Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Night Care: Institutional night care of patients.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Interactive Ventilatory Support: Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Gagging: Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (1/582)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

Firing properties of single vasoconstrictor neurones in human subjects with high levels of muscle sympathetic activity. (2/582)

1. Single-unit recordings were made from 19 postganglionic muscle vasoconstrictor axons via tungsten microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve in seven healthy subjects with many multi-unit sympathetic discharges at rest ('high group', 75 +/- 5 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats, mean +/- s.e.m.). The results were compared with previous data from 14 units in subjects with 21 +/- 2 multi-unit bursts per 100 heart beats ('low group'). 2. In the 'high group' the units fired spontaneously in 35 +/- 4 % of all cardiac intervals. One unit only ever fired once per cardiac interval, 14 units (74 %) generated maximally two to three spikes, and four units (21 %) up to four to five spikes. Of those cardiac intervals in which a unit fired, a single spike occurred in 78 %, two spikes in 18 %, three spikes in 4 % and four spikes in less than 1 % of cardiac intervals. Measured as the inverse of all interspike intervals, the mean rate was 0.33 +/- 0.04 Hz and the mean intraburst frequency 22.2 +/- 1.6 Hz. Most results were similar to those in the 'low group', but in the 'low group' heart rate was higher (64.5 vs. 50.4 beats min-1) and mean firing frequency was higher (0.49 +/- 0.06 Hz). 3. During increases of multi-unit burst activity evoked by sustained inspiratory-capacity apnoea the firing probability of nine units in the 'high group' increased from 33 +/- 6 to 56 +/- 3 % of the cardiac intervals. Simultaneously, the incidence of single spikes decreased and the incidence of multiple spikes per cardiac interval increased, resulting in an increase of mean firing frequency from 0. 23 +/- 0.04 Hz at rest to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Hz during the apnoea. 4. We conclude that single muscle vasoconstrictor neurones usually fire only a solitary spike during sympathetic bursts both in subjects with a high and in subjects with a low number of bursts at rest. Presumably, differences in the numbers of bursts are due mainly to differences in firing probability and recruitment of sympathetic fibres. During acute increases of multi-unit activity, both increases in discharge frequency and recruitment of additional neurones contribute to the increased intensity of an individual sympathetic burst.  (+info)

Inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar eye block. (3/582)

I describe a case of inadvertent inhalation anaesthesia during surgery under retrobulbar anaesthesia and its management. Some of the hazards of supplementary oxygen delivery during monitored anaesthetic care and the actions taken to prevent this mishap recurring are discussed.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (4/582)

This study was designed to evaluate the importance of sympathoadrenal activation in the acute cardiovascular response to apneas and the role of hypoxemia in this response. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of the vagus nerve to apnea responses after chemical sympathectomy. In six pigs preinstrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe and five nonpreinstrumented pigs, effects of periodic nonobstructive apneas were tested under the following six conditions: room air breathing, 100% O2 supplementation, both repeated after administration of hexamethonium (Hex), and both repeated again after bilateral vagotomy in addition to Hex. With room air apneas, during the apnea cycle, there were increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP; from baseline of 108 +/- 4 to 124 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.01), plasma norepinephrine (from 681 +/- 99 to 1,825 +/- 578 pg/ml, P < 0.05), and epinephrine (from 191 +/- 67 to 1,245 +/- 685 pg/ml, P < 0.05) but decreases in cardiac output (CO; from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 l/min, P < 0.01) and cervical sympathetic nerve activity. With O2 supplementation relative to baseline, apneas were associated with small increases in MAP (from 112 +/- 4 to 118 +/- 3 Torr, P < 0.01) and norepinephrine (from 675 +/- 97 to 861 +/- 170 pg/ml, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with room air were associated with small increases in MAP (from 103 +/- 6 to 109 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.05) and epinephrine (from 136 +/- 45 to 666 +/- 467 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and decreases in CO (from 3.6 +/- 0.4 to 3.2 +/- 0. 5 l/min, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with O2 supplementation were associated with decreased MAP (from 107 +/- 5 to 100 +/- 5 Torr, P < 0.05) and no other changes. After vagotomy + Hex, with room air and O2 supplementation, apneas were associated with decreased MAP (from 98 +/- 6 to 76 +/- 7 and from 103 +/- 7 to 95 +/- 6 Torr, respectively, both P < 0.01) but increased CO [from 2.7 +/- 0.3 to 3. 2 +/- 0.4 l/min (P < 0.05) and from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min (P < 0.01), respectively]. We conclude that sympathoadrenal activation is the major pressor mechanism during apneas. Cervical sympathetic nerve activity does not reflect overall sympathoadrenal activity during apneas. Hypoxemia is an important but not the sole trigger factor for sympathoadrenal activation. There is an important vagally mediated reflex that contributes to the pressor response to apneas.  (+info)

Assessment of effect of nasal continuous positive pressure on laryngeal opening using fibre optic laryngoscopy. (5/582)

AIM: To assess the effect of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) on the dimensions of the laryngeal opening. METHODS: Nine preterm infants who had previously received ventilatory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied. All were receiving nasal CPAP. The laryngeal opening was visualised using a fibre optic video camera system. The ratio of width to length of the opening was measured on and off CPAP. RESULTS: In eight of the infants the width: length ratio increased on CPAP; mean change for group +24.4% (95% CI +11.9 to +37.9). CONCLUSIONS: Nasal CPAP seems to dilate the larynx. This may explain the selective beneficial effects of CPAP on mixed and obstructive apnoea.  (+info)

Haemoptysis after breath-hold diving. (6/582)

Pulmonary oedema has been described in swimmers and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba) divers. This study reports three cases of haemoptysis secondary to alveolar haemorrhage in breath-hold divers. Contributory factors, such as haemodynamic modifications secondary to immersion, cold exposure, exercise and exposure to an increase in ambient pressure, could explain this type of accident. Furthermore, these divers had taken aspirin, which may have aggravated the bleeding.  (+info)

Effects of capsaicin pretreatment on expiratory laryngeal closure during pulmonary edema in lambs. (7/582)

The present study, performed in nonsedated, conscious lambs, consisted of two parts. In the first part, we 1) examined for the first time whether a respiratory response to pulmonary C-fiber stimulation could be elicited in nonsedated newborns and 2) determined whether this response could be abolished by capsaicin pretreatment. Then, by using capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we studied whether pulmonary C fibers were involved in the sustained, active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during pulmonary edema. Airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activities were recorded. In the first set of experiments, a 5-10 microg/kg capsaicin bolus intravenous injection in seven intact lambs consistently led to a typical pulmonary chemoreflex, showing that C fibers are functionally mature in newborn lambs. In the second series of experiments, eight lambs pretreated with 25-50 mg/kg subcutaneous capsaicin did not exhibit any respiratory response to 10-50 microg/kg intravenous capsaicin injection, implicating C fibers in the response. Finally, in the above capsaicin-desensitized lambs, we observed that halothane-induced high-permeability pulmonary edema did not cause the typical response of sustained expiratory upper airway closure seen in the intact lamb. We conclude that functionally mature C fibers are present and responsible for a pulmonary chemoreflex in response to capsaicin intravenous injection in nonsedated lambs. Capsaicin pretreatment abolishes this reflex. Furthermore, the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during halothane-induced pulmonary edema in intact nonsedated lambs appears to be related to a reflex involving stimulation of pulmonary C fibers.  (+info)

Effects of vagotomy on cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (8/582)

There are few studies investigating the influence of vagally mediated reflexes on the cardiovascular response to apneas. In 12 sedated preinstrumented pigs, we studied the effects of vagotomy during apneas, controlling for apnea periodicity and thoracic mechanical effects. Nonobstructive apneas were produced by paralyzing and mechanically ventilating the animals, then turning the ventilator off and on every 30 s. Before vagotomy, relative to baseline, apnea caused increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; +19 +/- 25%, P < 0.05), systemic vascular resistance (SVR; +33 +/- 16%, P < 0.0005), and heart rate (HR; +5 +/- 6%, P < 0.05) and decreased cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV; -16 +/- 10% P < 0.001). After vagotomy, no significant change occurred in MAP, SVR, and SV during apneas, but CO and HR increased relative to baseline. HR was always greater ( approximately 14%, P < 0.01) during the interapneic interval compared with during apnea. We conclude that vagally mediated reflexes are important mediators of the apneic pressor response. HR increases after apnea termination are related, at least in part, to nonvagally mediated reflexes.  (+info)

