Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Interactive Ventilatory Support: Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Gagging: Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (1/582)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

Firing properties of single vasoconstrictor neurones in human subjects with high levels of muscle sympathetic activity. (2/582)

1. Single-unit recordings were made from 19 postganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor axons via tungsten microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects with many multi-unit sympathetic discharges at rest ('high group', 75 +/- 5 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats, mean +/- s.e.m.). The results were compared with previous data from 14 units in subjects with 21 +/- 2 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats ('low group'). 2. In the 'high group' the units fired spontaneously in 35 +/- 4 % of all cardiac intervals. One unit only ever fired once per cardiac interval, 14 units (74 %) generated maximally two to three spikes, and four units (21 %) up to four to five spikes. Of those cardiac intervals in which a unit fired, a single spike occurred in 78 %, two spikes in 18 %, three spikes in 4 % and four spikes in less than 1 % of cardiac intervals. Measured as the inverse of all interspike intervals, the mean rate was 0.33 +/- 0.04 Hz and the mean intraburst frequency 22.2 +/- 1.6 Hz. Most results were similar to those in the 'low group', but in the 'low group' heart rate was higher (64.5 vs. 50.4 beats min-1) and mean firing frequency was higher (0.49 +/- 0.06 Hz). 3. During increases of multi-unit burst activity evoked by sustained inspiratory-capacity apnoea the firing probability of nine units in the 'high group' increased from 33 +/- 6 to 56 +/- 3 % of the cardiac intervals. Simultaneously, the incidence of single spikes decreased and the incidence of multiple spikes per cardiac interval increased, resulting in an increase of mean firing frequency from 0. 23 +/- 0.04 Hz at rest to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Hz during the apnoea. 4. We conclude that single muscle vasoconstrictor neurones usually fire only a solitary spike during sympathetic bursts both in subjects with a high and in subjects with a low number of bursts at rest. Presumably, differences in the numbers of bursts are due mainly to differences in firing probability and recruitment of sympathetic fibres. During acute increases of multi-unit activity, both increases in discharge frequency and recruitment of additional neurones contribute to the increased intensity of an individual sympathetic burst.  (+info)

Inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar eye block. (3/582)

I describe a case of inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar anaesthesia and its management. Some of the hazards of supplementary oxygen delivery during monitored anaesthetic care and the actions taken to prevent this mishap recurring are discussed.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (4/582)

This study was designed to evaluate the importance of sympathoadrenal activation in the acute cardiovascular response to apneas and the role of hypoxemia in this response. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of the vagus nerve to apnea responses after chemical sympathectomy. In six pigs preinstrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe and five nonpreinstrumented pigs, effects of periodic nonobstructive apneas were tested under the following six conditions: room air breathing, 100% O2 supplementation, both repeated after administration of hexamethonium (Hex), and both repeated again after bilateral vagotomy in addition to Hex. With room air apneas, during the apnea cycle, there were increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP; from baseline of 108 +/- 4 to 124 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.01), plasma norepinephrine (from 681 +/- 99 to 1,825 +/- 578 pg/ml, P < 0.05), and epinephrine (from 191 +/- 67 to 1,245 +/- 685 pg/ml, P < 0.05) but decreases in cardiac output (CO; from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 l/min, P < 0.01) and cervical sympathetic nerve activity. With O2 supplementation relative to baseline, apneas were associated with small increases in MAP (from 112 +/- 4 to 118 +/- 3 Torr, P < 0.01) and norepinephrine (from 675 +/- 97 to 861 +/- 170 pg/ml, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with room air were associated with small increases in MAP (from 103 +/- 6 to 109 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.05) and epinephrine (from 136 +/- 45 to 666 +/- 467 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and decreases in CO (from 3.6 +/- 0.4 to 3.2 +/- 0. 5 l/min, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with O2 supplementation were associated with decreased MAP (from 107 +/- 5 to 100 +/- 5 Torr, P < 0.05) and no other changes. After vagotomy + Hex, with room air and O2 supplementation, apneas were associated with decreased MAP (from 98 +/- 6 to 76 +/- 7 and from 103 +/- 7 to 95 +/- 6 Torr, respectively, both P < 0.01) but increased CO [from 2.7 +/- 0.3 to 3. 2 +/- 0.4 l/min (P < 0.05) and from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min (P < 0.01), respectively]. We conclude that sympathoadrenal activation is the major pressor mechanism during apneas. Cervical sympathetic nerve activity does not reflect overall sympathoadrenal activity during apneas. Hypoxemia is an important but not the sole trigger factor for sympathoadrenal activation. There is an important vagally mediated reflex that contributes to the pressor response to apneas.  (+info)

