An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"A quantitative analysis of the development of the central nervous system in juvenile Aplysia californica". J Neurobiol. 20 (1 ... The following are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in ... Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment ... White, J. G; E. Southgate; J. N Thomson; S. Brenner (1986-11-12). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode ...
Despite its seemingly simple nervous system, however, Aplysia californica is capable of a variety of non-associative and ... VI, p. 1-596 Aplysia californica from the Sea Slug Forum Kandel, Eric Behavioral biology of Aplysia. W.H. Freeman and Co., San ... Aplysia are known to form mating chains with up to 20 animals. The eggs are yellow-green, and change after 8 to 9 days into a ... Aplysia has a generation time of 19 weeks: Day 1-37 after hatching from the egg planktonic stage, day 34-37 Metamorphic stage, ...
"Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia ...
Learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia has been described.[14][15][16] Mollusk neurons are able to ... Nervous system. Neurons differ in invertebrates from mammalian cells. Invertebrates cells fire in response to similar stimuli ... Illich, P.A and Walters, E.T., (1997). Mechanosensory neurons innervating Aplysia siphon encode noxious stimuli and display ... Regulation of low-threshold afferent activity may contribute to short-term habituation in Aplysia californica. Neurobiology of ...
Chalazonitis both explored the methodology of electrophysiological activity of the nervous system of the sea hare genus Aplysia ... Strumwasser, F. The cellular basis of behavior in aplysia. Pergamon Press. Arvanitaki, A; Chalazonitis, N. (1955). "Les ... the sea hare Aplysia and the land snail Helix. She developed the concept of ganglion preparation of large identifiable nerves. ...
... to examine the interactions between transcription factors involved in long-term facilitation in the nervous system of aplysia ... Choi JH, Lee JA, Yim SW, Lim CS, Lee CH, Lee YD, Bartsch D, Kandel ER, Kaang BK (2003). "Using an aplysia two-hybrid system ...
Despite its seemingly simple nervous system, however, Aplysia californica is capable of a variety of non-associative and ... The California sea hare, scientific name Aplysia californica, is a species of sea slug in the sea hare family, Aplysiidae.[1] ... a b c Kandel, Eric Behavioral biology of Aplysia. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. ... Adult animals can weigh up to 7 kg (15 lb).[4] A closely related species, Aplysia vaccaria, the black sea hare, can grow to be ...
... a novel enzyme catalyzing histamine metabolism in the central nervous system of the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica". J. ...
... in identified neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia. "The introduction of a 'simplified' brain (the Aplysia nervous ...
Experiments on Hebbian synapse modification mechanisms at the central nervous system synapses of vertebrates are much more ... Kandel has provided evidence for the involvement of Hebbian learning mechanisms at synapses in the marine gastropod Aplysia ... difficult to control than are experiments with the relatively simple peripheral nervous system synapses studied in marine ...
But after a stimuli that was once novel (e.g. a weak jet of water) has been applied repeatedly to the gills, aplysia no longer ... Species with complex nervous systems (esp. mammals), in addition to acting based on instinct and basic sensory stimuli, need to ... The nervous systems of species develop in concert with certain anatomical features in order to produce sensory environments ... A species-typical behavior can be altered by experience, as shown by experiments on Aplysia californica, a sea snail. When its ...
Definitions of pain vary, but most involve the ability of the nervous system to detect and reflexively react to harmful stimuli ... the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the molluscs Aplysia californica and Cepaea nemoralis. Changes in neuronal activity ... These fulfilled criteria include a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors; opioid receptors and reduced responses to ... Bilaterally symmetrical animals characteristically have a collection of nervous tissue toward the anterior region of their body ...
... where he investigated the ink motor reflex of Aplysia. In 1982, Byrne moved to Houston for a faculty position in the Department ... a number of ubiquitous forms of learning such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning and has a simple nervous ... elucidating the neural and molecular mechanisms of memory by exploiting the technical advantages of the marine mollusc Aplysia ...
Except for a few primitive organisms such as sponges (which have no nervous system) and cnidarians (which have a nervous system ... The sea slug Aplysia californica was chosen by Nobel Prize-winning neurophysiologist Eric Kandel as a model for studying the ... A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is ... One of the advantages of working with this worm is that the body plan is very stereotyped: the nervous system of the ...
This marked the beginning of his studies on simple nervous systems, which he used to explore the neural mechanisms that work ... Aplysia, starfish, rattlesnakes, rays, sharks, porpoises, sea lions, cuttlefish, catfish, sloths, manatees, salamanders, frogs ... He believed that to fully understand how the brain and nervous system work, one must search for commonalities, and also for ... Preuss, T.M. & Kaas, J. (2006), Evolution of the Nervous System, Burlington MA: Academic Press. Bullock's UCSD profile page, ...
The nervous system of this annelid consists of a chain of interconnected ganglia that contain relatively large and easily ... Brunelli, M; Castellucci, V; Kandel, E. (10 December 1976). "Synaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia: ... Together with Franco Magni he published researches on the nervous system of the pigeon and the leech and on the hormonal ... Other studies were on the nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis and visual perception in the common pigeon. His ...
In vertebrates, the nervous system can be split into two parts, the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and the ... Eric Kandel and collaborators examined biochemical changes in neurons associated with learning and memory storage in Aplysia. ... Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.[1] It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology[2] ... Neuroanatomy the study of the anatomy of nervous systems. Neurochemistry Neurochemistry is the study of how neurochemicals ...
A nervous system emerges from the assemblage of neurons that are connected to each other. The vertebrate nervous system can be ... Eric Kandel and collaborators examined biochemical changes in neurons associated with learning and memory storage in Aplysia. ... and the peripheral nervous system. In many species - including all vertebrates - the nervous system is the most complex organ ... Analysis of the nervous system is therefore performed at multiple levels, ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the ...
... "the neuronal components of parts of its ganglionic nervous system that are responsible for the generation of feeding movements ... Aplysia guttata Sars M., 1840 synonym of Aplysia punctata (Cuvier, 1803) Aplysia hamiltoni Kirk, 1882: synonym of Aplysia ... Aplysia poikilia Bergh, 1908: synonym of Aplysia maculata Rang, 1828 Aplysia protea Rang, 1828: synonym of Aplysia dactylomela ... synonym of Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 Aplysia sibogae Bergh, 1905: synonym of Aplysia juliana Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 Aplysia ...
The central nervous system and neurons are located on the ganglionic surface and possess unique coloration depending on ... Aplysia punctata is a species of sea slug in the family Aplysiidae, the sea hares. It reaches a length of up to 20 cm (7.9 in) ... Aplysia punctata also have large neurons which make them a model species in the study of the cellular basis of learning and ... Aplysia punctata are grazing organisms which prefer to reside and feed on algal seaweed beds. Using their radula, A. punctata ...