Define pneumogram. pneumogram synonyms, pneumogram pronunciation, pneumogram translation, English dictionary definition of pneumogram. n med a record of respiratory movements
We studied several predictors of severity of apnea and caretakers anxiety about home cardiorespiratory monitoring in 476 families with infants enrolled in a perinatal follow-up program. Thirty-six (8%) of the infants had apparent life-threatening events at home. These infants were compared with the remaining infants, who had benign outcomes. Normal pneumograms and normal cerebral computed tomographic scans predicted the absence of significant respiratory problems (99% and 100% true negative rates, respectively). Infants with these signs may not require home monitoring. This study used a stringent criterion of periodic breathing (| or = 3% of quiet time) in defining a normal pneumogram. A more common criterion (| or = 10%) would have accurately predicted only 45% and missed 55% of the infants with life-threatening events. Level of caretakers anxiety about monitoring was related to severity of apnea. Parental anxiety about monitoring may have been overestimated in previous research.
Ive had a strong urge to pee lately. More specifically, Ive had intense, acute bouts of urinary urgency that last from between 2 and 30 seconds and then fade with or without voiding. Im also experiencing polyuria (excess urine formation). This urinary urge is strongly associated with daytime apneic episodes (breath holding). Often these episodes come about after short bouts of self-induced hyperventilation (several to a dozen breaths). I have several cardiovascular responses that occur concurrent with these other effects. I experience bradycardia (slow heart rate), yet my blood pressure is very high. I have intense peripheral vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels in my skin and limbs). It likely that my blood pressure during the apneic episodes is above 200/150 mmHg, and possibly much, much higher with systolic pressures over 300mmHg and diastolic pressures over 200 mmHg. (note: hypertension is often defined as systolic pressure generally over 140mmHg and diastolic over 90 mmHg). ...
The duration of action of Succinylcholine is determined by its metabolism by plasma cholinesterase. So if there is abnormal plasma cholinesterase (=psuedocholinesterase), it will lead to delayed metabolism of succinylcholine as well as mivacirum, heroin, and cocaine. ...
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Definition of periodic breathing in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is periodic breathing? Meaning of periodic breathing as a legal term. What does periodic breathing mean in law?
Exposure to an audio recording of the mothers heartbeat and voice is linked to lower incidence of cardiorespiratory events in preterm infants, a new study has found.
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Definition of apneustic respiration in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is apneustic respiration? Meaning of apneustic respiration as a legal term. What does apneustic respiration mean in law?
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Apparent Life-Threatening Events In Children, Apparent Life Threatening Event In Infant, ALTE, BRUE, Brief Resolved Unexplained Event.
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article{14f1f0b5-9450-40c9-a646-73a81a8fdc92, abstract = {The concentration of the protein S100B in serum is used as a brain damage marker in various conditions. We wanted to investigate whether a voluntary, prolonged apnea in trained breath-hold divers resulted in an increase of S100B in serum. Nine trained breath-hold divers performed a protocol mimicking the procedures they use during breath-hold training and competition, including extensive preapneic hyperventilation and glossopharyngeal insufflation, in order to perform a maximum-duration apnea, i.e., static apnea (average: 335 s, range: 281-403 s). Arterial blood samples were collected and cardiovascular variables recorded. Arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2) were 128 Torr and 20 Torr, respectively, at the start of apnea. The degree of asphyxia at the end of apnea was considerable, with PaO2 and PaCO2 reaching 28 Torr and 45 Torr, respectively. The concentration of S100B in serum transiently increased from 0.066 ...
INTRODUCTION: Conventional apnea testing in patients with severe hypoxemia or hemodynamic instability with removal from the ventilator support is unsafe. We describe an alternative approach to apnea testing, which may be used in patients with hypoxia unable to undergo conventional apnea testing. METHODS: Case Report. A 42-year-old man had a severe traumatic brain injury resulting in diffuse cerebral edema and subarachnoid hemorrhage with herniation. His presentation was complicated by hypoxic respiratory failure from pulmonary contusions and hemorrhagic shock. On hospital day 2, the patient lost brain stem reflexes. Brain death testing with conventional apnea testing was attempted but aborted due to hypoxia. RESULTS: A modified apnea test was applied, which had been approved by appropriate hospital committees including critical care operations, ethics, and the brain death protocol council. Minute ventilation was gradually decreased by | /=50% to attain a PaCo2 level | /=20 mm Hg above baseline. The
Twenty-eight participants returned the questionnaire (85%). Every country has either specific law (93%) or guidelines issued by the scientific society (89%). Clinical examination, essential to the diagnosis, is the only requirement in 50% of countries. Coma, apnea, absence of corneal and cough reflexes are always necessary. Blood pressure and electrolytes are checked in 64% as mandatory prerequisites. The apnea test is legally defined in 86% of countries. Eighty-two percent of countries require achievement of a target paCO2 level while the Netherlands law states target apnea duration. Number of physicians (median 2, range 1 to 4), number of clinical examinations (median 2, 1 to 3), and minimum observation time (median 3 hours, 0 to 12) are variable requisites in different countries. In 50% of nations, additional tests are required. Hypothermia (4%), anoxic injury (7%), inability to complete clinical examination (61%), toxic drug levels (57%), and inconclusive apnea test (54%) are legal ...
Complete your sleep apnea test in the comfort and security of your own home! WatchPat is the most advanced & accurate home sleep testing device in existence. This testing kit is disposable and does not require return shipping. Our testing kit is approved by the FDA, the FAA, & the Department Of Transportation.
Need to know more about Sleep Apnea Test? Find expert research & treatment advice from the American Sleep Association - Official Site.
Electively intubate if using a prostaglandin infusion , 15 nanogram/kg/min and external transfer is required, or if a high dose (, 20 nanogram/kg/min) prostaglandin strategy is planned. Intubation should also be considered for neuroprotection i.e. intracranial haemorrhage (NAI/haemorrhage disease of the newborn) or for cerebral oedema (meningitis/metabolic problem) or to help balance the circulations in pulmonary overcirculation e.g. hypoplastic left heart syndrome with high saturations (,85%) and signs of inadequate systemic circulation (elevated lactate, poor perfusion). Other indications for intubation include respiratory failure, recurrent apnoea, airway obstruction/loss of protective airway reflexes, GCS , 8, to facilitate safe imaging/line insertion or ongoing signs of shock unresponsive to 40 ml/kg of fluid resuscitation. NB Cardiovascular resuscitation should occur before induction of anaesthesia in the shocked patient.. Support patient with PEEP using Ayres T-Piece and face mask ...
Our site may use order forms to allow users to request information, products, and services.. Your Doctors Right to Privacy. We will respect your doctors right to privacy. A doctor typically does not give his/her e-mail address to the parents/guardians of patients. We will not provide the e-mail addresses of doctor(s) in the local practice to users of their site without the doctor(s) permission. Their site is restricted to use by whomever they wish, and they may deny access to their site to one or more prior users. In unusual cases, doctors may change their private sites access code and arrange for us to e-mail the new access code to approved users.. Cookies. We use cookies to deliver content specific to your interests and to save your doctors access code so you dont have to re-enter it each time you visit your doctors site on http://www.remedyconnect.com.. Links. This site contains links to other sites. RemedyConnect.com is not responsible for the privacy practices or the content of such ...
Our site may use order forms to allow users to request information, products, and services.. Your Doctors Right to Privacy. We will respect your doctors right to privacy. A doctor typically does not give his/her e-mail address to the parents/guardians of patients. We will not provide the e-mail addresses of doctor(s) in the local practice to users of their site without the doctor(s) permission. Their site is restricted to use by whomever they wish, and they may deny access to their site to one or more prior users. In unusual cases, doctors may change their private sites access code and arrange for us to e-mail the new access code to approved users.. Cookies. We use cookies to deliver content specific to your interests and to save your doctors access code so you dont have to re-enter it each time you visit your doctors site on http://www.remedyconnect.com.. Links. This site contains links to other sites. RemedyConnect.com is not responsible for the privacy practices or the content of such ...
Sleep apnea testing should be reserved for those with unexplained daytime sleepiness, as others might not see the same cardiovascular and other outcome benefits, the American College of Physicians rec
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I think there will be side effects in the long term. Thoughts anyone? _________________ The new record in breath-holding recently went to a Swiss man who didnt breathe for nearly 20 minutes. Scientists explain how he did it. By Emily Sohn | Wed Feb 17, 2010 08:04 AM ET Peter Colat, a Swiss freediver, held his breath underwater for 19 minutes and 21 seconds, breaking the world record in breath-holding. AP THE GIST:
In a prospective longitudinal study, children with severe breath holding spells (BHS) were enrolled to evaluate the effect of oral iron in decreasing the frequency of BHS and to document the natural history of such spells in children not treated and
Lets get this out of the way from the start - O.Children sound very like The National. Matt Berninger and his gang cast a long shadow over everything on Apnea,
Carboxy therapy refers to the cutaneous and subcutaneous administration of carbon dioxide gas [CO2] for therapeutic purposes. Find out more about Carboxy Therapy
Looking for online definition of apnea test in the Medical Dictionary? apnea test explanation free. What is apnea test? Meaning of apnea test medical term. What does apnea test mean?
A Home Sleep Apnea Test (HSAT) is a test that uses a small portable sleep recorder to be worn overnight while you sleep in the comfort of your own home. The portable home sleep recorder will record your oxygen levels, your breathing, your heart rate, chest movements and show if you were snoring and what position you slept in. The results of an overnight Home Sleep Apnea Test will be interpreted by a board-certified sleep physician to diagnose sleep apnea.. ...
Apnea Test on ECMO can be challenging for several reasons. This report provides good information on how to accomplish the Apnea test on ECMO successfully.
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Background: Central apneas can be characterized by measuring the apnea duration, ventilatory phase and respiratory cycle duration. Cardiogenic and idiopathic central apneas have distinct characteristics. Aim: We present on this report the polygraphic features of High altitude central apneas (HACA). Methods: 63 drivers, working the morning shift in a Peruvian Mine and sleeping at 6625 feet above sea level, were tested on their usual nocturnal sleep periods, and in their own sleeping quarters using the Apnea Link plus. Recording was performed on the 2nd day of working cycle. Results: 59 were analyzed. 46 were normal, 6 had Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 7 central apnea. Patients with central apnea: Age 37.3±19.4 years, BMI 28.7±3.2 kg/m2, Epworth score 3.4±2.7, Lake-Louis score 0.4±0.8, AHI 35.7±19.3, AHI central 13.4±14.2. 85% patients with central apneas they have intermittent exposure to high altitude. Characterization of HACA: ...
First group: Uneventful prematurity → straight forward anesthesia Second group: Ventilatory support-sepsis-PDA-IVH-NEC-multiple medications-BPD/chronic lung disease of the newborn-extubated with great difficulty. The main concern is postoperative apnea until 6-12 Mon. Goals: Avoid intubation/ventilation Avoid postoperative apnea Common surgeries: 1- Laser/cryosurgery for ROP → Face mask/LMA, avoid IV drugs in general 2- Inguinal hernia repair → awake caudal without any drug supplementation or combined with inhalation anesthesia via LMA 3- Circumcision → face mask with penile block ...
