation). (lu.se)
  • Sleep apnea can significantly impact one's health, as it is linked to conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, mental health disorders, and dementia. (xgym.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea and dementia: A role to play? (bvsalud.org)
  • Health Topics sleep-disorders How is sleep apnea diagnosed? (sharecare.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - Apnimed, a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on developing oral pharmacological therapies for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders, has named Graham Goodrich as chief commercial officer and Ted Harding as chief human resources officer. (hmenews.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - Apnimed, a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on developing oral pharmacological therapies for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, has announced a joint venture with Shionogi & Co., a pharmaceutical company based in Japan, to develop therapies to treat OSA and other sleep disorders. (hmenews.com)
  • Apnea can also be observed during periods of heightened emotion, such as during crying or accompanied by the Valsalva maneuver when a person laughs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apnea is a common feature of sobbing while crying, characterised by slow but deep and erratic breathing followed by brief periods of breath holding when crying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea means that breathing stops for short periods during sleep. (northshore.org)
  • Bradycardia often follows apnea or periods of very shallow breathing. (rchsd.org)
  • Sleep apnea in children happens when kids stop breathing during periods of sleep. (nemours.org)
  • Obesity is the factor most likely to lead to sleep apnea. (northshore.org)
  • Is positional therapy effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea? (aafp.org)
  • Access to an accurate and easily implemented diagnostic tool, such as overnight oximetry for obstructive sleep apnea, could increase the frequency and lower the cost of screening, providing a simple, robust way to detect children at high risk and get them into treatment. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This test detected about 75 percent of children with mild apnea, most of whom will not require treatment. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It's vital to explore a range of treatment options and lifestyle adjustments to tackle sleep apnea at its source. (xgym.com)
  • Dan's doctor recommended he'd be a good candidate for an innovative treatment using a device surgically implanted in the chest known as the Inspire Sleep Apnea device. (kpax.com)
  • A Globes news report indicates that Xenia Venture Capital Ltd has announced $10 million in financing for Ninox Medical, a company developing a device for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. (sleepreviewmag.com)
  • He has overseen the screening of nearly 15,000 commercial drivers and the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea in nearly 2,000 CDL holders. (overdriveonline.com)
  • Treatment of sleep apnea is dependent on its cause. (cdc.gov)
  • If other medical problems are present, such as congestive heart failure or nasal obstruction, sleep apnea may resolve with treatment of these conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Several discoveries in the pathogenesis, along with developments in the treatment of sleep apnea, have accumulated in recent years. (medscape.com)
  • On questionnaires, participants reported use of specific pesticides and physician diagnosis plus prescribed treatments for sleep apnea. (cdc.gov)
  • The fact sleep apnea affects people while they're sleeping-a time when people are supposed to be at peace-can be particularly jarring. (goodtherapy.org)
  • To learn more about how sleep apnea affects your health and how it could impact your CDL, register for our webinar at 8 p.m. (overdriveonline.com)
  • Still, several factors can influence a sleep apnea diagnosis, including excessive weight. (health.mil)
  • Those with sleep apnea may also experience excessive daytime sleepiness, as their sleep is commonly interrupted and may not feel restorative. (cdc.gov)
  • These might be given at regular intervals or only if apnea occurs. (rchsd.org)
  • NEW YORK - Mount Sinai researchers have been awarded a five-year, $4.1 million grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health to develop and study an artificial intelligence-powered model that predicts adverse outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea. (hmenews.com)
  • Sleep apnea increases as people get older. (northshore.org)
  • Sleep apnea increases in women at the time of Click to close menopause A point in time 12 months after a woman's last period. (health.mil)
  • One recent study found that obstructive sleep apnea increases a person's risk of developing cardiovascular conditions including hypertension, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. (kpax.com)
  • citation needed] The reason for the time limit of voluntary apnea is that the rate of breathing and the volume of each breath are tightly regulated to maintain constant values of CO2 tension and pH of the blood more than oxygen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • But sleep apnea is particularly likely to interfere with mental health because of the reduced oxygen supply to the brain at night, which can alter brain functioning and thus increase a person's likelihood of developing depression. (goodtherapy.org)
  • However, apnea can be caused or increased by many problems including infection, low blood sugar, patent ductus arteriosus, seizures, high or low body temperature, brain injury or insufficient oxygen. (rchsd.org)
  • He or she has no color change or bradycardia with the apnea. (rchsd.org)
  • The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Central sleep apnea is less common. (northshore.org)
  • Sleep apnea is more common in men. (northshore.org)
  • Apnea is most common when the baby is sleeping. (rchsd.org)
  • Pediatric sleep apnea is common, affecting three to five percent of all children. (sciencedaily.com)
  • YARMOUTH, Maine - Using health trackers to monitor sleep has become almost as common as using them to count steps, but they can be limited, especially when it comes to serious problems like obstructive sleep apnea, says Dr. Shalini Paruthi. (hmenews.com)
  • About 80 percent to 90 percent of adults with sleep apnea remain undiagnosed. (news-medical.net)