Suitable nervous system[edit]. Central nervous system[edit]. Brain size does not necessarily equate to complexity of function.[ ... Aplysia[edit]. To examine the gill and siphon withdrawal response to a putatively painful stimulus, Aplysia were tested in ... In studies on learning and the Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex, Aplysia received an electric shock on the siphon each ... There have been numerous studies of learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia.[18][19][20] Many of these ...
She did her doctoral work under the mentorship of Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel where she used California sea slugs (Aplysia ... that is abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) of sea slugs and that is important for establishing synaptic plasticity, ... Characterization of small RNAs in Aplysia reveals a role for miR-124 in constraining synaptic plasticity through CREB. Neuron ... "Characterization of small RNAs in Aplysia reveals a role for miR-124 in constraining synaptic plasticity through CREB". Neuron ...
1890-1910), embryologist and physician known for work on congenital disorders and the connection between central nervous system ... neuroscientist studying the neurons of Aplysia californica and the post-synaptic nerve response Ann E. Kelley (1954-2007), ... 2000s), neuroscientist and geneticist known for investigating genetic and biochemical factors behind the central nervous system ... Romanian-born New Zealand neuroscientist known for research on he physiology of the autonomic nervous system Jenny Morton (fl. ...
Generic bilaterian nervous system. Nervous system of a generic bilaterian animal, in the form of a nerve cord with segmental ... The sea slug Aplysia californica was chosen by Nobel Prize-winning neurophysiologist Eric Kandel as a model for studying the ... Except for a few primitive organisms such as sponges (which have no nervous system)[14] and cnidarians (which have a nervous ... "Specification of the nervous system". WormBook: 1-19. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.12.1. PMC 4781215. PMID 18050401.. ...
In 1964 Kehoe moved to Paris to continue her work on Aplysia at the Institut Marey. She began experimenting to identify the ... She focused on the function of the nervous system and its relation to psychology, furthering her understanding of human memory ... This was unusual, as the Aplysia response she was researching was cholinergic and was not expected to change with the addition ... In a nearby lab Felix Strumwasser was using neurons from Aplysia Californica, a species of sea slug, to study circadian rhythms ...
... (also nocioception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's process of encoding ... Illich, P. A.; Walters, E. T. (1997). "Mechanosensory neurons innervating Aplysia siphon encode noxious stimuli and display ... The term "nociception" was coined by Charles Scott Sherrington to distinguish the physiological process (nervous activity) from ... Sherrington, C. (1906). The Integrative Action of the Nervous System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[page needed]. ...
The chemicals produced also affect the nervous system of the predators. The ink produces an averse response in some predators. ... Kicklighter, Cynthia E.; Derby, Charles D. (2006). "Multiple components in ink of the sea hare Aplysia californica are aversive ... Modifications of Aplysia californica feeding behaviour in response to natural aversive stimuli". Animal Behaviour. 120: 123-133 ...
Aplysia was selected for these reasons for the study of the cellular and molecular basis of learning and memory which led to ... If one's goal is to understand how the nervous system might localize objects using sound, one may take the approach of using an ... Another marine mollusc, the opisthobranch Aplysia possesses relatively small number of large nerve cells that are easily ... and how nervous systems encode timing information. August Krogh Comparative physiology Evolutionary physiology Krogh length ...
However, it has been proposed[by whom?] that only when the UR does not involve the central nervous system are the CR and the UR ... Jami SA, Wright WG, Glanzman DL (March 2007). "Differential classical conditioning of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia ... Aplysia.[2] Most relevant experiments have used the classical conditioning procedure, although instrumental (operant) ...
in the aplysia confirm inhibition of VGCC by ethanol. Voltage clamp recordings have been done on the aplysia neuron. VGCCs were ... Since moment-to-moment blood pressure regulation is carried out by the sympathetic nervous system (via the baroreceptor reflex ... Ionic calcium is antagonized by magnesium ions in the nervous system. Because of this, bioavailable supplements of magnesium, ... calcium channel blockers do not decrease the responsiveness of the heart to input from the sympathetic nervous system. ...
States DJ, Walseth TF, Lee HC (December 1992). "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human ... CD38 produces an enzyme which regulates the release of oxytocin within the central nervous system.[11] ...
It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking ... The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a model originally developed to model neurons in the animal Aplysia, ... 1. Spiking neurons are known to be a major signaling unit of the nervous system, and for this reason characterizing their ... Furthermore, many cells in the nervous system are not classified as neurons but instead are classified as glia. ...
Experiments on Hebbian synapse modification mechanisms at the central nervous system synapses of vertebrates are much more ... Kandel has provided evidence for the involvement of Hebbian learning mechanisms at synapses in the marine gastropod Aplysia ... difficult to control than are experiments with the relatively simple peripheral nervous system synapses studied in marine ...
Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input- ... "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain/awl082. PMID 16672292 ... long-term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage". Cell. ... and associates were some of the first researchers to discover long-term potentiation during their work with sea slug Aplysia. ...
The nervous system exploits this property for computational purposes, and can tune its synapses through such means as ... "Target-specific regulation of synaptic efficacy in the feeding central pattern generator of Aplysia: potential substrates for ... This article is about chemical synapses of the nervous system. For general information, see synapse. For other uses, see ... Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological ...
Candidate chemoreceptor subfamilies differentially expressed in the chemosensory organs of the mollusc Aplysia. BMC Biology ... In Aplysia californica, the oral tentacles, which are situated in a more ventral position, are possibly involved in contact ... In reproductively mature Aplysia adults the rhinophore is about 1 cm in length.[1] The neuroanatomical organization includes a ... In the sea hare Aplysia californica, the rhinophores are able to detect pheromones.[1] ...
Cooke SF, Bliss TV (July 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain ... Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input- ... Cooke SF, Bliss TV (July 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain ... long-term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage". Cell. ...
Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine and ... "Enhancement of calcium current in Aplysia neurones by phorbol ester and protein kinase C". Nature. 313 (6000): 313-316. doi: ... Neuromodulation also refers to an emerging class of medical therapies that target the nervous system for restoration of ... Neuropeptides are small proteins used for communication in the nervous system. Neuropeptides represent the most diverse class ...
... has not been shown to directly cause or result in a central nervous system pathology, although the degrees at ... One specific example is that the gill withdrawal reflex of the Aplysia is caused by homosynaptic depression. Although ... It is thought to be a form of negative feedback in order to physiologically control particular forms of nervous system activity ... A quantal analysis of the synaptic depression underlying habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia. Proceedings Of ...
... nervous systems have evolved to address problems of sensing and acting in certain environmental niches and that their nervous ... ultrasound avoidance response to bat calls Aplysia sea hares - learning and memory in startle response Rat - spatial memory and ... By understanding simpler nervous systems, many clinicians have used concepts uncovered by neuroethology and other branches of ... In: Prete F.R. (Ed.) Complex Worlds from Simpler Nervous Systems. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, pp. 117-160 Hoyle, G. (1984) The ...