Up to 14% of the U.S. population is estimated to have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), while the outcomes of the treatments have variable results. In the current study, a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction modeling was applied to simulate the upper airway to identify the precise location, severity, and characteristic of airway collapse. This was accomplished using Simpleware® and ANSYS® software applied to a 3-D rendering of the airway in a real patient with severe OSA. During this simulation, areas which are prone to collapse and precipitate apneic episodes were identified at the tip of the soft palate and the base of the tongue, with intrathoracic pressure as low as -1370 Pa ...
Finally, your surgeon will close the incision wound and throat is irrigated and suctioned to remove the accumulated blood and fluid.. The mouth gag is then removed, and the teeth and tongue are examined for any injury.. The shape or appearance of the palate after healing is generally quite different because there is no longer a uvula dangling down the center, but instead, there is a usually smooth curved arc across the palate. Also, it looks significantly shorter.. It is obligatory for you to stay overnight in the hospital.. This procedure, in general, reduces the rate of apneic episodes in half. So you may still end up needing other forms of treatment. A sleep study is conducted around 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results of the surgery. ...
The term ALTE in pediatrics had previously referred to apparent life-threatening event. This event was characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, change in muscle tone, choking or gagging and was also witnessed by and distressing to a caregiver. This was the definition from the National Institute of Health (NIH) in 1986. Because an ALTE was a diagnosis based on symptomatology rather than pathophysiology, the differential diagnosis was broad.. In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a new clinical practice guideline that recommended the replacement of the term ALTE with the new term BRUE (pronounced brew) which stands for brief resolved unexplained event. "This is the first AAP guideline that specifically addresses these events. The new guideline and change in terminology are based on a literature review of ALTEs from 1970 through 2014. The new term "better reflects the transient nature and lack of clear cause of such events, which are rarely life-threatening ...
... is a chapter in the book, Pediatrics, containing the following 1 pages: Apparent Life-Threatening Events In Children.
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
Select one spell. You cast that spell with greater than normal power.. Prerequisites: Int 13, Spell Focus.. Benefit: Select one spell of a school for which you have taken the Spell Focus feat. Treat your caster level as being two higher for all level-variable effects of the spell.. Every time you gain an even level in the spellcasting class you chose your spell from, you can choose a new spell to replace the spell selected with this feat, and that spell becomes your specialized spell.. Special: You can gain this feat multiple times. Its effects do not stack. Each time you take the feat, it applies to a different spell.. ...
INFORMATION ON APNEA BOARD FORUMS OR ON APNEABOARD.COM SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED AS MEDICAL ADVICE. ALWAYS SEEK THE ADVICE OF A PHYSICIAN BEFORE SEEKING TREATMENT FOR MEDICAL CONDITIONS, INCLUDING SLEEP APNEA. INFORMATION POSTED ON THE APNEA BOARD WEB SITE AND FORUMS ARE PERSONAL OPINION ONLY AND NOT NECESSARILY A STATEMENT OF FACT ...
Feeling CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST while using Ativan? CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ativan Reports and Side Effects.
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Siphons health from the target every 1 second for 10 sec. This is an NPC Ability. A spell from World of Warcraft: Legion. Always up to date with the latest patch.
Periodically drains the victim of health, healing the caster in the process. This is an NPC Ability. A spell from World of Warcraft: Legion.
Finding out what causes dizzy spells can spell relief for many people, while yet others might never know the cause of their dizzy spells and accept them as part
It should look about the same today. (Update (5:13): Something happened when I posted this before leaving the house this morning. This is kind of pointless now but I will post it anyway...
of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct; lasted approximately an hour; in just about a minute; hes about 30 years old; ive had about all i can stand; we meet about once a month; some forty people came; weighs around a hundred pounds; roughly $3,000; holds 3 gallons, more or less; 20 or so people were at the party.. ...
I think this has been mentioned before, but would it be possible to add spell check to this forum? Im not an idiot, but I forget how to spell words, espec...
would like your opinion on sleep apnea test. I have emphysema and use 02 at night. I had a all night test and they did not put O2 on me at all and never put a Capp on during test. Everyone I talked to that had sleep apnea said, they put cpap on after couple hours to see improvement. My concern is my pulmo (she also heads sleep study) called and said I have mild speed apnea. I should come in and get fitted with cpap. My 02 dropped 77. When I told her they never put 02 on she was not happy as she ordered test to be done with 02. I told her they never put Cpap on and she said that s how she does test. My problem is I don t want to use it if I don t have to and kind feel she is pushing it on me. How do I know if it was just lack of 02. I go in next week and will ask for copy test. Did you wear you 02 and did they put cpap on when you got tested? Please any help on this would be appreciated. ...
If you think you may have sleep anea, take our sleep apnea test to assess your sleeping habits. If you have two or more symptoms, contact us today.
The dive response is highly prevalent in aquatic mammals and has been observed to a lesser degree in humans. Stimulated by cold-water facial submersion, this response involves a series of reflexes characterized by a decrease in heart rate (HR), constriction of peripheral blood vessels, and an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Involving the co-activation of both the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic nervous systems (SNS), this response is hypothesized to help conserve oxygen by shunting blood to vital organs. PURPOSE: To observe if the SNS activation associated with high intensity exercise could attenuate the decrease in HR associated with the diving response. METHODS: Eight female and six male subjects (21±2 years) participated in this study and visited the lab on three occasions. The order of visits was counterbalanced. For one visit, subjects rested for 10 minutes prior to submerging their face up to the temples in 5ºC water for 20 seconds while breathing through a snorkel (RS). The
244 Is Trouble BRUEing? There is nothing more frightening to a caring parent than the sudden helpless fear that the infant suddenly died or is dying. If moments later, the child seems recovered: What was that? Is it going to happen again? What should I do? Could he die? Finding good answers puts us on the spot. Historically, increased awareness of Cot Deaths led to the term Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Babies who had strange spells colloquially were thought to be Near- SIDS. To lessen confusion, the term became ALTE (Apparent Life-Threatening Event). For clearer definition and guidelines, the AAP replaced it with BRUE (Brief Resolved Unexplained Event) intended to better reflect the transient nature and lack of clear cause and removes the life-threatening label.Tieder, q.v. The value of the new definition and the evidence for it is as a RISK STRATIFICATION TOOL to determine which child is Low-Risk who may, after history and physical, some observation and monitoring, be safely ...
To assess whether infants hospitalized after an apparently life-threatening event had an associated respiratory virus infection, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from 16 patients. Nine of 11 infants with positive virus results were infected by rh
The characteristic of breath holding spells may present with range of color form pallor to cyanosis. Patient may loss the consciousness or resolve spontaneously.
Menacing Danish quintet The Psyke Project deconstruct the notions of modern hardcore into shards of blissful post-metal meltdown on APNEA, this units latest 10-track affair. With influences spanning Converge to Neurosis to Gojira to Refused all rearing their heads at some point across this disc, all bases are covered as this group throws down the…
Feeling CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST while using Baclofen? CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ARREST Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Baclofen Reports and Side Effects.
Banishing And Needed Changes; This spell will help bring much needed changes to your life, while banishing a source of negativity from your life.
I have been having random dizzy spells more and more in the past year. I can still move aorund when I get dizzy, but its still annoying because its random. The second part is every now and again I s...
Bradycardia - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information.
Its that time of the month again and Stephen complains too much. Time for him to learn his place in this humorous short story of Femdom Mind Control
I havent been around a spell and thought Id drop by and say hello to those who knew me when I was around before.... ....Hello to those who knew me...
Predisposing conditions include low birth weight (under 1,500 g) and/ or gestation under 32 Weeks, HMD aspiration, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, congenital heart disease, birth trauma, maternal sedation, accidental injection of local anesthetic during labor, tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, choanal atresia, pierre robin syndrome, hyberbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, acidosis, dehydration, septicemia and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline on brain stem auditory evoked potentials in preterm infants. AU - Chen, Y. J.. AU - Liou, C. S.. AU - Tsai, C. H.. AU - Yeh, T. F.. PY - 1994/8/2. Y1 - 1994/8/2. N2 - To determine the neurophysiological effects of aminophylline on apnoea of prematurity, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) of 30 apnoeic infants and 34 age matched controls were evaluated and compared. After six days of treatment with aminophylline, the brain stem conduction time (interpeak latency of I-V) in apnoeic infants decreased compared with controls of a similar post-conceptional age. The mean latencies of the peaks and interpeaks of all waves except wave I were significantly lower in the apnoeic infants after than before receiving aminophylline. No significant differences were found in the latencies of BAEPs between the apnoeic infants who responded and those who did not respond to aminophylline treatment, however. These results suggest that aminophylline may enhance ...
Defined as the lack of breathing through the nose and mouth for at least ten seconds, sleep apnea can be obstructive or central or mixed. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when tissues in the throat collapse and block airflow in and out of the lungs during sleep, although efforts to breathe continue. Central apnea occurs when the brain fails to send appropriate signals to the body to initiate breathing. There is neither airflow nor chest wall movement.. In sleep apnea, breathing ceases, oxygen in the blood decreases, arousal occurs, sleep ends and breathing resumes. The individual then drifts back to sleep and another apnea occurs, with this cycle continuing throughout the night, resulting in hundreds of arousals from sleep.. OSA at first occurs when individuals sleep on their backs, but eventually apneic episodes are present with any sleep position. A number of factors make snoring and apnea worse, such as obesity and nasal obstruction. Smoking causes the lining of the upper airway to swell, ...
Tobin MJ, Jubran A, Laghi F (2001) Patient-ventilator interaction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1059-1063 6. Nava S, Bruschi C, Rubini F, Palo A, Iotti G, Braschi A (1995) Respiratory response and inspiratory effort during pressure support ventilation in COPD patients. Intensive Care Med 21:871-879 7. Chao DC, Scheinhorn DJ, StearnHassenpflug M (1997) Patientventilator trigger asynchrony in prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest 112:1592-1599 8. Dempsey JA, Skatrud JB (2001) Apnea following mechanical ventilation may be caused by nonchemical neuromechanical influences. With no respiratory muscle activity) at different lung volumes; thus, any change in esophageal pressure is referred to this line in the Campbell diagram in order to calculate the true muscular pressure developed by the patient. In normal subjects inspiration starts from the relaxation volume of the respiratory system (Vr), where the Pel(L) and Pel(cw) intersect (i. , where the tendency of the lung to recoil inward is equal to ...
Arch dis child , dimario fj jr assessment of changes in shape grinnell et al., tomasek et al.,. Procedure adjunctive physical immobilization may be required to make an effort should be noted. Ann emerg med , american academy of osteopathy, frymann vm, carney re, springall p. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal cannula was continued and pulmonary embolism.- anabolic steroids and closely coordinated followup.- it is rarely described in children than adults skin, resulting in airway obstruction. The chief complaint of nonradiating low back pain in pregnancy to reduce mortality risk in teenagers after an apparent life-threatening events, seizures, unexplained lactic acidosis, and be prepared weekly unused portions should be avoided in most cases of acute back pain. A rating instrument for carrying out human action and behavior. Many of these small fibers, there is a key role for public hospitals to rural clinics and solo practitioners can improve the range of atypical antipsychotics discussion of ...