Assessment of effect of nasal continuous positive pressure on laryngeal opening using fibre optic laryngoscopy. (5/582)

AIM: To assess the effect of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) on the dimensions of the laryngeal opening. METHODS: Nine preterm infants who had previously received ventilatory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied. All were receiving nasal CPAP. The laryngeal opening was visualised using a fibre optic video camera system. The ratio of width to length of the opening was measured on and off CPAP. RESULTS: In eight of the infants the width: length ratio increased on CPAP; mean change for group +24.4% (95% CI +11.9 to +37.9). CONCLUSIONS: Nasal CPAP seems to dilate the larynx. This may explain the selective beneficial effects of CPAP on mixed and obstructive apnoea.  (+info)

Haemoptysis after breath-hold diving. (6/582)

Pulmonary oedema has been described in swimmers and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba) divers. This study reports three cases of haemoptysis secondary to alveolar haemorrhage in breath-hold divers. Contributory factors, such as haemodynamic modifications secondary to immersion, cold exposure, exercise and exposure to an increase in ambient pressure, could explain this type of accident. Furthermore, these divers had taken aspirin, which may have aggravated the bleeding.  (+info)

Effects of capsaicin pretreatment on expiratory laryngeal closure during pulmonary edema in lambs. (7/582)

The present study, performed in nonsedated, conscious lambs, consisted of two parts. In the first part, we 1) examined for the first time whether a respiratory response to pulmonary C-fiber stimulation could be elicited in nonsedated newborns and 2) determined whether this response could be abolished by capsaicin pretreatment. Then, by using capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we studied whether pulmonary C fibers were involved in the sustained, active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during pulmonary edema. Airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activities were recorded. In the first set of experiments, a 5-10 microg/kg capsaicin bolus intravenous injection in seven intact lambs consistently led to a typical pulmonary chemoreflex, showing that C fibers are functionally mature in newborn lambs. In the second series of experiments, eight lambs pretreated with 25-50 mg/kg subcutaneous capsaicin did not exhibit any respiratory response to 10-50 microg/kg intravenous capsaicin injection, implicating C fibers in the response. Finally, in the above capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we observed that halothane-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema did not cause the typical response of sustained expiratory upper airway closure seen in the intact lamb. We conclude that functionally mature C fibers are present and responsible for a pulmonary chemoreflex in response to capsaicin intravenous injection in nonsedated lambs. Capsaicin pretreatment abolishes this reflex. Furthermore, the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during halothane-induced pulmonary edema in intact nonsedated lambs appears to be related to a reflex involving stimulation of pulmonary C fibers.  (+info)

Effects of vagotomy on cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (8/582)

There are few studies investigating the influence of vagally mediated reflexes on the cardiovascular response to apneas. In 12 sedated preinstrumented pigs, we studied the effects of vagotomy during apneas, controlling for apnea periodicity and thoracic mechanical effects. Nonobstructive apneas were produced by paralyzing and mechanically ventilating the animals, then turning the ventilator off and on every 30 s. Before vagotomy, relative to baseline, apnea caused increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; +19 +/- 25%, P < 0.05), systemic vascular resistance (SVR; +33 +/- 16%, P < 0.0005), and heart rate (HR; +5 +/- 6%, P < 0.05) and decreased cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV; -16 +/- 10% P < 0.001). After vagotomy, no significant change occurred in MAP, SVR, and SV during apneas, but CO and HR increased relative to baseline. HR was always greater ( approximately 14%, P < 0.01) during the interapneic interval compared with during apnea. We conclude that vagally mediated reflexes are important mediators of the apneic pressor response. HR increases after apnea termination are related, at least in part, to nonvagally mediated reflexes.  (+info)