Bottos A, Rissone A, Bussolino F, Arese M (August 2011). "Neurexins and neuroligins: synapses look out of the nervous system". ... Drosophila express four genes, honeybees express five genes, and both C. elegans and Aplysia express a single gene for ... honeybees and Aplysia. Three genes for neuroligin expression have been found in mice and rats, while humans express five genes ...
In addition to affecting the voluntary muscles, it can also cause disruptions in the autonomic nervous system. This is ... Botulism has been reported in rats, mice, chicken, frogs, toads, goldfish, aplysia, squid, crayfish, drosophila, leeches, etc. ... Botulinum inhibits the release within the nervous system of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, responsible for communication ... neurotransmitter acetylcholine's release from the presynaptic membrane of neuromuscular junctions in the somatic nervous system ...
Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input- ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6003-4. Cooke SF, Bliss TV (July 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): ... Cooke SF, Bliss TV (July 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain ... and associates were some of the first researchers to discover long-term potentiation during their work with sea slug Aplysia. ...
Sheng, M., & Greenberg, M. E. (1990). The regulation and function of c-fos and other immediate early genes in the nervous ... Eric Kandel established many of the biochemical markers of learning and memory in the Aplysia (California sea slug) in the ... Hawkins, R. D., Kandel, E. R., & Bailey, C. H. (2006). Molecular mechanisms of memory storage in aplysia. biological bulletin, ... is a neurotrophin associated with plasticity and growth of the central nervous system (Lu, Christian, & Lu, 2007). It is a PRP ...
Depletion of serotonin in the nervous system of Aplysia reduces the behavioral enhancement of gill withdrawal as well as the ... Depletion of serotonin in the nervous system of Aplysia reduces the behavioral enhancement of gill withdrawal as well as the ... Depletion of serotonin in the nervous system of Aplysia reduces the behavioral enhancement of gill withdrawal as well as the ... Depletion of serotonin in the nervous system of Aplysia reduces the behavioral enhancement of gill withdrawal as well as the ...
... both likely transmitter substances in Aplysia, stimulated formation of adenosine-3,5 monophosphate (cAMP) in ganglia, ... Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in the Nervous System of Aplysia californica : II. Effect of serotonin and dopamine Howard Cedar ... Howard Cedar, James H. Schwartz; Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in the Nervous System of Aplysia californica : II. Effect of ... This widespread distribution suggests that receptors for the response are localized throughout the nervous system, as is adenyl ...
Changes in D-aspartate ion currents in the Aplysia nervous system with aging. Brain Res. 2010;1343:28-36.CrossRefPubMed ... Aplysia is a well-used model of aging in the nervous system due to a relatively compact life span and well-mapped neural ... Reduced excitability during aging has been described in many other parts of the Aplysia nervous system as well [5, 8, 11, 15], ... The central nervous system (CNS) was then removed by severing the connectives and removal of all nervous system ganglia. PVC ...
Neuronal Expression of Reporter Genes in the Intact Nervous System of Aplysia Kaang, B.-K. 관련메뉴. * ...
... conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent... ... Quantification of iGluR gene expression in the nervous system. The expression of identified iGluR in all Aplysia nervous system ... To describe quantitative expression of identified iGluR in Aplysia nervous system ganglia, six sexually mature Aplysia ... Aplysia NMDAR subunits have been shown to be expressed throughout the nervous system [35], however most other Aplysia iGluR ...
1984) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in the nervous system of Aplysia. J Neurosci 4:1618-1625, pmid: ... which are found in other Aplysia neurons. Estimates of the Ca2+-diffusion coefficient in cultured Aplysia neurons (≤16 μm2/s) ... 2006) A store-operated Ca2+ influx pathway in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia. J Neurophysiol 96:2688-2698, doi:10.1152/jn. ... 1977) Bag cell control of egg-laying in freely behaving Aplysia. Science 197:490-493, doi:10.1126/science.197.4302.490, pmid: ...
THE UTILITY OF STUDYING SIMPLE NERVOUS SYSTEMS. THE SEA HARE, APLYSIA. REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR ...
Figure 1: A: Aplysia; B: Central nervous system; C: Abdominal Ganglion. Adapted from http://www.colorado.edu/intphys/ ... Aplysia, Bursting, Routes into bursting, Neuromodulation, Plant model, Phase response curve, Multi-stability in neuronal models ... "Aplysia R15 neuron" by Fred H. Sieling and Robert Butera is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ... The Aplysia Genome Project may reveal the genetic identities of ion channels that sum or combine to form previously described ...
Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: Evidence for muscarinic ... Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: Evidence for muscarinic ... Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica : Evidence for muscarinic ... title = "Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: Evidence for ...
Aplysia Ganglia Preparation for Electrophysiological and Molecular Analyses of Single Neurons, Optimization of High Grade ... central nervous system include Nucleofection of Rodent Neuroblasts to Study Neuroblast Migration In vitro, A Procedure for ... In vivo Interrogation of Central Nervous System Translatome by Polyribosome Fractionation, Laser Nanosurgery of Cerebellar ... Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and ...
Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation. ... Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation. ... Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation ... Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation. ...
9B). both the central and peripheral nervous systems of Aplysia (Furukawa et al., 2001). Previous studies suggest that the ... Because the distribution of the enterin-immunopositive neurons is widespread in the nervous system of Aplysia, it is suggested ... a novel family of neuropeptides isolated from the enteric nervous system and CNS of Aplysia. J. Neurosci. 21,8247 -8261. ... Localization of myomodulin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of Aplysia californica. J ...
... that age-related changes in tail sensory and motor neurons result in deterioration of a simple form of learning in Aplysia. ... that age-related changes in tail sensory and motor neurons result in deterioration of a simple form of learning in Aplysia. ... This study used a simple neural circuit of Aplysia, the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR), to investigate nervous system aging with ... Cohorts of Aplysia from the University of Miami National Resource for Aplysia were reared and used in experiments as described ...
Number of neurons in Aplysia nervous system = 18,000-20,000. Number of neurons in each segmental ganglia in the leech = 350. ... Nieuwenhuys, R., Ten Donkelaar, H.J. and Nicholson, C. The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates. Vol. 3, Berlin: Springer, ... Thickness of cerebral cortex (Bottlenosed dolphin) = 1.3-1.8 mm (S.H. Ridgway, The Cetacean Central Nervous System, p. 221). ... Total surface area of the cerebral cortex (Bottlenosed dolphin) = 3,745 cm2 (S.H. Ridgway, The Cetacean Central Nervous System ...
Work in Aplysia led to the initial identification of Ap-Uch as the first DUB known to regulate synaptic activity [26]. Ap-Uch ... Outside of the nervous system, several recent studies have identified diverse roles for USP46 and USP12 in both the nucleus and ... A. N. Hegde and S. C. Upadhya, "The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in health and disease of the nervous system," Trends in ... S. V. Todi and H. L. Paulson, "Balancing act: deubiquitinating enzymes in the nervous system," Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 34 ...