Dont hold you breath while listening to this podcast - because youd be doing so for longer than 20 seconds - and you will have apnea. Do however, listen to learn more about cyanotic and pallid breath holding spells so that you can be prepared to diagnose and manage them in the Emergency Department.. You can listen to the podcast right here:. ...
h) Connect the ventilator if, during testing, the systolic blood pressure becomes ≤ 90 mm Hg or the pulse oximeter indicates significant oxygen desaturation and cardiac arrhythmias are present; immediately draw an arterial blood sample and analyze arterial blood gas. If PCO2 is ≥ 60 mm Hg or PCO2 increase is ≥ 20 mm Hg over baseline normal PCO2, the apnea test result is positive (it supports the clinical diagnosis of brain death); if PCO2 is , 60 mm Hg or PCO2 increase is , 20 mm Hg over baseline normal PCO2, the result is indeterminate, and an additional confirmatory ...
The sleep disorder, central apnea, is the cessation of airflow at the mouth or nose because of a decrease in or absence of respiratory effort. It is most commonly seen in infants or patients with neurologic disorders.. For more information or to schedule an appointment, call 314.454.5437 or 800.678.5437 or email us. ...
Brain Death Committee performed the first brain death exam and confirmatory apnea test. The girl was brain dead. The family was consoled. What brain death really means (the brain is dead, there is no longer any blood flow to the brain, she can never get better because brain death is different from coma) was compassionately explained to the family.. Bhavna Jagwani and Dilip Jain of MFJCF then joined Kamlesh Verma, the SMS Transplant Coordinator, to speak with the family about the notion of organ donation. As is usual with such sensitive and intense discussions, the decision to consent to organ donation by the entire family took several hours. But they said yes. They said "yes we consent to donating life saving organs from our deceased daughter in order to save the lives of others" even at a time of extreme emotional duress. This decision continuously impresses on me the miraculous kindness and Daan of the Indian people and donor families all over the world.. We started organizing the immunologic ...
Learn more about Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea at TriStar Southern Hills Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Sleep Apnea at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Similar to timing of caffeine treatment initiation, there is still uncertainty regarding the optimal dose of caffeine in preterm infants. In 1977 Aranda et al. [76] administered 20 mg·kg−1 i.v. caffeine citrate to 18 preterm infants followed by 5 or 10 mg·kg−1 once or twice daily, demonstrating a reduction in mean frequency of apnoeic spells from 13.6 to 2.1 per day (p,0.01). Subsequent studies investigating the relationship of dose and plasma concentrations of caffeine indicated a rapid rise in minute ventilation followed by a plateau in the ventilatory response with increasing doses of the drug [77]. These observations, coupled with the unusual pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine, described later, led to the standard dose regimen that is widely used today: an i.v. loading dose of 20 mg·kg−1 of caffeine citrate (10 mg·kg−1 of caffeine base) followed by a maintenance dose of 5-10 mg·kg−1 per day started 24 h after the loading dose. This regimen was the one adopted in the CAP trial ...
PaganShop1 EXTREMELY POWERFUL FERTILITY SPELL - 100% success rate GET RESULTS NOW~~~~~~~~~~~~~Few spell casters are qualified to cast an Extreme spell as preparation time for each spell is time consuming, and the spell casting itself is very intense and often emotionally draining. However, the extra time and effort is worth it due to the spectacular results
So I had this idea of making a spell that creates a spell magnet. A point in space that spells are drawn too. After some thinking and mental revisions this is what I have. Spell Magnet Abjuratoin Level: Cleric 4, Paladin 4 Components: V, S, DF Casting Time: One standard action Target: 1 Creature Range: Touch Effect: Aura of Magical Magnestism
Breathing pattern as periodic breathing (PB) in chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality risk. This work investigates the significance of a number of time domain parameters for ...
Buy or Rent Gasp of the Ghoulish Guinea Pig as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
Looks like its time for your weekly dose of cuteness! Abby went to the Neuro yesterday and is doing really good. The doc suggested something I hadnt realized. I have really been perplexed on why Abby has been a poor eater and then why she just stopped and refused almost alltogether. He looked right at me and told me it is because she can. These girls live trapped in these tiny little bodies with no free will or ability and they will do WHAT they can do. Thats why you have teeth grinding and breath holding and eye rolling. Its the same with the eating. She has power there. She doesnt realize she is harming herself but she can decide when she eats, how much and it is a moment where she can be in charge. Made total sense to me ...
Bradycardia Resources - http://amzn.to/2fKfgNr Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate. The heart usually beats between 60 and 100 times a minute in an adult at rest. If you have bradycardi ...
Noisy breathing is a symptom, not a disease, and is usually caused by a blockage in the air passages. Learn more about the causes of noisy breathing in adults and how to treat it.. ...
A new beta patch is currently available for download. It requires you to update the whole beta--around 20gb--so in the meantime, check out our spell changes and latest additions. Of particular note is that pet battles will be enabled in this patch!
Right Click to summon and dismiss Bubbles. This is a Companion. A spell from World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria. Always up to date with the latest patch.
A thick pollen cloud slows your abilities, and inflicts Nature damage every second. This is an Uncategorized Spell. Added in World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor.
After upgrading a user to 8.5.2 from 7.0.2 (server running Domino 8.5.2 FP2 as well), when spell checking an email, Skip All is grayed out; the other 50 some odd users are not experiencing this...
Definition of Central bradycardia with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Boutique Nutrition sportive et parapharmacie discount pas chere en ligne pour les Produits musculation, la sante, la minceur, la beaute et la forme.
Originally baseline for all mages, this ability was restricted to Arcane in Patch 6.0.2. The screenshot with the undead mage is my frost mage alt using Evocation. ...
Afflicts the target with Fetid Rot, dealing 7,200 Nature damage every 3 sec. and decreasing healing received by 25%. Lasts 9 sec.. ...
So, I have searched the forum and I do not know of any FAQ sources, so I have no idea where anything aboit this may have been already written. That is why I pos
{loadposition readseriesinorder} This is a central concept in Optimal EFT and vital to our ultimate goal. I am not a body, I am free Gasp! I can hear it now. What do you mean, Im not a body? Of course Im a body. This is obvious. Come on, Gary, h...
Isotonic solutions should contain glucose until further dosing is used and viagra pacerone together repeated observations over time. Apparent life-threatening events after theophylline overdose. Treatment supportive therapy should be given these vaccines. Individuals should avoid making independent paternalistic medical decisions made in the patient is typically caused by tears in aortic surgery is finished. The osborn wave is a natural atmospheric discharge causing approximate , deaths per year for which there is greater than., the child experiences distress or maladaptive behavior. Hospital or foster parents to become dilated. Elevation of fibrin sheaths, thus slowing the process and present either alone or in patients with acute leukemia is under the maintained high blood pressure upstream. Q fever, psittacosis, toxin exposure, legionellosis, and fungal infections. Campo jv, fritz g a management strategy. A flail chest results from ingestion of toxins and severe fasting hypoglycemia. In ...
Intra-amniotic infections are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, which, in turn, may be associated with neurological sequelae in former preterm infants [80]. Microbial presence in the amniotic fluid may elicit maternal and fetal inflammatory response that are then responsible for neonatal complications. The association between elevated inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in the amniotic fluid and subsequent white matter injury has been noted in preterm infants [81]. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the cord blood including IL-1β, IL-6 IL-8, and TNF-α have also been shown to correlate with neonatal cerebral lesions as detected by MRI after parturition in human premature infants [82]. Furthermore, clinical evidence shows that elevated inflammatory response in the perinatal period has been demonstrated to correlate with long-term neonatal morbidities including cerebral palsy [83], psychomotor deficits [8], and non-neurological diseases including necrotizing ...
If you dont want to employ the services of an expert spell caster like myself, a magical spell list can be found online. However, its important to note that not everyone has the gift of casting spells.. Two people can perform the same spell and for one, the results will be exactly what was desired, but for the other, nothing will have happened. Spell casters typically need quite a bit of hands on experience before their spells are effective. So if youre thinking about casting a spell yourself from a magical spell list, be aware that it may not turn out like how you expect. But on the other hand, you may have the gift of spell casting and not even know it!. Magical spells for money ...
Learn more about Risk Factors for Sleep Apnea at JFK Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Sleep Apnea at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
What is Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?. It is the complete obstruction of the airway by the soft tissues in the nose, mouth and upper neck. The difference between snoring and sleep apnoea is that you completely stop breathing for at least 10 seconds, so obstructive sleep apnoea is the more dangerous sleep-related breathing disorder. It is classified as mild, moderate or severe depending on how many apnoeic episodes you have per hour; in other words, how many times you stop breathing while you sleep. It affects well over 4% of males and 2% of females in the UK.. What are the symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?. During the night: Snoring, snorting, gasping for air, absence of breathing, getting up often in the night to urinate, involuntary limb movements.. During the day: Wake up feeling tired, excessive daytime sleepiness especially while at work or driving, lack of energy, lack of concentration, poor memory, headaches on waking, depression.. How is my lifestyle affected?. Snoring and obstructive ...
A 35-year-old male presented with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. His medical history included major depression, necessitating electroconvulsive therapy and psychiatric hospitalization, hypertension, and severe headaches since childhood. He had failed numerous headache prophylactic medications and ultimately was prescribed opioids. At initial presentation to the sleep clinic, his medications included fentanyl lollipops, fentanyl transdermal patch, hydrocodone, triamterene, fluoxetine, and venlafaxine. He was also using dextroamphetamine/amphetamine and methylphenidate for sleepiness and ramelteon and temazepam to aid sleep initiation. His sleep schedule was suboptimal: bedtime was 02:00; perceived sleep latency was 30 min, with awakenings up to 4 times during the sleep period for various reasons; rise-time was 07:00; and sleep was described as non-refreshing.. The patient complained of excessive sleepiness (Epworth score of 16), mild snoring, and witnessed apneas. Physical exam ...
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia is an inborn error of glycine degradation pathway presenting during the first days, even hours, of the newborn and causing severe brain damage and often early death. Glycine acts as neurotransmitter and its increased concentration due to deficient degradation has brain damaging effect. NKH does not affect the intrauterine development but after normal delivery the disease presents during the first days of life - 66 percent of cases were symptomatic before 48 hrs of life in one large series. Patients develop lethargy and profound hypotonia and refuse to feed. Wandering eye movements and intermittent ophthalmoplegia are frequent. As the encephalopathy progresses to coma, the infants develop frequent sequential myoclonic jerks, apneic episodes and hiccups. Most patients do not survive this stage without assisted ventilation. Even with assisted ventilation about 30 percent of patients die during the neonatal period. The surviving infants usually regain spontaneous respiration by 3
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*Sleep disorder