  • If you're spending seven to nine hours in bed a night and still feel sleepy during the day, it could be a sign of sleep apnea. (aarp.org)
  • While nocturia could be linked to aging, it's also a classic sign of sleep apnea (the fight-or-flight response triggers a feeling of fullness in the bladder, according to Twery). (aarp.org)
  • Combined with any of the above symptoms, repeated night-wakings can be a sign of sleep apnea. (babycenter.com)
  • These researchers say patients who undergo surgery to treat obstructive sleep apnea should be closely monitored, but do not necessarily need to be admitted to the intensive care unit. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that sleep apnea may lead to liver function impairment, particularly fatty liver diseases (see steatosis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • But he said the results provide more evidence that sleep apnea isn't just a manifestation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it can make these conditions worse. (upi.com)
  • There is also mounting evidence that sleep apnea can cause impairment to one's liver function. (hubpages.com)
  • When someone has sleep apnea, oxygen levels in the body may fall and sleep can be disrupted. (kidshealth.org)
  • Less commonly, sleep apnea can happen when someone doesn't get enough oxygen during sleep because the brain doesn't send signals to the muscles that control breathing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Decreased oxygen level in the blood during the apneas may cause decreased alertness and other symptoms, while disturbance of the sleep pattern at night may cause daytime drowsiness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sleep apnea disrupts how your body takes in oxygen, which makes it hard for your brain to control how blood flows in your arteries and the brain itself. (webmd.com)
  • Prolonged apnea leads to severe lack of oxygen in the blood circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the onset of apnea, low pressure develops in the airspace of the lungs, because more oxygen is absorbed than CO2 is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • We were not able to confirm previous hypotheses that obstructive sleep apnea is a cause of overall cancer development through intermittent lack of oxygen," said lead author Dr. Tetyana Kendzerska, from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and Women's College Hospital at the University of Toronto. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although no link was seen for cancer in general, the researchers did find that low oxygen levels related to sleep apnea were associated with smoking -related cancers, such as lung cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • OSA is defined as periodic episodes of nocturnal airflow restriction (hypopneas) or obstruction (apneas) in association with sleep disruption, arousals from sleep, oxygen desaturation, and possible hypercapnia [ 4 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Sleep-disordered breathing is characterized by cycles of apnea-induced hypoxia, where the sleeper experiences a temporary drop in oxygen levels. (newswise.com)
  • Earlier studies by the Technion scientists suggest apnea increases oxygen-related stress and inflammation in the heart and blood vessels. (newswise.com)
  • The researchers analyzed the treatment's effect on patients' oxygen levels, sleep apnea symptoms and overall quality of life. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In addition to daytime fatigue, sleep apnea can also lead to vision problems, impaired alertness, low blood oxygen, and slower reaction times, all of which can be dangerous especially when getting behind the wheel of a car. (hubpages.com)
  • People with obstructive sleep apnea can stop breathing dozens or hundreds of times each night leading to sleep disruption and low levels of oxygen. (lung.ca)
  • Nine out of 10 people who have sleep apnea have this type of apnea. (familydoctor.org)
  • If you have this type of apnea, the muscles you use to breathe don't get the "go-ahead" signal from your brain. (familydoctor.org)
  • The suits come after apnea-suffering engineers were linked to two major train crashes - the 2016 Hoboken collision that killed one person and the 2017 Long Island Rail Road wreck in Brooklyn, which injured more than 100 people. (nypost.com)
  • THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 -- People who leave their sleep apnea untreated for just a short time may face a higher risk of spikes in blood sugar levels, stress hormones and blood pressure, a new study finds. (upi.com)
  • There are two kinds of sleep apnea: obstructive apnea and central apnea. (familydoctor.org)
  • My son is 12 weeks old and he has achondroplasia,he was born with large head and short limbs.when he was 9 days old he had repeated attacks of central apnea and cyanosis,the condition has been repeated every 7-9 days,what shall i do i don't know?will the condition regress when he grows up or is it serious and leads to death? (medhelp.org)
  • some medications like Parlodel gained success in the past for their ability of fighting central apnea, but to which degree this could act positively on your child. (medhelp.org)
  • Sleep Apnea is a term used to describe periods of sleep where breathing is either not occurring (central apnea) or the flow of air is blocked (obstructive apnea). (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Central apnea is a result of inadequate medullary responsiveness and thus results in no or poor muscle coordination for breathing. (medscape.com)
  • Central apnea is named as such because it is related to the function of the central nervous system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The presence of any of the signs and symptoms simply indicates the possible risk for sleep apnea, and that screening questions should be asked by the AME at the time of the FAA physical examination. (aopa.org)
  • If your child snores regularly, is a restless sleeper, is very sleepy during the day, or has other signs of sleep apnea, talk to your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Different causes of sleep apnea have been determined, and these include factors such as mechanical problems, poor nutrition and existing disease, to name a few. (mercola.com)
  • Additional studies are needed to find out whether there is an independent effect of sleep apnea on specific types of cancer," Kendzerska said. (medicinenet.com)
  • After adjusting for several cardiovascular risk factors, the researchers found that the effect of sleep apnea on stroke risk was stronger in men than in women. (thaindian.com)