The coupling constrains the dynamical properties that the nervous system and the environment must have relative to each other ... the nervous system is coupled to the environment. ... autonomous Aplysia agents--in various feeding environments and ... Predicting adaptive behavior in the environment from central nervous system dynamics PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3678. doi: 10.1371/ ... We illustrate how this can be done in the feeding system of the sea slug Aplysia. At the core of this system is a central ...
Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound ... the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia. ... Descriptors : *SYMPATHOMIMETIC AGENTS, *NEUROCHEMICAL TRANSMISSION, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, NERVOUS SYSTEM, PHYSIOLOGY, RESPONSE( ... Abstract : Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally ...
what is the decreased response of Aplysia after repeated probing of the siphon due to? ... nervous system; large, identifiable neurons 27 what is the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia? ...
... sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system of Aplysia. ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... of Aplysia. The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein ...
Behavioral Bio of Aplysia: Origin & Evolution by Dr. Eric R Kandel, M.D. * See All from $72.00 ... Handbook of Physiology: Section 1: The Nervous System Volume I, Parts 1 & 2: Cellular Biology of Neurons by Oxford University ...
Tamse, C. T., Hammar, K., Porterfield, D. M., & Smith, P. J. (1998). Transmembrane calcium flux in Pb+2-exposed Aplysia neurons ... Smith, P. J., Howes, E. A., & Treherne, J. E. (1987). Mechanisms of glial regeneration in an insect central nervous system. ... Yamoah, E., & Smith, P. J. (1994). Second messenger modulation of steady-state calcium efflux in Aplysia bag cells. Biological ... Treherne, J. E., Smith, P. J., & Leech, C. A. (1984). Glial repair in an insect central nervous system: effects of selective ...
... modulation of the stomatogastric nervous system (Clark et al., 2004; Troppmann et al., 2010), activity of Aplysia bag cells ( ... 2010). Regulation of protein kinase C Apl II by serotonin receptors in Aplysia. J. Neurochem. 115, 994-1006. doi:10.1111/j.1471 ... However, these receptors do occur as a 5-HT4 and a 5-HT6 receptor were identified in Aplysia (Nagakura et al., 2010) and C. ... Here, species is indicated by the first three letters of the genus in the subscript (e.g. 5-HT1Apl to denote an Aplysia ...
Aplysia studies • Kandel: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000 • Simple nervous system (few cells) • Accessible for ... Associative learning in Aplysia • Coincidence detection • Postsynaptic • Glutamate (delivered by presynaptic in response to ...
Díaz-Ríos M, Suess E, Miller MW (1999) Localization of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of Aplysia ... Croll RP (2001) Catecholamine-containing cells in the central nervous system and periphery of Aplysia californica. J Comp ... Kupfermann I (1974a) Feeding behavior in Aplysia: a simple system for the study of motivation. Behav Biol 10:1-26Google Scholar ... Jing J, Weiss KR (2001) Neural mechanisms of motor program switching in Aplysia. J Neurosci 21:7349-7362Google Scholar ...
The rhinophores sense pheromones regulating multiple behaviors in Aplysia fasciata.. Activity in the pallial nerve of knobbed ( ... Serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of the interstitial acochlidean Asperspina sp. ( ...
... sought an animal with a simpler and more accessible nervous system. He settled on the giant sea snail Aplysia, which has 20,000 ... That Aplysia might be considered too low a form of life for studies of memory did not discountenance Kandel, despite some ... Where Aplysia has only 20,000 neurons distributed in ganglia throughout its body, an insect may have up to a million nerve ... "I was beginning to think like a biologist," Kandel writes, recalling his decision to work with Aplysia. "I appreciated that all ...
Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of ...
Two Myomodulins Isolated from Central Nervous System of Northwest Pacific Sea Hare, Aplysia kurodai, and Their Activities on ... Two Myomodulins Isolated from Central Nervous System of Northwest Pacific Sea Hare, Aplysia kurodai, and Their Activities on ...
... in Aplysia; trace phenomena in single neurons of hippocampus and mammiliary bodies; and plasticity in single units in the ... Psychological aspects Nervous system Neural networks (Neurobiology) Neurology Neurophysiology Neuropsychology Neurosciences ... Frontal lobes Higher nervous activity Hippocampus (Brain) Human behavior Human information processing Learning, Psychology of ... program for a content addressable memory in the central nervous system. This monograph will be useful to biologists, behavioral ...
... in Aplysia; trace phenomena in single neurons of hippocampus and mammiliary bodies; and plasticity in single units in the ... program for a content addressable memory in the central nervous system. This monograph will be useful to biologists, behavioral ...
  • The marine mollusk Aplysia californica can be used to study transcriptional changes that occur with age in identified neurons of the brain, because its simplified nervous system allows for more direct correlations between molecular changes, physiological changes, and their phenotypic outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Aplysia californica (Aplysia), the California sea hare, is a marine mollusk that has been used extensively in research correlating physiological and behavioral declines with gene expression changes in neuronal circuits during aging [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ], due to a less complex nervous system than vertebrates. (springer.com)
  • Invertebrate organisms such as Aplysia californica ( Aplysia ) are well-studied models for iGluR-mediated function, yet no studies to date have analyzed the evolutionary relationships between iGluR genes in these species and those in vertebrates, to identify genes that may mediate plasticity. (springer.com)
  • Neuron R15 , located in the abdominal ganglion of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia Californica , is the first intrinsically bursting neuron to receive extensive study using single cell electrophysiology techniques. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Specific binding of L-[ 3 H]QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. (elsevier.com)
  • In a marine mollusc Aplysia californica , the relationships between the behaviors and the cardiovascular regulation were studied in some detail. (biologists.org)
  • Age-related neural changes in Aplysia californica ( Aplysia ), such as declines in sensory and motoneuron excitability ( Kempsell and Fieber, 2014 , 2015b ) and failure to respond to second messengers ( Kempsell and Fieber, 2015a ), mirror hallmarks of aging in vertebrates, but are easily studied in this model organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists performed tail reflex experiments on the hatchery-reared California sea hare Aplysia californica , which has a one-year lifespan and is a common neurological model used to understand the function of the nervous system. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Dr. Samuel Schacher and Research Associate Jiangyuan Hu at Columbia University Medical Center found that it was possible to reverse the cellular storage of two simple forms of memory (associative and non-associative) in Aplysia californica with different types of manipulations, suggesting that different molecules could maintain each memory. (mcgill.ca)
  • The California sea hare , scientific name Aplysia californica , is a species of sea slug in the sea hare family, Aplysiidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Buccal ganglia of Aplysia californica . (academic.ru)
  • Adult Aplysia californica (80-120 g) were obtained from Alacrity Marine Biological Services and initially housed in a 50-gallon aquarium filled with cooled (12-14°C), aerated seawater. (eneuro.org)
  • In the mollusc Aplysia californica , mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones that are detected by sensory structures called rhinophores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Localization of myomodulin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of Aplysia californica. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have cloned a DNA fragment from the marine mollusc Aplysia californica, which contains sequences homologous to mammalian ras genes, by screening a genomic library with a viral Ha-ras oncogene probe under conditions of low stringency hybridization. (rupress.org)