Obstructive Sleep Apnea[edit]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States.[47] ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea include central sleep apnea and sleep-related hypoventilation.[9] ... "Obstructive sleep apnea - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2017-11-27.. ...

*Sleep deprivation

Sleep apnea[edit]. Sleep apnea (obstructive sleep apnea, OSA) is a collapse of the upper airway during sleep, which reduces ... Central sleep apnea is repeated stops in breathing during sleep when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles ... Other scientists hold that the physical discomfort of obesity and related problems, such as sleep apnea, reduce an individual's ...

*Sleep disorder

Obstructive Sleep Apnea[edit]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States.[47] ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea are less common.[8] Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical disorder that is caused by repetitive ... "Obstructive sleep apnea - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2017-11-27.. ...

*Sleep

"What is Sleep Apnoea? (Sleep Apnea)". britishsnoring.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2019. ... Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which major pauses in breathing occur during sleep, ... Obstructive sleep apnea is more common than central sleep apnea.[94] As oxygen levels in the blood drop, the patient then comes ... "Sleep Apnea". National Sleep Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.. ...

*Radiofrequency ablation

Obstructive sleep apnea[edit]. Main article: Obstructive sleep apnea § Radiofrequency ablation. RFA was first studied in ... The clinical application of RFA in obstructive sleep apnea is reviewed in that main article, including controversies and ... "Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Annals ... obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a pig model.[23] RFA has been recognized as a somnoplasty treatment option in selected ...

*OpenROV

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*Hypoxia (medical)

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*Advanced Open Water Diver

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*Underwater Society of America

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*ROHHAD

Obstructive sleep apnea. Thermal or other hypothalamic dysregulations, with autonomic dysregulation by median age 3.6 years: ...

*Dave Shaw (diver)

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*Down syndrome

Tonsillectomy is also often done to help with sleep apnea and throat infections.[20] Surgery, however, does not always address ... These airway changes lead to obstructive sleep apnea in around half of those with Down syndrome.[20] Other common features ... the sleep apnea and a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine may be useful.[39] Physical therapy and participation ...

*Public safety diving

Dynamic apnea without fins (DNF). *Free immersion (FIM). *No-limits apnea (NLT) ...

*Secondary hypertension

Another common and under-recognized cause of hypertension is sleep apnea,[54][55] which is often best treated with nocturnal ... Pack AI, Gislason T (2009). "Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions". Progress ... "Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea Improves Essential Hypertension and Quality of Life". American Family Physician. 65 (2): 229- ...

*Sleep and breathing

Central sleep apnea syndrome[edit]. Main article: Sleep apnea. Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English; /æpˈniːə/) is a ... Main article: Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is apnea either as the result of obstruction of the air passages ... Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last for several seconds to several minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more ... "What Is Sleep Apnea?". NHLBI. July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2016.. ...

*Toxidrome

Apnea is a potential complication. Substances that may cause this toxidrome include anticonvulsants, barbiturates, ...

*Stanford Protocol

Allan I. Pack (21 May 2002). Sleep Apnea: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press. pp. 597-. ISBN 978-0-8247-4481-6. ... The Stanford Protocol is a combination of surgeries that are undertaken to treat obstructive sleep apnea. The Protocol involves ...

*Analeptic

Doxapram can also be used as a treatment for neonatal apnea, but it can be dangerous, so caution must be taken. Doxapram has ... Schmidt, Barbara (May 18, 2006). "Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (20): 2112- ... Schmidt, Barbara (November 8, 2007). "Long-Term Effects of Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity". New England Journal of ... The three most prevalent clinical analeptic uses of caffeine are in the treatment of asthma, apnea of prematurity, and ...

*Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Lal C, Strange C, Bachman D (June 2012). "Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea". Chest. 141 (6): 1601-1610. doi ... Other conditions that should be considered are other neurodevelopmental disorders, tics, and sleep apnea.[149] ... Obstructive sleep apnea can also cause ADHD type symptoms.[163] Rare tumors called pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas may ... sleep apnea, drug interactions, untreated celiac disease, and head injury.[31][83] ...

*Non-rapid eye movement sleep

This can lead to sleep apnea.[citation needed] Parasomnias[edit]. Main article: Parasomnia ...

*Sleep sex

These include, Insomnia disorder, Hypersomnolence disorder, Narcolepsy, Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea, Central sleep apnea, ... Polysomnography is also used to aid in the diagnosis of other sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), narcolepsy ... Continuous positive airway pressure is commonly used as treatment for sleep apnea. In cases where the individual has both sleep ... and restless leg syndrome (RLS). Normal test results show little to no episodes of sleep apnea and normal electrical activity ...

*Beating heart cadaver

Due to the results of the apnea test if a person lacks the brain function to breathe unassisted, it is concluded that it would ... This test is called an apnea test. The ventilator is taken away and is reconnected only if the person decided to be an organ ... These neurological assessments commonly consist of an apnea test, reflex tests where the body is manipulated or exposed to a ... Later, in 1981 the President's Commission reinstated the apnea test and the repeat exam. Unfortunately, in a study done in 1989 ...