  • You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a family history or small airways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blocked or narrowed airways in your nose, mouth, or throat can cause sleep apnea. (northshore.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by blocked or narrowed airways in your nose, mouth, or throat. (northshore.org)
  • Smoking can increase your risk for sleep apnea, because the nicotine in tobacco relaxes the muscles that keep the airways open. (northshore.org)
  • The mask is connected to a sleep apnea machine that continuously pumps air into it to open the airways. (nemours.org)
  • Bone deformities of the nose, mouth, or throat can interfere with breathing, causing sleep apnea. (northshore.org)
  • Evidence supports a causal association of sleep apnea with the incidence and morbidity of hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke. (medscape.com)
  • Is there a relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis and new onset obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the World Trade Center Population? (cdc.gov)
  • Carbofuran use began before reported onset of sleep apnea in all cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons with sleep apnea characteristically make periodic gasping or "snorting" noises, during which their sleep is momentarily interrupted. (cdc.gov)
  • Voluntary apnea can be achieved by closing the vocal cords, simultaneously keeping the mouth closed and blocking the nasal vestibule, or constantly activating expiratory muscles, not allowing any inspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and although it is linked to sleep apnea, which physiological stressors most strongly associate with incident disease is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • We computed SASHB as the sleep apnea-specific area under the desaturation curve from pre-event baseline. (nih.gov)
  • Apnea+Hypopneas with 4% desaturation (AHI4) and 1% desaturation/arousal surrogate (RDI) were obtained and OSA defined as AHI4 =5/hr or RDI =15/hr. (cdc.gov)
  • True apnea is rare among full-term healthy infants and, if present, may indicate an underlying pathology. (medscape.com)
  • Most infants are over their apnea completely when they go home. (rchsd.org)
  • Other pesticides could impact sleep apnea by different mechanisms but have not been studied. (cdc.gov)
  • The illustration depicts the multietiological risk factors for sleep apnea and its downstream consequences, which include increased sympathetic nerve activity, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and intermittent hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • People with sleep apnea are at higher risk for car crashes, work-related accidents, and other medical problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, surgery, and breathing devices can treat sleep apnea in many people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People who have sleep apnea are more likely to be obese. (northshore.org)
  • People who are overweight may have extra tissue around their neck, adding to their risk for sleep apnea. (northshore.org)
  • Some people who have sleep apnea have a small, receding jaw. (northshore.org)
  • But people experiencing sleep apnea aren't just stuck dealing with its physical effects. (goodtherapy.org)
  • A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that people with sleep apnea were more likely to experience depression than people in the general population. (goodtherapy.org)
  • This anxiety, in turn, may make sleep problems worse, and sleep deprivation can contribute to both depression and anxiety, a vicious cycle for people with sleep apnea. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Because people with sleep apnea awaken frequently, they may be unable to enter the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that is necessary for dreaming. (goodtherapy.org)
  • People with sleep apnea may be exhausted during the day and have trouble focusing on important tasks, including job-related activities. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Sleep problems can alter mood, making people with sleep apnea jumpy or quick-tempered , and making it more difficult for them to navigate the challenges of everyday life. (goodtherapy.org)
  • However, it's believed that over 25 million more people may be suffering from undiagnosed sleep apnea. (xgym.com)
  • The sleep apnoea machine being phased out of service can be modified into a ventilator to treat people with COVID, claim engineers and scientists at Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust (LTHT) and Leeds University. (who.int)
  • Because of the scarcity of clinical sleep laboratories and certified pediatric sleep specialists -- as well as the high costs, inconvenience for parents and children and the need for overnight staff -- only a minority of children with sleep apnea, even in the United States and Europe, are thoroughly evaluated. (sciencedaily.com)
  • At Nemours Children's, our team of sleep medicine specialists, pediatric pulmonologists (lung doctors) and registered sleep technologists have advanced training in treating sleep apnea in children. (nemours.org)
  • We offer care for sleep apnea in children at Nemours Children's Hospital, Delaware (Wilmington, Del. (nemours.org)
  • We offer care for sleep apnea in children at Nemours Children's Health, Jacksonville (working with Wolfson Children's Hospital ), as well as select satellite Nemours locations. (nemours.org)
  • Children with sleep apnea have an increased risk of developing high blood pressure in their teens, a new study has. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sleep apnea is expected to be a key issue in the next set of health regulations from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. (overdriveonline.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS - Gem Specialty Health, whose first offering, GEM SLEEP, provides an end-to-end solution for obstructive sleep apnea, has raised $5 million. (hmenews.com)
  • Sleep apnea and pesticide exposure in a study of US farm ers. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study examines the associations between pesticide exposure and sleep apnea among pesticide applicators from a US farm ing population. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: We conducted the first epidemiological study investigating the association of pesticide exposure and sleep apnea. (cdc.gov)