  • Intracellularly injected cobalt catalyzes the generation of an osmiumbinding polymer from 3,3'-diaminobenzidine in neurons of Aplysia californica. (sciencemag.org)
  • Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia californica can be triggered by the introduction of a neuropeptide, the Egg-Laying Hormone (ELH) into the circulation. (caltech.edu)
  • Antibodies generated against ELH from A. californica selectively stained the bag cell systems of three other species of Aplysia - A. braziliana , A. vaccaria and A. dactylomela - which also share cross bioactivity. (caltech.edu)
  • A single insulin-like molecule produces in the nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica strengthens connections between neurons, enhancing long term memory. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • In warm ocean Aplysia californica gastropods, the complex role of the central nervous system in governing reflex withdrawals has been extensively studied. (blogspot.com)
  • Aplysia californica reflex withdrawals are centrally mediated, and can be inhibited, amplified, and coordinated, maintaining a singleness of action across the body and regulating withdrawal according to circumstances, with both habituation and sensitization possible. (blogspot.com)
  • In our research we use two animals, the marine snail Aplysia californica, and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). (ucla.edu)
  • In view of other functions, as for lipofuscin and/or lipochrome pigments in neurons of the gastropod Aplysia californica (Henkart 1975, Schwartz et al. (freethesaurus.com)
  • 5-trisphosphate receptor in Aplysia californica rhinophore. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The 2012 study showed a significant increase in long-term memory in healthy sea snails called Aplysia californica, an animal that has a simple nervous system, but with cells having properties similar to other more advanced species including humans. (freethesaurus.com)
  • RNASeq was used to investigate whole-transcriptome changes in tail-withdrawal sensory neurons of sexually mature and aged Aplysia to correlate transcriptional changes with reduced behavioral and physiological responses. (springer.com)
  • Genes involved in the stress response showed increased expression in aged Aplysia neurons. (springer.com)
  • Decreased ion channel mRNA observed could mean fewer receptors present in aged neurons, resulting in reduced excitability of PVC sensory neurons, ultimately leading to reduced tail-withdrawal reflex observed in aged Aplysia. (springer.com)
  • Soon thereafter, the technique of intracellular recording had been invented and was adopted as a tool for investigating the electrical dynamics of visually identifiable neurons in Aplysia . (scholarpedia.org)
  • Kandel and his colleagues named many of the visually identifiable neurons in the ganglia of Aplysia and mapped out many of Aplysia' s neuron circuits. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The enterins inhibit gut motility of Aplysia , and also reduce excitability of some identified Aplysia neurons that are involved in the feeding network. (biologists.org)
  • Because the distribution of the enterin-immunopositive neurons is widespread in the nervous system of Aplysia , it is suggested that the enterins have actions in the control of several systems. (biologists.org)
  • The findings suggest that age-related changes in tail sensory and motor neurons result in deterioration of a simple form of learning in Aplysia . (frontiersin.org)
  • Simple behaviors in Aplysia , such as habituation, can be studied in individual neurons of simple reflex circuits to better understand aging-associated effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • The octopus nervous system has about 500,000,000 neurons, with two-thirds of these neurons located in the arms of the octopus. (washington.edu)
  • Octopamine Receptors on 'Aplysia' Neurons: Further Evidence for a Function of Octopamine as a Neurotransmitter. (dtic.mil)
  • Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound. (dtic.mil)
  • Most such receptors mediate a hyperpolarizing conductance increase to K(+). These responses when considered with the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia. (dtic.mil)
  • Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system of Aplysia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brownstein MJ, Saavedra JM, Axelrod J, Zeman GH, Carpenter DO (1974) Coexistence of several putative neurotransmitters in single identified neurons of Aplysia . (springer.com)
  • The researchers worked with Aplysia , a classic model animal in neuroscience with a small set of large neurons (from several hundred microns to 1 mm in size). (cea.fr)
  • The scientists have shown for the first time that the dynamics of transporting manganese ions (analogous to calcium) in the motor neurons of the Aplysia buccal ganglion are modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine . (cea.fr)
  • To do this, they used high-field MRI to observe Aplysia neurons in medium with a low manganese concentration, so as to not disrupt cell physiology. (cea.fr)
  • The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneer neurons: A basis or limiting factor of lophotrochozoa nervous system diversity? (deepdyve.com)
  • On the one hand, pioneer neurons mark the "frame" of the adult nervous system and thus play a limiting role. (deepdyve.com)
  • The sea slug's central nervous system is relatively simple, with only 10,000 neurons, compared with the approximately 100 billion found in humans, explained the study lead author John Bryne, a neurobiologist at the University of Texas. (livescience.com)
  • Moreover, Aplysia 's neurons are large and easily accessible. (livescience.com)
  • In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. (scielo.br)
  • In many invertebrates, especially in molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons can far exceed the number of neurons in the central nervous system (1,2). (scielo.br)
  • Aplysia punctata also have large neurons which make them a model species in the study of the cellular basis of learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system and neurons are located on the ganglionic surface and possess unique coloration depending on location. (wikipedia.org)
  • During persistent activation of PKCs in Aplysia neurons, there is a significant increase in the amount of PDK-phosphorylated PKC Apl II in the particulate fraction but no increase in the amount of PKC Apl I phosphorylated by PDK. (jove.com)
  • Oxidation Induces Autonomous Activation of Protein Kinase C Apl I, but Not Protein Kinase C Apl II in Homogenates of Aplysia Neurons Neuroscience Letters. (jove.com)
  • Sea slugs are capable of basic forms of learning, and their simple nervous systems and large neurons make them convenient to study. (elifesciences.org)
  • Researchers often use Aplysia to determine the cellular and molecular bases of simple forms of learning and memory because they have large neurons and a simple, easy-to-manipulate nervous system. (mcgill.ca)
  • The researchers stimulated two sensory neurons of Aplysia, both having synaptic connections with the same motor neuron, one to induce associative memory, and another to induce non-associative memory. (mcgill.ca)
  • Moreover, a specific cellular alteration that underlies sensitization in Aplysia , sensory neuron hyperexcitability, can be reproduced by exposing sensory neurons in vitro to RNA from trained animals. (eneuro.org)
  • Modulatory effects of serotonin, FMRFamide, and myomodulin on the duration of action potentials, excitability, and membrane currents in tail sensory neurons of Aplysia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using the large Aplysia neurons in culture, we investigate how the growth cone integrates its sensor, signaling, and motility functions to achieve directional movements towards target cells and establish functional connections. (purdue.edu)
  • This study of acetylcholine action was further extended to the ganglion cells of Aplysia depilans which have a simpler afferent synaptic system than that of snail neurons, therefore giving greater reliability in the interpretation of the experimental results. (deepdyve.com)
  • All parts of the nervous system are made of nervous tissue, which contains the two main categories of cells: neurons and supporting glia cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS), comprising the brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), consisting of all the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system, such as to serve the limbs and organs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Abundant expression of ras proteins in Aplysia neurons. (rupress.org)