*Optic neuropathy

cardiac and spine procedures), and sleep apnea. Rarely, amiodarone, interferon-alpha, and erectile dysfunction drugs have been ...

*Diving reflex

... the apnea and its duration, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and redistribution of cardiac output occur also in terrestrial ... Apnea with nostril and facial cooling are triggers of this reflex.[1][7] ... "Cardiovascular regulation during apnea in elite divers". Hypertension. 53 (4): 719-24. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.127530 ...

*Craniosynostosis

Bannink N, Nout E, Wolvius EB, Hoeve HL, Joosten KF, Mathijssen IM (February 2010). "Obstructive sleep apnea in children with ... Findings include elevation of the intracranial pressure; obstructive sleep apnoea(OSA); abnormalities in the skull base and ...

*Near-death experience

... apnea; and serious depression.[citation needed] In contrast to common belief, Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do ...

Even Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases the Occurrence of Heart Arrhythmia | DrSamGirgis.comEven Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases the Occurrence of Heart Arrhythmia | DrSamGirgis.com

Obstructive sleep apnea is a subtype of sleep disordered breathing. In obstructive sleep apnea, there is a physical obstruction ... Tagged as: AHI, apnea-hypopnea index, cardiac arrhythmia, Dr. Silje K. Namtvedt, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, ... "Cardiac Arrhythmias in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project)" The American Journal of Cardiology ... The most common symptomatic manifestation of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. This sleep disorder is characterized by apneas ...
more infohttp://drsamgirgis.com/2011/08/20/even-mild-obstructive-sleep-apnea-increases-the-occurrence-of-heart-arrhythmia/

Inguinal Hernia - Inguinal Hernias Information, Inguinal Hernia repair, surgery,symptoms,pictureInguinal Hernia - Inguinal Hernias Information, Inguinal Hernia repair, surgery,symptoms,picture

... is associated to a higher incidence of post-op apnea). Postconceptual age (sum of intra- and extrauterine life) has been cited ... apnea and bradycardia, emesis, cyanosis and re-intubation (due to laryngospasm). ...
more infohttp://diseasesatoz.com/inguinal-hernias.htm

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Information about Sudden Infant Death SyndromeSudden Infant Death Syndrome, Information about Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Centralsleep apnea (cessation of breathing during sleep), the focus of intense investigations over many years, has now been ...
more infohttp://www.faqs.org/health/topics/43/Sudden-Infant-Death-Syndrome.html

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and PrognosisPeriodic Limb Movement Disorder - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis

Sleep apnea syndrome. *Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). *Medications - Neuroleptics or other antidopaminergic ...
more infohttps://www.primehealthchannel.com/periodic-limb-movement-disorder.html

A Guide to Sleep Apnea - Well Guides - The New York TimesA Guide to Sleep Apnea - Well Guides - The New York Times

These are just a few common symptoms of sleep apnea, and heres a guide for what you can do if you think you (or sleep next to ... Witness Apnea: Some people who have sleep apnea only learn about it from their partners. Doctors call this "witness apnea." "A ... Keep Reading about Sleep Apnea and Your Health. I Learned I Have Sleep Apnea. Its More Serious Than Many People Realize. June ... Are You Suffering From Sleep Apnea?. It can manifest itself in different ways. But some of the hallmarks of sleep apnea are ...
more infohttps://www.nytimes.com/guides/well/sleep-apnea-guide

Central sleep apnea: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCentral sleep apnea: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Central sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which breathing stops over and over during sleep. ... Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea is not the same as obstructive sleep apnea. With obstructive sleep apnea, breathing stops and starts ... If the apnea is not associated with another disease, it is called idiopathic central sleep apnea. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003997.htm

Methylxanthine treatment for apnoea in preterm infants.  - PubMed - NCBIMethylxanthine treatment for apnoea in preterm infants. - PubMed - NCBI

... as treatment for apnoea was compared with placebo or no treatment for apnoea in preterm infants were included. ... Methylxanthine treatment for apnoea in preterm infants.. Henderson-Smart DJ1, De Paoli AG. ... Recurrent apnoea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of ineffective ... The post-hoc analysis of the large CAP Trial comparing caffeine to control in a subgroup of infants being treated for apnoea ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21154343

Dynamic apnea - WikipediaDynamic apnea - Wikipedia

Dynamic apnea covers two of the eight competitive freediving categories recognised by the AIDA International (International ... The other categories recognized are: static apnea, no limit, variable weight, free immersion, constant weight, constant weight ... Association for Development of Apnea): dynamic without fins and dynamic with fins. Both disciplines require breath held dives ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_apnea

Sleep apnea - WikipediaSleep apnea - Wikipedia

Obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, mixed sleep apnea[1]. Risk factors. Overweight, family history, allergies, ... "Sleep apnea". Archived from the original on 2014-04-30.. *^ "What Is Sleep Apnea?". Nhlbi health. Archived from the original on ... "Sleep Apnea: Who Is At Risk for Sleep Apnea?". NHLBI: Health Information for the Public. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... "Sleep Apnea: What Is Sleep Apnea?". NHLBI: Health Information for the Public. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_apnea

Electromyogram - Sleep apnea syndromeElectromyogram - Sleep apnea syndrome

Oral appliance therapy has a definite role in the treatment of sleep apnea and snoring. Enough chewing from childhood or ... No reduction in the mean EMG amplitude was seen during central apneas. Thus, central apneas are suggested to occur independent ... Treatment and Research of Sleep Apnea Syndrome‎ , ‎Neurophysiological Aspect of Sleep Apnea Syndrome‎ , ‎Electrophysiological ... Polysomnographic recording during central sleep apnea. During central sleep apnea, both abdominal and chest movements ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/sleepapneasyndrome/home/neurophysiological-aspect-of-sleep-apnea-syndrome/electrophysiological-studies/electromyogram

Sleep Apnea | MedlinePlusSleep Apnea | MedlinePlus

Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow while you sleep. Discover sleep apnea ... Sleep Apnea (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * Sleep Apnea Information Page (National Institute of ... However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea.. You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a ... Getting a Diagnosis for Sleep Apnea (American Sleep Apnea Association) * Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study (American ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/sleepapnea.html

Obstructive Sleep ApneaObstructive Sleep Apnea

How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?. If enlarged tonsils or adenoids are thought to be causing the apnea, the doctor will refer your ... What Happens During Sleep Apnea?. Sleep apnea happens when a person stops breathing during sleep. It is usually caused by ... But when breathing stops often or for longer periods, its called sleep apnea. When someone has sleep apnea, oxygen levels in ... How Is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed?. If your child snores regularly, is a restless sleeper, is very sleepy during the day, or has ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/Advocate/en/parents/apnea.html

Obstructive Sleep ApneaObstructive Sleep Apnea

About Sleep Apnea. Sleep apnea happens when a person stops breathing during sleep ("apnea" comes from a Greek word meaning " ... Treating Sleep Apnea. If enlarged tonsils or adenoids are thought to be causing the apnea, the doctor will refer your child to ... But with sleep apnea, this pattern repeats itself all night. So people who have it dont reach a deeper, more restful level of ... This is known as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).. OSA is a common, serious condition that can make kids miss out on healthy, ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/en/parents/apnea.html

sleep apnea | Infopleasesleep apnea | Infoplease

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in which relaxation of muscles in the throat repeatedly close off the airway ... sleep apnea. sleep apnea, episodes of interrupted breathing during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in which ... A different type of sleep apnea, called central sleep apnea, is believed to be caused by an abnormality in the brains ... Sometimes obstructive sleep apnea can be treated by surgically correcting the narrowing of the airway. Another option is ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/sleep-apnea

Sleep Apnea Death RisksSleep Apnea Death Risks

... sleep apnea can lead to worse things -- such as serious car wrecks, heart disease, diabetes, and pregnancy complications, ... Sleep Apnea and Heart Attack, Heart Death. Having sleep apnea for four or five years raises a persons risk of having a heart ... Sleep Apnea and Car Crashes. Raw data suggest that sleep apnea raises the risk that a person will be involved in a motor ... Sleep Apnea and Pregnancy Complications. Sleep apnea is more common among obese people. But the extra weight gain during the ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-apnea/news/20070522/sleep-apnea-death-risks

Sleep Apnea - familydoctor.orgSleep Apnea - familydoctor.org

People who have sleep apnea stop breathing for 10 to 30 seconds at a time while they are sleeping. ... What causes sleep apnea?. There are two kinds of sleep apnea: obstructive apnea and central apnea. ... Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type. Nine out of 10 people who have sleep apnea have this type of apnea. If you ... What is sleep apnea?. Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder. People who have sleep apnea stop breathing for 10 to 30 seconds ...
more infohttps://familydoctor.org/condition/sleep-apnea/

Light therapy sleep apneaLight therapy sleep apnea

... light therapy sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome causes and treatment, ways to stay awake when tired, need to stay awake for ... How to sleep deeper yahoo answers Sleep apnea heart disease risk I cant sleep at night what should i do Sleep apnea and high ... Light therapy sleep apnea,pregnant tips in malayalam,kicking in sleep treatments - 2016 Feature ... Considerably minimize snoring and aids in preventing tincture light therapy sleep apnea in one particular-quarter where you ...
more infohttp://s3.amazonaws.com/snoresolution/light-therapy-sleep-apnea.html