  • The large identified neurons of Aplysia offer the opportunity to examine how ras protein might function in mature nerve cells. (rupress.org)
  • Excellent structural preservation of nervous tissue is coupled with easy recognition of fine branches of the injected neurons in the electron microscope. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Aplysia displays a defensive response to protect its gill from potential harm, and the researchers are especially interested in its withdrawal reflex and the sensory and motor neurons that produce it. (seniorjournal.com)
  • To identify the cellular and network-level mechanisms that confer these capabilities, this laboratory combines intracellular electrophysiological and computational approaches to investigate neuronal plasticity in two simple model systems, Aplysia and Hermissenda, which have large, identified neurons of known function. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In studies with in vitro nerve preparations, changes have been observed in the firing rates of Aplysia neurons and in the refractory period of isolated frog sciatic nerves exposed to 2.45-GHz microwaves at SAR values exceeding 5 W/kg. (nap.edu)
  • Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The central nervous system of the brown garden snail contains about 40,000 neurons. (blogspot.com)
  • The bag cell neurons of Aplysia. (meta.org)
  • Work on Aplysia: This invertebrate has a comparatively simple nervous system (~ 20,000 neurons) that provides a valuable experimental model for understanding the cellular mechanisms that underlie simple forms of learning, such as habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning. (ucla.edu)
  • Another experimental advantage of Aplysia is that sensory and motor neurons that mediate specific reflexes of the animal can be placed into dissociated cell culture where they will reform their synaptic connections. (ucla.edu)
  • Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the annetocin gene is expressed exclusively in neurons of the central nervous system predicted to be involved in regulation of reproductive behavior. (embl.de)
  • Glanzman and his team studied a small marine snail called Aplysia, which has surprisingly similar molecular and cellular processes in its brain to humans, even though the snail has approximately 20,000 neurons compared to our 1 trillion. (sciencealert.com)
  • The Aplysia abdominal ganglion neurons, R3-R14, modulate cardiovascular activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Scheller, Richard H. / Gene isolation with cDNA probes from identified aplysia neurons : Neuropeptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology . (elsevier.com)
  • To make their findings the researchers looked at a marine snail called Aplysia and the sensory and motor neurons that help it produce a withdrawal reflex used to protect its gills. (drbuttar.com)
  • Their model: Aplysia, a marine mollusk widely used in neuroscience for the study of learning and memory. (cea.fr)
  • As a species of mollusk, Aplysia punctata performs marine calcification in building and maintaining their shell material. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia, there are only two major PKC isoforms, the calcium-activated PKC Apl I and the calcium-independent PKC Apl II, and both PKCs are persistently activated during intermediate memory. (jove.com)
  • Dr. Wayne Sossin's lab at The Neuro found that not only PKMzeta, but a family of related molecules could maintain memory in a mollusk called Aplysia california. (mcgill.ca)
  • Here, it is demonstrated that the memory for long-term sensitization (LTS) in the marine mollusk Aplysia can be successfully transferred by injecting RNA from sensitized into naïve animals. (eneuro.org)
  • David Glanzman, a neurobiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, has another promising research program that recently struck a chord reminiscent of McConnell's memory experiments-although, instead of planaria, Glanzman's lab works mostly with aplysia, the darling mollusk of neuroscience on account of its relatively simple nervous system. (nautil.us)
  • Eliana Scemes obtained her PhD from the University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil, and joined the faculty of the Institute of Biosciences at USP, where her research was primarily on nervous systems of jellyfish and the marine mollusk Aplysia. (routledge.com)
  • Arvanitaki and Chalazonitis (1955) and simultaneously Tauc (1954) published the first reports of a distinct visually identifiable neuron in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia , now called R15 (Cogeshall et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Serotonin and dopamine, both likely transmitter substances in Aplysia , stimulated formation of adenosine-3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) in ganglia, connectives, and identified nerve cell bodies. (rupress.org)
  • qPCR results show that all 12 Aplysia iGluR subunits are expressed in all nervous system ganglia. (springer.com)
  • The nervous system of gastropods consists of a series of paired ganglia connected by major nerve cords, and a number of smaller branching peripheral nerves . (academic.ru)
  • The main nerve cords of the central nervous system run through the length of the body from the pleural ganglia. (academic.ru)
  • Immune sera, enriched for anti-ELH antibodies by passage through an affinity column to remove antibodies which bound to Tg, was used for localizing ELH-like immunoreactivity in frozen sections of Aplysia ganglia. (caltech.edu)
  • We analyzed the ganglia and nerve fibers of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai, and giant nerve fibers of the crayfish, Cambarus clarki. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Concerning the peripheral nervous network, the stellate ganglia emerged as a plexus of numerous converging axons from TH-like immunoreactive sensory cells, first at the mantle edge, and then in the whole mantle surface. (benran.ru)
  • Cournil I, Geffard M, Moulins M, Le Moal M (1984) Coexistence of dopamine and serotonin in an identified neuron of the lobster nervous system. (springer.com)
  • C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on 'Feeding' cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Myomodulin: a bioactive neuropeptide present in an identified cholinergic buccal motor neuron of Aplysia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of excitable cell called a neuron (or "nerve cell") that transmits impulses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The brain and the rest of the nervous system are composed of many different types of cells, but the primary functional unit is a cell called the neuron . (seniorjournal.com)
  • Injection of an homogenate of identified neuron R15 into the hemocele of Aplysia produced a weight increase of 3-10% within 90 min. (meta.org)
  • They created a "wiring diagram" for the snail's nervous system, showing how each neuron was linked to the others. (economist.com)
  • We illustrate how this can be done in the feeding system of the sea slug Aplysia. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers used information about biochemical pathways in the brain of the sea slug Aplysia to design a computer model that identified the times when the mollusk's brain is primed for learning. (livescience.com)
  • Aplysia punctata is a species of sea slug in the family Aplysiidae, the sea hares. (wikipedia.org)
  • have now answered this question using a seemingly unlikely subject, the sea slug Aplysia . (elifesciences.org)
  • In the current study, Choe and his colleagues used X-ray crystallography to resolve the structures of four potassium channels from the sea slug Aplysia. (salk.edu)
  • In the sea slug genus Aplysia , clustering promotes reproduction (Kupfermann and Carew, 1974), and the jellyfish, Linuche unguiculata, significantly increases its reproductive success by social swarming (Larson, 1992). (freethesaurus.com)
  • Glanzman's research team studies a type of marine snail called Aplysia to understand the animal's learning and memory. (seniorjournal.com)
  • Kandel described research, much of it his own, that had traced out this mechanism in an animal with a rudimentary nervous system, the snail aplysia. (dana.org)
  • Garden snail nervous systems appear to be similarly complex, generating unified action that varies with circumstance. (blogspot.com)
  • Dr Kandel found the ideal research subject in the Aplysia marine snail, which is simple enough for its nerve cells to be examined one by one, yet complex enough to have memories. (economist.com)
  • The anterior aorta is one of the major arteries in the Aplysia cardiovascular system, and carries hemolymph to many parts of the body including the central nervous system (CNS), the buccal mass, the genital organs, the opaline gland and the anterior somatic tissues ( Koester and Koch, 1987 ). (biologists.org)
  • We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, 5,7-DHT does not reduce the levels of the facilitatory peptides SCPA and SCPB within the Aplysia CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that the enterins are functionally redundant multiple myoinhibitory peptides in the arterial system of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • Fifty years later, it is certain that substance P must play an important role in nervous system function, yet it is surprisingly difficult to cite a single physiologically relevant action of substance P, supposedly the doyen of the common peptides (Pearse, 1978). (springer.com)
  • These peptides and glycine are thought to act as chemical messengers in the central nervous system and peripherally. (elsevier.com)
  • In general, this may represent a means to differentially regulate Ca 2+ -dependent processes, and for Aplysia , influence how reproductive behavior is triggered. (jneurosci.org)
  • The study of R15 was accelerated when Eric Kandel adopted Aplysia as his animal model for studying the cellular basis of behavior. (scholarpedia.org)
  • To generate adaptive behavior, the nervous system is coupled to the environment. (nih.gov)
  • The coupling constrains the dynamical properties that the nervous system and the environment must have relative to each other if adaptive behavior is to be produced. (nih.gov)
  • Here we propose that the constraints can also be used to solve the inverse problem--to predict from the dynamics of the nervous system the environment to which they are adapted, and so reconstruct the production of the adaptive behavior by the entire coupled system. (nih.gov)
  • Although the marine mollusc Aplysia has been a valuable model to investigate the molecular basis of behavior [ 1 , 2 ] and reproduction [ 3 , 4 ], our knowledge of how they recognize and respond to environmental signals is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nervous system is the network of specialized cells , tissues , and organs in a multicellular animal that coordinates the body's interaction with the environment, including sensing internal and external stimuli, monitoring the organs, coordinating the activity of muscles , initiating actions, and regulating behavior. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The effects of radiation on nervous tissues have been a subject of active investigation since changes in animal behavior and nerve electrical properties were first reported in the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s. (nap.edu)
  • This is an important and all too often forgotten insight that I recognize from the work of the laboratory of Hillel Chiel in Aplysia biting behavior. (brembs.net)
  • Therefore, an important question might concern how the developing nervous system is involved in the formation of the rapid and successful invasive behavior of this species. (benran.ru)
  • Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Neuroscience is the field of science that focuses on the study of the nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The example I like to give is, if you are walking in a high-crime area and you take a shortcut through a dark alley and get mugged, and then you happen to see a mailbox nearby, you might get really nervous when you want to mail something later on," says Samuel Schacher, PhD, a professor of neuroscience in the Department of Psychiatry at CUMC and co-author of the paper. (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the possibility that the enterins are involved in regulation of the arterial system of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • 12-keto-eicosatetraenoic acid is a biologically active eicosanoid in the nervous system of Aplysia.It is a metabolite of 12-HPETE formed by Aplysia nervous tissue. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this thesis, biochemical and immunohistoehemical techniques have been employed to study the primary structure, release and distribution of ELH in the nervous system of Aplysia . (caltech.edu)
  • In order to study the distribution of ELH in the nervous system of Aplysia , antibodies were generated against the purified neuropeptide, coupled to a carrier molecule, thyroglobulin (Tg). (caltech.edu)
  • The anterior aorta is one of the largest blood vessels in the marine mollusc Aplysia kurodai . (biologists.org)
  • Adult animals can weigh up to 7 kg (15 lb). [4] A closely related species, Aplysia vaccaria , the black sea hare, can grow to be larger still. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggest a significant role for L-Glu mediated responses throughout the Aplysia nervous system, consistent with L-Glu's role as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. (springer.com)
  • Several contributions to the growing recognition of classical neurotransmitter colocalization and cotransmission originate from studies using invertebrate nervous systems. (springer.com)
  • Such presence of ET-1 and its receptors in nervous tissues suggests its possible role as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the behavioral, and a subset of the cellular, modifications characteristic of a form of nonassociative long-term memory (LTM) in Aplysia can be transferred by RNA. (eneuro.org)
  • The characteristics of the Aplysia L-[ 3 H]QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution. (elsevier.com)
  • His studies of invertebrate minds and nervous systems were most happily pursued, he wrote, in "a laboratory set up upon the sea-beach…a neat little wooden workshop thrown open to the sea-breezes. (nybooks.com)
  • An example of an organ that is part of the nervous system is the brain , which serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Beltz BS, Kravitz EA (1983) Mapping of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the lobster nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of the interstitial acochlidean Asperspina sp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glanzman explained that the shock causes the hormone serotonin to be released in the snail's central nervous system. (seniorjournal.com)
  • Scientists know that in both Aplysia and humans, long-term memories require the hormone serotonin to help them form. (sciencealert.com)
  • The researchers believe the shock causes serotonin to be released into the snail's nervous system. (drbuttar.com)
  • The muscarinic antagonist L-[ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-[ 3 H]QNB) binds with a high affinity (K(d) = 0.77 nm) to a single population of specific sites (B(max) = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mullusc, Aplysia. (elsevier.com)
  • The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates. (washington.edu)
  • Mink, J.W., Blumenschine, R.J. and Adams, D.B. Ratio of central nervous system to body metabolism in vertebrates: its constancy and functional basis. (washington.edu)
  • In vertebrates, 5-HT acts as a central nervous system (CNS) transmitter and modulator, and its role in mood, cognitive processes and numerous behaviours is well documented. (biologists.org)
  • The researchers say that their results could be useful in understanding human memory because vertebrates have similar versions of the Aplysia PKM proteins that participate in the formation of long-term memories. (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. (scielo.br)
  • The peripheral nervous system of the foot includes a pedal plexus, which is involved in locomotion, body movement and sensory function (1,2). (scielo.br)
  • There is emerging evidence that ongoing C-fiber discharge from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may induce CNS-derived A-fiber-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia. (hindawi.com)
  • The large majority of what are commonly called nerves (which are actually axonal processes of nerve cells) are considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • millions of information transfer processes take place in remarkable coordination every second in the human central and peripheral nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Significantly altered expression of many genes between sexually mature and aged Aplysia suggests large molecular changes that may impact neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • The expression status of iGluR genes in the Aplysia nervous system was also examined. (springer.com)