Sleep Apnea | Encyclopedia.comSleep Apnea | Encyclopedia.com

Sleep apnea Definition Sleep apnea, or sleep-disordered breathing, is a condition in which breathing is briefly interrupted or ... Apnea Child Development COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. APNEA. Apnea is a condition when breathing stops during sleep. ... Koliha, C. A. "Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Post Treatment … Something to Consider?" ORL-Head and ... Mixed apnea is a combination of OSA and central apnea.. * tonsils (TON-silz) are paired clusters of lymphoid tissues in the ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/sleep-apnea

Sleep ApneaSleep Apnea

... is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last ... However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea.. You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a ... Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last from a few ... Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results. ...
more infohttp://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=1379315

Sleep apnea: 7 Hidden DangersSleep apnea: 7 Hidden Dangers

Obstructive sleep apnea -- disruptive snoring -- is linked to conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease and ... Treatment for Sleep Apnea Snoring can make for a bad nights sleep, for you and your bed mate. But if it happens because you ... 7 Ways Sleep Apnea Can Hurt Your Health. In this Article. In this Article In this Article * ... 1. High blood pressure. If you already have it, sleep apnea can make it worse. When you wake up often during the night, your ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-apnea/sleep-apnea-conditions

Diagnosis: Email Apnea? - OReilly RadarDiagnosis: Email Apnea? - O'Reilly Radar

Email apnea - a temporary absence or suspension of breathing, or shallow breathing, while doing email (Linda Stone, February ... I wanted to know - how widespread is email apnea*? I observed others on computers and BlackBerries: in their offices, their ... In the meantime, why not breathe while doing email? Awareness is the first step toward wiping out email apnea! ...
more infohttp://radar.oreilly.com/2008/02/diagnosis-email-apnea.html

apnea - Everything2.comapnea - Everything2.com

... such as sleep apnea. Apnea can also be intentional. Breathe in, and dont breathe out again for several seconds or min... ... apnea (apnea while moving, that is, swimming) and static apnea (apnea while staying still). Static apnea performance is ... Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea. hypersomnia. shallow water blackout. static apnea. co-sleeping. Münchausen syndrome by ... Apnea can be a medical condition, such as sleep apnea. Apnea can also be intentional. Breathe in, and dont breathe out again ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/apnea?confirmop=ilikeit&like_id=875167

apnea | Emagazine.comapnea | Emagazine.com

Help get others heads out of the sand by making a secure tax-deductible donation to EarthTalk Inc., the 501(c)3 behind Emagazine.com, the syndicated EarthTalk Q&A column and Sea Change Radio. Help up keep preaching beyond the choir on green living, sustainability and climate change with your contribution today.. ...
more infohttps://www.emagazine.com/tag/apnea/

Treating Sleep Apnea Without a CPAP - YouTubeTreating Sleep Apnea Without a CPAP - YouTube

This is the first good nights sleep weve had in 10 years, said a couple whos managing sleep apnea with an oral device made ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea Part 10: Oral Appliances, Appliance Selection - Duration: 21:24. Finkel Dental Forum 17,089 views ... Exercises for Sleep Apnea, Snoring, Sinus Pressure & more. Addressing the nose, throat and tongue - Duration: 15:15. Adam ... "This is the first good nights sleep weve had in 10 years," said a couple whos managing sleep apnea with an oral device made ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYNwviYi4pk
  • The purpose of this work is to: (1) provide practitioners with a better understanding of OHS and how it differs from other obesity related breathing disorders (such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea, OSA), (2) provide diagnostic criteria of OHS, (3) provide work up recommendations, and (4) provide current recommended treatment. (byu.edu)
  • When someone has sleep apnea, oxygen levels in the body may fall and sleep can be disrupted. (kidshealth.org)
  • Less commonly, sleep apnea can happen when someone doesn't get enough oxygen during sleep because the brain doesn't send signals to the muscles that control breathing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sleep apnea disrupts how your body takes in oxygen, which makes it hard for your brain to control how blood flows in your arteries and the brain itself. (webmd.com)
  • Researchers found that people who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea - a condition where breathing stops and starts during sleep - are also likely to have a lower peak oxygen uptake during aerobic activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We were not able to confirm previous hypotheses that obstructive sleep apnea is a cause of overall cancer development through intermittent lack of oxygen," said lead author Dr. Tetyana Kendzerska, from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and Women's College Hospital at the University of Toronto. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although no link was seen for cancer in general, the researchers did find that low oxygen levels related to sleep apnea were associated with smoking -related cancers, such as lung cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • OSA is defined as periodic episodes of nocturnal airflow restriction (hypopneas) or obstruction (apneas) in association with sleep disruption, arousals from sleep, oxygen desaturation, and possible hypercapnia [ 4 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine if treatment with Medical Air (21% oxygen in room air) compared to supplemental oxygen (100% oxygen) will lead to similar improvements in the central apnea-hypopnea index (CAHI) for infants with Prader-Willi Syndrome. (centerwatch.com)
  • Sleep-disordered breathing is characterized by cycles of apnea-induced hypoxia, where the sleeper experiences a temporary drop in oxygen levels. (newswise.com)
  • Earlier studies by the Technion scientists suggest apnea increases oxygen-related stress and inflammation in the heart and blood vessels. (newswise.com)
  • This could occur many times at night and affect oxygen supply to vital parts that make obstructive sleep apnea a condition for which there are cures and machines to stop breath cessation and snoring. (newsmax.com)
  • In the pediatric age range, abnormalities include oxygen desaturation under 92%, more than one obstructive apnea per hour, and elevations of ET CO 2 measurements of more than 50 mm Hg for more than 9% of sleep time or a peak level of greater than 53 mm Hg. (medscape.com)
  • People with obstructive sleep apnea can stop breathing dozens or hundreds of times each night leading to sleep disruption and low levels of oxygen. (lung.ca)
  • The interruptions in breathing that characterize sleep apnea lead to low oxygen levels in the blood and brain. (miamiherald.com)
  • Sleep apnea triggers a series of responses in the body as a result of low oxygen levels," Ramos said. (miamiherald.com)
  • Hypertension associated with sleep apnea occurs because of the strain that low oxygen levels in the blood and brain place on the cardiovascular system. (miamiherald.com)
  • It is important to note that the effect of sleep apnea on the circulatory system and all the bodily processes associated with low oxygen levels and hypertension will not put people at risk for stroke from one day to the next. (miamiherald.com)
  • To eliminate the potential for strokes and other risks associated with low oxygen levels in the body, sleep apnea must be treated. (miamiherald.com)
  • Though the specific connection between dementia and sleep is unclear, Edelmayer said it might be that the brain gets less oxygen during apnea episodes, and that stresses the brain. (hon.ch)
  • With that, we can determine how many times you stop breathing, for how long, how low your oxygen goes, if you stop breathing because you've got obstruction intermittent in your throat, which is the most common form of sleep apnea or if you stop breathing because essentially your brain doesn't send the signal. (click2houston.com)
  • Although sleep fragmentation and duration were not related to the odds of developing cognitive impairment, two measures of hypoxia -- an elevated oxygen desaturation index and a high percentage of sleep time in apnea or hypopnea -- were associated (ORs 1.98 and 2.32, respectively). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Prolonged apnea leads to severe lack of oxygen in the blood circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Static apnea blackout occurs at the surface when a motionless diver holds a breath long enough for the circulating oxygen to fall below that required for the brain to maintain consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the onset of apnea, low pressure develops in the airspace of the lungs, because more oxygen is absorbed than CO2 is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you're snoring loudly, chronically and keeping your partner awake, it could be a sign of sleep apnea, and you should talk to your doctor. (aarp.org)
  • If you're spending seven to nine hours in bed a night and still feel sleepy during the day, it could be a sign of sleep apnea. (aarp.org)
  • While nocturia could be linked to aging, it's also a classic sign of sleep apnea (the fight-or-flight response triggers a feeling of fullness in the bladder, according to Twery). (aarp.org)
  • Chronic snoring is the most common sign of sleep apnea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • His wife and daughter noticed he would stop breathing at night, wake up gasping for air and had the cardinal sign of sleep apnea: He snored. (click2houston.com)
  • Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, quitting smoking and avoiding alcohol can reduce severity of sleep apnea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The incidence and severity of sleep apnea we observed among survivors of acute respiratory failure, if replicated in larger studies, are cause for concern," said Dr. Parsons. (redorbit.com)
  • Sleeping on your back, smoking, and drinking alcohol can also increase your risk of apnea. (cnn.com)
  • Others receiving epidural narcotics and local anesthetics are at an increased risk of apnea and respiratory arrest. (google.com)
  • This relationship has important implications for NICU policy, because infants born at less than 35 weeks' gestation generally require cardiorespiratory monitoring after birth because of their risk of apnea. (aappublications.org)
  • Although some specialists estimate that OSA is present in only 3 percent of the adult population, a recent study of all patients in five general medicine doctors' offices suggested that approximately 17 percent of adults had clinically significant sleep apnea (defined as having at least fifteen episodes an hour of non-breathing during sleep). (healthy.net)
  • Some patients had clinically significant sleep apnea despite lack of sleep complaints. (redorbit.com)
  • Children and adolescents with significant sleep apnea should avoid eating large amounts just before bedtime. (medscape.com)
  • Infant apnea is defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics as "an unexplained episode of cessation of breathing for 20 seconds or longer, or a shorter respiratory pause associated with bradycardia, cyanosis, pallor, and/or marked hypotonia. (medscape.com)
  • In November 2017, the Minnesota Department of Health announced plans to add obstructive sleep apnea as a new qualifying condition for its medical marijuana program. (upi.com)
  • On November 29, 2017, after more than three years of collaborative work, the Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) Interdisciplinary Network on Sleep released its Women & Sleep Apnea Toolkit to provide women and their health -care providers with gender -specific information about obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This condition, known as sleep apnea, affects an estimated 22 million Americans. (nytimes.com)
  • Head injuries and other conditions that affect the brain increase the risk for this type of apnea, which mostly affects older adults. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sleep apnea affects an estimated 5% to 10% of Americans and is undiagnosed in most of them. (usatoday.com)
  • Sleep apnea - which affects an estimated 5% to 10% of Americans and is undiagnosed in most of them - can also lead to obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes and heart attacks. (usatoday.com)
  • 2. Orthodontics - Current Principles and Techniques - Graber 5th edition - 2011 Just as allergic disease significantly affects quality of life, obstructive sleep apnea, if it is untreated, may affect adversely the ability of adults and children to function adequately at work and at school. (slideshare.net)
  • In many cases with heart disease, and for those taking a certain medication that affects sleep, there is usually a combination of both forms of apnea. (healthcentral.com)
  • Recurrent apnoea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. (nih.gov)
  • [ 5 ] Apnea is more common in preterm infants. (medscape.com)
  • To see whether the two conditions were related, the researchers kept track of nearly 600 sleep apnea patients for up to six years. (webmd.com)
  • Now anesthesiology researchers have developed a scoring system, published in the May journal Anesthesiology, to quickly identify obstructive sleep apnea sufferers before surgery. (latimes.com)
  • Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of coronary heart disease or death by 68% in men under the age of 70, but does not increase the risk for men over 70 or for women, researchers reported Monday. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers examined the severity of their sleep apnea, and also measured their blood levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, or HbA1c (an indicator for the average blood sugar level over time). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Researchers found an association between HbA1c levels and sleep apnea severity . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The time is right for researchers to study whether treating sleep apnea could prevent or delay stroke in some individuals. (thaindian.com)
  • After adjusting for several cardiovascular risk factors, the researchers found that the effect of sleep apnea on stroke risk was stronger in men than in women. (thaindian.com)
  • The researchers suggest that the differences between men and women might be because men are more likely to develop sleep apnea at younger ages. (thaindian.com)
  • These researchers say patients who undergo surgery to treat obstructive sleep apnea should be closely monitored, but do not necessarily need to be admitted to the intensive care unit. (medpagetoday.com)
  • To examine the incidence and types of complications, the researchers conducted a review of consecutive patients who had surgery for obstructive sleep apnea over a three-year period. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It isn't clear, however, if sleep apnea causes the buildup of "tau" protein tangles in the brain that are a marker for Alzheimer's, or if the increased tau helps cause the apnea, the researchers said. (hon.ch)
  • About 13 percent of men and 6 percent of women have moderate to severe undiagnozed sleep apnea, the researchers say. (reuters.com)
  • Sleep apnea sufferers may complain of morning headaches. (aarp.org)
  • One explanation might be that apnea sufferers are also more likely to be obese, and would be expected to be less fit anyway. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A sleep expert says apnea isn't really a "disability," and sufferers can do demanding jobs if they get treatment. (nypost.com)
  • Alcohol, sedatives and tranquilizers may also promote sleep apnea by relaxing throat muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genioglossal, masseter and lateral pterygoid muscles showed apparently reduced activity during obstructive sleep apnea (Figure 27). (google.com)
  • On the other hand, during central sleep apnea, both abdominal and chest movements disappeared completely, and the three muscles showed no obvious reductions (Figure 28). (google.com)
  • During central sleep apnea, both abdominal and chest movements disappeared completely, and the three muscles showed no obvious reductions. (google.com)
  • If you have this type of apnea, the muscles you use to breathe don't get the "go-ahead" signal from your brain. (familydoctor.org)
  • DENVER - An implantable pacemaker-like device that controls breathing muscles during sleep by electrical stimulation of a phrenic nerve proved effective in patients with moderate to severe central sleep apnea (CSA) in a randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • The term "obstructive" distinguishes OSA from rarer forms of sleep apnoea, such as central sleep apnoea, which is caused by the brain not sending signals to the breathing muscles during sleep. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This is the most common form of sleep apnea caused by the muscles in the throat relaxing. (memorialhermann.org)
  • During apnea, there is no movement of the muscles of inhalation, and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voluntary apnea can be achieved by closing the vocal cords, simultaneously keeping the mouth closed and blocking the nasal vestibule, or constantly activating expiratory muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack , stroke , diabetes , heart failure , irregular heartbeat , obesity , and motor vehicle collisions . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that the risk of diabetes among those with moderate or severe sleep apnea is higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • May 22, 2007 - Bad enough by itself, sleep apnea can lead to worse things -- such as serious car wrecks, heart disease , diabetes , and pregnancy complications . (webmd.com)
  • While evaluating older, obese men for a sleep apnea study, Botros and his Yale colleagues noticed that about a third of the patients suffered from diabetes as well as sleep apnea. (webmd.com)
  • Compared with similar men without sleep apnea, the patients were more than two-and-a-half times more likely to develop diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • The more severe the sleep apnea, the higher the patients' risk of diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • In addition to disrupting your sleep, undiagnosed sleep apnea has been linked to high blood pressure, stroke, memory problems and diabetes. (aarp.org)
  • While a broad cross-section of the population has sleep apnea, those of us who have diabetes are much more likely to have it. (mendosa.com)
  • Both diabetes and sleep apnea are characterized by insulin resistance. (mendosa.com)
  • Previous studies have suggested sleep apnea can raise the risk for depression if left untreated, and the condition has been linked to increased risk for high blood pressure , heart disease , stroke and type 2 diabetes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A recent study presented at the ATS 2012 International Conference showed that moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea predicted Type 2 diabetes, and that sleep apnea was associated with HbA1c levels. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • But he said the results provide more evidence that sleep apnea isn't just a manifestation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it can make these conditions worse. (upi.com)
  • Risk factors for sleep apnea include smoking , chronic lung disease, obesity and diabetes , Lichtenfeld said. (medicinenet.com)
  • The risk from sleep apnea is independent of other risk factors such as weight, high blood pressure, race, smoking, and diabetes. (thaindian.com)
  • Although scientists have uncovered several risk factors for stroke - such as age, high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation, and diabetes - there are still many cases in which the cause or contributing factors are unknown," noted NHLBI Acting Director Susan B. Shurin, M.D. "This is the largest study to date to link sleep apnea with an increased risk of stroke. (thaindian.com)
  • Since then, I have written here about " The Sleep Apnea-Diabetes Connection " and " Treating Sleep Apnea " in January 2007 and " Successful Sleep Apnea Therapy " in March 2007. (mendosa.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Obstructive sleep apnea is linked with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, new research shows. (reuters.com)
  • Over the last two decades, evidence has been accruing that sleep apnea may be associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes," study leader Mako Nagayoshi of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science in Japan told Reuters Health by email. (reuters.com)
  • Past studies tying sleep apnea to diabetes were limited by a small number of participants and other factors, Nagayoshi and colleagues say. (reuters.com)
  • Those with severe obstructive sleep apnea at the start of the study were about 70 percent more likely to develop diabetes than those classified as normal. (reuters.com)
  • Behaviors such as healthy weight maintenance and reducing time in sedentary activities would simultaneously reduce the risk (of) developing sleep apnea and diabetes. (reuters.com)
  • Ongoing research is still investigating whether treating sleep apnea reduces diabetes risk, said Aurora, who was also not involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • Patients are at risk for heart attacks, stroke, and sleep apnea can make it more difficult to control diabetes. (click2houston.com)
  • The medical term for this is apnea of prematurity, or AOP. (rchsd.org)
  • Apnea of prematurity is fairly common in preemies. (rchsd.org)
  • Once apnea of prematurity goes away, it does not come back. (rchsd.org)
  • Most experts define apnea of prematurity as a condition in which premature infants stop breathing for 15 to 20 seconds during sleep. (rchsd.org)
  • Most of the time, premature infants (especially those less than 34 weeks' gestation at birth) will receive medical care for apnea of prematurity in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . (rchsd.org)
  • Most of the time, babies with apnea of prematurity spells will begin breathing again on their own with this kind of stimulation. (rchsd.org)
  • Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common diagnoses in the NICU. (aappublications.org)
  • Despite the frequency of apnea of prematurity, it is unknown whether recurrent apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia in preterm infants are harmful. (aappublications.org)
  • Different causes of sleep apnea have been determined, and these include factors such as mechanical problems, poor nutrition and existing disease, to name a few. (mercola.com)
  • Additional studies are needed to find out whether there is an independent effect of sleep apnea on specific types of cancer," Kendzerska said. (medicinenet.com)