  • A new research study on marine snails uncovered the first cells in the nervous system to fail during aging. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This widespread distribution suggests that receptors for the response are localized throughout the nervous system, as is adenyl cyclase. (rupress.org)
  • These pharmacological characteristics of the L-[ 3 H]QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Receptors majorly help to filter information and impulses so that the body can properly respond to them via the Nervous system. (gradesaver.com)
  • Here we show that novel multi-transmembrane proteins with similarity to rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptors are expressed in sensory epithelia microdissected from the Aplysia rhinophore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These candidate chemosensory receptors are expressed and often restricted to rhinophores and oral tentacles, lending support to the notion that water-borne chemical detection in Aplysia involves species- or lineage-specific families of chemosensory receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of G protein and phospholipase C signaling molecules in this organ is consistent with chemosensory detection being via a G-protein-coupled signaling mechanism.RESULTS:Here we show that novel multi-transmembrane proteins with similarity to rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptors are expressed in sensory epithelia microdissected from the Aplysia rhinophore. (ufl.edu)
  • The rhinophores sense pheromones regulating multiple behaviors in Aplysia fasciata. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, although it is a vertebrate with a complex vertebrate nervous system, it possesses reflexive behaviors that are mediated by relatively simple neural circuits in the spinal cord and brainstem. (ucla.edu)
  • Prions are specific proteins found mainly in the nervous system, where - in their normal forms - they may have important functions. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses show that the novel Aplysia G-protein coupled receptor-like proteins represent three distinct monophyletic subfamilies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rhinophores for Aplysia punctata are located both on their head and posterior tentacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphoinositide-dependent Kinase Phosphorylation of Protein Kinase C Apl II Increases During Intermediate Facilitation in Aplysia The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (jove.com)
  • attempt to link psychoanalysis, Aplysia withdrawal reflexes, and human anxiety ( Kandel, 1983 ). (blogspot.com)
  • This study used a simple neural circuit of Aplysia , the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR), to investigate nervous system aging with an emphasis on habituation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Aplysia brain has been heavily studied, he said, but scientists have a much less complete understanding of how particular neural systems in human, and other mammalian, brains work. (livescience.com)
  • Astrocytes play diverse roles in central nervous system (CNS) function and dysfunction, and the connections that the astrocyte makes with other cells of the brain are essential for a variety of important neural tasks. (routledge.com)
  • One goal of these studies is to identify effective learning strategies utilized by biological nervous systems that may be profitably incorporated into artificial neural networks or neuroprostheses. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The enterins also decreased the contraction amplitude of the anterior aorta evoked either by the application of an Aplysia cardioactive peptide, NdWFamide, or by the stimulation of a nerve innervating the aorta (the vulvar nerve). (biologists.org)
  • Immunohistochemical results showed that the enterin-immunopositive nerve fibers are abundant in the proximal region of the anterior aorta of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • 1 RF radiation is reported to affect isolated nerve preparations, the central nervous system, brain chemistry and histology, and the blood-brain barrier. (nap.edu)
  • The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. (rupress.org)
  • In this case the infinitive is gene- favour (en faveur) of the architect. (google.co.jp)
  • Evidence was obtained suggesting that acetylcholine is the inhibitory synaptic transmitter in the Aplysia central nervous system. (deepdyve.com)
  • Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Baratte S., Bonnaud L. Evidence of early nervous differentiation and early catecholaminergic sensory system during Sepia officinalis embryogenesis // Journal of Comparative Neurology. (benran.ru)
  • These results indicate that RNA is sufficient to generate an engram for LTS in Aplysia and are consistent with the hypothesis that RNA-induced epigenetic changes underlie memory storage in Aplysia . (eneuro.org)
  • We are currently performing studies on Aplysia to try to unravel the mechanisms that underlie memory reconsolidation and memory erasure. (ucla.edu)
  • To assess 5-HT's role in dishabituation and sensitization of Aplysia withdrawal reflex, we treated Aplysia with the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7- dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT). (jneurosci.org)
  • 3H]12-KETE is formed from endogenous lipid stores in nervous tissue, labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid upon stimulation by application of histamine. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cephalization is a trend seen in the history of life whereby nervous tissue in more advanced organisms is concentrated toward the anterior of the body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Kandel set the precedent that reflexes in Aplysia are "memories", and now we're stuck with it. (blogspot.com)
  • On the other hand, pioneering navigation provides possible mechanisms for evolutional plasticity of the nervous system in adults. (deepdyve.com)
  • The nervous system exhibits an extraordinary capacity for plasticity, ranging from neuronal repair to information acquisition and storage. (pewtrusts.org)
  • One current line of investigation in Aplysia explores the question of synapse-specific plasticity and its underlying mechanisms. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The nervous system appears to be able to regenerate lost synaptic connections. (seniorjournal.com)
  • Neuropeptides have diverse roles in the function and development of the nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the case of Aplysia , the B51 burst threshold lowered after the operant conditioning, which means that the intensity of presynaptic stimulation required to trigger action potentials in the postsynaptic (i. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The phenomenon is extremely similar to what happens in the snail's nervous system during this type of simple learning, Glanzman explained. (seniorjournal.com)
  • If Darwin's book on earthworms was a favorite of mine, so too was George John Romanes's 1885 book Jelly-Fish, Star-Fish, and Sea-Urchins: Being a Research on Primitive Nervous Systems , with its simple, fascinating experiments and beautiful illustrations. (nybooks.com)
  • Following the discovery of manganese conductance through calcium-permeable channels, MEMRI applications expanded to include functional imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) and other body systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Definition of neurology: a science involved in the study of the nervous systems, especially of the diseases and disorders affecting them. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • We use two main model systems, Aplysia and zebrafish. (purdue.edu)
  • Applied to human movement in particular, he showed that nervous systems take advantage of the biophysics of bodily motion to only add the component to movement, that biophysics (think your leg swinging while you walk) doesn't already take care of. (brembs.net)
  • A CHOLINERGIC MECHANISM OF INHIBITORY SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN A MOLLUSCAN NERVOUS SYSTEM L. Tauc and H. M. Gerschenfeld 1962-03-01 00:00:00 CHOLINERGIC INHIBITORY SYNAPSES Furthermore, the synapses activating the Renshaw cell are cholinergic (25, 26). (deepdyve.com)
  • The investigations presented in this paper were designed to test a possible role of acetylcholine in inhibitory synaptic transmission in Aplysia. (deepdyve.com)
  • Learning in Aplysia takes the form of what scientists call sensitization. (livescience.com)
  • In the 1980s, researchers discovered that training Aplysia with five pulses, one administered every 20 minutes, effectively helped the animals produce long-term sensitization memories. (livescience.com)